WorldWideScience

Sample records for geocoding

  1. VT E911 road address range geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  2. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  3. VT E911 road name geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road name geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode addresses...

  4. Applications of Geocoding and Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    The application of computer programing to construction of maps and geographic distributions of data has been called geocoding. This new use of the computer allows much more rapid analysis of various demographic characteristics. In particular, this paper describes the use of computer geocoding in the development of a plot of student density in…

  5. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  6. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  7. An evaluation framework for comparing geocoding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Daniel W.; Ballard, Morven; Boyd, James H; Mullan, Narelle; Garfield, Carol; Rosman, Diana; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of converting textual information describing a location into one or more digital geographic representations, is a routine task performed at large organizations and government agencies across the globe. In a health context, this task is often a fundamental first step performed prior to all operations that take place in a spatially-based health study. As such, the quality of the geocoding system used within these agencies is of paramount concern to the agency (...

  8. VT E911 Composite geocoder - uses ESITE, RDSNAME, and RDSRANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 Composite geocoder - uses ESITE, RDSNAME, and RDSRANGE. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be...

  9. A method and a tool for geocoding and record linkage

    OpenAIRE

    CHARIF Omar; OMRANI Hichem; Klein, Olivier; Schneider, Marc; Trigano, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    For many years, researchers have presented the geocoding of postal addresses as a challenge. Several research works have been devoted to achieve the geocoding process. This paper presents theoretical and technical aspects for geolocalization, geocoding, and record linkage. It shows possibilities and limitations of existing methods and commercial software identifying areas for further research. In particular, we present a methodology and a computing tool allowing the correction and the geo-cod...

  10. The Application of Geocoded Data to Educational Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Donald N.; And Others

    The papers presented at a symposium on geocoding describe the preparation of a geocoded data file, some basic applications for education planning, and its use in trend analysis to produce contour maps for any desired characteristic. Geocoding data involves locating each entity, such as students or schools, in terms of grid coordinates on a…

  11. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  12. Automated rectification and geocoding of SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Curlander, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    An automated post-processing system has been developed for rectification and geocoding of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The system uses as input a raw uncorrected image from the operational SAR correlator, and produces as a standard output a rectified and geocoded product. The accurate geolocation of SAR image pixels is provided by a spatial transformation model which maps the slant range-azimuth SAR image pixels into their location on a prespecified map grid. This model predicts the geodetic location of each pixel by utilizing: the sensor platform position; a geoid model; the parameters of the data collection system and the processing parameters used in the SAR correlator. Based on their geodetic locations, the pixels are mapped by using the desired cartographic projection equations. This rectification and geocoding technique has been tested with Seasat and SIR-B images. The test results demonstrate absolute location uncertainty of less than 50 m and relative distortion (scale factor and skew) of less than 0.1 percent relative to local variations from the assumed geoid.

  13. Extending a geocoding database by Web information extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Niu, Zheng

    2008-10-01

    Local Search has recently attracted much attention. And the popular architecture of Local Search is map-and-hyperlinks, which links geo-referenced Web content to a map interface. This architecture shows that a good Local Search not only depends on search engine techniques, but also on a perfect geocoding database. The process of building and updating a geocoding database is laborious and time consuming so that it is usually difficult to keep up with the change of the real world. However, the Web provides a rich resource of location related information, which would be a supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper introduces how to extract geographic information from Web documents to extend a geocoding database. Our approach involves two major steps. First, geographic named entities are identified and extracted from Web content. Then, named entities are geocoded and put into storage. By this way, we can extend a geocoding database to provide better local Web search services.

  14. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  15. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  16. An effective and efficient approach for manually improving geocoded data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoblock Craig A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of geocoding produces output coordinates of varying degrees of quality. Previous studies have revealed that simply excluding records with low-quality geocodes from analysis can introduce significant bias, but depending on the number and severity of the inaccuracies, their inclusion may also lead to bias. Little quantitative research has been presented on the cost and/or effectiveness of correcting geocodes through manual interactive processes, so the most cost effective methods for improving geocoded data are unclear. The present work investigates the time and effort required to correct geocodes contained in five health-related datasets that represent examples of data commonly used in Health GIS. Results Geocode correction was attempted on five health-related datasets containing a total of 22,317 records. The complete processing of these data took 11.4 weeks (427 hours, averaging 69 seconds of processing time per record. Overall, the geocodes associated with 12,280 (55% of records were successfully improved, taking 95 seconds of processing time per corrected record on average across all five datasets. Geocode correction improved the overall match rate (the number of successful matches out of the total attempted from 79.3 to 95%. The spatial shift between the location of original successfully matched geocodes and their corrected improved counterparts averaged 9.9 km per corrected record. After geocode correction the number of city and USPS ZIP code accuracy geocodes were reduced from 10,959 and 1,031 to 6,284 and 200, respectively, while the number of building centroid accuracy geocodes increased from 0 to 2,261. Conclusion The results indicate that manual geocode correction using a web-based interactive approach is a feasible and cost effective method for improving the quality of geocoded data. The level of effort required varies depending on the type of data geocoded. These results can be used to choose between

  17. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  18. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes.

  19. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS: COMPARISON OF GEOCODED AND NON-GEOCODED POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded residence at delivery will be used ...

  20. Geocoding of AIRSAR/TOPSAR SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecz, Francesco; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and recognized that radar interferometry is a promising method for the determination of digital elevation information and terrain slope from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An important application of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) data in areas with topographic variations is that the derived elevation and slope can be directly used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the amplitude SAR data as well as for scattering mechanisms analysis. On the other hand polarimetric SAR data has long been recognized as permitting a more complete inference of natural surfaces than a single channel radar system. In fact, imaging polarimetry provides the measurement of the amplitude and relative phase of all transmit and receive polarizations. On board the NASA DC-8 aircraft, NASA/JPL operates the multifrequency (P, L and C bands) multipolarimetric radar AIRSAR. The TOPSAR, a special mode of the AIRSAR system, is able to collect single-pass interferometric C- and/or L-band VV polarized data. A possible configuration of the AIRSAR/TOPSAR system is to acquire single-pass interferometric data at C-band VV polarization and polarimetric radar data at the two other lower frequencies. The advantage of this system configuration is to get digital topography information at the same time the radar data is collected. The digital elevation information can therefore be used to correctly calibrate the SAR data. This step is directly included in the new AIRSAR Integrated Processor. This processor uses a modification of the full motion compensation algorithm described by Madsen et al. (1993). However, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with the additional products such as local incidence angle map, and the SAR data are in a geometry which is not convenient, since especially DEMs must be referred to a specific cartographic reference system. Furthermore, geocoding of SAR data is important for multisensor and/or multitemporal purposes. In this paper, a procedure to

  1. A Different Web-Based Geocoding Service Using Fuzzy Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, P.; Abbaspour, R. A.; Zare Zadiny, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geocoding - the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  2. A DIFFERENT WEB-BASED GEOCODING SERVICE USING FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pahlavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding – the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  3. Geocoded data structures and their applications to Earth science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    A geocoded data structure is a means for digitally representing a geographically referenced map or image. The characteristics of representative cellular, linked, and hybrid geocoded data structures are reviewed. The data processing requirements of Earth science projects at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the basic tools of geographic data processing are described. Specific ways that new geocoded data structures can be used to adapt these tools to scientists' needs are presented. These include: expanding analysis and modeling capabilities; simplifying the merging of data sets from diverse sources; and saving computer storage space.

  4. Comparing a single-stage geocoding method to a multi-stage geocoding method: how much and where do they disagree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geocoding methods vary among spatial epidemiology studies. Errors in the geocoding process and differential match rates may reduce study validity. We compared two geocoding methods using 8,157 Washington State addresses. The multi-stage geocoding method implemented by the state health department used a sequence of local and national reference files. The single-stage method used a single national reference file. For each address geocoded by both methods, we measured the distance between the locations assigned by each method. Area-level characteristics were collected from census data, and modeled as predictors of the discordance between geocoded address coordinates. Results The multi-stage method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method: 99% versus 95%. Of 7,686 addresses were geocoded by both methods, 96% were geocoded to the same census tract by both methods and 98% were geocoded to locations within 1 km of each other by the two methods. The distance between geocoded coordinates for the same address was higher in sparsely populated and low poverty areas, and counties with local reference files. Conclusion The multi-stage geocoding method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method. An examination of differences in the location assigned to the same address suggested that study results may be most sensitive to the choice of geocoding method in sparsely populated or low-poverty areas.

  5. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Castro, Marcia C; Blossom, Jeffrey C; Bennett, Gary G; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude) difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com). Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748) collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705), 2% (n = 18) were tied and 3% (n = 25) were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4%) were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis). Six hundred thirteen (87.6%) of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude coordinates

  6. Geographic bias related to geocoding in epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siadaty Mir

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes geographic bias in GIS analyses with unrepresentative data owing to missing geocodes, using as an example a spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence among whites and African Americans in Virginia, 1990–1999. Statistical tests for clustering were performed and such clusters mapped. The patterns of missing census tract identifiers for the cases were examined by generalized linear regression models. Results The county of residency for all cases was known, and 26,338 (74% of these cases were geocoded successfully to census tracts. Cluster maps showed patterns that appeared markedly different, depending upon whether one used all cases or those geocoded to the census tract. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, in the most rural counties (where the missing data were concentrated, the percent of a county's population over age 64 and with less than a high school education were both independently associated with a higher percent of missing geocodes. Conclusion We found statistically significant pattern differences resulting from spatially non-random differences in geocoding completeness across Virginia. Appropriate interpretation of maps, therefore, requires an understanding of this phenomenon, which we call "cartographic confounding."

  7. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  8. An analysis of the process and results of manual geocode correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda J. McDonald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding is the science and process of assigning geographical coordinates (i.e. latitude, longitude to a postal address. The quality of the geocode can vary dramatically depending on several variables, including incorrect input address data, missing address components, and spelling mistakes. A dataset with a considerable number of geocoding inaccuracies can potentially result in an imprecise analysis and invalid conclusions. There has been little quantitative analysis of the amount of effort (i.e. time to perform geocoding correction, and how such correction could improve geocode quality type. This study used a low-cost and easy to implement method to improve geocode quality type of an input database (i.e. addresses to be matched through the processes of manual geocode intervention, and it assessed the amount of effort to manually correct inaccurate geocodes, reported the resulting match rate improvement between the original and the corrected geocodes, and documented the corresponding spatial shift by geocode quality type resulting from the corrections. Findings demonstrated that manual intervention of geocoding resulted in a 90% improvement of geocode quality type, took 42 hours to process, and the spatial shift ranged from 0.02 to 151,368 m. This study provides evidence to inform research teams considering the application of manual geocoding intervention that it is a low-cost and relatively easy process to execute.

  9. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  10. Geocoding police collision report data from California: a comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision geocoding is the process of assigning geographic descriptors, usually latitude and longitude coordinates, to a traffic collision record. On California police reports, relative collision location is recorded using a highway postmile marker or a street intersection. The objective of this study was to create a geocoded database of all police-reported, fatal and severe injury collisions in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS for years 1997-2006 for use by public agencies. Results Geocoding was completed with a multi-step process. First, pre-processing was performed using a scripting language to clean and standardize street name information. A state highway network with postmile values was then created using a custom tool written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA in ArcGIS software. Custom VBA functionality was also used to incorporate the offset direction and distance. Intersection and address geocoding was performed using ArcGIS, StreetMap Pro 2003 digital street network, and Google Earth Pro. A total of 142,007 fatal and severe injury collisions were identified in SWITRS. The geocoding match rate was 99.8% for postmile-coded collisions and 86% for intersection-coded collisions. The overall match rate was 91%. Conclusions The availability of geocoded collision data will be beneficial to clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the fields of traffic safety and public health. Potential uses of the data include studies of collision clustering on the highway system, examinations of the associations between collision occurrence and a variety of variables on environmental and social characteristics, including housing and personal demographics, alcohol outlets, schools, and parks. The ability to build maps may be useful in research planning and conduct and in the delivery of information to both technical and non-technical audiences.

  11. Geocoding and social marketing in Alabama's cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Julianna W; White, Arica; Lubenow, Anne E; Palmer, Sally

    2005-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama's Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute's cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute's profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  12. A research agenda: does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding positional uncertainty, primarily because of a lack of theory, methods and tools for quantifying, modeling, and adjusting for geocoding positional errors in health analysis. This paper proposes a research agenda to address this need. It summarizes the basics of the geocoding process, its assumptions, and empirical evidence describing the magnitude of geocoding positional error. An overview of the impacts of positional error in health analysis, including accessibility, disease clustering, exposure reconstruction, and spatial weights estimation is presented. The proposed research agenda addresses five key needs: (1) a lack of standardized, open-access geocoding resources for use in health research; (2) a lack of geocoding validation datasets that will allow the evaluation of alternative geocoding engines and procedures; (3) a lack of spatially explicit geocoding positional error models; (4) a lack of resources for assessing the sensitivity of spatial analysis results to geocoding positional error; (5) a lack of demonstration studies that illustrate the sensitivity of health policy decisions to geocoding positional error.

  13. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com. Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748 collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705, 2% (n = 18 were tied and 3% (n = 25 were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4% were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis. Six hundred thirteen (87.6% of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude

  14. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.

  15. Spatial Quality of Manually Geocoded Multispectral and Multiresolution Mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Krtalić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The digital airborne multisensor and multiresolution system for collection of information (images about mine suspected area was created, within European commission project Airborne Minefield Area Reduction (ARC, EC IST-2000-25300, http://www.arc.vub.ac.be to gain a better perspective in mine suspected areas (MSP in the Republic of Croatia. The system consists of a matrix camera (visible and near infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum, 0.4-1.1 µm, thermal (thermal range of electromagnetic spectrum, 8-14 µm and a hyperspectral linear scanner. Because of a specific purpose and seeking object on the scene, the flights for collecting the images took place at heights from 130 m to 900 m above the ground. The result of a small relative flight height and large MSPs was a large number of images which cover MSPs. Therefore, the need for merging images in largest parts, for a better perspective in whole MSPs and the interaction of detected object influences on the scene appeared. The mentioned system did not dispose of the module for automatic mosaicking and geocoding, so mosaicking and after that geocoding were done manually. This process made the classification of the scene (better distinguishing of objects on the scene and fusion of multispectral and multiresolution images after that possible. Classification and image fusion can be even done by manually mosaicking and geocoding. This article demonstrated this claim.

  16. Geocoding coronial data: tools and techniques to improve data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Darren; Williamson, Dianne; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Clinical, administrative and demographic health information is fundamental to understanding the nature of health and evaluating the effectiveness of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality of the population. The demographic data item 'location' is an integral part of any injury surveillance tool or injury prevention strategy. The true value of location data can only be realised once these data have been appropriately classified and quality assured. Geocoding as a means of classifying location is increasingly used in various health fields to enable spatial analysis of data. This article reports on research carried out in Australia at the National Coroners Information System (NCIS). Trends in the use of NCIS location-based data by researchers were identified. The research also aimed to establish the factors that impacted on the quality of geocoded data and the extent of this impact. A systematic analysis of the geocoding process identified source documentation, data cleaning, and software settings as key factors impacting on data quality. Understanding and application of these processes can improve data quality and therefore inform the analysis and interpretation of these data by researchers.

  17. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya Kumar; Ming Liu; Syni-An Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA...

  18. Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error in street geocoding on the analysis of traffic-related air pollution on children. Methods For a case-study of a large sample of school children in Orange County, Florida (n = 104,865) the posi...

  19. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets at three spatial resolutions - zip code, street, and parcel. We achieve high geocoding rates at all three resolutions, with statewide street geocoding rates of 88.0% for births and 93.2% for deaths. We observe differences in geocoding rates across demographics and health outcomes, with lower geocoding rates in disadvantaged populations and the most dramatic differences occurring across the urban-rural spectrum. Our results suggest highly resolved spatial data architectures for population-level datasets are viable through geocoding individual street addresses. We recommend routinely geocoding administrative datasets to the highest spatial resolution feasible, allowing public health researchers to choose the spatial resolution used in analysis based on an understanding of the spatial dimensions of the health outcomes and exposures being investigated. Such research, however, must acknowledge how disparate geocoding success across subpopulations may affect findings.

  20. Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandbergen Paul A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error in street geocoding on the analysis of traffic-related air pollution on children. Methods For a case-study of a large sample of school children in Orange County, Florida (n = 104,865 the positional error of street geocoding was determined through comparison with a parcel database. The effect of this error was evaluated by analyzing the proximity of street and parcel geocoded locations to road segments with high traffic volume and determining the accuracy of the classification using the results of street geocoding. Of the original sample of 163,886 addresses 36% were not used in the final analysis because they could not be reliably geocoded using either street or parcel geocoding. The estimates of positional error can therefore be considered conservative underestimates. Results Street geocoding was found to have a median error of 41 meters, a 90th percentile of 100 meters, a 95th percentile of 137 meters and a 99th percentile of 273 meters. These positional errors were found to be non-random in nature and introduced substantial bias and error in the estimates of potential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Street geocoding was found to consistently over-estimate the number of potentially exposed children at small distances up to 250 meters. False positives and negatives were also found to be very common at these small distances. Conclusion Results of the case-study presented here strongly suggest that typical street geocoding is insufficient for fine-scale analysis and more accurate alternatives need to be considered.

  1. COMPARISON OF GEOCODING METHODS USED IN CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Accurate geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded maternal residence a...

  2. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjaya; Liu, Ming; Hwang, Syni-An

    2012-11-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate), geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7%) were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3%) by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid ("true" location) compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  3. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate, geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7% were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3% by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid (“true” location compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  4. Geocoding accuracy and the recovery of relationships between environmental exposures and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship – statistical power – between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of positional accuracy and completeness of the geocodes from which the measures of environmental exposure are made. This paper summarizes the results of simulation studies conducted to examine the impact of inaccuracies of geocoded addresses generated by three types of geocoding processes: a addresses located on orthophoto maps, b addresses matched to TIGER files (U.S Census or their derivative street files; and, c addresses from E-911 geocodes (developed by local authorities for emergency dispatch purposes. Results The simulated odds of disease using exposures modelled from the highest quality geocodes could be sufficiently recovered using other, more commonly used, geocoding processes such as TIGER and E-911; however, the strength of the odds relationship between disease exposures modelled at geocodes generally declined with decreasing geocoding accuracy. Conclusion Although these specific results cannot be generalized to new situations, the methods used to determine the sensitivity of results can be used in new situations. Estimated measures of positional accuracy must be used in the interpretation of results of analyses that investigate relationships between health outcomes and exposures measured at residential locations. Analyses similar to those employed in this paper can be used to validate interpretation of results from empirical analyses that use geocoded locations with estimated measures of positional accuracy.

  5. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquez Geoffrey M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy. We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density

  6. Geocoding and stereo display of tropical forest multisensor datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R.; Jordan, T. R.; Luvall, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the future of tropical forests has led to a demand for geocoded multisensor databases that can be used to assess forest structure, deforestation, thermal response, evapotranspiration, and other parameters linked to climate change. In response to studies being conducted at the Braulino Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica, digital satellite and aircraft images recorded by Landsat TM, SPOT HRV, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, and Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner sensors were placed in register using the Landsat TM image as the reference map. Despite problems caused by relief, multitemporal datasets, and geometric distortions in the aircraft images, registration was accomplished to within + or - 20 m (+ or - 1 data pixel). A digital elevation model constructed from a multisensor Landsat TM/SPOT stereopair proved useful for generating perspective views of the rugged, forested terrain.

  7. Modelling Iteration Convergence Condition for Single SAR Image Geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuting; Liao, Minghsheng; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Xuguo

    2014-11-01

    Single SAR image geocoding is to determine the ground coordinate for each pixel in the SAR image assisted with an external DEM. Due to the uncertainty of the elevation of each pixel in SAR image, an iterative procedure is needed, which suffers from the problem of divergence in some difficult areas such as shaded and serious layover areas. This paper aims at theoretically analysing the convergence conditions that has not been intensively studied till now. To make the discussion easier, the Range-Doppler (RD) model is simplified and then the general surface is simplified into a planar surface. Mathematical deduction is carried out to derive the convergence conditions and the impact factors for the convergence speed are analysed. The theoretical findings are validated by experiments for both simulated and real surfaces.

  8. Geocoding location expressions in Twitter messages: A preference learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolving location expressions in text to the correct physical location, also known as geocoding or grounding, is complicated by the fact that so many places around the world share the same name. Correct resolution is made even more difficult when there is little context to determine which place is intended, as in a 140-character Twitter message, or when location cues from different sources conflict, as may be the case among different metadata fields of a Twitter message. We used supervised machine learning to weigh the different fields of the Twitter message and the features of a world gazetteer to create a model that will prefer the correct gazetteer candidate to resolve the extracted expression. We evaluated our model using the F1 measure and compared it to similar algorithms. Our method achieved results higher than state-of-the-art competitors.

  9. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daikwon; Bonner, Matthew R; Nie, Jing; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-05-01

    The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  10. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikwon Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  11. Accuracy of two geocoding methods for geographic information system-based exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Elodie; Danjou, Aurélie M N; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-02-24

    Environmental exposure assessment based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and study participants' residential proximity to environmental exposure sources relies on the positional accuracy of subjects' residences to avoid misclassification bias. Our study compared the positional accuracy of two automatic geocoding methods to a manual reference method. We geocoded 4,247 address records representing the residential history (1990-2008) of 1,685 women from the French national E3N cohort living in the Rhône-Alpes region. We compared two automatic geocoding methods, a free-online geocoding service (method A) and an in-house geocoder (method B), to a reference layer created by manually relocating addresses from method A (method R). For each automatic geocoding method, positional accuracy levels were compared according to the urban/rural status of addresses and time-periods (1990-2000, 2001-2008), using Chi Square tests. Kappa statistics were performed to assess agreement of positional accuracy of both methods A and B with the reference method, overall, by time-periods and by urban/rural status of addresses. Respectively 81.4% and 84.4% of addresses were geocoded to the exact address (65.1% and 61.4%) or to the street segment (16.3% and 23.0%) with methods A and B. In the reference layer, geocoding accuracy was higher in urban areas compared to rural areas (74.4% vs. 10.5% addresses geocoded to the address or interpolated address level, p < 0.0001); no difference was observed according to the period of residence. Compared to the reference method, median positional errors were 0.0 m (IQR = 0.0-37.2 m) and 26.5 m (8.0-134.8 m), with positional errors <100 m for 82.5% and 71.3% of addresses, for method A and method B respectively. Positional agreement of method A and method B with method R was 'substantial' for both methods, with kappa coefficients of 0.60 and 0.61 for methods A and B, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of geocoding

  12. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Lisa G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. Results The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130 and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters. Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Conclusions Although the study was limited by small

  13. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  14. A research agenda: Does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquez, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding...

  15. Methods for Retrospective Geocoding in Population Studies: The Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer C.; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, Demarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details, hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in th...

  16. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets a...

  17. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Dale L.; Fang, Xiangming; Mazumdar, Soumya; Rushton, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our stu...

  18. Examining the impact of the precision of address geocoding on estimated density of crime locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yutaka; Shimada, Takahito

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the impact of the precision of address geocoding on the estimated density of crime locations in a large urban area of Japan. The data consist of two separate sets of the same Penal Code offenses known to the police that occurred during a nine-month period of April 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001 in the central 23 wards of Tokyo. These two data sets are derived from older and newer recording system of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (TMPD), which revised its crime reporting system in that year so that more precise location information than the previous years could be recorded. Each of these data sets was address-geocoded onto a large-scale digital map, using our hierarchical address-geocoding schema, and was examined how such differences in the precision of address information and the resulting differences in address-geocoded incidence locations affect the patterns in kernel density maps. An analysis using 11,096 pairs of incidences of residential burglary (each pair consists of the same incidents geocoded using older and newer address information, respectively) indicates that the kernel density estimation with a cell size of 25×25 m and a bandwidth of 500 m may work quite well in absorbing the poorer precision of geocoded locations based on data from older recording system, whereas in several areas where older recording system resulted in very poor precision level, the inaccuracy of incident locations may produce artifactitious and potentially misleading patterns in kernel density maps.

  19. GIS-based geocoding methods for area-based addresses and 3D addresses in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyeong Lee

    2009-01-01

    For more than four decades, two address-matching methods, the street-based address geocoding method and address-point-matching method, have been used to identify geographical coordinates from postal addresses. However, street-based address geocoding methods developed for the US addressing system are not universally applicable in developing a single-portal geocoding middleware for worldwide Internet-based geographic information systems applications. Problems also exist with address-point match...

  20. [Who Hits the Mark? A Comparative Study of the Free Geocoding Services of Google and OpenStreetMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, D; Mattauch, V; Heidinger, O; Hense, H W

    2015-09-01

    Geocoding, the process of converting textual information (addresses) into geographic coordinates is increasingly used in public health/epidemiological research and practice. To date, little attention has been paid to geocoding quality and its impact on different types of spatially-related health studies. The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 freely available geocoding services (Google and OpenStreetMap) with regard to matching rate (percentage of address records capable of being geocoded) and positional accuracy (distance between geocodes and the ground truth locations). Residential addresses were geocoded by the NRW state office for information and technology and were considered as reference data (gold standard). The gold standard included the coordinates, the quality of the addresses (4 categories), and a binary urbanity indicator based on the CORINE land cover data. 2 500 addresses were randomly sampled after stratification for address quality and urbanity indicator (approximately 20 000 addresses). These address samples were geocoded using the geocoding services from Google and OSM. In general, both geocoding services showed a decrease in the matching rate with decreasing address quality and urbanity. Google showed consistently a higher completeness than OSM (>93 vs. >82%). Also, the cartographic confounding between urban and rural regions was less distinct with Google's geocoding API. Regarding the positional accuracy of the geo-coordinates, Google also showed the smallest deviations from the reference coordinates, with a median of Google that nearly 95% and for OSM 50% of the addresses were geocoded within Google is superior to OSM regarding completeness and positional accuracy of the geocoded addresses. On the other hand, Google has several restrictions, such as the limitation of the requests to 2 500 addresses per 24 h and the presentation of the results exclusively on Google Maps, which may complicate the use for scientific purposes.

  1. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code.

  2. Spatial autocorrelation among automated geocoding errors and its effects on testing for disease clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dale L; Li, Jie; Fang, Xiangming

    2010-04-30

    Automated geocoding of patient addresses is an important data assimilation component of many spatial epidemiologic studies. Inevitably, the geocoding process results in positional errors. Positional errors incurred by automated geocoding tend to reduce the power of tests for disease clustering and otherwise affect spatial analytic methods. However, there are reasons to believe that the errors may often be positively spatially correlated and that this may mitigate their deleterious effects on spatial analyses. In this article, we demonstrate explicitly that the positional errors associated with automated geocoding of a data set of more than 6000 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa are spatially autocorrelated. Furthermore, through two simulation studies of disease processes, including one in which the disease process is overlain upon the Carroll County addresses, we show that spatial autocorrelation among geocoding errors maintains the power of two tests for disease clustering at a level higher than that which would occur if the errors were independent. Implications of these results for cluster detection, privacy protection, and measurement error modeling of geographic health data are discussed.

  3. ERS-1 SAR geocoding system as link between spaceborne and earth reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Gunter; Roth, Achim; Knöpfle, Walter

    1993-08-01

    The operational European ground segment of the European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 supports geocoded SAR image data generated by the German Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich. Geocoding of spaceborne satellite data means to establish an easy and user friendly link between the satellite measurements and Geo-Information Systems (GIS) as well as the possibility to intercompare SAR data with other geocoded satellite based information. Although the near to fully automatic geocoding system is based on precisely known satellite house-keeping data, it strongly depends on georeference information at least for the validation of the data and the verification of its results. Such reference information are large scale topographic maps, which are still the unique global source for earth based information and Digital Elevation Models. The later are necessary to correct SAR data for disturbing height induced geometric and radiometric defects. Additionally automatically generated Image Ground Control Chips aid the precision of the system. To accomplish the task of operational geocoding, several consistent data bases have been generated at DLR to store these types of reference data. Both, relational data base techniques as well as spatial binary reference systems are in use for the data storage. The article will present the architecture of these operational systems and will give a first review of the experience with these systems during the ERS-1 commissioning and early operations phase.

  4. Towards Introducing a Geocoding Information System for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siksnans, J.; Pirupshvarre, Hans R.; Lind, M.; Mioc, D.; Anton, F.

    2011-08-01

    Currently, addressing practices in Greenland do not support geocoding. Addressing points on a map by geographic coordinates is vital for emergency services such as police and ambulance for avoiding ambiguities in finding incident locations (Government of Greenland, 2010) Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the current addressing practices in Greenland. Asiaq (Asiaq, 2011) is a public enterprise of the Government of Greenland which holds three separate databases regards addressing and place references: - list of locality names (towns, villages, farms), - technical base maps (including road center lines not connected with names, and buildings), - the NIN registry (The Land Use Register of Greenland - holds information on the land allotments and buildings in Greenland). The main problem is that these data sets are not interconnected, thus making it impossible to address a point in a map with geographic coordinates in a standardized way. The possible solutions suffer from the fact that Greenland has a scattered habitation pattern and the generalization of the address assignment schema is a difficult task. A schema would be developed according to the characteristics of the settlement pattern, e.g. cities, remote locations and place names. The aim is to propose an ontology for a common postal address system for Greenland. The main part of the research is dedicated to the current system and user requirement engineering. This allowed us to design a conceptual database model which corresponds to the user requirements, and implement a small scale prototype. Furthermore, our research includes resemblance findings in Danish and Greenland's addressing practices, data dictionary for establishing Greenland addressing system's logical model and enhanced entity relationship diagram. This initial prototype of the Greenland addressing system could be used to evaluate and build the full architecture of the addressing information system for Greenland. Using software engineering

  5. Geometric rectification and geocoding of JPL's AIRSAR data over hilly terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroof, H.; Degrandi, G.; Sieber, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    A post-processing system was developed to georeference and geocode airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the JPL-Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) System over hilly terrain during the 1990 MAESTRO1 campaign. Georectification relates image coordinates and object coordinates while the geocoding involves resampling. The georectification method uses a hybrid method based upon a number of navigational parameters and minimal two ground-control points which are referenced in both image and map space. The calculation of the intersection of the SAR signal wavefront and a digital elevation model allowed, within certain error bounds, acquisition of the object-to-image and image-to-object relationships.

  6. Near real-time geocoding of SAR imagery with orbit error removal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    When utilizing knowledge of the spacecraft trajectory for near real-time geocoding of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, the main problem is that predicted satellite orbits have to be used, which may be in error by several kilometres. As part of the development of a Dutch autonomous mobile groun

  7. The effect of administrative boundaries and geocoding error on cancer rates in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel W; Cockburn, Myles G

    2012-04-01

    Geocoding is often used to produce maps of disease rates from the diagnosis addresses of incident cases to assist with disease surveillance, prevention, and control. In this process, diagnosis addresses are converted into latitude/longitude pairs which are then aggregated to produce rates at varying geographic scales such as Census tracts, neighborhoods, cities, counties, and states. The specific techniques used within geocoding systems have an impact on where the output geocode is located and can therefore have an effect on the derivation of disease rates at different geographic aggregations. This paper investigates how county-level cancer rates are affected by the choice of interpolation method when case data are geocoded to the ZIP code level. Four commonly used areal unit interpolation techniques are applied and the output of each is used to compute crude county-level five-year incidence rates of all cancers in California. We found that the rates observed for 44 out of the 58 counties in California vary based on which interpolation method is used, with rates in some counties increasing by nearly 400% between interpolation methods.

  8. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  9. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute’s cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute’s profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  10. Geocoding uncertainty analysis for the automated processing of Sentinel-1 data using Sentinel-1 Toolbox software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Naeimi, Vahid; Wagner, Wolfgang; Elefante, Stefano; Cao, Senmao; Persson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    One of the major advantages of the Sentinel-1 data is its capability to provide very high spatio-temporal coverage allowing the mapping of large areas as well as creation of dense time-series of the Sentinel-1 acquisitions. The SGRT software developed at TU Wien aims at automated processing of Sentinel-1 data for global and regional products. The first step of the processing consists of the Sentinel-1 data geocoding with the help of S1TBX software and their resampling to a common grid. These resampled images serve as an input for the product derivation. Thus, it is very important to select the most reliable processing settings and assess the geocoding uncertainty for both backscatter and projected local incidence angle images. Within this study, selection of Sentinel-1 acquisitions over 3 test areas in Europe were processed manually in the S1TBX software, testing multiple software versions, processing settings and digital elevation models (DEM) and the accuracy of the resulting geocoded images were assessed. Secondly, all available Sentinel-1 data over the areas were processed using selected settings and detailed quality check was performed. Overall, strong influence of the used DEM on the geocoding quality was confirmed with differences up to 80 meters in areas with higher terrain variations. In flat areas, the geocoding accuracy of backscatter images was overall good, with observed shifts between 0 and 30m. Larger systematic shifts were identified in case of projected local incidence angle images. These results encourage the automated processing of large volumes of Sentinel-1 data.

  11. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  12. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  13. RPC Modeling For Spaceborne SAR And Its Application In Radar Image Geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohong; He, Xueyan; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2010-10-01

    The Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) model is a typical replacement sensor model which relates image coordinates and object coordinates through rational polynomial functions. This paper investigates the methodology of RPC modeling for spaceborne SAR and its application in radar image geocoding. A hybrid approach is proposed to combine the L-curve and the IMCCV (Iteration method by correcting characteristic value) methods for RPC modeling. Experimental results show that the hybrid approach is superior to traditional methods in terms of both fitting accuracy and computation time cost. The results of different settings in RPC modeling will be shown. To ensure high accuracy of image geocoding, an additional mathematical transformation is used to remove the systematic errors in the RPC model. An Envisat ASAR image is used as experimental data to verify the application.

  14. Error propagation models to examine the effects of geocoding quality on spatial analysis of individual-level datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, P A; Hart, T C; Lenzer, K E; Camponovo, M E

    2012-04-01

    The quality of geocoding has received substantial attention in recent years. A synthesis of published studies shows that the positional errors of street geocoding are somewhat unique relative to those of other types of spatial data: (1) the magnitude of error varies strongly across urban-rural gradients; (2) the direction of error is not uniform, but strongly associated with the properties of local street segments; (3) the distribution of errors does not follow a normal distribution, but is highly skewed and characterized by a substantial number of very large error values; and (4) the magnitude of error is spatially autocorrelated and is related to properties of the reference data. This makes it difficult to employ analytic approaches or Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation modeling because these rely on generalized statistical characteristics. The current paper describes an alternative empirical approach to error propagation modeling for geocoded data and illustrates its implementation using three different case-studies of geocoded individual-level datasets. The first case-study consists of determining the land cover categories associated with geocoded addresses using a point-in-raster overlay. The second case-study consists of a local hotspot characterization using kernel density analysis of geocoded addresses. The third case-study consists of a spatial data aggregation using enumeration areas of varying spatial resolution. For each case-study a high quality reference scenario based on address points forms the basis for the analysis, which is then compared to the result of various street geocoding techniques. Results show that the unique nature of the positional error of street geocoding introduces substantial noise in the result of spatial analysis, including a substantial amount of bias for some analysis scenarios. This confirms findings from earlier studies, but expands these to a wider range of analytical techniques.

  15. Integrating Address Geocoding, Land Use Regression, and Spatiotemporal Geostatistical Estimation for Groundwater Tetrachloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, Kyle P.; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques t...

  16. The effects of local street network characteristics on the positional accuracy of automated geocoding for geographic health studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated geocoding of patient addresses for the purpose of conducting spatial epidemiologic studies results in positional errors. It is well documented that errors tend to be larger in rural areas than in cities, but possible effects of local characteristics of the street network, such as street intersection density and street length, on errors have not yet been documented. Our study quantifies effects of these local street network characteristics on the means and the entire probability distributions of positional errors, using regression methods and tolerance intervals/regions, for more than 6000 geocoded patient addresses from an Iowa county. Results Positional errors were determined for 6376 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa, as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its ground-truthed location. Mean positional error magnitude was inversely related to proximate street intersection density. This effect was statistically significant for both rural and municipal addresses, but more so for the former. Also, the effect of street segment length on geocoding accuracy was statistically significant for municipal, but not rural, addresses; for municipal addresses mean error magnitude increased with length. Conclusion Local street network characteristics may have statistically significant effects on geocoding accuracy in some places, but not others. Even in those locales where their effects are statistically significant, street network characteristics may explain a relatively small portion of the variability among geocoding errors. It appears that additional factors besides rurality and local street network characteristics affect accuracy in general.

  17. Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L

    2012-03-06

    Geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend.

  18. Automatic geocoding of high-value targets using structural image analysis and GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Uwe; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    Geocoding based merely on navigation data and sensor model is often not possible or precise enough. In these cases an improvement of the preregistration through image-based approaches is a solution. Due to the large amount of data in remote sensing automatic geocoding methods are necessary. For geocoding purposes appropriate tie points, which are present in image and map, have to be detected and matched. The tie points are base of the transformation function. Assigning the tie points is combinatorial problem depending on the number of tie points. This number can be reduced using structural tie points like corners or crossings of prominent extended targets (e.g. harbors, airfields). Additionally the reliability of the tie points is improved. Our approach extracts structural tie points independently in the image and in the vector map by a model-based image analysis. The vector map is provided by a GIS using ATKIS data base. The model parameters are extracted from maps or collateral information of the scenario. The two sets of tie points are automatically matched with a Geometric Hashing algorithm. The algorithm was successfully applied to VIS, IR and SAR data.

  19. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  20. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  1. Using an Optimized Chinese Address Matching Method to Develop a Geocoding Service: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the coming era of big data and the rapid development and widespread applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISs, geocoding technology is playing an increasingly important role in bridging the gap between non-spatial data resources and spatial data in various fields. However, Chinese geocoding faces great challenges because of the complexity of the address string format in Chinese, which contains no delimiters between Chinese words, and the poor address management resulting from the existence of multiple address authorities spread among different governmental agencies. This paper presents a geocoding service based on an optimized Chinese address matching method, including address modeling, address standardization and address matching. The address model focuses on the spatial semantics of each address element, and the address standardization process is based on an address tree model. A geocoding service application is implemented in practice using a large quantity of data from Shenzhen Municipality. More than 1,460,000 data records were used to test the geocoding service, and good matching rates were achieved with good adaptability and intelligence.

  2. Improving environmental exposure analysis using cumulative distribution functions and individual geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Jayajit

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessments of environmental exposure and health risks that utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS often make simplifying assumptions when using: (a one or more discrete buffer distances to define the spatial extent of impacted regions, and (b aggregated demographic data at the level of census enumeration units to derive the characteristics of the potentially exposed population. A case-study of school children in Orange County, Florida, is used to demonstrate how these limitations can be overcome by the application of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and individual geocoded locations. Exposure potential for 159,923 school children was determined at the childrens' home residences and at school locations by determining the distance to the nearest gasoline station, stationary air pollution source, and industrial facility listed in the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI. Errors and biases introduced by the use of discrete buffer distances and data aggregation were examined. Results The use of discrete buffers distances in proximity-based exposure analysis introduced substantial bias in terms of determining the potentially exposed population, and the results are strongly dependent on the choice of buffer distance(s. Comparisons of exposure potential between home and school locations indicated that different buffer distances yield different results and contradictory conclusions. The use of a CDF provided a much more meaningful representation and is not based on the a-priori assumption that any particular distance is more relevant than another. The use of individual geocoded locations also provided a more accurate characterization of the exposed population and allowed for more reliable comparisons among sub-groups. In the comparison of children's home residences and school locations, the use of data aggregated at the census block group and tract level introduced variability as well as bias, leading to incorrect conclusions as

  3. Data management based on geocoding index and adaptive visualization for airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaodong

    2008-10-01

    With more surveying practice and deeper application, data post-process for airborne LiDAR system has been extracted lots of attention in data accuracy, post-process, fusion, modeling, automation and visualization. However, post-process and flexible visualization were found to be the bottle-neck which limits the LiDAR data usage for industrial applications. The cause of above bottle-neck problems is great capacity for LiDAR system. Thus in article a geocoding index based multivariate data management and adaptive visualization will be studied for based on the feature of airborne LiDAR's data to improve automatization of post-process and surveying efficiency.

  4. Spatial error in geocoding physician location data from the AMA Physician Masterfile: implications for spatial accessibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Sara; Freeman, Vincent L; Barrett, Richard E; Luo, Lan; Shockley, Alisa

    2012-04-01

    The accuracy of geocoding hinges on the quality of address information that serves as input to the geocoding process; however errors associated with poor address quality are rarely studied. This paper examines spatial errors that arise due to incorrect address information with respect to physician location data in the United States. Studies of spatial accessibility to physicians in the U.S. typically rely on data from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile. These data are problematic because a substantial proportion of physicians only report a mailing address, which is often the physician's home (residential) location, rather than the address for the location where health care is provided. The incorrect geocoding of physicians' practice locations based on inappropriate address information results in a form of geocoding error that has not been widely analyzed. Using data for the Chicago metropolitan region, we analyze the extent and implications of geocoding error for measurement of spatial accessibility to primary care physicians. We geocode the locations of primary care physicians based on mailing addresses and office addresses. The spatial mismatch between the two is computed at the county, zip code and point location scales. Although mailing and office address locations are quite close for many physicians, they are far apart (>20 km) for a substantial minority. Kernel density estimation is used to characterize the spatial distribution of physicians based on office and mailing addresses and to identify areas of high spatial mismatch between the two. Errors are socially and geographically uneven, resulting in overestimation of physician supply in some high-income suburban communities, and underestimation in certain central city locations where health facilities are concentrated. The resulting errors affect local measures of spatial accessibility to primary care, biasing statistical analyses of the associations between spatial access to care and

  5. A 10-digit geo-coding system for classification of geomorphosites in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Vishwas

    2015-04-01

    India is a country with rich geo-wealth and geoheritage. There are numerous fascinating and exquisite landforms and landscapes in the Indian subcontinent that have immense cultural, socio-economic and scientific value and are significant from the point of view of geotourism and geoeducation. Presently, India has 32 World Heritage Properties, including seven natural properties. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has declared 26 geosites as National Geological Monuments. Although a few attempts have been made in the last ten years to identify and catalog noteworthy geomorphosites in India, till date no attempt has been made to undertake multi-criteria or multi-attribute assessment and classification of the potential geomorphosites. In view of the limitations and difficulties in the ranking and/or scoring system adopted in many earlier studies on geoheritage sites, a simple ten-digit geo-coding system for some potential geomorphosites in India is suggested. The 10-digit coding system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of geomorphosites on the basis of some key scientific value criteria, additional value criteria and management criteria as well as the IUCN geo-theme codes and the code numbers assigned to major geomorphic provinces in a region/country. This coding system could be used to establish a classification and the priority of geomorphosites and could be applied to any area or region in the world. The user-friendly geo-coding system has the potential to classify and sort geomorphosites of different characters, origin and value.

  6. RELIANCE ON GEOCODED MATERNAL RESIDENCE: IMPACT ON A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing population-based case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded res...

  7. Exploring the potential of geocoding the impact of disasters: The experience of global and national databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Davis, Rhonda; Gall, Melanie; Wallemacq, Pascaline; Cutter, Susan

    2015-04-01

    As extreme climate events such as precipitation driven flooding, storms and droughts are increasingly devastating, assessing impacts accurately becomes critically important in guiding decisions and investments on disaster risk reduction. Capturing disaster impacts includes not only quantitative information such as the economic and human effects but also the determination of where and when the impacts occurred. Among the most commonly used impact indicators are the number of deaths and the number of people affected or homeless, and the economic damages. Unfortunately, these figures are typically used in their raw form and conclusions are drawn without due consideration to denominators. For example, key parameters such as the population base or the size of the region affected are often not factored in when judging the severity of the event or calculating increases or decreases in an indicator. To increase the meaningfulness and comparability of disaster impacts across time and space, however, it is important to mathematically standardize indicators and utilize common denominators such as number of population exposed, area affected, GDP, and so forth. Geospatial techniques such as geo-referencing and spatial overlays are coming into greater use to facilitate this process. In 2013, EM-DAT, one of the main providers of global disaster impact data, launched an effort to enhance its contents through spatial analyses. The challenge was to develop a sustainable methodology and protocol for a large dataset and to systematically collect and enter geocoded profiles for each event that is registered in EM-DAT. Along with specialists in geography from different institutions EM-DAT launched an effort to geocode each disaster event working backwards in time starting from the most recent. For geo-referencing purposes, EM-DAT requires a standardized dataset of sub-national administrative boundaries. Though a number of such initiatives exist, the Food and Agriculture Organization

  8. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Mumma, Michael T; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-05-01

    To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO) Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses). One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density geocoding than those in areas with >920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR) = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.23, 6.49), as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11). This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  9. Road and Street Centerlines, Full geocoded street centerlines, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Delaware County Office of Geographic Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Full geocoded street centerlines'....

  10. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  11. GEOCODING OF TRAUMA IN CHILDREN AS A MODELING OF CITY RISK ASSESSMENT AREAS (GIS BASED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIAN ABSALON

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding of trauma in children as a modeling of city risk assessment areas (GIS based method. The article presents the results of statistical evaluation of fractures in children who were treated in 2009 – 2010 in the Upper Silesian Child Health Center in Katowice, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology and it attempts to calculate the risk of injury. The overall statistical analysis involved all types of fractures and injuries have been divided due to their location pointing to the most common and the rarest ones and the difference in the amount of fractures in each gender. In the section on the method of calculating the risk of injury in children owing to the ability to take many factors (age, sex into account that affect the occurrence of fracture and the type of injury. This ratio allows to accurately calculate the percentage of those risks. Using a mathematical formula allows the calculation of risk for a number of administrative units and an indication of the existence of such risks in a particular administrative unit. This allows for a spatial representation of the phenomenon through a system of geographic information systems (GIS. Moreover, in both cases, either spatial or just a statistical presentation of data, it is possible to observe dynamic changes in risks over the years.

  12. Residential address errors in public health surveillance data: a description and analysis of the impact on geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Jauvin, Christian; Verma, Aman; Bedard, Lucie; Allard, Robert; Schwartzman, Kevin; de Montigny, Luc; Charland, Katia; Buckeridge, David L

    2010-07-01

    The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of the corresponding impact of these errors on geocoding and routine public health practices. The objectives of this study were to examine address errors for a selected reportable disease in a large urban center in Canada and to assess the impact of identified errors on geocoding and the estimated spatial distribution of the disease. We extracted data for all notifications of campylobacteriosis from the Montreal public health department from 1995 to 2008 and used an address verification algorithm to determine the validity of the residential address for each case and to suggest corrections for invalid addresses. We assessed the types of address errors as well as the resulting positional errors, calculating the distance between the original address and the correct address as well as changes in disease density. Address errors and missing addresses were prevalent in the public health records (10% and 5%, respectively) and they influenced the observed distribution of campylobacteriosis in Montreal, with address correction changing case location by a median of 1.1 km. Further examination of the extent of address errors in public health data is essential, as is the investigation of how these errors impact routine public health functions.

  13. The Use of Exhaustive Micro-Data Firm Databases for Economic Geography: The Issues of Geocoding and Usability in the Case of the Amadeus Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official spatial data dissemination alows for geocoding of such databases using means that are accessible for researchers with minimal programming knowledge. For the specific case of the Amadeus database of the Bureau Van Dijk, I show that its limitations in terms of coverage have to be taken into acount, but do not hinder its use for analysis. Resulting maps show how the data allows to go further than classic databases such as the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics.

  14. The use of exhaustive Micro-Data firm databases for Economic Geography: The issues of geocoding and usability in the case of the Amadeus Database

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official ...

  15. MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

  16. MapAffil: A Bibliographic Tool for Mapping Author Affiliation Strings to Cities and Their Geocodes Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Vetle I

    2015-01-01

    Bibliographic records often contain author affiliations as free-form text strings. Ideally one would be able to automatically identify all affiliations referring to any particular country or city such as Saint Petersburg, Russia. That introduces several major linguistic challenges. For example, Saint Petersburg is ambiguous (it refers to multiple cities worldwide and can be part of a street address) and it has spelling variants (e.g., St. Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburg, and Leningrad, USSR). We have designed an algorithm that attempts to solve these types of problems. Key components of the algorithm include a set of 24,000 extracted city, state, and country names (and their variants plus geocodes) for candidate look-up, and a set of 1.1 million extracted word n-grams, each pointing to a unique country (or a US state) for disambiguation. When applied to a collection of 12.7 million affiliation strings listed in PubMed, ambiguity remained unresolved for only 0.1%. For the 4.2 million mappings to the USA, 97.7% were complete (included a city), 1.8% included a state but not a city, and 0.4% did not include a state. A random sample of 300 manually inspected cases yielded six incompletes, none incorrect, and one unresolved ambiguity. The remaining 293 (97.7%) cases were unambiguously mapped to the correct cities, better than all of the existing tools tested: GoPubMed got 279 (93.0%) and GeoMaker got 274 (91.3%) while MediaMeter CLIFF and Google Maps did worse. In summary, we find that incorrect assignments and unresolved ambiguities are rare (< 1%). The incompleteness rate is about 2%, mostly due to a lack of information, e.g. the affiliation simply says "University of Illinois" which can refer to one of five different campuses. A search interface called MapAffil has been developed at the University of Illinois in which the longitude and latitude of the geographical city-center is displayed when a city is identified. This not only helps improve geographic information

  17. A case study of the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season with daily geocoded Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Ruchit; Yuan, Qingyu; Freifeld, Clark C; Santillana, Mauricio; Nojima, Aaron; Chunara, Rumi; Brownstein, John S

    2014-10-20

    Twitter has shown some usefulness in predicting influenza cases on a weekly basis in multiple countries and on different geographic scales. Recently, Broniatowski and colleagues suggested Twitter's relevance at the city-level for New York City. Here, we look to dive deeper into the case of New York City by analyzing daily Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives. Also, through manual coding of all tweets, we look to gain qualitative insights that can help direct future automated searches. The intent of the study was first to validate the temporal predictive strength of daily Twitter data for influenza-like illness emergency department (ILI-ED) visits during the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season against other available and established datasets (Google search query, or GSQ), and second, to examine the spatial distribution and the spread of geocoded tweets as proxies for potential cases. From the Twitter Streaming API, 2972 tweets were collected in the New York City region matching the keywords "flu", "influenza", "gripe", and "high fever". The tweets were categorized according to the scheme developed by Lamb et al. A new fourth category was added as an evaluator guess for the probability of the subject(s) being sick to account for strength of confidence in the validity of the statement. Temporal correlations were made for tweets against daily ILI-ED visits and daily GSQ volume. The best models were used for linear regression for forecasting ILI visits. A weighted, retrospective Poisson model with SaTScan software (n=1484), and vector map were used for spatiotemporal analysis. Infection-related tweets (R=.763) correlated better than GSQ time series (R=.683) for the same keywords and had a lower mean average percent error (8.4 vs 11.8) for ILI-ED visit prediction in January, the most volatile month of flu. SaTScan identified primary outbreak cluster of high-probability infection tweets with a 2.74 relative risk ratio compared to medium

  18. Efficient Error-Correcting Geocoding

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Christian; Knopp, Sebastian; Luxen, Dennis; Sanders, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of resolving a perhaps misspelled address of a location into geographic coordinates of latitude and longitude. Our data structure solves this problem within a few milliseconds even for misspelled and fragmentary queries. Compared to major geographic search engines such as Google or Bing we achieve results of significantly better quality.

  19. Automatic Geocoding of SAR Image Using SRTM DEM and Landsat TM Image%基于SRTM DEM和Landsat TM数据的SAR图像自动地理编码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕平; 凌飞龙; 吴波

    2013-01-01

    The special slant-range imaging mode of Radar image makes it difficult to use traditional correction method to geocode it.Commonly we simulate a radar image using DEM and SAR geometry information to geocode a real SAR image.In the application of regional cartographic imaging,when we encounter flat areas,the features of simulated SAR image are not so obvious,making its failure to match the real SAR image and failure of automatic correction of a wide range of SAR image.In this paper,we analyzed and discussed the principle and process of the image simulation and image matching.By achieving the automatic determination of the offset between radar image and simulated SAR image matching the signal-noise ratio requirements or not,we can automatically determine whether or not to use the TM image which contain thematic information of feature,instead of the simulated SAR image for matching with the real radar image.The method achieves automatic geocoding of mass SAR image as the same time.%合成孔径雷达(SAR)图像特殊的斜距成像方式使得利用传统的校正方法很难校正雷达图像.常用的方法是利用DEM和SAR成像几何信息模拟的SAR图像对真实SAR图像进行校正.在区域制图中,平坦地区由于没有地形起伏特征,使得模拟SAR图像特征不明显,无法建立与真实SAR图像的配准关系.本文在研究大范围SAR图像自动化地理编码的过程中,分析讨论了图像模拟和图像匹配的原理和过程,实现了自动判断模拟SAR图像与真实SAR图像的匹配偏移量是否达到信噪比要求,从而自动判断是否使用具有地物专题信息的TM图像代替模拟SAR图像和真实SAR图像进行匹配,实现了海量SAR图像地理编码的自动化.

  20. Geocoding LCSH in the Biodiversity Heritage Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Crozier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Reusing metadata generated through years of cataloging practice is a natural and pragmatic way of leveraging an institution's investment in describing its resources. Using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH, the Biodiversity Heritage Library generates new interfaces for browsing and navigating books in a digital library. LCSH are grouped into tag clouds and plotted on interactive maps using methods available within the Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API. Code examples are included, and issues related to these interfaces and the underlying LCSH data are examined.

  1. BOREAS Level-3p Landsat TM Imagery: Geocoded and Scaled At-sensor Radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the level-3p Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to supplement the level-3s Landsat TM products. Along with the other remotely sensed images, the Landsat TM images were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Although very similar to the level-3s Landsat TM products, the level-3p images were processed with ground control information, which improved the accuracy of the geographic coordinates provided. Geographically, the level-3p images cover the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). Temporally, the four images cover the period of 20-Aug-1988 to 07-Jun-1994. Except for the 07-Jun-1994 image, which contains seven bands, the other three contain only three bands.

  2. "Community vital signs": incorporating geocoded social determinants into electronic records to promote patient and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazemore, Andrew W; Cottrell, Erika K; Gold, Rachel; Hughes, Lauren S; Phillips, Robert L; Angier, Heather; Burdick, Timothy E; Carrozza, Mark A; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-03-01

    Social determinants of health significantly impact morbidity and mortality; however, physicians lack ready access to this information in patient care and population management. Just as traditional vital signs give providers a biometric assessment of any patient, "community vital signs" (Community VS) can provide an aggregated overview of the social and environmental factors impacting patient health. Knowing Community VS could inform clinical recommendations for individual patients, facilitate referrals to community services, and expand understanding of factors impacting treatment adherence and health outcomes. This information could also help care teams target disease prevention initiatives and other health improvement efforts for clinic panels and populations. Given the proliferation of big data, geospatial technologies, and democratization of data, the time has come to integrate Community VS into the electronic health record (EHR). Here, the authors describe (i) historical precedent for this concept, (ii) opportunities to expand upon these historical foundations, and (iii) a novel approach to EHR integration.

  3. Proprocessing: Geocoding of AVIRIS Data Using Navigation, Engineering, DEM, and Radar Tracking System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P.; Larson, S. A.; Hansen, E. G.; Itten, K. I

    1993-01-01

    Remotely sensed data have geometric characteristics and representation which depend on the type of the acquisition system used. To correlate such data over large regions with other real world representation lools like conventional maps or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for verification purposes, or for further treatment within different data sets, a coregistration has to be performed.

  4. Preprocessing: Geocoding of AVIRIS data using navigation, engineering, DEM, and radar tracking system data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter; Larson, Steven A.; Hansen, Earl G.; Itten, Klaus I.

    1993-01-01

    Remotely sensed data have geometric characteristics and representation which depend on the type of the acquisition system used. To correlate such data over large regions with other real world representation tools like conventional maps or Geographic Information System (GIS) for verification purposes, or for further treatment within different data sets, a coregistration has to be performed. In addition to the geometric characteristics of the sensor there are two other dominating factors which affect the geometry: the stability of the platform and the topography. There are two basic approaches for a geometric correction on a pixel-by-pixel basis: (1) A parametric approach using the location of the airplane and inertial navigation system data to simulate the observation geometry; and (2) a non-parametric approach using tie points or ground control points. It is well known that the non-parametric approach is not reliable enough for the unstable flight conditions of airborne systems, and is not satisfying in areas with significant topography, e.g. mountains and hills. The present work describes a parametric preprocessing procedure which corrects effects of flight line and attitude variation as well as topographic influences and is described in more detail by Meyer.

  5. Geo-Coding for the Mapping of Documents and Social Media Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    Text Archives: Towards a Geographically Enriched Wikipedia. D-Lib Magazine 18(9-10), http://www.dlib.org/ dlib /september12/leetaru/09leetaru.html...geographic names in a historical digital library . Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (pp. 127-136). http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home

  6. The Social Meaning of Sharing and Geocoding: Features and Social Processes in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how emergent communities might show different patterns of uses and perceptions for communication and profile features when geolocation features are used. It explores the ways that location awareness moderates the social and cognitive processes that motivate people's participation in the sharing of personal information…

  7. Geocoding: the spatial dimension of an information system for the MVRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Est, J.; Smit, L.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major Droblems of research and planning and policy making is the lacking of the availability of information. Modern analysis is of ten hampered by this, due to the fuzzy locational identification of the data. Many variables and attributes are only measured (i.e. available) on geographical

  8. DEM-Based SAR Pixel Area Estimation For Enhanced Geocoding Refinement And Radiometric Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Othmar; Santoro, Maurizio; Werner, Charles L.; Wegmuller, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Precise terrain-corrected georeferencing of SAR images and derived products in range-Doppler coordinates is important with respect to several aspects, such as data interpretation, combination with other geodata products, and transformation of, e.g., terrain heights into SAR geometry as used in DInSAR applications. For georeferencing a look-up table is calculated and refined based on a coregistration of the actual SAR image to a simulated SAR image. The impact of using two different implementations of such a simulator of topography-induced radar brightness, an approach based on angular relationships and a pixel-area based method are discussed in this paper. It is found that the pixel-area-based method leads to considerable improvements with regard to the robustness of georeferencing and also with regard to radiometric normalization in layover- affected areas.

  9. [Geocoding of routine data. Where are my referring physicians and what are my competitors doing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, A; Roeder, N; Pühse, G

    2014-01-01

    Modern methods of reporting include the visualization of data concerning patients and referring doctor's residence and other clinical data with geographical reference. Thus, static and dynamic information about catchment areas and their changes can be visualized as well as answers to the important question for your main referring practicing physicians and possible changes in their behavior. Apart from the purely operational significance for the hospital, we also find important strategic aspects that include issues concerning hospital perspectives and possibilities, e.g., for the planning of collaborations. Overall, the method represents a useful addition to conservative forms of controlling reports in the hospital.

  10. Random property allocation: A novel geographic imputation procedure based on a complete geocoded address file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Rose, Nectarios

    2013-09-01

    Allocating an incomplete address to randomly selected property coordinates within a locality, known as random property allocation, has many advantages over other geoimputation techniques. We compared the performance of random property allocation to four other methods under various conditions using a simulation approach. All methods performed well for large spatial units, but random property allocation was the least prone to bias and error under volatile scenarios with small units and low prevalence. Both its coordinate based approach as well as the random process of assignment contribute to its increased accuracy and reduced bias in many scenarios. Hence it is preferable to fixed or areal geoimputation for many epidemiological and surveillance applications.

  11. Recent advances and plans in processing and geocoding of SAR data at the DFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, W.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the needs of future projects like ENVISAT and the experiences made with the current operational ERS-1 facilities, a radical change in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing scenarios can be predicted for the next years. At the German PAF several new developments were initialized which are driven mainly either by user needs or by system and operational constraints ('lessons learned'). At the end there will be a major simplification and uniformation of all used computer systems. Especially the following changes are likely to be implemented at the German PAF: transcription before archiving, processing of all standard products with high throughput directly at the receiving stations, processing of special 'high-valued' products at the PAF, usage of a single type of processor hardware, implementation of a large and fast on-line data archive, and improved and unified fast data network between the processing and archiving facilities. A short description of the current operational SAR facilities as well as the future implementations are given.

  12. Building Permits, Buidling permits pulled from apprasial database and geocoded to loctions for all types of permits issued, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Permits dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. It is described as 'Buidling permits pulled from...

  13. Research and implementation of geocoding based on Google Maps API%基于Google Maps API的地图解析研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游兰; 彭庆喜

    2010-01-01

    首先对Google Maps的运行机制进行分析,研究了Google Maps主要采用的两种技术:图片数据分片和Ajax技术.然后重点探讨Google Maps的地图解析,并设计一个基于Google Maps API的地图解析的持久化方案,最后对这个方案进行了实现.

  14. 78 FR 59377 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Reinstatement, With Change, of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Designation (LID) Tool. The LID Tool is a geocoding software program which analyzes member address data. A... using the geocoding software LID Tool, it may submit a statistically valid sample of member income...

  15. 78 FR 48912 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Reinstatement, With, of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... (LID) Tool. The LID Tool is a geocoding software program which analyzes member address data. A credit... geocoding software (LID Tool), it may submit a statistically valid sample of member income data as...

  16. Report on Component 2 - Designing New Methods for Visualizing Text in Spatial Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Geocoding errors?” will pop up, as shown in the figure below. Clicking on either promote or demote will push this specific tweet to the top or bottom of...be hidden when sorting by time or space. 6.2.3 User input on geocoding errors This feature is not completely implemented as of the date of this...of interactive geocoding , a significant area of future work. A detailed description of the geocoding error report functionality has been previously

  17. Fundamentals of Acoustic Backscatter Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    41 6.12 Geocoding ...47 7.6 Errors in Geocoding .............................................................................................................. 47...h = z - R cos6 (39a) and x = rt sin6. (39b) 6.12 Geocoding Acoustic backscatter imagery data are collected by recording the across-track signals

  18. Smartphone-assisted spatial data collection improves geographic information quality: pilot study using a birth records dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Han, Daikwon

    2016-11-23

    It is well known that the conventional, automated geocoding method based on self-reported residential addresses has many issues. We developed a smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method, which uses the Google Maps application programming interface as a spatial data collection tool during the birth registration process. In this pilot study, we have tested whether the smartphone-assisted method provides more accurate geographic information than the automated geocoding method in the scenario when both methods can get the address geocodes. We randomly selected 100 well-geocoded addresses among women who gave birth in Alachua county, Florida in 2012. We compared geocodes generated from three geocoding methods: i) the smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method; ii) the conventional, automated geocoding method; and iii) the global positioning system (GPS). We used the GPS data as the reference method. The automated geocoding method yielded positional errors larger than 100 m among 29.3% of addresses, while all addresses geocoded by the smartphoneassisted method had errors less than 100 m. The positional errors of the automated geocoding method were greater for apartment/condominiums compared with other dwellings and also for rural addresses compared with urban ones. We conclude that the smartphone-assisted method is a promising method for perspective spatial data collection by improving positional accuracy.

  19. Smartphone-assisted spatial data collection improves geographic information quality: pilot study using a birth records dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the conventional, automated geocoding method based on self-reported residential addresses has many issues. We developed a smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method, which uses the Google Maps application programming interface as a spatial data collection tool during the birth registration process. In this pilot study, we have tested whether the smartphone-assisted method provides more accurate geographic information than the automated geocoding method in the scenario when both methods can get the address geocodes. We randomly selected 100 well-geocoded addresses among women who gave birth in Alachua county, Florida in 2012. We compared geocodes generated from three geocoding methods: i the smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method; ii the conventional, automated geocoding method; and iii the global positioning system (GPS. We used the GPS data as the reference method. The automated geocoding method yielded positional errors larger than 100 m among 29.3% of addresses, while all addresses geocoded by the smartphoneassisted method had errors less than 100 m. The positional errors of the automated geocoding method were greater for apartment/condominiums compared with other dwellings and also for rural addresses compared with urban ones. We conclude that the smartphone-assisted method is a promising method for perspective spatial data collection by improving positional accuracy.

  20. Constraint-Based Integration of Geospatial and Online Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-10

    sources to accurately geocode addresses. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM- GIS 󈧈...34* Rahul Bakshi Integration and reasoning about online sources to accurately geocode addresses. Master’s thesis, University of Southern California...2004. Rahul Bakshi. Integration and reasoning about online sources to accurately geocode addresses. Master’s thesis, University of Southern

  1. African Americans and Prostate Cancer: A Spatial and Multilevel Analysis of Post-treatment Care and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    5 2.2.2. Geocoded prostate cancer data set development 5 2.3. Task 2: Integrate data to build GIS and conduct exploratory spatial...of the SEER-Medicare data set, the development and construction of the prostate cancer geocoded data set, and the GIS database development. Under...From this data file, 2 geocoded prostate cancer data sets were developed: one with all cases in the SEER-Medicare data set, and a second that

  2. Child Day Care Centers, This dataset contains the licensed daycare center locations in MD. Addresses were provided by the Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation (DLLR), and geocoded using Maryland Statewide Addressing Initiative Centerline., Published in 2012, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Towson University Center for GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2012. It is described as 'This...

  3. Child Day Care Centers, This dataset contains the licensed daycare center locations in MD. Addresses were provided by the Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation (DLLR), and geocoded using Maryland Statewide Addressing Initiative Centerline., Published in 2012, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Towson University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Child Day Care Centers dataset current as of 2012. This dataset contains the licensed daycare center locations in MD. Addresses were provided by the Department of...

  4. Laser Line Scan System for UXO Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    support acquisition, real-time processing and geocoding of digital LLSS data and to simultaneously interface navigation, attitude, altitude and...primary platform used to support acquisition, real-time processing, and geocoding of digital LLSS data and to simultaneously interface navigation...survey graphics and GIS documents; and subsequent target relocation, investigation, 44 and recovery operations. Any comparison between the LLSS

  5. Investigating impacts of positional error on potential health care accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi; Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Gersher, Sarina; Elliott, Tina

    2012-04-01

    Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based procedure developed to calculate potential (spatial) accessibility as a ratio of primary health care (PHC) providers to the surrounding population in urban settings. This method uses PHC provider locations in textual/address format supplied by local, regional, or national health authorities. An automated geocoding procedure is normally used to convert such addresses to a pair of geographic coordinates. The accuracy of geocoding depends on the type of reference data and the amount of value-added effort applied. This research investigates the success and accuracy of six geocoding methods as well as how geocoding error affects the 3SFCA method. ArcGIS software is used for geocoding and spatial accessibility estimation. Results will focus on two implications of geocoding: (1) the success and accuracy of different automated and value-added geocoding; and (2) the implications of these geocoding methods for GIS-based methods that generalise results based on location data.

  6. A Geographic Approach to Modelling Human Exposure to Traffic Air Pollution using GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    at the address all the time, and an exposure estimate is also defined that takes into account the time the person spends at the address assuming standardised time-profiles depending on age groups. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue...... the exposure model. Input requirements are: digital maps including buildings, geocoded addresses, geocoded roads, geocoded cadastres; data from the Building and Dwelling Register (BBR); traffic data (ADT of passenger cars, van, lorries and busses) for linking to a segmented road network; population data...

  7. Characterization of Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Features of the Ocean as a Function of Wind Speed and High Frequency Radar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    the next sections, the method to obtain surface currents from CODAR-type HF radar is described. The process of attaining calibrated and geocoded SAR...n.d.). It’s not the same as geocoding , but does allow the user to have a reasonable interpretation of the SAR image before taking further steps...of a scene and the tilt of the satellite sensor (NEST User Manual, n.d.). The final product is a geocoded image in the projection chosen by the

  8. Nielsen PrimeLocation Web/Desktop: Assessing and GIS Mapping Market Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Nielsen PrimeLocation Web and Desktop Software Licensed for Internal Use only: Pop-Facts Demographics Database, Geographic Mapping Data Layers, Geo-Coding locations.

  9. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  10. geopicker

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A js (built using GWT) geocoder built for 3rd party use. Allows users to view, relate and select geographies that are defined in the CERES gazetteer. Sample Usage...

  11. East Baton Rouge Fire Stations, UTM15 NAD83, LAGIC (2002) [ebr_fire_stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset consists of twenty-nine (29) geocoded points representing fire stations in East Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana. Thirty (30) fire station, disctrict, and...

  12. 2010 Census Blocks with Geographic Codes Southwestern PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This file can be used as a tool to append geographic codes to geocoded point data. The file was developed by Pitt's Center for Social and Urban Research and...

  13. Epidemiologic Considerations in Network Modeling of Theoretical Disease Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    networks in the one Canadian province [9] and networks of livestock movements in Great Britain [10], [11]. GIS and the common use of geocodes , such as...privacy, and network visualization is no exception. Like other analysis tools such as data mining, or Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ), network...Depending on the population density of the area under study, the precision of the geocode , the background detail on the map, and the visualization

  14. Online Spatial Database of US Army Public Health Command Region-West Mosquito Surveillance Records: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    geocoding errors. Output addresses were checked against input to identify discrepancies, and results that had a low precision level (to street or city...jwww.gpsvisuallzer.com/ geocoder / 30 http://www.cs.amedd.army.mil/dasqaDocuments.aspx?type=l THE ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT JOURNAL combination of internet searches...calculated area. Data were filtered in Excel for unique locations, and these point data were converted to shape files for mapping in DIVA- GIS 5.2

  15. Educating Future Leaders about Space at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    EV498, Advanced GIS - represent a two semester sequence that allows cadets to utilize Geographic Information Systems consisting of hardware/software...systems that permit the input, stor- age, retrieval, manipulation, analysis, and display of geocoded data. Used by environmentalists, engineers...in answering important “what if ” questions. Using digitiz- ers and microcomputers cadets build a geocoded database and solve real-world problems. In

  16. Error and Bias in Determining Exposure Potential of Children at School Locations Using Proximity-Based GIS Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen, Paul A.; Green, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The widespread availability of powerful tools in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software has made address geocoding a widely employed technique in spatial epidemiologic studies. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the positional error in geocoding on the analysis of exposure to traffic-related air pollution of children at school locations. Methods For a case study of Orange County, Florida, we determined the positional error of geoco...

  17. Predicting Suicide Attacks: Integrating Spatial, Temporal, and Social Features of Terrorist Attack Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    geocoded all returnees within the state of California and all mental health, substance abuse, and hospital facilities using GIS . The spatial information...themes. The data were then processed with SAS through regression analysis to identify key areas of concern. She used GIS to geocode and assign...criminal justice fields. She has developed expertise in using geographic information systems ( GIS ), ATLAS.ti, SAS, and GeoClip to perform a combination

  18. Simple Messaging and Collaboration System for Heterogeneous Organizations Operating in Disaster Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    visualization tools (such as mapping and GIS ), blogs, social networks, and sites that enable messaging over web and SMS such as Twitter and GroupMe...Mobile Phones Figure 2. System Components and Path of Messages. When a text message is sent from the phone, the message is geocoded to the users...representative then has an easy way to address the issue: Forward the geocoded message to a military representative who is also physically sitting nearby in

  19. The Format Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    been supplemented by an official cadastral name database as well as a database of medieval settlement names. And in order to obtain some consistency, new information categories such as name generics have been added, geo-coding from the cadastral database has been applied to the names from the printed...... series when possible – and a web-tool for manual geo-coding of the remaining names has been developed....

  20. The Afghan National Police: Turning a Counterinsurgency Problem into a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    i. 131 Afghanistan Information Management Service, “ Anatomy of the Geocode.” 132 United States Government Accountability Office, DC, Afghanistan...Mohammad Gul pointed to two compounds of neighbors where pre- teen children had been abducted by police to be used for the local practice of...Society (Contemporary Society: Tribal Studies) 5 (2002), 265–282. 203 Afghanistan Information Management Service, “ Anatomy of the Geocode.” 204

  1. Improving query services of web map by web mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maojun

    2007-11-01

    Web map is the hybrid of map and the World Wide Web (known as Web). It is usually created with WebGIS techniques. With the rapid social development, web maps oriented the public are facing pressure that dissatisfy the increased demanding. The geocoding database plays a key role in supporting query services effectively. The traditional geocoding method is laborious and time-consuming. And there is much online spatial information, which would be the supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper discusses how to improve query services by web mining. The improvement can be described from three facets: first, improving location query by discovering and extracting address information from the Web to extend geocoding database. Second, enhancing the ability of optimum path query of public traffic and buffer query by spatial analyzing and reasoning on the extended geocoding database. Third, adjusting strategies of collecting data according to patterns discovered by web map query mining. Finally, this paper presents the designing of the application system and experimental results.

  2. Investigation of vegetation with multifrequency and multipolarization SAR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rudolf; Roth, Achim; Bayer, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    Investigations of vegetation is conducted by synergism of different types of digital image data and models. As a standard application, satellite images are digitally coregistered with existant topographical data and stored in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The usefulness of multiparametric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for vegetation mapping is discussed. The multifrequency aspects requires precise geocoding. Different application fields with recent results are discussed: forest investigations with SIR (Spaceborne Imaging Radar)-B data in the southern Rhine valley ; extraction of landuse categories in landscape units using two geocoded Seasat-SAR scenes in the area of Bonn; relief effects on image gray values in geocoded Seasat-SAR images; the concept of a remote sensing data base for ecological applications.

  3. Shoaling of Aguadilla Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    providing real-time data geocoding of the imagery. Graphic displays provided real-time quality control of data during acquisition. Side-scan sonar...maintain. Received data of both the SBP and SR systems were input to the ISIS system for geocoding , digital recording, and display. ERDC/CHL TR-07-2 93...Data post-processing Side-scan sonar An ISIS office system (Version 4.0) was used to process the side-scan data for conversion to a GIS

  4. An image based information system - Architecture for correlating satellite and topological data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an image based information system and its use to process a Landsat thematic map showing land use or land cover in conjunction with a census tract polygon file to produce a tabulation of land use acreages per census tract. The system permits the efficient cross-tabulation of two or more geo-coded data sets, thereby setting the stage for the practical implementation of models of diffusion processes or cellular transformation. Characteristics of geographic information systems are considered, and functional requirements, such as data management, geocoding, image data management, and data analysis are discussed. The system is described, and the potentialities of its use are examined.

  5. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  6. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  7. Segregation and preterm birth: The effects of neighborhood racial composition in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic research suggests that racial segregation is associated with poor health among blacks in the United States (US). We used geocoded birth records and US census data to investigate whether neighborhood-level percent black is associated with preterm birth (PTB) for blac...

  8. What to Consider When Preparing a Model Core Curriculum for GIS Ethics: Objectives, Methods, and a Sketch of Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of what is known about teaching ethics in engineering, science, and related disciplines. Such a summary should provide a useful starting point for preparation of a detailed curriculum for teaching the ethics of geo-coded information systems broadly understood ("GIS ethics" for short).…

  9. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  10. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  11. 45 CFR 164.514 - Other requirements relating to uses and disclosures of protected health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., zip code, and their equivalent geocodes, except for the initial three digits of a zip code if... (D) Documentation or representations that comply with the applicable requirements of § 164.512(i... section only if the covered entity obtains satisfactory assurance, in the form of a data use...

  12. Patterns of population change in Ghana (1984-2000)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Knudsen, Michael Helt

    2008-01-01

      The study addresses population dynamics in Ghana on the urban and regional levels between 1984 and 2000. At the urban level, the development trends are analyzed for urban localities (population above 5,000) on the basis of geo-coded census data. Potential driving forces for rapid population...

  13. Taking back place-names – from dusty library to digital life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    mobility of the book format into a digital context – by making the content available as an application for mobile devices such as smart phones and iPads? Adding geocodes to the name articles could open up the possibility of a digital place-name lexicon allowing the end user to move around in a place...

  14. 75 FR 25313 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... CDFI Fund in order to receive a NMTC Program allocation. Current Action: Extension of a currently... information collections, but commentators may wish to focus particular attention on: (a) The cost for CDFIs... internal accounting and geocoding to capture geographic detail while streamlining and aggregating...

  15. 75 FR 47171 - The Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... 701 RIN 3133-AD75 The Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA...-income members'' to clarify that, in determining if a credit union qualifies for a low- income... text so it is consistent with the geo-coding software the agency uses to make the low-income...

  16. Promoting the Positive Development of Boys in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: Evidence from Four Anti-Poverty Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Emily K.; Castells, Nina; Duncan, Greg; Gennetian, Lisa; Magnuson, Katherine; Morris, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This study uses geocoded address data and information about parents' economic behavior and children's development from four random-assignment welfare and anti-poverty experiments conducted during the 1990s. We find that the impacts of these welfare and anti-poverty programs on boys' and girls' developmental outcomes during the transition to early…

  17. It’s the Geography, Stupid!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Fonnesbæk

    2016-01-01

    Much research in political science examines either countries or individuals. However, technological advances in geographic information systems (GIS) software and the ubiquity of geo-coded data in recent years have opened up the possibility of political science research that is attentive to (1) sp...

  18. Promoting the Positive Development of Boys in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: Evidence from Four Anti-Poverty Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Emily K.; Castells, Nina; Duncan, Greg; Gennetian, Lisa; Magnuson, Katherine; Morris, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This study uses geocoded address data and information about parents' economic behavior and children's development from four random-assignment welfare and anti-poverty experiments conducted during the 1990s. We find that the impacts of these welfare and anti-poverty programs on boys' and girls' developmental outcomes during the transition to early…

  19. Charting the Course for Ocean Science in the United States for the Next Decade: An Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-26

    need for an infrastructure assessment, mechanisms for research translation, strate- gies for assessment and evaluation, and mechanisms for budget and...The use of geocoded socioeconomic data (e.g., resource cost and earning, demographics, income), combined with new methods to assess non-market...providing the necessary information for effective and adaptive resource management. Information systems using geographic information systems ( GIS ) can

  20. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We estimated potential environmental exposure to Cd at the participants’ geocoded residences in 2000 using a geographic information system ( GIS ) and...Total = 6,970 Keywords: cadmium, biomarkers, diet, exposure science, GIS Abbreviations: AADT = annual average daily traffic Cd = cadmium CTS...California Teachers Study FFQ = food frequency questionnaire GIS = geographic information system GM = geometric mean LOD = limit of detection R2

  1. Technical Report of the National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    Target Under- represented Phenotypes Period 3 Activity: • Sent staff to annual GIS software (ESRI) user-group meeting • GIS software has been...of the most common African American broad HLA phenotype. • A full ZIP code update was performed on the geocoding database for use in ongoing ad-hoc

  2. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  3. Environmental Change & Fragile States Early Warning and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Resilience; Governance & Political Violence; Population Density  Analysis: GIS analysis, using composite score of all four categories to identify...research and analysis on social and political unrest in Africa  Level of analysis and timescale: Geocoded social events, such as riots, strikes

  4. Technological Advances in Emergency Management: Closing the Gap between Preparation and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Common Operational Picture • Geocoded data layering  Alerting  Critical Infrastructures  Evacuation Routes  Shelter data  Response assets  Link...have the EM-related software on it. ft Communications Multiplexing EM GIS Overlays Alerts Evacuation Routes Critical Infrastructure Deployed

  5. DigDag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    registers in Denmark use, among others, geographical/administrative entrances. The entrance is usually a topographical code (e.g. settlement, parish) or local authority jurisdiction (e.g. customs service, police districts). Due to changes in the administrative divisions, most of the geocodes are unique...

  6. The LifeLines Cohort Study : a resource providing new opportunities for environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L; Smidt, Nynke; Klijs, Bart; Morley, David W; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Scholtens, Salome; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Stolk, Ronald P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifelines is a prospective population-based cohort study investigating the biological, behavioral and environmental determinants of healthy ageing among 167,729 participants from the North East region of the Netherlands. The collection and geocoding of (history of) home and work addresse

  7. Low-level arsenic in drinking water and risk of incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    to end of follow-up in February 2012. Cohort participants were enrolled in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. We geocoded residential addresses of the cohort members and used a geographic information system to link addresses with water supply areas. Arsenic in tap water at each cohort members address from...

  8. Review of "The Effect of Milwaukee's Parental Choice Program on Student Achievement in Milwaukee Public Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    According to a new study of Milwaukee public schools, student achievement has benefited from voucher-based school competition. A novel method, using geocoding, was proposed for measuring the degree of competition within the city of Milwaukee and, in turn, for determining whether such competition has increased or decreased the achievement of public…

  9. Temporal Trends in Coverage of Historical Cardiac Arrests Using a Volunteer-Based Network of Automated External Defibrillators Accessible to Laypersons and Emergency Dispatch Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    public cardiac arrest coverage in high- and low-risk areas. METHODS AND RESULTS: All public cardiac arrests (1994-2011) and all registered AEDs (2007-2011) in Copenhagen, Denmark, were identified and geocoded. AED coverage of cardiac arrests was defined as historical arrests ≤100 m from an AED. High...

  10. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    in drinking water in Denmark is associated with increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses...

  11. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...

  12. Regional forest and non-forest mapping using Envisat ASAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, F.; Li, Z.Y.; Chen, E.X.; Huang, Y.P.; Tian, X.; Schmullius, C.; Leiterer, R.; Reiche, J.; Maurizio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) dual-polarization data are shown to be effective for regional forest monitoring. To this scope, an automatic SAR image preprocessing procedure was developed using SRTM DEM and Landsat TM image for geocoding in rugged terrain and smooth terrain areas,

  13. Taking back place-names – from dusty library to digital life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    mobility of the book format into a digital context – by making the content available as an application for mobile devices such as smart phones and iPads? Adding geocodes to the name articles could open up the possibility of a digital place-name lexicon allowing the end user to move around in a place...

  14. Rural and Urban Differences in the Associations between Characteristics of the Community Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of the household and retail food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in both urban and rural environmental contexts. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Data for FV intake and other characteristics were collected via survey instrument and geocoded to the objective food…

  15. Using imputation to provide location information for nongeocoded addresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Curriero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of geography as a source of variation in health research continues to receive sustained attention in the literature. The inclusion of geographic information in such research often begins by adding data to a map which is predicated by some knowledge of location. A precise level of spatial information is conventionally achieved through geocoding, the geographic information system (GIS process of translating mailing address information to coordinates on a map. The geocoding process is not without its limitations, though, since there is always a percentage of addresses which cannot be converted successfully (nongeocodable. This raises concerns regarding bias since traditionally the practice has been to exclude nongeocoded data records from analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this manuscript we develop and evaluate a set of imputation strategies for dealing with missing spatial information from nongeocoded addresses. The strategies are developed assuming a known zip code with increasing use of collateral information, namely the spatial distribution of the population at risk. Strategies are evaluated using prostate cancer data obtained from the Maryland Cancer Registry. We consider total case enumerations at the Census county, tract, and block group level as the outcome of interest when applying and evaluating the methods. Multiple imputation is used to provide estimated total case counts based on complete data (geocodes plus imputed nongeocodes with a measure of uncertainty. Results indicate that the imputation strategy based on using available population-based age, gender, and race information performed the best overall at the county, tract, and block group levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The procedure allows for the potentially biased and likely under reported outcome, case enumerations based on only the geocoded records, to be presented with a statistically adjusted count (imputed count with a measure of

  16. Digital workstation for Venus topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Paul; Haag, Nils N.; Maupin, Jerry A.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Wu, Sherman S.

    1993-10-01

    A digital workstation was developed and is currently at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Flagstaff, Arizona to be used for Venus topographic mapping. The system is based on a mapping and geocoding image correlation (GIS MAGIC) system developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the creation of precisely geocoded imagery data bases for both optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A multitude of data from various sources has been processed, including conventional aerial photographs, airborne and orbital SAR, and Spot. This paper covers the GIS MAGIC development history, hardware/software features and capabilities. Also covered are the types of modifications required to accommodate Venus radar data and results which can be achieved using the GIS MAGIC System.

  17. Direct stereo radargrammetric processing using massively parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Mingsheng

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offers many ways to reconstruct digital surface models (DSMs). The two most commonly used methods are SAR interferometry (InSAR) and stereo radargrammetry. Stereo radargrammetry is a very stable and reliable process and is far less affected by temporal decorrelation compared with InSAR. It is therefore often used for DSM generation in heavily vegetated areas. However, stereo radargrammetry often produces rather noisy DSMs, sometimes containing large outliers. In this manuscript, we present a new approach for stereo radargrammetric processing, where the homologous points between the images are found by geocoding large amount of points. This offers a very flexible approach, allowing the simultaneous processing of multiple images and of cross-heading image pairs. Our approach relies on a good initial geocoding accuracy of the data and on very fast processing using a massively parallel implementation. The approach is demonstrated using TerraSAR-X images from Mount Song, China, and from Trento, Italy.

  18. Design criteria for a multiple input land use system. [digital image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Bryant, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A design is presented that proposes the use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remote sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set, and that images taken of thematic maps or from remote sensing platforms can be converted to a raster scan. A major advantage of the raster format is that x, y coordinates are implicitly recognized by their position in the scan, and z values can be treated as Boolean layers in a three-dimensional data space. Such a system permits the rapid incorporation of data sets, rapid comparison of data sets, and adaptation to variable scales by resampling the raster scans.

  19. Multilevel built environment features and individual odds of overweight and obesity in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanqing; Wen, Ming; Wang, Fahui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007, 2009 and 2011 in Utah, this research uses multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine the associations between neighborhood built environments and individual odds of overweight and obesity after controlling for individual risk factors. The BRFSS data include information on 21,961 individuals geocoded to zip code areas. Individual variables include BMI (body mass index) and socio-demographic attributes such as age,...

  20. GIS, ENSURING ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY STUDY PARAMETERS URBANIZED AREAS OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Eprintsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of geo-information for geo-environmental studies , including the formation and maintenance of the GIS database ( for periodic ecological and geochemical studies ; database processing ( statistical data processing , holding current calculations , creating kartoosnovy GIS (creating "layers" of a vector map ; geocoding data ( data transformation ecogeochemical research kartoosnovy vector coordinate system , GIS mapping ( thematic maps , data analysis , design (development of priority actions to optimize the urban environment .

  1. Development of Methodology to Classify Historical Panchromatic Aerial Photography. Analysis of Landscape Features on Point Au Fer Island, Louisiana - from 1956 to 2009: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    subsetting, rectifying, reprojecting, and mosaicking all frames within the project area. Several commercial geographic informa- tion system ( GIS ) software...classified tiled images are then mosaicked using GIS software to form seamless coverage of the project area. ERDC/EL TR-11-17 8 The water classification...source world file provides a method for assigning geocoding information to the Imagine file. Select the Image Info button > Edit > Change Map Model

  2. Identification of black spots for traffic injury in road intersections dependence of injury definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Hansen, Dennis; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2010-01-01

    accidents treated at three hospitals for a region covering roughly 0.5 mio persons were recorded routinely and subsequently geo-coded to exact location. For 8191 injured persons the traffic accident occurred in one of 2157 road intersections. In total the county holds 56.994 intersections. Hot spots were...... of intersections considered as a black spot. GIS methods must take this into consideration....

  3. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Use Lease of U.S. Air Force Lands to the City of North Las Vegas for Construction and Operation of a Water Reclamation Facility, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information System ( GIS ) analysis determined that the distance to the nearest residential property from the project boundary (southeast corner...Engineer NewFields International, LLC Anne DuBarton, Project Manager Ken MacDonald, Principal in Charge Ali Baird, GIS Donna Osborne, Technical...progs.webprogs.nonat.scl&_debug=2&geotype=st& geocode =NV&geoname=Nevada&apol=CO&nulmap=0&geofeat=&mapsize=zsc&reqtype= viewmap Greeley and Hansen, LLC 2005. Site

  4. Approaches Towards the Identification of Patterns in Violent Events, Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Gianfranco Piras May 2009 C on st ru ct io n E n gi n ee ri n g R es ea rc h L ab or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is... GIS operations. Julia Koschinsky provided logistical support. The report and its findings are those of the authors alone, and should not be attributed...news sources. While precise geocoding was not possible, there was sufficient information in the reports to associate each event with a neighborhood. A

  5. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burch, James B.; Wagner Robb, Sara; Puett, Robin; Cai, Bo; Wilkerson, Rebecca; Karmaus, Wilfried; Vena, John; Svendsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations f...

  6. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  7. It’s the Geography, Stupid!:An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems in Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Rasmus Fonnesbæk

    2016-01-01

    Much research in political science examines either countries or individuals. However, technological advances in geographic information systems (GIS) software and the ubiquity of geo-coded data in recent years have opened up the possibility of political science research that is attentive to (1) spatial aspects of political phenomena and (2) potential biases resulting from the dominance of country- and individual-based analysis in the discipline. In this article, I first present GIS and its pos...

  8. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  9. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chodur, Gwen M.; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Daniel A. Antiporta; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated wi...

  10. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chodur, Gwen M.; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Daniel A. Antiporta; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods: Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated ...

  11. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  12. Building-level analyses to prospectively detect influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities: New York City, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rector, Alison; Nivin, Beth; Yeung, Alice; Fine, Annie D; Greene, Sharon K

    2015-08-01

    Timely outbreak detection is necessary to successfully control influenza in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and other institutions. To supplement nosocomial outbreak reports, calls from infection control staff, and active laboratory surveillance, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented an automated building-level analysis to proactively identify LTCFs with laboratory-confirmed influenza activity. Geocoded addresses of LTCFs in NYC were compared with geocoded residential addresses for all case-patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza reported through passive surveillance. An automated daily analysis used the geocoded building identification number, approximate text matching, and key-word searches to identify influenza in residents of LTCFs for review and follow-up by surveillance coordinators. Our aim was to determine whether the building analysis improved prospective outbreak detection during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Of 119 outbreaks identified in LTCFs, 109 (92%) were ever detected by the building analysis, and 55 (46%) were first detected by the building analysis. Of the 5,953 LTCF staff and residents who received antiviral prophylaxis during the 2013-2014 season, 929 (16%) were at LTCFs where outbreaks were initially detected by the building analysis. A novel building-level analysis improved influenza outbreak identification in LTCFs in NYC, prompting timely infection control measures. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Model-based target and background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  14. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  15. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selemane Ismael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location

  16. The association of drinking water treatment and distribution network disturbances with Health Call Centre contacts for gastrointestinal illness symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Annika; Axelsson, Gösta; Barregard, Lars; Ljungqvist, Jakob; Forsberg, Bertil; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2013-09-01

    There are relatively few studies on the association between disturbances in drinking water services and symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Health Call Centres data concerning GI illness may be a useful source of information. This study investigates if there is an increased frequency of contacts with the Health Call Centre (HCC) concerning gastrointestinal symptoms at times when there is a risk of impaired water quality due to disturbances at water works or the distribution network. The study was conducted in Gothenburg, a Swedish city with 0.5 million inhabitants with a surface water source of drinking water and two water works. All HCC contacts due to GI symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting or abdominal pain) were recorded for a three-year period, including also sex, age, and geocoded location of residence. The number of contacts with the HCC in the affected geographical areas were recorded during eight periods of disturbances in the water works (e.g. short stops of chlorine dosing), six periods of large disturbances in the distribution network (e.g. pumping station failure or pipe breaks with major consequences), and 818 pipe break and leak repairs over a three-year period. For each period of disturbance the observed number of calls was compared with the number of calls during a control period without disturbances in the same geographical area. In total about 55, 000 calls to the HCC due to GI symptoms were recorded over the three-year period, 35 per 1000 inhabitants and year, but much higher (>200) for children water works or in the distribution network. Our results indicate that GI symptoms due to disturbances in water works or the distribution network are rare. The number of serious failures was, however limited, and further studies are needed to be able to assess the risk of GI illness in such cases. The technique of using geocoded HCC data together with geocoded records of disturbances in the drinking water network was feasible.

  17. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  18. Pro Android 3

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimi, Sayed Ibrahim; MacLean, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Pro Android 3 starts with the basics, giving you a firm foundation in Android development. It then builds on this foundation to teach you how to build real-world and fun mobile applications using the new Android 3.0 SDK. This book covers advanced concepts in detail including maps, geocoding, services, live folders, drag and drop, touchscreens, and the new Android 3.0 features: fragments and ActionBar. Pro Android 3 is uniquely comprehensive: it covers sensors, text to speech, OpenGL, live widgets, search, and the audio and video APIs. Using the code-heavy tutorials and expert advice, you'll qu

  19. Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

  20. A linear programming model for preserving privacy when disclosing patient spatial information for secondary purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ho-Won; El Emam, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Background A linear programming (LP) model was proposed to create de-identified data sets that maximally include spatial detail (e.g., geocodes such as ZIP or postal codes, census blocks, and locations on maps) while complying with the HIPAA Privacy Rule’s Expert Determination method, i.e., ensuring that the risk of re-identification is very small. The LP model determines the transition probability from an original location of a patient to a new randomized location. However, it has a limitati...

  1. Geometric and radiometric preprocessing of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data in rugged terrain for quantitative data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter; Green, Robert O.; Staenz, Karl; Itten, Klaus I.

    1994-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulence, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography. The current investigation was carried out with an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene of central Switzerland (Rigi) from NASA's Multi Aircraft Campaign (MAC) in Europe (1991). The parametric approach reconstructs for every pixel the observation geometry based on the flight line, aircraft attitude, and surface topography. To utilize the data for analysis of materials on the surface, the AVIRIS data are corrected to apparent reflectance using algorithms based on MODTRAN (moderate resolution transfer code).

  2. Economic shocks, governance and violence: A subnational level analysis of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kibriya, Shahriar; Xu, Zhicheng P.; ZHANG, Yu

    2015-01-01

    By using a geo-coded disaggregated dataset in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1997–2013, we exploit year-to-year rainfall variation as an instrumental variable to estimate the causal effect of economic shocks on civil conflict conditional on governance quality. We confirm earlier findings that adverse rainfall shocks increase the likelihood of conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We also investigate the role of governance quality on conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. The results underscore that im...

  3. Space vs. Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Chris; Madsen, Rene; Hammer Eliassen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    of Importance’. Second, we elaborate on methods deployed for collecting both mobile GPS and social media traces that the smart phone generates in physical spaces. Third, we compare and contrast the automatically geocoded presence in space and at events with the intentionally socially tagged consumption...... of these spaces and events as place-based experiences. In doing so, these two layers of space-based movements and place-based experiences reveal the appropriation of affordances and choices of aesthetic appreciation by the crowd at large of what is subjectively and relatively meaningful, actionable, and valuable....

  4. DigDag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    registers in Denmark use, among others, geographical/administrative entrances. The entrance is usually a topographical code (e.g. settlement, parish) or local authority jurisdiction (e.g. customs service, police districts). Due to changes in the administrative divisions, most of the geocodes are unique...... to each archive, or archival system. The DigDag project establishes a uniform research infrastructure through a webGIS within history, archaeology, place-names, statistics and geography: a digital cartographical skeleton for thematic mapping and analysis which will generate new interdisciplinary research...

  5. Design of a 3D virtual geographic interface for access to geoinformatin in real time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the County of Northern Jutland in Denmark became a national project for implementation of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) in local government. It was supposed to become the Lighthouse for others in the implementation of ICT, elearning and e-democracy. The idea about a digital...... as VR Media Lab. The Centre for 3D GeoInformation was opened in 2001 and the main purpose of this facility is to extrude the region from 2D to 3D. Through the means of traditional geoinformation such as building footprints, geocoding, building and dwelling register and a DTM the region will be build...

  6. Geometric and radiometric preprocessing of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data in rugged terrain for quantitative data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter; Green, Robert O.; Staenz, Karl; Itten, Klaus I.

    1994-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulence, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography. The current investigation was carried out with an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene of central Switzerland (Rigi) from NASA's Multi Aircraft Campaign (MAC) in Europe (1991). The parametric approach reconstructs for every pixel the observation geometry based on the flight line, aircraft attitude, and surface topography. To utilize the data for analysis of materials on the surface, the AVIRIS data are corrected to apparent reflectance using algorithms based on MODTRAN (moderate resolution transfer code).

  7. I Cluster geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rosina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographic ClustersOver the past decade, public alphanumeric database have been growing at exceptional rate. Most of data can be georeferenced, so that is possible gaining new knowledge from such databases. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. We first present a model of geographic clusters, which uses only geographic and functionally data properties. The model is useful to process huge amount of public/government data, even daily upgrading. After that, we merge the model into the framework GEOPOI (GEOcoding Points Of Interest, and show some graphic map results.

  8. Researchermap: a tool for visualizing author locations using Google maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Bales, Michael E; Yu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We hereby present ResearcherMap, a tool to visualize locations of authors of scholarly papers. In response to a query, the system returns a map of author locations. To develop the system we first populated a database of author locations, geocoding institution locations for all available institutional affiliation data in our database. The database includes all authors of Medline papers from 1990 to 2012. We conducted a formative heuristic usability evaluation of the system and measured the system's accuracy and performance. The accuracy of finding the accurate address is 97.5% in our system.

  9. Technologies Connotation and Developing Characteristics of Open Geospatial Information Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Renzhong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the background of developments of surveying,mapping and geoinformation,aimed at the demands of data fusion,real-time sharing,in-depth processing and personalization,this paper analyzes significant features of geo-spatial service in digital city,focuses on theory,method and key techniques of open environment of cloud computing,multi-path data updating,full-scale urban geocoding,multi-source spatial data integration,adaptive geo-processing and adaptive Web mapping.As the basis for it,the Open Geospatial information platform is developed,and successfully implicated in digital Shenzhen.

  10. Applications of digital image processing techniques to problems of data registration and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of the evolution of the computer configuration at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory (IPL). The development of techniques for the geometric transformation of digital imagery is discussed and consideration is given to automated and semiautomated image registration, and the registration of imaging and nonimaging data. The increasing complexity of image processing tasks at IPL is illustrated with examples of various applications from the planetary program and earth resources activities. It is noted that the registration of existing geocoded data bases with Landsat imagery will continue to be important if the Landsat data is to be of genuine use to the user community.

  11. Modeling exposure to air pollution from the WTC disaster based on reports of perceived air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Becker, Mark; Sheets, Stephen; Stein, Janet; Tang, Deliang; Weiss, Lisa; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-04-01

    We examined the utility of a newly developed perceived air pollution (PAP) scale and of a modeled air pollution (MAP) scale derived from it for predicting previously observed birth outcomes of pregnant women enrolled following September 11, 2001. Women reported their home and work locations in the four weeks after September 11, 2001 and the PAP at each site on a four-point scale designed for this purpose. Locations were geocoded and their distance from the World Trade Center (WTC) site determined. PAP values were used to develop a model of air pollution for a 20-mile radius from the WTC site. MAP values were assigned to each geocoded location. We examined the relationship of PAP and MAP values to maternal characteristics and to distance of home and work sites from the WTC site. Both PAP and MAP values were highly correlated with distance from the WTC. Maternal characteristics that were associated with PAP values reported for home or work sites (race, demoralization, material hardship, first trimester on September 11) were not associated with modeled MAP values. Relationships of several birth outcomes to proximity to the WTC, which we previously reported using this data set, were also seen when MAP values were used as the measure of exposure, instead of proximity. MAP developed from reports of PAP may be useful to identify high-risk areas and predict health outcomes when there are multiple sources of pollution and a "distance from source" analysis is impossible.

  12. Drought - A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, S.; Barnwal, P.; von der Goltz, J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the lasting effects of early childhood exposure to drought on economic and health outcomes in a large multi-country dataset. By pooling all Demographic and Health Survey rounds for which household geocodes are available, we obtain an individual-level dataset covering 47 developing countries. Among other impact measures, we collect infant and child mortality data from 3.3m live births and data on stunting and wasting for 1.2m individuals, along with data on education, employment, wealth, marriage and childbearing later in life for similarly large numbers of respondents. Birth years vary from 1893 to 2012. We seek to improve upon existing work on the socio-economic impact of drought in a number of ways. First, we introduce from the hydrological literature a drought measure, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), that has been shown to closely proxy the Palmer drought index, but has far less demanding data requirements, and can be obtained globally and for long time periods. We estimate the SPI for 110 years on a global 0.5° grid, which allows us to assign drought histories to the geocoded individual data. Additionally, we leverage our large sample size to explicitly investigate both how drought impacts have changed over time as adaptation occurred at a varying pace in different locations, and the role of the regional extent of drought in determining impacts.

  13. Web-based GIS for spatial pattern detection: application to malaria incidence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Quang; Pham, Hai Minh

    2016-01-01

    There is a great concern on how to build up an interoperable health information system of public health and health information technology within the development of public information and health surveillance programme. Technically, some major issues remain regarding to health data visualization, spatial processing of health data, health information dissemination, data sharing and the access of local communities to health information. In combination with GIS, we propose a technical framework for web-based health data visualization and spatial analysis. Data was collected from open map-servers and geocoded by open data kit package and data geocoding tools. The Web-based system is designed based on Open-source frameworks and libraries. The system provides Web-based analyst tool for pattern detection through three spatial tests: Nearest neighbour, K function, and Spatial Autocorrelation. The result is a web-based GIS, through which end users can detect disease patterns via selecting area, spatial test parameters and contribute to managers and decision makers. The end users can be health practitioners, educators, local communities, health sector authorities and decision makers. This web-based system allows for the improvement of health related services to public sector users as well as citizens in a secure manner. The combination of spatial statistics and web-based GIS can be a solution that helps empower health practitioners in direct and specific intersectional actions, thus provide for better analysis, control and decision-making.

  14. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Farmer data sourcing. The case study of the spatial soil information maps in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Thalheimer, Martin; Hafner, Hansjörg; La Cecilia, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Nord-Italian region South Tyrol is Europe's largest apple growing area exporting ca. 15% in Europe and 2% worldwide. Vineyards represent ca. 1% of Italian production. In order to deliver high quality food, most of the farmers in South Tyrol follow sustainable farming practices. One of the key practice is the sustainable soil management, where farmers collect regularly (each 5 years) soil samples and send for analyses to improve cultivation management, yield and finally profitability. However, such data generally remain inaccessible. On this regard, in South Tyrol, private interests and the public administration have established a long tradition of collaboration with the local farming industry. This has granted to the collection of large spatial and temporal database of soil analyses along all the cultivated areas. Thanks to this best practice, information on soil properties are centralized and geocoded. The large dataset consist mainly in soil information of texture, humus content, pH and microelements availability such as, K, Mg, Bor, Mn, Cu Zn. This data was finally spatialized by mean of geostatistical methods and several high-resolution digital maps were created. In this contribution, we present the best practice where farmers data source soil information in South Tyrol. Show the capability of a large spatial-temporal geocoded soil dataset to reproduce detailed digital soil property maps and to assess long-term changes in soil properties. Finally, implication and potential application are discussed.

  16. A Novel Socioeconomic Measure Using Individual Housing Data in Cardiovascular Outcome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Won Bang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess whether the individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES measure termed HOUSES was associated with post-myocardial infarction (MI mortality. Methods: The study was designed as a population-based cohort study, which compared post-MI mortality among Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, residents with different SES as measured by HOUSES using Cox proportional hazards models. Subjects’ addresses at index date of MI were geocoded to real property data to formulate HOUSES (a z-score for housing value, square footage, and numbers of bedrooms and bathrooms. Educational levels were used as a comparison for the HOUSES index. Results: 637 of the 696 eligible patients with MI (92% were successfully geocoded to real property data. Post-MI survival rates were 60% (50–72, 78% (71–85, 72% (60–87, and 87% (81–93 at 2 years for patients in the first (the lowest SES, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HOUSES, respectively (p < 0.001. HOUSES was associated with post-MI all-cause mortality, controlling for all variables except age and comorbidity (p = 0.036 but was not significant after adjusting for age and comorbidity (p = 0.24. Conclusions: Although HOUSES is associated with post-MI mortality, the differential mortality rates by HOUSES were primarily accounted for by age and comorbid conditions. HOUSES may be useful for health disparities research concerning cardiovascular outcomes, especially in overcoming the paucity of conventional SES measures in commonly used datasets.

  17. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  18. Residential Proximity to Heavy-Traffic Roads, Benzene Exposure, and Childhood Leukemia-The GEOCAP Study, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houot, Jennifer; Marquant, Fabienne; Goujon, Stéphanie; Faure, Laure; Honoré, Cécile; Roth, Marie-Hélène; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2015-10-15

    Childhood leukemia may be associated with traffic-related environmental exposure to benzene, and additional data are needed. The Géolocalisation des Cancers Pédiatriques (GEOCAP) Study, a nationwide French case-control study, was designed to avoid selection bias due to differential participation and misclassification. The study compared the 2,760 childhood leukemia cases diagnosed in France between 2002 and 2007 (including 2,275 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 418 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)) with 30,000 contemporaneous child population controls. The residence addresses were precisely geocoded, and 3 indicators of residential proximity to traffic were considered. Estimates of benzene concentrations were also available for the Île-de-France region (including Paris). A 300-m increase in major road length within 150 m of the geocoded address was significantly associated with AML (odds ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.4) but not with ALL (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.1), and the association was reinforced in the Île-de-France region when this indicator was combined with benzene estimates. These results, which were free from any participation bias and based on objectively determined indices of exposure, showed an increased incidence of AML associated with heavy-traffic road density near a child's home. The results support a role for traffic-related benzene exposure in the etiology of childhood AML.

  19. GIS-BASED SPATIAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COLLEGE GRADUATES EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004–2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  20. Gis-Based Spatial Statistical Analysis of College Graduates Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004-2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  1. Research on Topographic Map Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Javorović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of interpretability of panchromatic satellite image IRS-1C integrated with multispectral Landsat TM image with the purpose of updating the topographic map sheet at the scale of 1:25 000 has been described. The geocoding of source map was based on trigonometric points of the map sheet. Satellite images were geocoded using control points selected from the map. The contents of map have been vectorized and topographic database designed. The digital image processing improved the interpretability of images. Then, the vectorization of new contents was made. The change detection of the forest and water area was defined by using unsupervised classification of spatial and spectral merged images. Verification of the results was made using corresponding aerial photographs. Although this methodology could not insure the complete updating of topographic map at the scale of 1:25 000, the database has been updated with huge amount of data. Erdas Imagine 8.3. software was used. 

  2. Spatializing 6,000 years of global urbanization from 3700 BC to AD 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reba, Meredith; Reitsma, Femke; Seto, Karen C.

    2016-06-01

    How were cities distributed globally in the past? How many people lived in these cities? How did cities influence their local and regional environments? In order to understand the current era of urbanization, we must understand long-term historical urbanization trends and patterns. However, to date there is no comprehensive record of spatially explicit, historic, city-level population data at the global scale. Here, we developed the first spatially explicit dataset of urban settlements from 3700 BC to AD 2000, by digitizing, transcribing, and geocoding historical, archaeological, and census-based urban population data previously published in tabular form by Chandler and Modelski. The dataset creation process also required data cleaning and harmonization procedures to make the data internally consistent. Additionally, we created a reliability ranking for each geocoded location to assess the geographic uncertainty of each data point. The dataset provides the first spatially explicit archive of the location and size of urban populations over the last 6,000 years and can contribute to an improved understanding of contemporary and historical urbanization trends.

  3. Socio-environmental determinants of the leptospirosis outbreak of 1996 in western Rio de Janeiro: a geographical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, C; Sabroza, P C

    2000-12-01

    The environmental and social context in which a leptospirosis outbreak took place during the summer of 1996 in the Rio de Janeiro Western Region was examined by using spatial analysis of leptospirosis cases merged with population and environmental data in a Geographical Information System (GIS). Important differences were observed between places where residences of leptospirosis cases are concentrated and other places in the region. Water supply coverage, solid waste collection, sewerage system coverage and flood risk area were the main determining variables from an initial list of ten. The influence of these unfavorable social and environmental factors is verified hundreds of meters distant from the leptospirosis case residences, demonstrating a necessity to broaden the area of health surveillance practices. The geocoding indicated that some cases did not report contact with flood water, even though they were geographically adjacent to cases who did report this contact. Cases may only report exposures they believe are related to the disease. Geocoding is a useful tool for evaluating such bias in the exposure recall.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP. Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5’UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level

  5. Risk factors for differential outcome following directly observed treatment (DOT) of slum and non-slum tuberculosis patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robert E; Marlow, Mariel A; Phuphanich, Melissa E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2016-09-20

    Brazil's National Tuberculosis Control Program seeks to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment in vulnerable populations. Slum residents are more vulnerable to TB due to a variety of factors, including their overcrowded living conditions, substandard infrastructure, and limited access to healthcare compared to their non-slum dwelling counterparts. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been suggested to improve TB treatment outcomes among vulnerable populations, but the program's differential effectiveness among urban slum and non-slum residents is not known. We retrospectively compared the impact of DOT on TB treatment outcome in residents of slum and non-slum census tracts in Rio de Janeiro reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Disease Database in 2010. Patient residential addresses were geocoded to census tracts from the 2010 Brazilian Census, which were identified as slum (aglomerados subnormais -AGSN) and non-slum (non-AGSN) by the Census Bureau. Homeless and incarcerated cases as well as those geocoded outside the city's limits were excluded from analysis. In 2010, 6,601 TB cases were geocoded within Rio de Janeiro; 1,874 (27.4 %) were residents of AGSN, and 4,794 (72.6 %) did not reside in an AGSN area. DOT coverage among AGSN cases was 35.2 % (n = 638), while the coverage in non-AGSN cases was 26.2 % (n = 1,234). Clinical characteristics, treatment, follow-up, cure, death and abandonment were similar in both AGSN and non-AGSN TB patients. After adjusting for covariates, AGSN TB cases on DOT had 1.67 (95 % CI: 1.17, 2.4) times the risk of cure, 0.61 (95 % CI: 0.41, 0.90) times the risk of abandonment, and 0.1 (95 % CI: 0.01, 0.77) times the risk of death from TB compared to non-AGSN TB cases not on DOT. While DOT coverage was low among TB cases in both AGSN and non-AGSN communities, it had a greater impact on TB cure rate in AGSN than in non-AGSN populations in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  6. a Discussion about Effective Ways of Basic Resident Register on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Naoya; Nonaka, Yasuaki; Ito, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    In Japan, each municipality keeps a database of every resident's name, address, gender and date of birth called the Basic Resident Register. If the address information in the register is converted into coordinates by geocoding, it can be plotted as point data on a map. This would enable prompt evacuation from disaster, analysis of distribution of residents, integrating statistics and so on. Further, it can be used for not only analysis of the current situation but also future planning. However, the geographic information system (GIS) incorporating the Basic Resident Register is not widely used in Japan because of the following problems: - Geocoding In order to plot address point data, it is necessary to match the Basic Resident Register and the address dictionary by using the address as a key. The information in the Basic Resident Register does not always match the actual addresses. As the register is based on applications made by residents, the information is prone to errors, such as incorrect Kanji characters. - Security policy on personal information In the register, the address of a resident is linked with his/her name and date of birth. If the information in the Basic Resident Register were to be leaked, it could be used for malicious purposes. This paper proposes solutions to the above problems. The suitable solutions for the problems depend on the purpose of use, thus it is important that the purpose should be defined and a suitable way of the application for each purpose should be chosen. In this paper, we mainly focus on the specific purpose of use: to analyse the distribution of the residents. We provide two solutions to improve the matching rate in geocoding. First, regarding errors in Kanji characters, a correction list of possible errors should be compiled in advance. Second, some sort of analyses such as distribution of residents may not require exactly correct position for the address point. Therefore we set the matching level in order: prefecture

  7. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE. The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas (SIGPAC enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data. The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100

  8. A probabilistic sampling method (PSM for estimating geographic distance to health services when only the region of residence is known

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek-Asa Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to estimate the distance from an individual to a service provider is common in public health research. However, estimated distances are often imprecise and, we suspect, biased due to a lack of specific residential location data. In many cases, to protect subject confidentiality, data sets contain only a ZIP Code or a county. Results This paper describes an algorithm, known as "the probabilistic sampling method" (PSM, which was used to create a distribution of estimated distances to a health facility for a person whose region of residence was known, but for which demographic details and centroids were known for smaller areas within the region. From this distribution, the median distance is the most likely distance to the facility. The algorithm, using Monte Carlo sampling methods, drew a probabilistic sample of all the smaller areas (Census blocks within each participant's reported region (ZIP Code, weighting these areas by the number of residents in the same age group as the participant. To test the PSM, we used data from a large cross-sectional study that screened women at a clinic for intimate partner violence (IPV. We had data on each woman's age and ZIP Code, but no precise residential address. We used the PSM to select a sample of census blocks, then calculated network distances from each census block's centroid to the closest IPV facility, resulting in a distribution of distances from these locations to the geocoded locations of known IPV services. We selected the median distance as the most likely distance traveled and computed confidence intervals that describe the shortest and longest distance within which any given percent of the distance estimates lie. We compared our results to those obtained using two other geocoding approaches. We show that one method overestimated the most likely distance and the other underestimated it. Neither of the alternative methods produced confidence intervals for the distance

  9. Techniques and Tools for Estimating Ionospheric Effects in Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P.; Lavalle, M.; Pi, X.; Buckley, S.; Szeliga, W.; Zebker, H.; Gurrola, E.

    2011-01-01

    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) is a flexible, extensible software tool designed for the end-to-end processing and analysis of synthetic aperture radar data. ISCE inherits the core of the ROI_PAC interferometric tool, but contains improvements at all levels of the radar processing chain, including a modular and extensible architecture, new focusing approach, better geocoding of the data, handling of multi-polarization data, radiometric calibration, and estimation and correction of ionospheric effects. In this paper we describe the characteristics of ISCE with emphasis on the ionospheric modules. To detect ionospheric anomalies, ISCE implements the Faraday rotation method using quadpolarimetric images, and the split-spectrum technique using interferometric single-, dual- and quad-polarimetric images. The ability to generate co-registered time series of quad-polarimetric images makes ISCE also an ideal tool to be used for polarimetric-interferometric radar applications.

  10. Census technology of Yong’an digital urban management components based on I%基于网格化的永安市数字城管部件普查技术实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅姜

    2013-01-01

    本文结合永安市数字城管项目中的部件普查项目实施过程,简要的叙述了网格划分、部件普查、数据建库、地理编码普查、手册编制和质量检查技术内容,重点介绍了部件普查的流程和经验体会。%Based on the implementation process of component survey of Yong’an digital city management project, gives a brief description of the meshing, components census, database, geocoding census, manual compile and quality inspection technology, and introduces the process and experience of components census.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Epidemic Phenomena Using the R Package surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The availability of geocoded health data and the inherent temporal structure of communicable diseases have led to an increased interest in statistical models and software for spatio-temporal data with epidemic features. The open source R package surveillance can handle various levels of aggregation at which infective events have been recorded: individual-level time-stamped geo-referenced data (case reports in either continuous space or discrete space, as well as counts aggregated by period and region. For each of these data types, the surveillance package implements tools for visualization, likelihoood inference and simulation from recently developed statistical regression frameworks capturing endemic and epidemic dynamics. Altogether, this paper is a guide to the spatio-temporal modeling of epidemic phenomena, exemplified by analyses of public health surveillance data on measles and invasive meningococcal disease.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Epidemic Phenomena Using the R Package surveillance

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Sebastian; Höhle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The availability of geocoded health data and the inherent temporal structure of communicable diseases have led to an increased interest in statistical models and software for spatio-temporal data with epidemic features. The open source R package surveillance can handle various levels of aggregation at which infective events have been recorded: individual-level time-stamped geo-referenced data (case reports) in either continuous space or discrete space, as well as counts aggregated by period and region. For each of these data types, the surveillance package implements tools for visualization, likelihoood inference and simulation from recently developed statistical regression frameworks capturing endemic and epidemic dynamics. Altogether, this paper is a guide to the spatio-temporal modeling of epidemic phenomena, exemplified by analyses of public health surveillance data on measles and invasive meningococcal disease.

  13. Perception of insecurity in French poor neighbourhoods: racial proxy or pure discrimination hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan Ké Shon, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Many poor neighbourhoods, home to both socially disadvantaged populations and to foreigners, are characterised by a strong perception of insecurity. The purpose of this article is determine the origin of this perception. To do so, two possible causes are dissociated: racial prejudice and racial proxy (the ethnic minorities are perceived in terms of the negative social characteristics that are often associated with them). More specifically, it is shown that the ‘ethnic’ variable captures the effects of an overconcentration of poverty, approximated here by the concentration of unemployment, but that these two variables act separately. This result should be taken into account in the policies implemented by public authorities and local actors. In this study, an original methodology is applied based simultaneously on individual geocoded data, the proportion of foreigners, the unemployment rate at the neighbourhood level and an indirect indicator of perceived insecurity.

  14. The spatial extent of the effect of foreclosures on crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Seth B; Stucky, Thomas D; Ottensmann, John R

    2015-01-01

    Although neighborhood stability has long been considered a substantial determinant of crime, foreclosures have not been the subject of concerted research among criminologists until recently. A number of recent studies have examined the linkage between home foreclosures and crime. Though generally finding a significant relationship, studies have used different approaches and units of analysis. This variation led us to examine the spatial extent to which foreclosures affect a relatively small surrounding area. In this paper, we consider the spatial extent of the foreclosure effect on crime by estimating fixed effect negative binomial models using geocoded UCR data for 2003-2008 and foreclosure data to predict crime counts using the number of foreclosures within various small area radii. Results show that, independently and jointly, foreclosures are a predictor of crime up to at least a distance of 2250 feet. Importantly, that effect declines with distance. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of those findings.

  15. Ranking and mapping of universities and research-focused institutions worldwide based on highly-cited papers: A visualization of results from multi-level models

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Anegón, Felix de Moya; Mutz, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    The web application presented in this paper allows for an analysis to reveal centres of excellence in different fields worldwide using publication and citation data. Only specific aspects of institutional performance are taken into account and other aspects such as teaching performance or societal impact of research are not considered. Based on data gathered from Scopus, field-specific excellence can be identified in institutions where highly-cited papers have been frequently published. The web application combines both a list of institutions ordered by different indicator values and a map with circles visualizing indicator values for geocoded institutions. Compared to the mapping and ranking approaches introduced hitherto, our underlying statistics (multi-level models) are analytically oriented by allowing (1) the estimation of values for the number of excellent papers for an institution which are statistically more appropriate than the observed values; (2) the calculation of confidence intervals as measures...

  16. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the epidemic. High level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine if long-term exposure to low-level arsenic...... in drinking water in Denmark is associated with increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses......, and 3,035 (5.8%) cases of diabetes based on a stricter definition. The adjusted incidence rate ratio's per 1 µg/L increment in arsenic levels in drinking water were (IRR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) and (IRR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05) for all and strict diabetes cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long...

  17. A GIS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION SOURCE FOR MALAYSIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Tiu Chung

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a GIS-based system for collection and targeted distribution of latest alerts and real-time environmental factors to the Malaysian population. We call it the Environmental Health Management System (EHMS. This GIS-based system is designed to facilitate and encourage research into environmental health quality issues by providing a comprehensive tracking and monitoring tool. This GIS-based system is embedded with Google Maps API and Geocoding API services to visualize the location and environmental health reports from the aggregated online newspaper and social media news feeds. We introduce the design and implementation of EHMS, including the web frontend, backend, ontology, database, data acquisition, classification engine, and the standard news feeds.

  18. A Semantic Approach for Geospatial Information Extraction from Unstructured Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Christian; Gaio, Mauro; Lesbegueries, Julien; Loustau, Pierre

    Local cultural heritage document collections are characterized by their content, which is strongly attached to a territory and its land history (i.e., geographical references). Our contribution aims at making the content retrieval process more efficient whenever a query includes geographic criteria. We propose a core model for a formal representation of geographic information. It takes into account characteristics of different modes of expression, such as written language, captures of drawings, maps, photographs, etc. We have developed a prototype that fully implements geographic information extraction (IE) and geographic information retrieval (IR) processes. All PIV prototype processing resources are designed as Web Services. We propose a geographic IE process based on semantic treatment as a supplement to classical IE approaches. We implement geographic IR by using intersection computing algorithms that seek out any intersection between formal geocoded representations of geographic information in a user query and similar representations in document collection indexes.

  19. The Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Ciulla, Fabio; Zhang, Qian; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Although the study of scientific and citation networks is well developed, the way in which ideas and concepts flow between scientific groups scattered around the world is still an open problem. We take a first step in this direction by using the citation patterns over the course of decades to shed light on how areas and fields in the general area of physics have evolved both temporally and geographically. By geocoding the affiliations associated with each article published by the APS journals to the country level, and by borrowing concepts from the field of economics and international trade we can explore how ideas produced in one country are exported, through citations, to other countries. An objective way of ranking countries based on their contributions to the overall scientific effort is also proposed as well as a map of how the different subfields of Physics are related to each other.

  20. An Application of Qualitative Geographic Information Systems (GIS in the Field of Urban Sociology Using ATLAS.ti: Uses and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Miquel Verd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems (GIS have been used for many years to integrate social and territorial information in quantitative research, but only recently have they been used in qualitative research. Recent advances have allowed qualitative GIS to be incorporated in the latest versions of computer-aided qualitative data analysis software. This article describes how qualitative GIS integrated in ATLAS.ti were used to perform a recent study of the social production of urban space. It considers the role played by geocoding and georeferencing in this study, and the implications of using qualitative GIS in urban sociology and in sociological research in general. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202144

  1. Ecologia da paisagem da hantavirose no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Landscape ecology of hantavirosis in Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir E. Henkes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a ecologia da paisagem das hantaviroses no Rio Grande do Sul através do mapeamento da ocorrência de casos e sua sobreposição a mapas de vegetação e relevo. A maior parte dos casos ocorre na primavera em regiões serranas com vegetação secundária e atividade agrícola.The aim of this work was to study the landscape ecology of hantavirosis in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This was achieved through geocoding the occurrence of cases and overlaying onto vegetation and relief maps. The majority of cases occurred during Spring, in highland areas dominated by secondary vegetation and agricultural activity.

  2. WebVR——Web Virtual Reality Engine Based on P2P network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhihan LV

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available WebVR, a multi-user online virtual reality engine, is introduced. The main contributions are mapping the geographical space and virtual space to the P2P overlay network space, and dividing the three spaces by quad-tree method. The geocoding is identified with Hash value, which is used to index the user list, terrain data, and the model object data. Sharing of data through improved Kademlia network model is designed and implemented. In this model, XOR algorithm is used to calculate the distance of the virtual space. The model greatly improves the hit rate of 3D geographic data search under P2P overlay network. Some data preprocessing methods have been adopted to accelerate the data transfer. 3D Global data is used for testing the engine. The test result indicates that, without considering the client bandwidth limit, the more users, the faster loading.

  3. Management of spatio-temporal data for dynamic segmentation in transportation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Lan; Gong, Jianya

    2005-10-01

    There have been many research studies focusing on linear data modeling for transportation application. However, research on spatio-temporal modeling is still in its infancy, which limits transportation agencies to implement improved solutions. Transportation applications offer challenges to GIS technology. Not only are the attributes of transportation features dynamic, but also many features are dynamic. The authors firstly review the definition and characteristics of dynamic segmentation, an important technology in transportation application. The paper then presents a data model for dynamic segmentation with timing dimension and its implementation. This paper shows the design of spatio-temporal data structure. Both linear elements and events are tagged with start and end temporal expressions, thus it makes temporal querying easier. Segment geocoding, segment overlay and data maintenance is discussed in detailed.

  4. Research and implementation of road monitoring GIS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wu, Jianping; Yi, Min

    2007-06-01

    Based on the analysis of the shortcomings of the traditional video monitoring system, the paper presents an efficient road monitoring system based on GIS technology, named Road Monitoring GIS (RMGIS) System. The basic framework of the system modules is set out. The key technology and implementation of the special function are highlighted put forward. The paper takes a new interpretation of the buffer zone, topological network, geocoding and explains the construct method of some mathematical model. Advanced functions such as road topological network, moving object database and adaptive image recognition are also explored and studied in a certain extent. Now the system has been successfully applied to the road management in Shanghai urban area, some intelligent function will be implemented in the follow-up project.

  5. El Sistema de Información de la Alhambra SIALH. Nuevas tecnologías en la tutela del Conjunto Monumental de la Alhambra y el Generalife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Villafranca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The SIALH project aims to set up the Information System of the Alhambra, considered as tool for the knowledge, management and dissemination of the Monument, considered World Heritage by UNESCO. Based on a Geographic Information System (GIS, SIALH integrates thematic databases, process management systems and electronic records management systems on a common framework. The methodology used in the project follows the standard Metrica v3 for software developments. SIALH is built using free software and ensures interoperability. In addition to software development, SIALH involves other projects such as the geocoding of the Alhambra, new maps and orthophotos and the publication of augmented reality of the Alhambra.

  6. Assessment of training needs and preferences for geographic information systems (GIS) mapping in state comprehensive cancer-control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Suellen; Chadwick, Amy E; Parrott, Roxanne L; Ghetian, Christie B; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2009-10-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) mapping technologies have potential to advance public health promotion by mapping regional differences in attributes (e.g., disease burden, environmental exposures, access to health care services) to suggest priorities for public health interventions. Training in GIS for comprehensive cancer control (CCC) has been overlooked. State CCC programs' GIS training needs were assessed by interviewing 49 state CCC directors. A majority perceived a need for GIS training, slightly more than half of state CCC programs had access to geocoded data, and the majority of programs did not require continuing education credits of their staff. CCC directors perceived judging maps and realizing their limitations as important skills and identified epidemiologists, CCC staff, public health officials, policy makers, and cancer coalition members as training audiences. They preferred in-class training sessions that last a few hours to a day. Lessons learned are shared to develop training programs with translatable GIS skills for CCC.

  7. Arsenic in drinking-water and risk for cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, Rikke; Sørensen, Mette; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen, which is often found in drinking-water. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cancer risks among individuals exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water, while studies of the carcinogenic effect of low doses have had...... inconsistent results. Objective: To determine if exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking-water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Methods: The study was based on a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. Cancer cases were identified...... in the Danish Cancer Registry, and the Danish civil registration system was used to trace and geocode residential addresses of the cohort members. We used a geographical information system to link addresses with water supply areas and then estimated individual exposure to arsenic using residential addresses...

  8. Arsenic in drinking-water and risk for cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, Rikke; Sørensen, Mette; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen, which is often found in drinking-water. Epidemiologic studies have shown increased cancer risks among individuals exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water, whereas studies of the carcinogenic effect of low doses have had...... inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine if exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking-water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk for cancer. METHODS: The study was based on a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. Cancer cases were...... identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and the Danish civil registration system was used to trace and geocode residential addresses of the cohort members. We used a geographic information system to link addresses with water supply areas, then estimated individual exposure to arsenic using residential...

  9. Direct Transport to a Percutaneous Cardiac Intervention Center and Outcomes in Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Dupre, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines recommend regional systems of care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, whether emergency medical services should bypass nonpercutaneous cardiac intervention (non-PCI) facilities and transport out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients directly to PCI centers...... despite longer transport time remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival with geocoding of arrest location, we identified out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with prehospital return of spontaneous circulation and evaluated the association between direct...... transport to a PCI center and outcomes in North Carolina during 2012 to 2014. Destination hospital was classified according to PCI center status (catheterization laboratory immediately accessible 24/7). Inverse probability-weighted logistic regression accounting for age, sex, emergency medical services...

  10. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  11. Techniques and Tools for Estimating Ionospheric Effects in Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P.; Lavalle, M.; Pi, X.; Buckley, S.; Szeliga, W.; Zebker, H.; Gurrola, E.

    2011-01-01

    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) is a flexible, extensible software tool designed for the end-to-end processing and analysis of synthetic aperture radar data. ISCE inherits the core of the ROI_PAC interferometric tool, but contains improvements at all levels of the radar processing chain, including a modular and extensible architecture, new focusing approach, better geocoding of the data, handling of multi-polarization data, radiometric calibration, and estimation and correction of ionospheric effects. In this paper we describe the characteristics of ISCE with emphasis on the ionospheric modules. To detect ionospheric anomalies, ISCE implements the Faraday rotation method using quadpolarimetric images, and the split-spectrum technique using interferometric single-, dual- and quad-polarimetric images. The ability to generate co-registered time series of quad-polarimetric images makes ISCE also an ideal tool to be used for polarimetric-interferometric radar applications.

  12. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  13. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Foodborne Pathogens in Connecticut, USA, 2000-2011(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Bridget M; Mainero, Christina; Humes, Elizabeth; Hurd, Sharon; Niccolai, Linda; Hadler, James L

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne pathogens cause >9 million illnesses annually. Food safety efforts address the entire food chain, but an essential strategy for preventing foodborne disease is educating consumers and food preparers. To better understand the epidemiology of foodborne disease and to direct prevention efforts, we examined incidence of Salmonella infection, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection, and hemolytic uremic syndrome by census tract-level socioeconomic status (SES) in the Connecticut Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network site for 2000-2011. Addresses of case-patients were geocoded to census tracts and linked to census tract-level SES data. Higher census tract-level SES was associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, regardless of serotype; hemolytic uremic syndrome; salmonellosis in persons ≥5 years of age; and some Salmonella serotypes. A reverse association was found for salmonellosis in children <5 years of age and for 1 Salmonella serotype. These findings will inform education and prevention efforts as well as further research.

  15. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around......-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young children is not influenced by spatial availability of unhealthy food. However......Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy...

  16. Maternal anemia associated with walkable distance to healthy food sources in Bronx, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Danielle M; Johnson, Glen D; Chazotte, Cynthia; Karkowsky, Chavi Eve

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between walkable access to healthy food sources and risk of anemia in pregnancy was evaluated for a cohort of 4678 women who initiated prenatal care in the year 2010 at an academic medical center in Bronx, New York. After geocoding patient residences, street network distances were obtained for the closest healthy food sources, which were identified from multiple databases. For lower-income patients, as indicated by Medicaid or lack of health insurance, those who lived less than 0.25miles from a healthy food source were less likely to be anemic when compared to those who lived farther (adjusted OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.48, 0.88). Patients with commercial insurance showed no effect. These results help to understand how a nutritionally-mediated condition such as anemia during pregnancy can be affected by one's built environment, while also highlighting the importance of conditioning on socioeconomic status for these types of studies.

  17. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI-LEI WU; GONG CHEN; XIN-MING SONG; CHENG-FU LI; LEI ZHANG; LAN LIU; XIAO-YING ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  18. Using machine-coded event data for the micro-level study of political violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Hammond

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Machine-coded datasets likely represent the future of event data analysis. We assess the use of one of these datasets—Global Database of Events, Language and Tone (GDELT—for the micro-level study of political violence by comparing it to two hand-coded conflict event datasets. Our findings indicate that GDELT should be used with caution for geo-spatial analyses at the subnational level: its overall correlation with hand-coded data is mediocre, and at the local level major issues of geographic bias exist in how events are reported. Overall, our findings suggest that due to these issues, researchers studying local conflict processes may want to wait for a more reliable geocoding method before relying too heavily on this set of machine-coded data.

  19. Advances in spatial epidemiology and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Russell S; Delmelle, Eric; Eberth, Jan M

    2017-01-01

    The field of spatial epidemiology has evolved rapidly in the past 2 decades. This study serves as a brief introduction to spatial epidemiology and the use of geographic information systems in applied research in epidemiology. We highlight technical developments and highlight opportunities to apply spatial analytic methods in epidemiologic research, focusing on methodologies involving geocoding, distance estimation, residential mobility, record linkage and data integration, spatial and spatio-temporal clustering, small area estimation, and Bayesian applications to disease mapping. The articles included in this issue incorporate many of these methods into their study designs and analytical frameworks. It is our hope that these studies will spur further development and utilization of spatial analysis and geographic information systems in epidemiologic research.

  20. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around...... child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail......-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young children is not influenced by spatial availability of unhealthy food. However...

  1. Real-time kinematic positioning of LEO satellites using a single-frequency GPS receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Xiucong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their low cost and low power consumption, single-frequency GPS receivers are considered suitable for low-cost space applications such as small satellite missions. Recently, requirements have emerged for real-time accurate orbit determination at sub-meter level in order to carry out onboard geocoding of high-resolution imagery, open-loop operation of altimeters and radio occultation. This study proposes an improved real-time kinematic positioning method for LEO satellites using single-frequency receivers. The C/A code and L1 phase are combined to eliminate ionospheric effects. The epoch-differenced carrier phase measurements are utilized to acquire receiver position changes which are further used to smooth the absolute positions. A kinematic Kalman filter is developed to implement kinematic orbit determination. Actual flight data from China small satellite SJ-9A are used to test the navigation performance. Results show that the proposed method outperforms traditional kinematic positioning method in term...

  2. Arsenic in drinking-water and risk for cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, Rikke; Sørensen, Mette; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen, which is often found in drinking-water. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cancer risks among individuals exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water, while studies of the carcinogenic effect of low doses have had...... inconsistent results. Objective: To determine if exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking-water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Methods: The study was based on a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. Cancer cases were identified...... in the Danish Cancer Registry, and the Danish civil registration system was used to trace and geocode residential addresses of the cohort members. We used a geographical information system to link addresses with water supply areas and then estimated individual exposure to arsenic using residential addresses...

  3. Identification of Dynamic Cover Types in Wetlands by using Multitemporal Cross-polarized Sentinel-1 Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    2008; Dronova et al. 2011). These surface dynamics produce transitional states and fine-scale mixtures of classes that may hinder classifications and long-term change detection. Dronova et al. (2015) proposed the term “Dynamic Cover Types" (DCT) to refer to such areas of regimes of periodic or seasonal......, and the Lagoon of Fuente de Piedra, a small wetland in Southern Spain. For that we use a multitemporal change detection procedure for polarimetric SAR imagery based on the Complex Wishart distribution developed recently by Conradsen et al (2015), (to be published) and an innovative open source software...... implementation which makes use of Ipython Notebooks and Docker containers (http://mortcanty.github.io/SARDocker/). The procedure carries out a series of change detection processing routines for the whole time series with a desired significance level. It uses multilook, geocoded and terrain corrected intensity...

  4. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  5. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets...... and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v......, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe....

  6. Historical Post Office Directory Parser (POD Parser Software From the AddressingHistory Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Osborne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The POD Parser is Python software for parsing the OCR’d (optical character recognised text of digitised historical Scottish Post Office Directories (PODs to produce a consistent structured format for the data and for geocoding each address. The software was developed as part of the AddressingHistory project which sought to combine digitised historic directories with digitised and georeferenced historic maps.  The software has potential for reuse in multiple research contexts where historical post office directory data is relevant, and is therefore particularly of use in historical research into social, economic or demographic trends. The POD Parser is currently designed for use with Scottish directories but is extensible, perhaps with some adaptation, to use with other similarly formatted materials such as the English Trade Directories.

  7. Neighborhood-Level LGBT Hate Crimes and Bullying Among Sexual Minority Youths: A Geospatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes.

  8. Effects of household and neighborhood characteristics on children's exposure to neighborhood poverty and affluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, Jeffrey M

    2009-06-01

    I construct covariate-adjusted increment-decrement life tables to estimate racial differences in the duration of children's exposure to neighborhood poverty and affluence. Using geocoded data from the 1999 and 2001 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate that black children born in 1999 can expect to spend about 9 of their first 18 years in poor neighborhoods, compared to less than 2 years for white children. Bivariate inequality in childhood exposure is reduced by 16% after controlling for racial differences in household characteristics, by 39% after controlling for differences in the racial composition and spatial location of children's neighborhoods, and by 46% after controlling for both sets of factors. These findings indicate that household and especially urban ecological factors strongly affect the amount of time that black and white children can expect to spend in poor and nonpoor neighborhoods throughout childhood. I conclude by discussing some policy implications of the findings.

  9. Utilizing GIS Technology to Improve Fire Prevention Activities in an Urban Fire Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Wendy C; Shields, Timothy M; McDonald, Eileen M; Perry, Elise C; Hanna, Peter; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    The Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD) has been installing smoke alarms city wide for more than three decades. Though data on each visit are entered into a database, no system existed for using these data for planning or evaluation. The objective of this study is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and existing databases to 1) determine the number of residences in need of a home visit; 2) determine total visits, visits per household, and number of homes entered for eligible households; and 3) demonstrate integration of various data via GIS for use in prevention planning. The tax assessment database was queried to determine the number of eligible (as determined by BCFD policy) residences in need of a visit. Each attempted BCFD home visit was coded to identify, if the BCFD personnel interacted with residents ("pass door") and installed alarms. Home visits were geocoded and compared to the tax assessment database to determine city wide pass door rates. Frequency of visits was run by individual residences to measure efficiency. A total of 206,850 residences met BCFD eligibility for a home visit. In 2007, the BCFD attempted 181,757 home visits and 177,213 were successfully geocoded to 122,118 addresses. A total of 122,118 eligible residences (59%) received a home visit. A total of 35,317 residences (29%) received a repeat visit attempt. The pass door rate was 22% (46,429) of all residences. GIS technology offers a promising means for fire departments to plan and evaluate the fire prevention services they provide.

  10. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  11. Una herramienta cartográfica digital basada en XML para la ciudad de La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kreimer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una aplicación específica desarrollada a partir la integración de dos herramientas informáticas: Google Maps y un lenguaje de programación de alto nivel, en nuestro caso Octave. La API de Google Maps en Javascript permite la construcción de objetos espaciales. Integrando el mismo con algoritmos originales que resuelvan la geocodificación de las calles de La Plata y el manejo de una base de datos es posible brindar un servicio de localización. El ejemplo que se presenta es el de la localización de las farmacias más cercanas a un cierto domicilio. Se le pide a los usuarios que ingresen su dirección; con estos datos le son devueltas las tres farmacias de turno más cercanas. El código resulta fácilmente adaptable a otro tipo de requerimientos: estaciones de servicio, restaurantes, etcétera siendo su única limitación que la geocodificación está desarrollada para la ciudad de La Plata.This paper presents a specific application developed by the integration of two tools: Google Maps and a high level programming language: Octave. The Google Maps API in Javascript allows the construction of space objects. This language integrated with algorithms that solve the original geocoding of the streets of La Plata and management of a database can provide a service location. The example presented is the location of the nearest pharmacies to a certain address. Users are prompted to enter their address and the system returns the three closest pharmacies.The code is easily adaptable to other types of requirements: gas stations, restaurants, etc.; its only limitation is that the geocoding is developed for the city of La Plata.

  12. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurman Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

  13. Historical measures of social context in life course studies: retrospective linkage of addresses to decennial censuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitsel Eric A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a contribution of early life socioeconomic exposures to the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. However, extant studies investigating the impact of the neighborhood social environment on health tend to characterize only the current social environment. This in part may be due to complexities involved in obtaining and geocoding historical addresses. The Life Course Socioeconomic Status, Social Context, and Cardiovascular Disease Study collected information on childhood (1930–1950 and early adulthood (1960–1980 place of residence from 12,681 black and white middle-aged and older men and women from four U.S. communities to link participants with census-based socioeconomic indicators over the life course. Results Most (99% participants were linked to 1930–50 county level socioeconomic census data (the smallest level of aggregation universally available during this time period corresponding to childhood place of residence. Linkage did not vary by race, gender, birth cohort, or level of educational attainment. A commercial geocoding vendor processed participants' self-reported street addresses for ages 30, 40, and 50. For 1970 and 1980 censuses, spatial coordinates were overlaid onto shape files containing census tract boundaries; for 1960 no shape files existed and comparability files were used. Several methods were tested for accuracy and to increase linkage. Successful linkage to historical census tracts varied by census (66% for 1960, 76% for 1970, 85% for 1980. This compares to linkage rates of 94% for current addresses provided by participants over the course of the ARIC examinations. Conclusion There are complexities and limitations in characterizing the past social context. However, our results suggest that it is feasible to characterize the earlier social environment with known levels of measurement error and that such an approach should be considered in future studies.

  14. Identifying risk factors for healthcare-associated infections from electronic medical record home address data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenman Marc B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential address is a common element in patient electronic medical records. Guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specify that residence in a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice within a year prior to a positive culture date is among the criteria for differentiating healthcare-acquired from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Residential addresses may be useful for identifying patients residing in healthcare-associated settings, but methods for categorizing residence type based on electronic medical records have not been widely documented. The aim of this study was to develop a process to assist in differentiating healthcare-associated from community-associated MRSA infections by analyzing patient addresses to determine if residence reported at the time of positive culture was associated with a healthcare facility or other institutional location. Results We identified 1,232 of the patients (8.24% of the sample with positive cultures as probable cases of healthcare-associated MRSA based on residential addresses contained in electronic medical records. Combining manual review with linking to institutional address databases improved geocoding rates from 11,870 records (79.37% to 12,549 records (83.91%. Standardization of patient home address through geocoding increased the number of matches to institutional facilities from 545 (3.64% to 1,379 (9.22%. Conclusions Linking patient home address data from electronic medical records to institutional residential databases provides useful information for epidemiologic researchers, infection control practitioners, and clinicians. This information, coupled with other clinical and laboratory data, can be used to inform differentiation of healthcare-acquired from community-acquired infections. The process presented should be extensible with little or no added data costs.

  15. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemi Farrokh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual

  16. Re-identification of home addresses from spatial locations anonymized by Gaussian skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassa Christopher A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such versions are available, each can be used to incrementally refine estimates of the original geocoded location. Results We produce multiple anonymized data sets using a single set of addresses and then progressively average the anonymized results related to each address, characterizing the steep decline in distance from the re-identified point to the original location, (and the reduction in privacy. With ten anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a substantial decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.2 km between the estimated, re-identified address and the original address. With fifty anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.1 km. Conclusion We demonstrate that multiple versions of the same data, each anonymized by non-deterministic Gaussian skew, can be used to ascertain original geographic locations. We explore solutions to this problem that include infrastructure to support the safe disclosure of anonymized medical data to prevent inference or re-identification of original address data, and the use of a Markov-process based algorithm to mitigate this risk.

  17. Is the current pertussis incidence only the results of testing? A spatial and space-time analysis of pertussis surveillance data using cluster detection methods and geographically weighted regression modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Heil, Jeanne; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite high vaccination coverage, pertussis incidence in the Netherlands is amongst the highest in Europe with a shifting tendency towards adults and elderly. Early detection of outbreaks and preventive actions are necessary to prevent severe complications in infants. Efficient pertussis control requires additional background knowledge about the determinants of testing and possible determinants of the current pertussis incidence. Therefore, the aim of our study is to examine the possibility of locating possible pertussis outbreaks using space-time cluster detection and to examine the determinants of pertussis testing and incidence using geographically weighted regression models. Methods We analysed laboratory registry data including all geocoded pertussis tests in the southern area of the Netherlands between 2007 and 2013. Socio-demographic and infrastructure-related population data were matched to the geo-coded laboratory data. The spatial scan statistic was applied to detect spatial and space-time clusters of testing, incidence and test-positivity. Geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models were then constructed to model the associations between the age-specific rates of testing and incidence and possible population-based determinants. Results Space-time clusters for pertussis incidence overlapped with space-time clusters for testing, reflecting a strong relationship between testing and incidence, irrespective of the examined age group. Testing for pertussis itself was overall associated with lower socio-economic status, multi-person-households, proximity to primary school and availability of healthcare. The current incidence in contradiction is mainly determined by testing and is not associated with a lower socioeconomic status. Discussion Testing for pertussis follows to an extent the general healthcare seeking behaviour for common respiratory infections, whereas the current pertussis incidence is largely the result of testing. More

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Environment and Emergency Operations Div. - Dept. for the Study of Radionuclide Behaviour in Ecosystems, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic

  19. Examining The Role of Urban Form In Shaping People's Accessibility to Opportunities: An Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Scott

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a comprehensive suite of accessibility indices to investigate whether American cities are designed in such a way that the locations of goods, services, and other opportunities favor certain socio-economic groups over others. In so doing, the study's findings contribute to pressing policy issues such as social exclusion. Seven counties of the Louisville, KY-IN MSA serve as the study area for the investigation. Data are derived from three sources: a geocoded travel diary survey that was conducted in the study area in 2000, a geocoded database of all urban opportunities in the study area, and a database containing shortest path travel times between the locations of households and urban opportunities. Accessibility indices (i.e., gravity, cumulative opportunity, and proximity are computed for households found in the trip diary survey. Furthermore, these indices are defined for 34 types of opportunities: four aggregate types (i.e., retail, service, leisure, and religious and 30 disaggregate types representing the 10 most popular destinations for trips for each of the first three aggregate types. Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests are used to compare the accessibilities of five socio-economic groups (i.e., individuals residing in rural communities, individuals residing in single-person and single-parent households, individuals residing in low-income households, women, and the elderly to their counterparts. Except for individuals residing in rural areas, our findings indicate that groups, which conventional wisdom would suggest are at risk of social exclusion, are not disadvantaged in terms of accessibility.

  20. Hyperspectral Technique for Detecting Soil Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfagnoli, F.; Ciampalini, A.; Moretti, S.; Chiarantini, L.

    2011-12-01

    In satellite and airborne remote sensing, hyperspectral technique has become a very powerful tool, due to the possibility of rapidly realizing chemical/mineralogical maps of the studied areas. Many studies are trying to customize the algorithms to identify several geo-physical soil properties. The specific objective of this study is to investigate those soil characteristics, such as clay mineral content, influencing degradation processes (soil erosion and shallow landslides), by means of correlation analysis, in order to examine the possibility of predicting the selected property using high-resolution reflectance spectra and images. The study area is located in the Mugello basin, about 30 km north of Firenze (Tuscany, Italy). Agriculturally suitable terrains are assigned mainly to annual crops, marginally to olive groves, vineyards and orchards. Soils mostly belong to Regosols and Cambisols orders. An ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer was used to obtain reflectance spectra from about 80 dried, crushed and sieved samples under controlled laboratory conditions. Samples were collected simultaneously with the flight of SIM.GA hyperspectral camera from Selex Galileo, over an area of about 5 km2 and their positions were recorded with a differential GPS. The quantitative determination of clay minerals content was performed by means of XRD and Rietveld refinement. Different chemometric techniques were preliminarily tested to correlate mineralogical records with reflectance data. A one component partial least squares regression model yielded a preliminary R2 value of 0.65. A slightly better result was achieved by plotting the absorption peak depth at 2210 versus total clay content (band-depth analysis). The complete SIM.GA hyperspectral geocoded row dataset, with an approximate pixel resolution of 0.6 m (VNIR) and 1.2 m (SWIR), was firstly transformed into at sensor radiance values, by applying calibration coefficients and parameters from laboratory measurements to non

  1. Hyperspectral Data Processing and Mapping of Soil Parameters: Preliminary Data from Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfagnoli, F.; Moretti, S.; Catani, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has become a very powerful remote sensing tool for its capability of performing chemical and physical analysis of the observed areas. The objective of this study is to retrieve and characterize clay mineral content of the cultivated layer of soils, from both airborne hyperspectral and field spectrometry surveys in the 400-2500 nm spectral range. Correlation analysis is used to examine the possibility to predict the selected property using high-resolution reflectance spectra and images. The study area is located in the Mugello basin, about 30 km north of Firenze (Tuscany, Italy). Agriculturally suitable terrains are assigned mainly to annual crops, marginally to olive groves, vineyards and orchards. Soils mostly belong to Regosols and Cambisols orders. About 80 topsoil samples scattered all over the area were collected simultaneously with the flight of SIM.GA hyperspectral camera from Selex Galileo. The quantitative determination of clay minerals content in soil samples was performed by means of XRD and Rietveld refinement. An ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer was used to obtain reflectance spectra from dried, crushed and sieved samples under controlled laboratory conditions. Different chemometric techniques (multiple linear regression, vertex component analysis, partial least squares regression and band depth analysis) were preliminarily tested to correlate mineralogical records with reflectance data. A one component partial least squares regression model yielded a preliminary R2 value of 0.65. A similar result was achieved by plotting the absorption peak depth at 2210 versus total clay mineral content (band-depth analysis). A complete hyperspectral geocoded reflectance dataset was collected using SIM.GA hyperspectral image sensor from Selex-Galileo, mounted on board of the University of Firenze ultra light aircraft. The approximate pixel resolution was 0.6 m (VNIR) and 1.2 m (SWIR). Airborne SIM.GA row data were firstly transformed into at

  2. Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) Investigation of Airborne Particle Health Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a well-known cause of heart disease, cardiovascular and respiratory illness, low birth weight, and lung cancer. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study ranks PM as a major environmental risk factor worldwide. Global maps of PM2.5concentrations derived from satellite instruments, including MISR and MODIS, have provided key contributions to the GBD and many other health-related investigations. Although it is well established that PM exposure increases the risks of mortality and morbidity, our understanding of the relative toxicity of specific PM types is relatively poor. To address this, the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) investigation was proposed to NASA's third Earth Venture Instrument (EVI-3) solicitation. The satellite instrument that is part of the investigation is a multiangle, multispectral, and polarimetric camera system based on the first and second generation Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imagers, AirMSPI and AirMSPI-2. MAIA was selected for funding in March 2016. Estimates of the abundances of different aerosol types from the WRF-Chem model will be combined with MAIA instrument data. Geostatistical models derived from collocated surface and MAIA retrievals will then be used to relate retrieved fractional column aerosol optical depths to near-surface concentrations of major PM constituents, including sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon, black carbon, and dust. Epidemiological analyses of geocoded birth, death, and hospital records will be used to associate exposure to PM types with adverse health outcomes. MAIA launch is planned for early in the next decade. The MAIA instrument incorporates a pair of cameras on a two-axis gimbal to provide regional multiangle observations of selected, globally distributed target areas. Primary Target Areas (PTAs) on five continents are chosen to include major population centers covering a range of PM concentrations and particle types, surface-based aerosol sunphotometers

  3. The use of multibeam backscatter intensity data as a tool for mapping glacial deposits in the Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather; Bradwell, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Multibeam backscatter intensity data acquired offshore eastern Scotland and north-eastern England have been used to map drumlin fields, large arcuate moraine ridges, smaller scale moraine ridges, and incised channels on the sea floor. The study area includes the catchments of the previously proposed, but only partly mapped, Strathmore, Forth-Tay, and Tweed palaeo-ice streams. The ice sheet glacial landsystem is extremely well preserved on the sea bed and comprehensive mapping of the seafloor geomorphology has been undertaken. The authors demonstrate the value in utilising not only digital terrain models (both NEXTMap and multibeam bathymetry derived) in undertaking geomorphological mapping, but also examining the backscatter intensity data that is often overlooked. Backscatter intensity maps were generated using FM Geocoder by the British Geological Survey. FM Geocoder corrects the backscatter intensities registered by the multibeam echosounder system, and then geometrically corrects and positions each acoustic sample in a backscatter mosaic. The backscatter intensity data were gridded at the best resolution per dataset (between 2 and 5 m). The strength of the backscattering is dependent upon sediment type, grain size, survey conditions, sea-bed roughness, compaction and slope. A combination of manual interpretation and semi-automated classification of the backscatter intensity data (a predictive method for mapping variations in surficial sea-bed sediments) has been undertaken in the study area. The combination of the two methodologies has produced a robust glacial geomorphological map for the study area. Four separate drumlin fields have been mapped in the study area indicative of fast-flowing and persistent ice-sheet flow configurations. A number of individual drumlins are also identified located outside the fields. The drumlins show as areas of high backscatter intensity compared to the surrounding sea bed, indicating the drumlins comprise mixed sediments of

  4. Transfrontier Macroseismic Data Exchange in Europe: Intensity Assessment of M>4 Earthquakes by a Grid Cell Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Sira, C.; Hinzen, K. G.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the US, the USGS is the only institute that gathers macroseismic data through its online "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system allowing a homogeneous and consistent intensity assessment. In Europe, however, we face a much more complicated situation. As almost every nation has its own inquiry in their national language(s) and both the EMSC and the USGS run an international DYFI inquiry, responses to European transfrontier-felt seismic events are strongly fragmented across different institutes. To make a realistic ground motion intensity assessment, macroseismic databases need to be merged in a consistent way hereby dealing with duplicated responses, different intensity calculations and legal issues (observer's privacy). In this presentation, we merge macroseismic datasets by a grid cell approach. Instead of using the irregularly-shaped, arbitrary municipal boundaries, we structure the model area into (100 km2) grid cells and assign an intensity value to each grid cell based on all institutional (geocoded) responses in that cell. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classic community distribution despite less datapoints are used after geocoding the participant's location. The method is demonstrated on the 2011 ML 4.3 (MW 3.7) Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.2 (MW 3.7) Ramsgate (UK) earthquakes both felt in NW Europe. Integration of data results in a non-circular distribution in which the felt area extends significantly more in E-W than in N-S direction, illustrating a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the regional London-Brabant Massif. Ground motions were amplified and attenuated at places with a shallow and deep basement, respectively. To large extend, the shape of the attenuation model derived through the grid cell intensity points is rather similar as the Atkinson and Wald (2007) CEUS prediction. The attenuation

  5. The Advantage of the Second Military Survey in Fluvial Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, completed in the 19th century, can be very useful in different scientific investigations owing to its accuracy and data content. The fact, that the mapmakers used geodetic projection, and the high accuracy of the survey guarantee that scientists can use these maps and the represented objects can be evaluated in retrospective studies. Among others, the hydrological information of the map sheets is valuable. The streams were drawn with very thin lines that also ascertain the high accuracy of their location, provided that the geodetic position of the sheet can be constructed with high accuracy. After geocoding these maps we faced the high accuracy of line elements. Not only the location of these lines but the form of the creeks are usually almost the same as recent shape. The goal of our study was the neotectonic evaluation of the western part of the Pannonian Basin, bordered by Pinka, Rába and Répce Rivers. The watercourses, especially alluvial ones, react very sensitively to tectonic forcing. However, the present-day course of the creeks and rivers are mostly regulated, therefore they are unsuitable for such studies. Consequently, the watercourses should be reconstructed from maps surveyed prior to the main water control measures. The Second Military Survey is a perfect source for such studies because it is the first survey has drawn in geodetic projection but the creeks haven't been regulated yet. The maps show intensive agricultural cultivation and silviculture in the study area. Especially grazing cultivation precincts of the streams is important for us. That phenomenon and data from other sources prove that the streams haven't been regulated in that time. The streams were able to meander, and flood its banks, and only natural levees are present. The general morphology south from the Kőszegi Mountains shows typical SSE slopes with low relief cut off by 30-60 meter high scarps followed by streams. That

  6. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  7. Spatial analysis of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil (2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellina Yamamura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, and to identify spatial and space-time clusters for the risk of occurrence of these events. METHODS This is a descriptive, ecological study that considered the hospitalizations records of the Hospital Information System of residents of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, from 2006 to 2012. Only the cases with recorded addresses were considered for the spatial analyses, and they were also geocoded. We resorted to Kernel density estimation to identify the densest areas, local empirical Bayes rate as the method for smoothing the incidence rates of hospital admissions, and scan statistic for identifying clusters of risk. Softwares ArcGis 10.2, TerraView 4.2.2, and SaTScanTM were used in the analysis. RESULTS We identified 169 hospitalizations due to tuberculosis. Most were of men (n = 134; 79.2%, averagely aged 48 years (SD = 16.2. The predominant clinical form was the pulmonary one, which was confirmed through a microscopic examination of expectorated sputum (n = 66; 39.0%. We geocoded 159 cases (94.0%. We observed a non-random spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis concentrated in the northern and western regions of the municipality. Through the scan statistic, three spatial clusters for risk of hospitalizations due to tuberculosis were identified, one of them in the northern region of the municipality (relative risk [RR] = 3.4; 95%CI 2.7–4,4; the second in the central region, where there is a prison unit (RR = 28.6; 95%CI 22.4–36.6; and the last one in the southern region, and area of protection for hospitalizations (RR = 0.2; 95%CI 0.2–0.3. We did not identify any space-time clusters. CONCLUSIONS The investigation showed priority areas for the control and surveillance of tuberculosis, as well as the profile of the affected population, which shows

  8. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: highlighting the social disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana Lucia SS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents among youth are a public health issue worldwide. Studies of the complex network of cause and effect on this topic point to both poverty and health inequalities. Different investigational approaches to intentional and unintentional deaths combined with socioeconomic variables can help create a better understanding of the association between violence and socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzed the spatial distribution and potential clusters of risk for intentional and unintentional deaths among youths aged 15-24 years in Goiânia, a newly urbanized city in central Brazil. Methods Death data and residential addresses were extracted from the national Mortality Information System and validated by household visits. To detect all potential cases, we prospectively investigated every death classified as a transport accident, assault, legal intervention, intentional self-harm, unknown underlying cause, and undetermined intent according to the ICD-10. The Geographical Information System was used to plot residential addresses, and cases were interactively geocoded to the residential address level using a digital map of the municipality. Spatial scan statistic was applied (Poisson model to identify clusters of census tracts with high mortality due to intentional injuries and traffic accidents. The socioeconomic variables obtained using census data were compared between the most likely cluster and other areas of the municipality. Results The most violent deaths among young people were due to intentional injuries. Between August 2005 and August 2006, 145 addresses for cases of intentional injuries and traffic accidents were located and geocoded. No significant clusters for deaths due to traffic accidents were found within the municipality. One significant cluster (RR = 4.65; p = 0.029 composed of 14 cases of intentional deaths, mostly homicides, was detected in an emergent, populated, and

  9. Spatial analysis of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Mellina; de Freitas, Isabela Moreira; Santo, Marcelino; Chiaravalloti, Francisco; Popolin, Marcela Antunes Paschoal; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Crispim, Juliane Almeida; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, and to identify spatial and space-time clusters for the risk of occurrence of these events. METHODS This is a descriptive, ecological study that considered the hospitalizations records of the Hospital Information System of residents of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, from 2006 to 2012. Only the cases with recorded addresses were considered for the spatial analyses, and they were also geocoded. We resorted to Kernel density estimation to identify the densest areas, local empirical Bayes rate as the method for smoothing the incidence rates of hospital admissions, and scan statistic for identifying clusters of risk. Softwares ArcGis 10.2, TerraView 4.2.2, and SaTScanTM were used in the analysis. RESULTS We identified 169 hospitalizations due to tuberculosis. Most were of men (n = 134; 79.2%), averagely aged 48 years (SD = 16.2). The predominant clinical form was the pulmonary one, which was confirmed through a microscopic examination of expectorated sputum (n = 66; 39.0%). We geocoded 159 cases (94.0%). We observed a non-random spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis concentrated in the northern and western regions of the municipality. Through the scan statistic, three spatial clusters for risk of hospitalizations due to tuberculosis were identified, one of them in the northern region of the municipality (relative risk [RR] = 3.4; 95%CI 2.7–4,4); the second in the central region, where there is a prison unit (RR = 28.6; 95%CI 22.4–36.6); and the last one in the southern region, and area of protection for hospitalizations (RR = 0.2; 95%CI 0.2–0.3). We did not identify any space-time clusters. CONCLUSIONS The investigation showed priority areas for the control and surveillance of tuberculosis, as well as the profile of the affected population, which shows important

  10. Evaluating geographic imputation approaches for zip code level data: an application to a study of pediatric diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puett Robin C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the study of place effects on health, facilitated in part by geographic information systems. Incomplete or missing address information reduces geocoding success. Several geographic imputation methods have been suggested to overcome this limitation. Accuracy evaluation of these methods can be focused at the level of individuals and at higher group-levels (e.g., spatial distribution. Methods We evaluated the accuracy of eight geo-imputation methods for address allocation from ZIP codes to census tracts at the individual and group level. The spatial apportioning approaches underlying the imputation methods included four fixed (deterministic and four random (stochastic allocation methods using land area, total population, population under age 20, and race/ethnicity as weighting factors. Data included more than 2,000 geocoded cases of diabetes mellitus among youth aged 0-19 in four U.S. regions. The imputed distribution of cases across tracts was compared to the true distribution using a chi-squared statistic. Results At the individual level, population-weighted (total or under age 20 fixed allocation showed the greatest level of accuracy, with correct census tract assignments averaging 30.01% across all regions, followed by the race/ethnicity-weighted random method (23.83%. The true distribution of cases across census tracts was that 58.2% of tracts exhibited no cases, 26.2% had one case, 9.5% had two cases, and less than 3% had three or more. This distribution was best captured by random allocation methods, with no significant differences (p-value > 0.90. However, significant differences in distributions based on fixed allocation methods were found (p-value Conclusion Fixed imputation methods seemed to yield greatest accuracy at the individual level, suggesting use for studies on area-level environmental exposures. Fixed methods result in artificial clusters in single census tracts. For studies

  11. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hansen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results: We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic

  12. Spatio-temporal tracking and phylodynamics of an urban dengue 3 outbreak in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mondini

    Full Text Available The dengue virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 10.700 nucleotides with a single open reading frame that encodes three structural (C, prM, and E and seven nonstructural (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 proteins. It possesses four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4. Many phylogenetic studies address particularities of the different serotypes using convenience samples that are not conducive to a spatio-temporal analysis in a single urban setting. We describe the pattern of spread of distinct lineages of DENV-3 circulating in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, during 2006. Blood samples from patients presenting dengue-like symptoms were collected for DENV testing. We performed M-N-PCR using primers based on NS5 for virus detection and identification. The fragments were purified from PCR mixtures and sequenced. The positive dengue cases were geo-coded. To type the sequenced samples, 52 reference sequences were aligned. The dataset generated was used for iterative phylogenetic reconstruction with the maximum likelihood criterion. The best demographic model, the rate of growth, rate of evolutionary change, and Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA were estimated. The basic reproductive rate during the epidemics was estimated. We obtained sequences from 82 patients among 174 blood samples. We were able to geo-code 46 sequences. The alignment generated a 399-nucleotide-long dataset with 134 taxa. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all samples were of DENV-3 and related to strains circulating on the isle of Martinique in 2000-2001. Sixty DENV-3 from São José do Rio Preto formed a monophyletic group (lineage 1, closely related to the remaining 22 isolates (lineage 2. We assumed that these lineages appeared before 2006 in different occasions. By transforming the inferred exponential growth rates into the basic reproductive rate, we obtained values for lineage 1 of R(0 = 1.53 and values for

  13. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arku Godwin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores, both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the

  14. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2011-05-15

    Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to travel for food. Research on

  15. ISRO's dual frequency airborne SAR pre-cursor to NISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, V. Manavala; Suneela, T. J. V. D.; Bhan, Rakesh

    2016-05-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly embarked on NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) operating in L-band and S-band, which will map Earth's surface every 12 days. As a pre-cursor to the NISAR mission, ISRO is planning an airborne SAR (L&S band) which will deliver NISAR analogue data products to the science community. ISRO will develop all the hardware with the aim of adhering to system design aspects of NISAR to the maximum extent possible. It is a fully polarimetric stripmap SAR and can be operated in single, dual, compact, quasi-quad and full polarimetry modes. It has wide incidence angle coverage from 24°-77° with swath coverage from 5.5km to 15 km. Apart from simultaneous imaging operations, this system can also operate in standalone L/S SAR modes. This system is planned to operate from an aircraft platform with nominal altitude of 8000meters. Antenna for this SAR will be rigidly mounted to the aircraft, whereas, motion compensation will be implemented in the software processor to generate data products. Data products for this airborne SAR will be generated in slant & ground range azimuth dimension and geocoded in HDF5/Geotiff formats. This airborne SAR will help to prepare the Indian scientific community for optimum utilization of NISAR data. In-order to collect useful science data, airborne campaigns are planned from end of 2016 onwards.

  16. GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared to 24 h diary data from 7 participants on workdays and 2 participants on nonworkdays, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize

  17. Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies have shown associations between air pollution concentrations measured at central-site ambient monitors and adverse health outcomes. Using central-site concentrations as exposure surrogates, however, can lead to exposure errors due to time spent in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments (ME) with pollutant concentrations that can be substantially different from central-site concentrations. These exposure errors can introduce bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates, which diminish the power of such studies to establish correct conclusions about the exposure and health effects association. The significance of this issue was highlighted in the National Research Council (NRC) Report “Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter”, which recommends that EPA address exposure error in health studies. To address this limitation, we developed MicroTrac, an automated classification model that estimates time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from personal global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded boundaries of buildings (e.g., home, work, school). MicroTrac has several innovative design features: (1) using GPS signal quality to account for GPS signal loss inside certain buildings, (2) spatial buffering of building boundaries to account for the spatial inaccuracy of the GPS device, and (3) temporal buffering of GPS positi

  18. Secure management of biomedical data with cryptographic hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canim, Mustafa; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The biomedical community is increasingly migrating toward research endeavors that are dependent on large quantities of genomic and clinical data. At the same time, various regulations require that such data be shared beyond the initial collecting organization (e.g., an academic medical center). It is of critical importance to ensure that when such data are shared, as well as managed, it is done so in a manner that upholds the privacy of the corresponding individuals and the overall security of the system. In general, organizations have attempted to achieve these goals through deidentification methods that remove explicitly, and potentially, identifying features (e.g., names, dates, and geocodes). However, a growing number of studies demonstrate that deidentified data can be reidentified to named individuals using simple automated methods. As an alternative, it was shown that biomedical data could be shared, managed, and analyzed through practical cryptographic protocols without revealing the contents of any particular record. Yet, such protocols required the inclusion of multiple third parties, which may not always be feasible in the context of trust or bandwidth constraints. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a framework that removes the need for multiple third parties by collocating services to store and to process sensitive biomedical data through the integration of cryptographic hardware. Within this framework, we define a secure protocol to process genomic data and perform a series of experiments to demonstrate that such an approach can be run in an efficient manner for typical biomedical investigations.

  19. The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics in Late Stage Melanoma Diagnosis among Hispanic Men in California, Texas, and Florida, 1996–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie M. Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hispanics diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma are more likely to present at advanced stages but the reasons for this are unknown. We identify census tracts at high risk for late stage melanoma diagnosis (LSMD and examine the contextual predictors of LSMD in California, Texas, and Florida. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study using geocoded state cancer registry data. Using hierarchical multilevel logistic regression models we estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals for the impact of socioeconomic, Hispanic ethnic concentration, index of dissimilarity, and health resource availability measures on LSMD. Results. We identified 12,493 cases. In California, late stage cases were significantly more likely to reside within census tracts composed mostly of Hispanics and immigrants. In Texas, LSMD was associated with residence in areas of socioeconomic deprivation and a higher proportion of immigrants. In Florida, living in areas of low education attainment, high levels of poverty, and a high percentage of Hispanic residents was significantly associated with LSMD. Residential segregation did not independently affect LSMD. Conclusion. The influence of contextual predictors on LSMD varied in magnitude and strength by state, highlighting both the cosegregation of social adversity and poverty and the complexity of their interactions.

  20. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  1. Multi-level modeling of social factors and preterm delivery in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Faustino T

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth before the 37th week of gestation (preterm birth is an important cause of infant and neonatal mortality, but has been little studied outside of wealthy nations. Chile is an urbanized Latin American nation classified as "middle-income" based on its annual income per capita of about $6000. Methods We studied the relations between maternal social status and neighborhood social status on risk of preterm delivery in this setting using multilevel regression analyses of vital statistics data linked to geocoded decennial census data. The analytic data set included 56,970 births from 2004 in the metropolitan region of Santiago, which constitutes about 70% of all births in the study area and about 25% of all births in Chile that year. Dimensionality of census data was reduced using principal components analysis, with regression scoring to create a single index of community socioeconomic advantage. This was modeled along with years of maternal education in order to predict preterm birth and preterm low birthweight. Results Births in Santiago displayed an advantaged pattern of preterm risk, with only 6.4% of births delivering before 37 weeks. Associations were observed between risk of outcomes and individual and neighborhood factors, but the magnitudes of these associations were much more modest than reported in North America. Conclusion While several potential explanations for this relatively flat social gradient might be considered, one possibility is that Chile's egalitarian approach to universal prenatal care may have reduced social inequalities in these reproductive outcomes.

  2. Testing Accuracy and Repeatability of UAV Blocks Oriented with GNSS-Supported Aerial Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Benassi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available UAV Photogrammetry today already enjoys a largely automated and efficient data processing pipeline. However, the goal of dispensing with Ground Control Points looks closer, as dual-frequency GNSS receivers are put on board. This paper reports on the accuracy in object space obtained by GNSS-supported orientation of four photogrammetric blocks, acquired by a senseFly eBee RTK and all flown according to the same flight plan at 80 m above ground over a test field. Differential corrections were sent to the eBee from a nearby ground station. Block orientation has been performed with three software packages: PhotoScan, Pix4D and MicMac. The influence on the checkpoint errors of the precision given to the projection centers has been studied: in most cases, values in Z are critical. Without GCP, the RTK solution consistently achieves a RMSE of about 2–3 cm on the horizontal coordinates of checkpoints. In elevation, the RMSE varies from flight to flight, from 2 to 10 cm. Using at least one GCP, with all packages and all test flights, the geocoding accuracy of GNSS-supported orientation is almost as good as that of a traditional GCP orientation in XY and only slightly worse in Z.

  3. Multilevel built environment features and individual odds of overweight and obesity in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Wen, Ming; Wang, Fahui

    2015-06-01

    Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007, 2009 and 2011 in Utah, this research uses multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine the associations between neighborhood built environments and individual odds of overweight and obesity after controlling for individual risk factors. The BRFSS data include information on 21,961 individuals geocoded to zip code areas. Individual variables include BMI (body mass index) and socio-demographic attributes such as age, gender, race, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and whether an individual smokes. Neighborhood built environment factors measured at both zip code and county levels include street connectivity, walk score, distance to parks, and food environment. Two additional neighborhood variables, namely the poverty rate and urbanicity, are also included as control variables. MLM results show that at the zip code level, poverty rate and distance to parks are significant and negative covariates of the odds of overweight and obesity; and at the county level, food environment is the sole significant factor with stronger fast food presence linked to higher odds of overweight and obesity. These findings suggest that obesity risk factors lie in multiple neighborhood levels and built environment features need to be defined at a neighborhood size relevant to residents' activity space.

  4. Availability of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Stores and Neighborhood Characteristics in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets. The availability of medical and recreational marijuana stores was differentially correlated with household income and racial and ethnic composition. Conclusions. Neighborhood disparities existed in the availability of marijuana stores, and associations between availability of stores and neighborhood characteristics varied by store types. This study highlighted the need for regulatory measures to prevent marijuana related outcomes in high risk neighborhoods.

  5. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Beelen, R; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We...... geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models.......59; 1.12-2.26 per 2ng/m(3)) and PM10 K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PM10 and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed...

  6. A linear programming model for preserving privacy when disclosing patient spatial information for secondary purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A linear programming (LP) model was proposed to create de-identified data sets that maximally include spatial detail (e.g., geocodes such as ZIP or postal codes, census blocks, and locations on maps) while complying with the HIPAA Privacy Rule’s Expert Determination method, i.e., ensuring that the risk of re-identification is very small. The LP model determines the transition probability from an original location of a patient to a new randomized location. However, it has a limitation for the cases of areas with a small population (e.g., median of 10 people in a ZIP code). Methods We extend the previous LP model to accommodate the cases of a smaller population in some locations, while creating de-identified patient spatial data sets which ensure the risk of re-identification is very small. Results Our LP model was applied to a data set of 11,740 postal codes in the City of Ottawa, Canada. On this data set we demonstrated the limitations of the previous LP model, in that it produces improbable results, and showed how our extensions to deal with small areas allows the de-identification of the whole data set. Conclusions The LP model described in this study can be used to de-identify geospatial information for areas with small populations with minimal distortion to postal codes. Our LP model can be extended to include other information, such as age and gender. PMID:24885457

  7. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Sung, Jung Hye; Malouhi, Mohamad

    2015-12-22

    There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) Data Coordinating Center (DCC) and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (α) were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks). Cronbach's α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p web-based application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long-term effect of clinical trials.

  8. Examining Race and Ethnicity Information in Medicare Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Clara E; Joynt, Karen E

    2016-07-29

    Racial and ethnic disparities are observed in the health status and health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries. Reducing these disparities is a national priority, and having high-quality data on individuals' race and ethnicity is critical for researchers working to do so. However, using Medicare data to identify race and ethnicity is not straightforward. Currently, Medicare largely relies on Social Security Administration data for information about Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. Directly self-reported race and ethnicity information is collected for subsets of Medicare beneficiaries but is not explicitly collected for the purpose of populating race/ethnicity information in the Medicare administrative record. As a consequence of historical data collection practices, the quality of Medicare's administrative data on race and ethnicity varies substantially by racial/ethnic group; the data are generally much more accurate for whites and blacks than for other racial/ethnic groups. Identification of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander beneficiaries has improved through use of an imputation algorithm recently applied to the Medicare administrative database. To improve the accuracy of race/ethnicity data for Medicare beneficiaries, researchers have developed techniques such as geocoding and surname analysis that indirectly assign Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. However, these techniques are relatively new and data may not be widely available. Understanding the strengths and limitations of different approaches to identifying race and ethnicity will help researchers choose the best method for their particular purpose, and help policymakers interpret studies using these measures.

  9. Lessons from a geospatial analysis of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate sales by licensed chemical sellers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelus, Victoria; Lebetkin, Elena; Keyes, Emily; Mensah, Stephen; Dzasi, Kafui

    2015-08-01

    To map access to depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) from licensed chemical sellers (LCS); to estimate the proportion of women of reproductive age in areas with access; and to examine affordability and variability of costs. A geospatial analysis was conducted using data collected from 298 women who purchased DMPA from 49 geocoded LCS shops in the Amansie West and Ejisu-Juabeng districts of Ghana from June 4 to August 31, 2012. The women reported on cost and average distance traveled to purchase DMPA. In Amansie West, 21.1% of all women of reproductive age lived within average walking distance and 80.4% lived within average driving distance of an LCS. In Ejisu-Juabeng, 41.9% and 60.1% of women lived within average walking and driving distance, respectively. Distribution of affordability varied across each district. Access to LCS shops is high, and training LCS to administer DMPA would increase access to family planning in Ghana, with associated time and cost savings. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  11. Rectification of terrain induced distortions in radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to generate geocoded synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery corrected for terrain induced geometric distortions. This algorithm transforms the raw slant range image, generated by the signal processor, into a map registered product, resampled to either Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) or Polar Stereographic projections, and corrected for foreshortening. The technique utilizes the space platform trajectory information in conjunction with a digital elevation map (DEM) of the target area to generate an ortho-radar map with near-autonomous operation. The current procedure requires only two to three tie-points to compensate for the platform position uncertainty that results in translational error between the image and the DEM. This approach is unique in that it does not require generation of a simulated radar image from the DEM or a grid of tie-points to characterize the image-to-map distortions. Rather, it models the inherent distortions based on knowledge of the radar data collection characteristics, the signal Doppler parameters, and the local terrain height to automatically predict the registration transformation. This algorithm has been implemented on a minicomputer system equipped with an array processor and a large random-access memory to optimize the throughput.

  12. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time–location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: Model evaluation in central North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S.; Long, Thomas C.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E.; Isaacs, Kristin K.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W.; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Buckley, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time–location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

  13. Geographic information systems and applied spatial statistics are efficient tools to study Hansen's disease (leprosy) and to determine areas of greater risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, José Wilton; Dias, Gutemberg H; Nobre, Maurício Lisboa; De Sousa Dias, Márcia C; Araújo, Sérgio F; Barbosa, James D; Bezerra da Trindade-Neto, Pedro; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2010-02-01

    Applied Spatial Statistics used in conjunction with geographic information systems (GIS) provide an efficient tool for the surveillance of diseases. Here, using these tools we analyzed the spatial distribution of Hansen's disease in an endemic area in Brazil. A sample of 808 selected from a universe of 1,293 cases was geocoded in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hansen's disease cases were not distributed randomly within the neighborhoods, with higher detection rates found in more populated districts. Cluster analysis identified two areas of high risk, one with a relative risk of 5.9 (P = 0.001) and the other 6.5 (P = 0.001). A significant relationship between the geographic distribution of disease and the social economic variables indicative of poverty was observed. Our study shows that the combination of GIS and spatial analysis can identify clustering of transmissible disease, such as Hansen's disease, pointing to areas where intervention efforts can be targeted to control disease.

  14. Adaptation of Industrial Hyperspectral Line Scanner for Archaeological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković, V.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral characteristic of the visible light reflected from any of archaeological artefact is the result of the interaction of its surface illuminated by incident light. Every particular surface depends on what material it is made of and/or which layers put on it has its spectral signature. Recent archaeometry recognises this information as very valuable data to extend present documentation of artefacts and as a new source for scientific exploration. However, the problem is having an appropriate hyperspectral imaging system available and adopted for applications in archaeology. In this paper, we present the new construction of the hyperspectral imaging system, made of industrial hyperspectral line scanner ImSpector V9 and CCD-sensor PixelView. The hyperspectral line scanner is calibrated geometrically, and hyperspectral data are geocoded and converted to the hyperspectral cube. The system abilities are evaluated for various archaeological artefacts made of different materials. Our experience in applications, visualisations, and interpretations of collected hyperspectral data are explored and presented.

  15. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2012-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited.

  16. Active commuting to school in Portuguese adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro, Andreia Nogueira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    2016-01-01

    -based and effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the travel to school behavior using an objective methodology. Methods 155 adolescents (mean age 15.9±1.1 years) wore an accelerometer and a GPS for 7 consecutive days. Home and school addresses were geocoded to identify home-school trips....... The web-based tool PALMS was used to combine GPS and accelerometer data, categorize Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) and classify trip mode of home-school trips into: walking, bicycling or vehicle. Results 609 trips were identified as home-school trips. Walking was the most frequent trip mode...... (68.8%) whereas bicycling was less common (14.4%). Median home–school walking trip length was 0.9 km and 96.7% of the trips were under 2.0 km. Near 80% of the total walking trip time(to or from school) was in MVPA and contributed on average with 12(±5.6) min to daily recommendations. Differences were...

  17. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodur, Gwen M; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M; Antiporta, Daniel A; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  18. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  19. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Iran: a GIS-based spatio-temporal multi-criteria decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollalo, A; Khodabandehloo, E

    2016-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a serious public health problem in many parts of the world including Iran. This study was carried out to assess the risk of the disease in an endemic province by developing spatial environmentally based models in yearly intervals. To fill the gap of underestimated true burden of ZCL and short study period, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy AHP decision-making methods were used to determine the ZCL risk zones in a Geographic Information System platform. Generated risk maps showed that high-risk areas were predominantly located at the northern and northeastern parts in each of the three study years. Comparison of the generated risk maps with geocoded ZCL cases at the village level demonstrated that in both methods more than 90%, 70% and 80% of the cases occurred in high and very high risk areas for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Moreover, comparison of the risk categories with spatially averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and a digital elevation model of the study region indicated persistent strong negative relationships between these environmental variables and ZCL risk degrees. These findings identified more susceptible areas of ZCL and will help the monitoring of this zoonosis to be more targeted.

  20. The role of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status in outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupin, Laura; Tonner, M Christine; Yazdany, Jinoos; Julian, Laura J; Criswell, Lindsey A; Katz, Patricia P; Yelin, Edward

    2008-09-01

    To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is independently related to physical and mental health outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data derived from the first 3 waves of the Lupus Outcomes Study, a telephone survey of 957 patients with confirmed SLE diagnoses, recruited from clinical and non-clinical sources. Residential addresses were geocoded to U.S. Census block groups. Outcome measures included the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score, a self-reported assessment of SLE symptoms; the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey physical functioning score; and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score of > or = 19 points. Multivariate analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and other demographic and health-related covariates. After adjustment, lower individual SES, measured by education, household income, or poverty status, was associated with all outcomes. In models that did not include individual SES, low neighborhood SES (> 30% of residents in poverty) was also associated with poor outcomes. After adjustment for individual SES, demographic, and health-related covariates, only CES-D > or = 19 remained associated with neighborhood SES: 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38-56%] versus 35% (95% CI 32-37%). Individual SES is associated with physical and mental health outcomes in persons with SLE. Low neighborhood SES contributes independently to high levels of depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on mechanisms underlying these differences.

  1. Point-of-sale tobacco marketing in rural and urban Ohio: Could the new landscape of Tobacco products widen inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-12-01

    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities.

  2. Neighbourhood walkability, leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in a mixed urban–rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric de Sa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity.Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y.Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1. When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes.Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.

  3. Using ZIP code business patterns data to measure alcohol outlet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A; McCarthy, John D; Rafail, Patrick S

    2011-07-01

    Some states maintain high-quality alcohol outlet databases but quality varies by state, making comprehensive comparative analysis across US communities difficult. This study assesses the adequacy of using ZIP Code Business Patterns (ZIP-BP) data on establishments as estimates of the number of alcohol outlets by ZIP code. Specifically we compare ZIP-BP alcohol outlet counts with high-quality data from state and local records surrounding 44 college campus communities across 10 states plus the District of Columbia. Results show that a composite measure is strongly correlated (R=0.89) with counts of alcohol outlets generated from official state records. Analyses based on Generalized Estimation Equation models show that community and contextual factors have little impact on the concordance between the two data sources. There are also minimal inter-state differences in the level of agreement. To validate the use of a convenient secondary data set (ZIP-BP) it is important to have a high correlation with the more complex, high quality and more costly data product (i.e., datasets based on the acquisition and geocoding of state and local records) and then to clearly demonstrate that the discrepancy between the two to be unrelated to relevant explanatory variables. Thus our overall findings support the adequacy of using a conveniently available data set (ZIP-BP data) to estimate alcohol outlet densities in ZIP code areas in future research.

  4. Assessing spatial gaps in sexually transmissible infection services and morbidity: an illustration with Texas county-level data from 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Doshi, Sonal R

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, sexually transmissible infection (STI) and family planning (FP) clinics play a major role in the detection and treatment of STIs. However, an examination of the spatial distribution of these service sites and their association with STI morbidity and county-level socioeconomic characteristics is lacking. We demonstrate how mapping and regression methods can be used to assess the spatial gaps between STI services and morbidity. We used 2007 county-level surveillance data on chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis), gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and syphilis. The geocoded STI service (STI or FP clinic) locations overlaid on the Texas county-level chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis morbidity map indicated that counties with high incidence had at least one STI service site. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between having STI services and county-level socioeconomic characteristics. Twenty-two percent of chlamydia high-morbidity counties (>365 out of 100000); 32% of gonorrhoea high-morbidity counties (>136 out of 100000) and 23% of syphilis high-morbidity counties (≥4 out of 100000 and at least two cases) had no STI services. When we controlled for socioeconomic characteristics, high-morbidity syphilis was weakly associated with having STI services. The percent of the population aged 15-24 years, the percent of Hispanic population, the crime rate and population density were significantly (Pmapping to assess the spatial gaps that exist between STI services and demand.

  5. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  6. A GIS tool for Integrated Hazard Evaluation on the faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, G.; Bonforte, A.; Neri, M.

    2012-04-01

    A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active fault systems affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referred arc-features and associated Database. Arc-type features, geo-referred into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, are represented by the four fault systems that develop in the analyzed region and other vector layers (i.e. the main lifelines) specifically added for the hazard evaluation. In any case, the backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us length, location, slip rate etc. Although the system has been constructed according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the Database represent a powerful tool in modeling hazard at Mt. Etna. On the other hand, layering different geographic information and managing Database (topological querying) achieved information can easily and quickly be represented in a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps which can be produced following the implementation of specific predicting models.

  7. Spatial patterns of preventable perinatal mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Sousa Nascimento

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the spatial distribution patterns and areas of higher risk of preventable perinatal mortality in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. METHODS We carried out a spatial aggregated study in 2007, considering the weighting areas (census tracts contiguous sets of Salvador, of which the center and north present low life conditions. Data were obtained from national vital statistics systems and the 2010 Census. Addresses of live births and stillbirths were geocoded by weighting area. The spatial distribution of the perinatal mortality rate was analyzed from thematic maps. Spatial dependence was evaluated by the Global and Local Geary’s and Moran’s Indexes. RESULTS Crude and smoothed perinatal mortality rates were high in areas situated to the north, west, and in center of Salvador. The smoothed rates in weighting areas ranged from 4.9/1,000 to 22.3/1,000 births. Of all perinatal deaths, 92.1% could have been prevented. We identified spatial dependence for preventable perinatal mortality for care in pregnancy, with neighboring areas with high risk in the north of the city. CONCLUSIONS The preventability potential of perinatal mortality was high in Salvador, in 2007. The spatial distribution pattern with higher rates in disadvantaged areas of the city suggests the existence of social inequalities in health. The characteristics of the process of urban development of Salvador, which has inadequate prenatal care, possibly influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution pattern of this mortality.

  8. Influence of Topographic and Hydrographic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Leptospirosis Disease in São Paulo County, Brazil: An Approach Using Geospatial Techniques and GIS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M. C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by Leptospira genus bacteria. Rodents, especially Rattus norvegicus, are the most frequent hosts of this microorganism in the cities. The human transmission occurs by contact with urine, blood or tissues of the rodent and contacting water or mud contaminated by rodent urine. Spatial patterns of concentration of leptospirosis are related to the multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, like housing near flooding areas, domestic garbage disposal sites and high-density of peoples living in slums located near river channels. We used geospatial techniques and geographical information system (GIS) to analysing spatial relationship between the distribution of leptospirosis cases and distance from rivers, river density in the census sector and terrain slope factors, in Sao Paulo County, Brazil. To test this methodology we used a sample of 183 geocoded leptospirosis cases confirmed in 2007, ASTER GDEM2 data, hydrography and census sectors shapefiles. Our results showed that GIS and geospatial analysis techniques improved the mapping of the disease and permitted identify the spatial pattern of association between location of cases and spatial distribution of the environmental variables analyzed. This study showed also that leptospirosis cases might be more related to the census sectors located on higher river density areas and households situated at shorter distances from rivers. In the other hand, it was not possible to assert that slope terrain contributes significantly to the location of leptospirosis cases.

  9. Reconstruction of epidemic curves for pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 at city and sub-city levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Ngai Sze

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To better describe the epidemiology of influenza at local level, the time course of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 in the city of Hong Kong was reconstructed from notification data after decomposition procedure and time series analysis. GIS (geographic information system methodology was incorporated for assessing spatial variation. Between May and September 2009, a total of 24415 cases were successfully geocoded, out of 25473 (95.8% reports in the original dataset. The reconstructed epidemic curve was characterized by a small initial peak, a nadir followed by rapid rise to the ultimate plateau. The full course of the epidemic had lasted for about 6 months. Despite the small geographic area of only 1000 Km2, distinctive spatial variation was observed in the configuration of the curves across 6 geographic regions. With the relatively uniform physical and climatic environment within Hong Kong, the temporo-spatial variability of influenza spread could only be explained by the heterogeneous population structure and mobility patterns. Our study illustrated how an epidemic curve could be reconstructed using regularly collected surveillance data, which would be useful in informing intervention at local levels.

  10. Manifestation of GIS Tools for Spatial Pattern Distribution Analysis of Dengue Fever Epidemic in the City of Subang Jaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazri Che Dom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has now emerged as one of the major public health problems in Malaysia. It was first reported in 1901 in Penang and since then the disease has become endemic concentrating mostly in urban areas. This study used the temporal-spatial model to determine high risk areas for dengue outbreak by measuring three temporal risk characteristics (i.e. frequency, duration and intensity in order to define the severity and magnitude of outbreak transmission. This study examined a total of 4,651 confirmed dengue fever cases, geo-coded by address in the city of Subang Jaya between January 2006 and December 2009. The values of the three indices were considered high in a spatial unit when their standard values were positive. Measurement of the three temporal risk indices found that there were areas with significant high value for each of the temporal indices. This suggested that areas within Subang Jaya Municipality had different temporal characteristics for dengue occurrence. The utilization of three risk measures enabled to identify higher-risk areas for the occurrence of dengue fever. Even though case notification data are subjected to bias, this information is available in the health services and can lead to important conclusions, recommendations and hypotheses. As a recommendation, the temporal risk indices can be utilized by public health officials to characterize dengue rather than relying on the traditional case incidence data.

  11. The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Issue addressed: A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour.Methods: Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices.Results: Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations.Conclusion: Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data.So what?: The use of smartphone GPS data with other data sources is recommended for assessing how infrastructure improvements influence cycling behaviour.

  12. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J.; Brender, Jean D.; Romitti, Paul A.; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A.; Vuong, Ann M.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997–2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers’ overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS. PMID:25473985

  13. Community Level Disadvantage and the Likelihood of First Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Boden-Albala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Residing in “disadvantaged” communities may increase morbidity and mortality independent of individual social resources and biological factors. This study evaluates the impact of population-level disadvantage on incident ischemic stroke likelihood in a multiethnic urban population. Methods. A population based case-control study was conducted in an ethnically diverse community of New York. First ischemic stroke cases and community controls were enrolled and a stroke risk assessment performed. Data regarding population level economic indicators for each census tract was assembled using geocoding. Census variables were also grouped together to define a broader measure of collective disadvantage. We evaluated the likelihood of stroke for population-level variables controlling for individual social (education, social isolation, and insurance and vascular risk factors. Results. We age-, sex-, and race-ethnicity-matched 687 incident ischemic stroke cases to 1153 community controls. The mean age was 69 years: 60% women; 22% white, 28% black, and 50% Hispanic. After adjustment, the index of community level disadvantage (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.1 was associated with increased stroke likelihood overall and among all three race-ethnic groups. Conclusion. Social inequalities measured by census tract data including indices of community disadvantage confer a significant likelihood of ischemic stroke independent of conventional risk factors.

  14. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults.

  15. A Mobile Information System Based on Crowd-Sensed and Official Crime Data for Finding Safe Routes: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Mata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.

  16. Disparities in Reportable Communicable Disease Incidence by Census Tract-Level Poverty, New York City, 2006–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rector, Alison; Hadler, James L.; Fine, Annie D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We described disparities in selected communicable disease incidence across area-based poverty levels in New York City, an area with more than 8 million residents and pronounced household income inequality. Methods. We geocoded and categorized cases of 53 communicable diseases diagnosed during 2006 to 2013 by census tract-based poverty level. Age-standardized incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for areas with 30% or more versus fewer than 10% of residents below the federal poverty threshold. Results. Diseases associated with high poverty included rickettsialpox (IRR = 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29, 5.95), chronic hepatitis C (IRR for new reports = 3.58; 95% CI = 3.50, 3.66), and malaria (IRR = 3.48; 95% CI = 2.97, 4.08). Diseases associated with low poverty included domestic tick-borne diseases acquired through travel to areas where infected vectors are prevalent, such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis (IRR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.19) and Lyme disease (IRR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.36). Conclusions. Residents of high poverty areas were disproportionately affected by certain communicable diseases that are amenable to public health interventions. Future work should clarify subgroups at highest risk, identify reasons for the observed associations, and use findings to support programs to minimize disparities. PMID:26180961

  17. Cross Sectional Association between Spatially Measured Walking Bouts and Neighborhood Walkability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Dar Hwang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Walking is the most popular choice of aerobic physical activity to improve health among U.S. adults. Physical characteristics of the home neighborhood can facilitate or hinder walking. The purpose of this study was to quantify neighborhood walking, using objective methods and to examine the association between counts of walking bouts in the home neighborhood and neighborhood walkability. This was a cross-sectional study of 106 adults who wore accelerometers and GPS devices for two weeks. Walking was quantified within 1, 2, and 3 km Euclidean (straight-line and network buffers around the geocoded home location. Walkability was estimated using a commercially available index. Walking bout counts increased with buffer size and were associated with walkability, regardless of buffer type or size (p < 0.001. Quantification of walking bouts within (and outside of pre-defined neighborhood buffers of different sizes and types allowed for the specification of walking locations to better describe and elucidate walking behaviors. These data support the concept that neighborhood characteristics can influence walking among adults.

  18. Developing Physician Migration Estimates for Workforce Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, George M; Fraher, Erin P

    2017-02-01

    To understand factors affecting specialty heterogeneity in physician migration. Physicians in the 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile data were matched to those in the 2013 file. Office locations were geocoded in both years to one of 293 areas of the country. Estimated utilization, calculated for each specialty, was used as the primary predictor of migration. Physician characteristics (e.g., specialty, age, sex) were obtained from the 2009 file. Area characteristics and other factors influencing physician migration (e.g., rurality, presence of teaching hospital) were obtained from various sources. We modeled physician location decisions as a two-part process: First, the physician decides whether to move. Second, conditional on moving, a conditional logit model estimates the probability a physician moved to a particular area. Separate models were estimated by specialty and whether the physician was a resident. Results differed between specialties and according to whether the physician was a resident in 2009, indicating heterogeneity in responsiveness to policies. Physician migration was higher between geographically proximate states with higher utilization for that specialty. Models can be used to estimate specialty-specific migration patterns for more accurate workforce modeling, including simulations to model the effect of policy changes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. RADAR INTERFEROMETRY APPLICATION FOR DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL IN MOUNT BROMO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorlaila Hayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the result and processing of digital elevation model (DEM using L-Band ALOS PALSAR data and two-pass radar interferometry method in Bromo Mountain region. Synthetic Aperture Radar is an advanced technology that has been used to monitor deformation, land cover change, image detection and especially topographic information such as DEM.  We used two scenes of SAR imageries to generate DEM extraction which assumed there is no deformation effect between two acquisitions. We could derive topographic information using phase difference by combining two single looks complex (SLC images called focusing process. The next steps were doing interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. DEM-InSAR was compared to SRTM 90m that there were significant elevation differences between two DEMs such as smoothing surface and detail topographic. Particularly for hilly areas, DEM-InSAR showed better quality than SRTM 90 m where the elevation could have 25.94 m maximum gap. Although the processing involved adaptive filter to amplify the phase signal, we concluded that InSAR DEM result still had error noise because of signal wavelength, incidence angle, SAR image relationship, and only using ascending orbit direction.

  20. Extracting DEM from airborne X-band data based on PolInSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. X.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-06-01

    Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolInSAR) is a new trend of SAR remote sensing technology which combined polarized multichannel information and Interferometric information. It is of great significance for extracting DEM in some regions with low precision of DEM such as vegetation coverage area and building concentrated area. In this paper we describe our experiments with high-resolution X-band full Polarimetric SAR data acquired by a dual-baseline interferometric airborne SAR system over an area of Danling in southern China. Pauli algorithm is used to generate the double polarimetric interferometry data, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Numerical Radius (NR) and Phase diversity (PD) methods are used to generate the full polarimetric interferometry data. Then we can make use of the polarimetric interferometric information to extract DEM with processing of pre filtering , image registration, image resampling, coherence optimization, multilook processing, flat-earth removal, interferogram filtering, phase unwrapping, parameter calibration, height derivation and geo-coding. The processing system named SARPlore has been exploited based on VC++ led by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping. Finally compared optimization results with the single polarimetric interferometry, it has been observed that optimization ways can reduce the interferometric noise and the phase unwrapping residuals, and improve the precision of DEM. The result of full polarimetric interferometry is better than double polarimetric interferometry. Meanwhile, in different terrain, the result of full polarimetric interferometry will have a different degree of increase.

  1. Personal characteristics, cooking at home and shopping frequency influence consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Lee, Yu-Sheng; O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian; Myers, Leann; Terrell, Leonetta; Amoss, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Erin; Stevenson, Peter T; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2017-06-01

    This study examines how the consumption of fruits and vegetables is affected by home cooking habits and shopping patterns, including distance to patronized stores and frequency of shopping, in two low-income predominantly African American urban neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with 901 adult residents who identified themselves as the primary household shopper. Respondents were asked where and how often they shopped and answered a food frequency questionnaire. Addresses were geocoded and distances to the stores where respondents shopped were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between food consumption and personal factors, neighborhood factors and shopping habits. Consumption of daily servings of fresh produce increased by 3% for each additional trip to a grocery store, by 76% for shopping at a farmer's market, and by 38% for preparing food at home. Each additional trip to a convenience store increased the frequency of consumption of chips, candy and pastries by 3%. The distance from residence to the type of store patronized was not associated with consumption of produce or chips, candy or pastries. Shopping at full-service grocery stores, farmer's markets and cooking at home were positively associated with the consumption of fresh produce while shopping at convenience stores was associated with increased consumption of chips, candy and pastries. These findings are useful for designing programmatic interventions to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption among residents in low-income urban communities.

  2. Monitoring on subsidence due to repeated excavation with DInSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenguo; Bian Zhengfu; Lü Fuxiang; Dong Baoquan

    2013-01-01

    DInSAR technology was used to monitor subsidence caused by underground coal mining activities in mountainous area,with multi source SAR data,including 8 EnviSAT C-band and 4 ALOS L-band,and 4 programmed TerraSAR-X dataset.The results revealed that 2-pass DInSAR technique sometimes failed to retrieve the mining-caused subsidence due to spatial and/or temporal de-correlation.We also noticed that there existed residual topographic phase after the compensation with SRTM DEM,which could almost overwhelm the subsidence information when the perpendicular baseline was relatively large.Based on the mining materials,analysis was made on the shape of subsidence area.For the well geocoded results from TerraSAR-X,confirmed by GPS surveying results of corner reflectors,we tried to extract the advance distance of influence besides the subsidence area.Due to the big deformation gradient over stopingfaces,the X-band SAR data could not capture the maximum value subsidence revealed by GPS survey in our preliminary results,the same as C-band EnviSAT data.This will turn to be our research subject in the next few months.

  3. Geographic disparities in access to urban trauma care: defining the problem and identifying a solution for gunshot wound victims in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael; Behrens, Jess; Hsia, Renee; Crandall, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Timely transport to designated trauma centers impacts mortality following serious injury. We examined whether the distribution of trauma centers in Chicago has created disparities in access to trauma care. Using the Illinois State Trauma Registry, locations of Chicago-area gunshot wounds (GSWs) from 1999 to 2009 were geocoded and transport times were analyzed for pediatric (age ≤ 15) and adult (age ≥ 16) GSWs. A total of 11,744 included pediatric and adult GSWs were analyzed. Adults experienced longer mean transport times (11.3 vs 10.2 minutes, P < .001). Disproportionate numbers of adult GSW victims experienced over 30-minute transport times on Chicago's south side. Pediatric GSWs demonstrated no such disparity, likely attributable to the presence of a pediatric trauma center on the southeast side. Geographic disparities in access to trauma care exist even within urban trauma systems. The absence of an adult trauma center on Chicago's southeast side has contributed to these disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health risks in areas close to urban solid waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson; Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto do

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the association between living close to solid waste landfill sites and occurrences of cancer and congenital malformations among populations in their vicinity. Deaths among people living in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2002 were selected and geocoded, according to selected causes. Over the period evaluated, there were 351 deaths due to liver cancer, 160 due to bladder cancer and 224 due to leukemia, among adults, 25 due to childhood leukemia and 299 due to congenital malformation, in areas close to landfill sites. Buffer zones of radius 2 km around the 15 sites delimited the areas exposed. Standardized mortality ratios for each outcome were analyzed in Bayesian spatial models. In a general manner, the highest values for the standardized mortality ratios were found in more central areas of the municipality, while the landfill sites were located in more peripheral areas. The standardized mortality ratios did not indicate any excess risk for people living in areas close to solid waste landfill sites in the municipality of São Paulo. For landfill sites in operation, there was a greater risk of bladder and liver cancer, and death due to congenital malformation, but without statistical significance. No increase in the risk of cancer or congenital malformations was found in areas in the vicinity of urban waste dumps in the municipality of São Paulo. The weak associations and the imprecision of the estimates obtained did not allow any causal relationship to be established.

  5. Microcomputer-based vehicle routing and scheduling: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Commercially available vehicle-routing and scheduling packages were surveyed to assess capabilities, categorize key characteristics, compare individual packages, and select candidate software for additional testing. Among the key characteristics addressed were backhauling, distance and vehicle travel-time calculation, geocoding, speed zones, natural barriers, time-window constraints, vehicle/stop matching constraints, and other constraints such as vehicle/driver operating costs. The survey included review of vendor literature, telephone interviews, site visits to review software, and the testing of demonstration packages on a set of sample distribution networks. Thirteen packages were reviewed; these were categorized by price and performance as follows; (1) inexpensive packages (costing $2000 or less), which solve the basic vehicle-routing problem but are somewhat limited in their ability to handle large numbers of vehicles and stops; (2) medium-priced systems (from $5000 to $20,000), which offer more capability to handle constraints such as multiple pickup and delivery, time windows, and multiple depots and provide manual intervention capability and enhanced graphics; (3) very expensive systems (from $50,000 to about $150,000), which can handle real-time situations in scheduling last-minute route changes and employ sophisticated graphics tools to change route schedules interactively. Out of the 13 packages, four demonstration vehicle-routing packages were obtained for testing of 4 sample networks; two of the packages were found to be capable of solving most vehicle-routing problem constraints for two versions of 21-city and 30-city networks.

  6. Geostatistics and remote sensing as predictive tools of tick distribution: a cokriging system to estimate Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) habitat suitability in the United States and Canada from advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A

    1998-11-01

    Geostatistics (cokriging) was used to model the cross-correlated information between satellite-derived vegetation and climate variables and the distribution of the tick Ixodes scapularis (Say) in the Nearctic. Output was used to map the habitat suitability for I. scapularis on a continental scale. A data base of the localities where I. scapularis was collected in the United States and Canada was developed from a total of 346 published and geocoded records. This data base was cross-correlated with satellite pictures from the advanced very high resolution radiometer sensor obtained from 1984 to 1994 on the Nearctic at 10-d intervals, with a resolution of 8 km per pixel. Eight climate and vegetation variables were tabulated from this imagery. A cokriging system was generated to exploit satellite-derived data and to estimate the distribution of I. scapularis. Results obtained using 2 vegetation (standard NDVI) and 4 temperature variables closely agreed with actual records of the tick, with a sensitivity of 0.97 and a specificity of 0.89, with 6 and 4% of false-positive and false-negative sites, respectively. Such statistical analysis can be used to guide field work toward the correct interpretation of the distribution limits of I. scapularis and can also be used to make predictions about the impact of global change on tick range.

  7. Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihlén Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that air pollution from traffic has adverse long-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in children, but there are few studies and more inconclusive results in adults. We examined associations between residential traffic and asthma and COPD in adults in southern Sweden. A postal questionnaire in 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years provided disease status, and self-reported exposure to traffic. A Geographical Information System (GIS was used to link geocoded residential addresses to a Swedish road database and an emission database for NOx. Results Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/minute (compared with having no heavy road within this distance was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89, and COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.11–2.4, as well as asthma and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Self-reported traffic exposure was associated with asthma diagnosis and COPD diagnosis, and with asthma symptoms. Annual average NOx was associated with COPD diagnosis and symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Living close to traffic was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis, COPD diagnosis, and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This indicates that traffic-related air pollution has both long-term and short-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in adults, even in a region with overall low levels of air pollution.

  8. Vulnerability to the mortality effects of warm temperature in the districts of England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James E.; Blangiardo, Marta; Fecht, Daniela; Elliott, Paul; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-04-01

    Warm temperatures adversely affect disease occurrence and death, in extreme conditions as well as when the temperature changes are more modest. Therefore climate change, which is expected to affect both average temperatures and temperature variability, is likely to impact health even in temperate climates. Climate change risk assessment is enriched if there is information on vulnerability and resilience to effects of temperature. Some studies have analysed socio-demographic characteristics that make individuals vulnerable to adverse effects of temperature. Less is known about community-level vulnerability. We used geo-coded mortality and environmental data and Bayesian spatial methods to conduct a national small-area analysis of the mortality effects of warm temperature for all 376 districts in England and Wales. In the most vulnerable districts, those in London and south/southeast England, odds of dying from cardiorespiratory causes increased by more than 10% for 1 °C warmer temperature, compared with virtually no effect in the most resilient districts, which were in the far north. A 2 °C warmer summer may result in 1,552 (95% credible interval 1,307-1,762) additional deaths, about one-half of which would occur in 95 districts. The findings enable risk and adaptation analyses to incorporate local vulnerability to warm temperature and to quantify inequality in its effects.

  9. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hancilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious, infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities. Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarlı are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

  10. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  11. Intro to Google Maps and Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Clifford

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Google My Maps and Google Earth provide an easy way to start creating digital maps. With a Google Account you can create and edit personal maps by clicking on My Places. In My Maps you can choose between several different base maps (including the standard satellite, terrain, or standard maps and add points, lines and polygons. It is also possible to import data from a spreadsheet, if you have columns with geographical information (i.e. longitudes and latitudes or place names. This automates a formerly complex task known as geocoding. Not only is this one of the easiest ways to begin plotting your historical data on a map, but it also has the power of Google’s search engine. As you read about unfamiliar places in historical documents, journal articles or books, you can search for them using Google Maps. It is then possible to mark numerous locations and explore how they relate to each other geographically. Your personal maps are saved by Google (in their cloud, meaning you can access them from any computer with an internet connection. You can keep them private or embed them in your website or blog. Finally, you can export your points, lines, and polygons as KML files and open them in Google Earth or Quantum GIS.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spatial patterns of the JE disease can provide an understanding of geographical changes. Geospatial distribution of the JE disease outbreak is being investigated since 2005 in this study. The JE incidence data for the years 2005 to 2010 is used. The data is then geo-coded at block level. Spatial analysis is used to evaluate autocorrelation in JE distribution and to test the cases that are clustered or dispersed in space. The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation technique is used to predict the pattern of JE incidence distribution prevalent across the study area. Moran's I Index (Moran's I) statistics is used to evaluate autocorrelation in spatial distribution. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) is used to identify the disease areas. The results represent spatial disease patterns from 2005 to 2010, depicting spatially clustered patterns with significant differences between the blocks. It is observed that the blocks on the built up areas reported higher incidences.

  13. The unbuilt environment: culture moderates the built environment for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Andrew J; Caren, Neal; Skinner, Asheley C; Odulana, Adebowale; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-12-05

    While research has demonstrated a link between the built environment and obesity, much variation remains unexplained. Physical features are necessary, but not sufficient, for physical activity: residents must choose to use these features in health-promoting ways. This article reveals a role for local culture in tempering the effect of the physical environment on physical activity behaviors. We developed Systematic Cultural Observation (SCO) to observe place-based, health-related culture in Lenoir County, NC (population ~60,000). Photographs (N = 6450) were taken systematically from 150 most-used road segments and geocoded. Coders assessed physical activity (PA) opportunities (e.g., public or private activity spaces, pedestrian-friendly features) and presence of people in each photograph. 28.7% of photographs contained some PA feature. Most were private or pedestrian; 3.1% contained public PA space. Only 1.5% of photographs with any PA features (2% of those with public PA space, 0.7% of those with private) depicted people despite appropriate weather and daylight conditions. Even when PA opportunities existed in this rural county, they were rarely used. This may be the result of culture ("unbuilt environment") that disfavors physical activity even in the presence of features that allow it. Policies promoting built environments designed for healthy lifestyles should consider local culture (shared styles, skills, habits, and beliefs) to maximize positive outcomes.

  14. Identification of Urban Leprosy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Armani Paschoal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overpopulation of urban areas results from constant migrations that cause disordered urban growth, constituting clusters defined as sets of people or activities concentrated in relatively small physical spaces that often involve precarious conditions. Aim. Using residential grouping, the aim was to identify possible clusters of individuals in São José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, who have or have had leprosy. Methods. A population-based, descriptive, ecological study using the MapInfo and CrimeStat techniques, geoprocessing, and space-time analysis evaluated the location of 425 people treated for leprosy between 1998 and 2010. Clusters were defined as concentrations of at least 8 people with leprosy; a distance of up to 300 meters between residences was adopted. Additionally, the year of starting treatment and the clinical forms of the disease were analyzed. Results. Ninety-eight (23.1% of 425 geocoded cases were located within one of ten clusters identified in this study, and 129 cases (30.3% were in the region of a second-order cluster, an area considered of high risk for the disease. Conclusion. This study identified ten clusters of leprosy cases in the city and identified an area of high risk for the appearance of new cases of the disease.

  15. Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Martinez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914. HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995 and late period (1996–2005. We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time.

  16. Exploring neighborhood inequality in female breast cancer incidence in Tehran using Bayesian spatial models and a spatial scan statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayubi, Erfan; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Motlagh, Ali Ghanbari; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Hosseini, Ali; Yazdani, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC) incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran. The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method. The purely spatial scan statistic was used to identify spatial clusters. There were 4,175 incident BC cases in the study area from 2008 to 2011, of which 3,080 were successfully geocoded to the neighborhood level. Higher than expected rates of BC were found in neighborhoods located in northern and central Tehran, whereas lower rates appeared in southern areas. The most likely cluster of higher than expected BC incidence involved neighborhoods in districts 3 and 6, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 3.92 (p<0.001), whereas the most likely cluster of lower than expected rates involved neighborhoods in districts 17, 18, and 19, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 0.05 (p<0.001). Neighborhood-level inequality in the incidence of BC exists in Tehran. These findings can serve as a basis for resource allocation and preventive strategies in at-risk areas.

  17. FOOD SHOPPING BEHAVIORS AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INFLUENCE OBESITY RATES IN SEATTLE AND IN PARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Jiao, Junfeng; Aggarwal, Anju; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Methods Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7,131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on socio-demographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Results Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values, and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Conclusion Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments, and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health. PMID:23736365

  18. Food environment and socioeconomic status influence obesity rates in Seattle and in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Moudon, A V; Jiao, J; Aggarwal, A; Charreire, H; Chaix, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on sociodemographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS (Geographic Information System) network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health.

  19. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-06-01

    The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-level modeling of social factors and preterm delivery in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jay S; Alonso, Faustino T; Pino, Paulina

    2008-10-08

    Birth before the 37th week of gestation (preterm birth) is an important cause of infant and neonatal mortality, but has been little studied outside of wealthy nations. Chile is an urbanized Latin American nation classified as "middle-income" based on its annual income per capita of about $6000. We studied the relations between maternal social status and neighborhood social status on risk of preterm delivery in this setting using multilevel regression analyses of vital statistics data linked to geocoded decennial census data. The analytic data set included 56,970 births from 2004 in the metropolitan region of Santiago, which constitutes about 70% of all births in the study area and about 25% of all births in Chile that year. Dimensionality of census data was reduced using principal components analysis, with regression scoring to create a single index of community socioeconomic advantage. This was modeled along with years of maternal education in order to predict preterm birth and preterm low birthweight. Births in Santiago displayed an advantaged pattern of preterm risk, with only 6.4% of births delivering before 37 weeks. Associations were observed between risk of outcomes and individual and neighborhood factors, but the magnitudes of these associations were much more modest than reported in North America. While several potential explanations for this relatively flat social gradient might be considered, one possibility is that Chile's egalitarian approach to universal prenatal care may have reduced social inequalities in these reproductive outcomes.

  1. Population-based surveillance of pediatric pneumonia: use of spatial analysis in an urban area of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de Andrade

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial distribution of childhood community-acquired pneumonia detected through prospective surveillance in Goiânia, Brazil. Three spatial analysis techniques were applied to detect intra-urban geographic aggregation of pneumonia cases: Kernel method, nearest neighbor hierarchical technique, and spatial scan statistic. A total of 724 pneumonia cases confirmed by chest radiography were identified from May 2000 to August 2001. All cases were geocoded on a digital map. The annual pneumonia risk rate was estimated at 566 cases/100,000 children. Analysis using traditional descriptive epidemiology showed a mosaic distribution of pneumonia rates, while GIS methodologies showed a non-random pattern with hot spots of pneumonia. Cluster analysis by spatial scan statistic identified two high-risk areas for pneumonia occurrence, including one most likely cluster (RR = 2.1; p < 0.01 and one secondary cluster (RR = 1.3; p = 0.01. The data used for the study are in line with recent WHO-led efforts to improve and standardize pediatric pneumonia surveillance in developing countries and show how GIS and spatial analysis can be applied to discriminate target areas of pneumonia for public heath intervention.

  2. Population-based surveillance of pediatric pneumonia: use of spatial analysis in an urban area of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial distribution of childhood community-acquired pneumonia detected through prospective surveillance in Goiânia, Brazil. Three spatial analysis techniques were applied to detect intra-urban geographic aggregation of pneumonia cases: Kernel method, nearest neighbor hierarchical technique, and spatial scan statistic. A total of 724 pneumonia cases confirmed by chest radiography were identified from May 2000 to August 2001. All cases were geocoded on a digital map. The annual pneumonia risk rate was estimated at 566 cases/100,000 children. Analysis using traditional descriptive epidemiology showed a mosaic distribution of pneumonia rates, while GIS methodologies showed a non-random pattern with hot spots of pneumonia. Cluster analysis by spatial scan statistic identified two high-risk areas for pneumonia occurrence, including one most likely cluster (RR = 2.1; p < 0.01 and one secondary cluster (RR = 1.3; p = 0.01. The data used for the study are in line with recent WHO-led efforts to improve and standardize pediatric pneumonia surveillance in developing countries and show how GIS and spatial analysis can be applied to discriminate target areas of pneumonia for public heath intervention.

  3. SENTINEL-1/2 Data for Ship Traffic Monitoring on the Danube River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negula, I. Dana; Poenaru, V. D.; Olteanu, V. G.; Badea, A.

    2016-06-01

    After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc.) were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  4. The influence of social networks in visiting, planning and living in cities. Alexplore: A pilot project in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sameh Taha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work aims at identifying the potentials of mobile social networking and geo-coding to promote cities, as well as to test their usefulness as decision support systems for planners. Alexplore is an application that was developed by planners rather than IT specialists using emerging web 2.0 technologies. Penetration rates of mobile internet access, as well as smartphone usage ensure a solid base for such applications worldwide as well as in Egypt. This paper traces the influence of social networks on tourism and city planning through the past decade and pinpoints its contributions and constraints. It highlights the potentials of social networks for tourists, planners, and citizens. Through the paper, the concept, technology, functionality, and limitations of Alexplore are thoroughly explained. In spite of current shortcomings, Alexplore provides solid benefits for its different stakeholders. Few concerns occur due to the proper application of ethical rules to social networking as well as due to fear of over dependency on such techniques. It is believed that with the development of the technology, many currently functional issues will be alleviated. Last, Alexplore should not be regarded as a replacement for traditional planning methods, but rather a useful augmentation to it.

  5. The one meter shop concept: e-CORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikidis, J.-P.; Favier, J.-J.; Jeanjean, H.; Husson, A.

    2008-07-01

    The pressing need for dispatched information anytime anywhere has until now fueled technology and economy beyond any prospect. Needless to recall, mobile telephony success or GPS navigation kits come close to becoming standard equipment for any production cars. Space imagery is in turn close to meeting its "killing application" thanks to the advent of mass geocoded portals of information fully dependent on their ability to show the whole globe to the meter resolution or close for the comfort of the worldwide Intranet community. Space industry is at stake and is facing a new challenge, not only technical but also economical that could be called "the one meter shop". The question now raised is: can we provide a massive and automated representation of the whole Earth with 1-m resolution and on a daily basis? The presentation will introduce the e-CORCE constellation project, and the disruptive technological avenues that are today contemplated for its realization. Based on a three-layer concept associating the virtues of low cost and simplified constellations, advanced decentralized telecom systems and information GRIDs tuned to the need of internauts, the revolutionary e-CORCE project is paving the way for a novel approach, integrating space and Web information handled in a unified shell.

  6. The spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis in Linyi City, China, 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a major public health burden in many developing countries. China alone accounted for an estimated 12% of all incident TB cases worldwide in 2010. Several studies showed that the spatial distribution of TB was nonrandom and clustered. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial epidemiology of TB in Linyi City, which can provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. Methods The study was based on the reported cases of TB, between 2005 and 2010. 35,308 TB cases were geo-coded at the town level (n = 180. The spatial empirical Bayes smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and space-time scan statistic were used in this analysis. Results Spatial distribution of TB in Linyi City from 2005 to 2010 was mapped at town level in the aspects of crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. The spatial distribution of TB was nonrandom and clustered with the significant Moran’s I for each year. Local Gi* detected five significant spatial clusters for high incidence of TB. The space-time analysis identified one most likely cluster and nine secondary clusters for high incidence of TB. Conclusions There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant TB clusters in Linyi City, China. The result of this study may assist health departments to develop a better preventive strategy and increase the public health intervention’s effectiveness.

  7. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  8. Land cover/use mapping using multi-band imageries captured by Cropcam Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autopilot (UAV) over Penang Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuyi, Tan; Boon Chun, Beh; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Hwee San, Lim; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Mohammad Tahrin, Norhaslinda

    2012-11-01

    The problem of difficulty in obtaining cloud-free scene at the Equatorial region from satellite platforms can be overcome by using airborne imagery. Airborne digital imagery has proved to be an effective tool for land cover studies. Airborne digital camera imageries were selected in this present study because of the airborne digital image provides higher spatial resolution data for mapping a small study area. The main objective of this study is to classify the RGB bands imageries taken from a low-altitude Cropcam UAV for land cover/use mapping over USM campus, penang Island, Malaysia. A conventional digital camera was used to capture images from an elevation of 320 meter on board on an UAV autopilot. This technique was cheaper and economical compared with other airborne studies. The artificial neural network (NN) and maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) were used to classify the digital imageries captured by using Cropcam UAV over USM campus, Penang Islands, Malaysia. The supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy (statistic (<0.8). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocoded map. The results produced by this study indicated that land cover features could be clearly identified and classified into a land cover map. This study indicates the use of a conventional digital camera as a sensor on board on an UAV autopilot can provide useful information for planning and development of a small area of coverage.

  9. SENTINEL-1/2 DATA FOR SHIP TRAFFIC MONITORING ON THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dana Negula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc. were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  10. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  11. Associations of Fast Food Restaurant Availability With Dietary Intake and Weight Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Smith, Adam E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Gore, Larry D.; Zhang, Lei; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. Methods. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ±12.6 years, 63.3% women). We estimated FFR availability using circular buffers with differing radii centered at each participant's geocoded residential location. Results. We observed no consistent associations between FFR availability and BMI or waist circumference. Greater FFR availability was associated with higher energy intake among men and women younger than 55 years, even after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status. For each standard deviation increase in 5-mile FFR availability, the energy intake increased by 138 kilocalories (confidence interval [CI] = 70.53, 204.75) for men and 58 kilocalories (CI = 8.55, 105.97) for women. We observed similar associations for the 2-mile FFR availability, especially in men. FFR availability was also unexpectedly positively associated with total fiber intake. Conclusions. FFR availability may contribute to greater energy intake in younger African Americans who are also more likely to consume fast food. PMID:21551382

  12. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Ögren

    Full Text Available Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure.

  13. Locative media and data-driven computing experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yueh Perng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades urban social life has undergone a rapid and pervasive geocoding, becoming mediated, augmented and anticipated by location-sensitive technologies and services that generate and utilise big, personal, locative data. The production of these data has prompted the development of exploratory data-driven computing experiments that seek to find ways to extract value and insight from them. These projects often start from the data, rather than from a question or theory, and try to imagine and identify their potential utility. In this paper, we explore the desires and mechanics of data-driven computing experiments. We demonstrate how both locative media data and computing experiments are ‘staged’ to create new values and computing techniques, which in turn are used to try and derive possible futures that are ridden with unintended consequences. We argue that using computing experiments to imagine potential urban futures produces effects that often have little to do with creating new urban practices. Instead, these experiments promote Big Data science and the prospect that data produced for one purpose can be recast for another and act as alternative mechanisms of envisioning urban futures.

  14. GeoComp-n, an advanced system for the processing of coarse and medium resolution satellite data. Part 2: biophysical products for Northern ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, J. [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Chen, J. [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, Z. [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Maryland, Dept of Meteorology, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    2002-02-01

    Effective use of satellite data for environmental monitoring requires consistent, high-throughput processing of large volumes of data as it is transformed from raw measurements to useful higher level products. 'GeoComp-n', the next generation of the Geocoding and Compositing System developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada, was developed as a software solution to this challenge, for use with satellites that provide daily data for the landmass of Canada or comparably large areas. In this paper, the authors discuss the characteristics of the algorithms and methods used in the generation of GeoComp-n products. The theoretical basis and assumptions in the algorithms are described, and the quality of the products is discussed based on validation studies. Examples of a suite of products for Canada during one 10-day period illustrate the diversity and quality of observations for the terrestrial biosphere that may be derived frequently and over large areas from satellites. Issues related to quality assessment in a production environment are also discussed. (author)

  15. Prisons as Panacea or Pariah? The Countervailing Consequences of the Prison Boom on the Political Economy of Rural Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Eason

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nascent literature on prison proliferation in the United States typically reveals negative impacts for communities of color. Given that Southern rural communities were the most likely to build during the prison boom (1970–2010, however, a more nuanced understanding of prison impact is warranted. Using a dataset matching and geocoding all 1663 U.S. prisons with their Census-appointed place, this study explores the countervailing consequences of the prison boom on rural towns across multiple periods. For example, locales that adopted prisons at earlier stages of the prison boom era received a short-term boom compared to those that did not, but these effects were not lasting. Furthermore, later in the boom, prison-building protected towns against additional economic decline. Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation. Methodological, substantive, theoretical, and policy implications regarding the intersection of race and punishment are explored.

  16. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Richard Hoebeke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes in North America.

  17. Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Ding

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram.

  18. Spatial distribution of scorpions according to the socioeconomic conditions in Campina Grande,State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thassiany Sarmento Oliveira de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to its frequency and morbidity, such as that caused by scorpions have achieved public health importance in certain regions of the world. The present exploratory ecological study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile and spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Campina Grande, State of Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Geographical information system techniques were used to record the scorpion stings, and Google Earth software, Track Maker, and ArcGIS 10 Esri were used as geocoding databases. The Moran test was used to evaluate spatial correlation, and the Pearson chi-square test was used to analyze associations between scorpion stings and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,466 scorpion stings. Envenomations were more frequent among women (n = 908, 61.9%, and most patients were aged 13-28 years (n = 428, 29.2%. The Southern region of the city had the largest number of registered cases (n = 548, 37.4%, followed by the Western region (n = 510, 34.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis of scorpionism revealed an irregular occurrence in Campina Grande. Further, no association was observed between the socioeconomic factors analyzed and the geographic location of the scorpion envenomations. Detection of spatial areas with an increased risk of scorpionism can help prioritize adoption of preventive measures in these regions to reduce the associated incidence and morbidity.

  19. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  20. A spatial approach for the epidemiology of antibiotic use and resistance in community-based studies: the emergence of urban clusters of Escherichia coli quinolone resistance in Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Trevor C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population antimicrobial use may influence resistance emergence. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon due to potential transmissibility. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ciprofloxacin (CIP population consumption related to E. coli resistance emergence and dissemination in a major Brazilian city. A total of 4,372 urinary tract infection E. coli cases, with 723 CIP resistant, were identified in 2002 from two outpatient centres. Cases were address geocoded in a digital map. Raw CIP consumption data was transformed into usage density in DDDs by CIP selling points influence zones determination. A stochastic model coupled with a Geographical Information System was applied for relating resistance and usage density and for detecting city areas of high/low resistance risk. Results E. coli CIP resistant cluster emergence was detected and significantly related to usage density at a level of 5 to 9 CIP DDDs. There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. Conclusions There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. The usage density of 5-9 CIP DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants within the same influence zone was the resistance triggering level. This level led to E. coli resistance clustering, proving that individual resistance emergence and dissemination was affected by antimicrobial population consumption.

  1. Effect of individual or neighborhood disadvantage on the association between neighborhood walkability and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Quinn, James W; Weiss, Christopher C; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    We sought to test whether the association between walkable environments and lower body mass index (BMI) was stronger within disadvantaged groups that may be particularly sensitive to environmental constraints. We measured height and weight in a diverse sample of 13 102 adults living throughout New York City from 2000-2002. Each participant's home address was geocoded and surrounded by a circular buffer with a 1-km radius. The composition and built environment characteristics of these areas were used to predict BMI through the use of generalized estimating equations. Indicators of individual or area disadvantage included low educational attainment, low household income, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity. Higher population density, more mixed land use, and greater transit access were most consistently associated with a lower BMI among those with more education or higher incomes and among non-Hispanic Whites. Significant interactions were observed for education, income, race, and ethnicity. Contrary to expectations, built environment characteristics were less consistently associated with BMI among disadvantaged groups. This pattern may be explained by other barriers to maintaining a healthy weight encountered by disadvantaged groups.

  2. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  3. Range determination for generating point clouds from airborne small footprint LiDAR waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuchu; Vu, Tuong Thuy; Ban, Yifang; Niu, Zheng

    2012-11-05

    This paper presents a range determination approach for generating point clouds from small footprint LiDAR waveforms. Waveform deformation over complex terrain area is simulated using convolution. Drift of the peak center position is analyzed to identify the first echo returned by the illuminated objects in the LiDAR footprint. An approximate start point of peak in the waveform is estimated and adopted as the indicator of range calculation; range correction method is proposed to correct pulse widening over complex terrain surface. The experiment was carried out on small footprint LiDAR waveform data acquired by RIEGL LMS-Q560. The results suggest that the proposed approach generates more points than standard commercial products; based on field measurements, a comparative analysis between the point clouds generated by the proposed approach and the commercial software GeocodeWF indicates that: 1). the proposed approach obtained more accurate tree heights; 2). smooth surface can be achieved with low standard deviation. In summary, the proposed approach provides a satisfactory solution for range determination in estimating 3D coordinate values of point clouds, especially for correcting range information of waveforms containing deformed peaks.

  4. Accuracy improvement of geometric correction for CHRIS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-zhong; PANG Yong; GUO Zhi-feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a new type of multi-angle remotely sensed data---CHRIS (the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), by using rational function models (RFM) and rigorous sensor models (RSM). For ortho-rectifying an image set, a rigorous sensor model-Toutin's model was employed and a set of reported parameters including across track angle, along track angle, IFOV, altitude, period, eccentricity and orbit inclination were input, then, the orbit calculation was started and the track information was given to the raw data. The images were ortho-rectified with geocoded ASTER images and digital elevation (DEM) data. Results showed that with 16 ground control points (GCPs), the correction accuracy decreased with view zenith angle, and the RMSE value increased to be over one pixel at 36 degree off-nadir. When the GCPs were approximately chosen as in Toutin's model, a RFM with three coefficients produced the same accuracy trend versus view zenith angle while the RMSEs for all angles were improved and within about one pixel.

  5. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  6. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, E Richard; Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America.

  7. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  8. Atmospheric pressure changes and unexplained variability in INR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael E; Shaw, Robert F; Ernst, Erika J; Alexander, Bruce; Kaboli, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Changes in atmospheric pressure may influence hepatic blood flow and drug metabolism. Anecdotal experience suggests international normalized ratio (INR) variability may be temporally related to significant atmospheric pressure changes. We investigated this potential association in a large sample of patients with multiple INRs. This is a retrospective review of outpatient anticoagulation records from the Iowa City Veteran's Affairs Medical Center and affiliated outpatient clinics from October 1999 to July 2007. All patients, receiving at least one prescription for warfarin and INR at least 30 days or more from the date of the first warfarin prescription, were identified. INRs during periods of hospitalization and vitamin K use were excluded. Proximity analysis using geocoding of ZIP codes of identified patients to the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration station was performed to assign atmospheric pressure with INR. Spearman's Rho and Pearson's correlation were used to evaluate atmospheric pressure and INR. Unique patients (1441) with 45 187 INRs were analyzed. When limited to nontherapeutic INRs following a previously therapeutic INR (1121 unique patients/5256 INRs), a small but clinically insignificant association between delta INR and delta atmospheric pressure was observed (r = -0.025; P = 0.038), but not for actual INR and atmospheric pressure (P = 0.06). Delta atmospheric pressure demonstrated greater variation during fall/winter months compared with spring/summer (0.23 vs. 0.15 inHg; P atmospheric pressure changes and INR variability. These findings refute the anecdotal experience seen in our anticoagulation clinic.

  9. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) adaption in National Early Warning Alerting Systems of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In China, from local communities to entire nations, there was a patchwork of specialized hazard public alerting systems. And each system was often designed just for certain emergency situations and for certain communications media. Application took place in the NEWAS (National Early Warning Alerting Systems) [2]project where CAP serves as central message to integrate all kind of hazard situations, including the natural calamity, accident disaster, public health emergency , social safety etc. Officially operated on May 2015, NEWAS now has completed docking work with 14 departments including civil administration, safety supervision, forestry, land, water conservancy, earthquake, traffic, meteorology, agriculture, tourism, food and drug supervision, public security and oceanic administration. Thus, several items in CAP has been modified, redefined and extended according to the various grading standards and publishing strategies, as well as the characteristics of Chinese Geocoding. NEWAS successfully delivers information to end users through 4 levels (i.e. State, province, prefecture and county) structure and by various means. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] http://www.12379.cn/

  10. Exposure to Selected Geogenic Trace Elements (I, Li, and Sr from Drinking Water in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denitza Dimitrova Voutchkova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring geogenic elements iodine (I, lithium (Li, and strontium (Sr have a beneficial effect on human health. Iodine has an essential role in human metabolism while Li and Sr are used, respectively, as a treatment for various mental disorders and for post-menopausal osteoporosis. The aim here is to evaluate the potential for future epidemiological investigations in Denmark of lifelong and chronic exposure to low doses of these compounds. The drinking water data represents approximately 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supplies approximately 2.5 million persons. The spatial patterns were studied using inverse distance weighted interpolation and cluster analysis. The exposed population was estimated based on two datasets: (1 population density in the smallest census unit, the parishes, and (2 geocoded addresses where at least one person is residing. We found significant spatial variation in the exposure for all three elements, related mainly to geochemical processes. This suggests a prospective opportunity for future epidemiological investigation of long-term effects of I, Li, and Sr, either alone or in combinations with other geogenic elements such as Ca, Mg or F.

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  12. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Perepresentasian Data Perilaku Pengemudi Mobil Berbasis Android Menggunakan Sensor Accelerometer dan Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dery Rahma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semakin meningkatnya popularitas smartphone dari tahun ke tahun, semakin meningkat pula jumlah aplikasi perangkat bergerak yang berkaitan dengan keamanan dalam berkemudi. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan aplikasi perangkat bergerak lain yang dapat mendeteksi pergerakan mobil yang normal dan berbahaya menggunakan sensor accelerometer dan orientation yang berasal dari smartphone serta tanpa memerlukan sensor hardware tambahan. Arsitektur aplikasi perangkat bergerak ini berbasis client-server, dimana web service melayani permintaan dari aplikasi client berbasis Android. Aplikasi ini juga menggabungkan beberapa teknologi lain seperti Geolocation API, Geocoding API, dan Android Sensor API. Teknologi-teknologi tersebut digunakan untuk mengetahui kecepatan mobil, lokasi terkini dari pengemudi, dan merekam pola gerakan mobil melalui representasi nilai-nilai sensor accelerometer dan orientation.Tujuan dari dikembangkannya aplikasi perangkat bergerak untuk tugas akhir ini adalah untuk membantu pihak kepolisian lalu lintas dalam mendapatkan data pergerakan mobil berupa raw data 2-axis yang direkam oleh sensor accelerometer dan orientation pada smartphone Android ketika pengemudi mengendarai mobil. Data-data tersebut nantinya digunakan untuk membantu mendeteksi riwayat pola berkendara seorang pengemudi.

  13. Beyond Access: Characteristics of the Food Environment and Risk of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Li, Xinjun; Cederin, Klas; Rice, Kristen; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-06-15

    Characteristics of the built environment, including access to unhealthy food outlets, are hypothesized to contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Swedish nationwide registry data on 4,718,583 adults aged 35-80 years living in 9,353 neighborhoods, each with at least 1 food outlet, were geocoded and linked to commercial registers (e.g., restaurants and grocery stores). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the prospective relationship between characteristics of the food environment and T2D from 2005 to 2010. Relative access to health-harming food outlets was associated with greater likelihood of both prevalent and incident T2D in a curvilinear manner, with the highest risk being observed for environments in which one-third of outlets were health-harming. Relative to individuals whose food environment did not change, those who moved into areas with more health-harming food outlets had higher odds of developing T2D (odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval: 2.14, 6.30). Among those who did not move, living in an area that gained relative access to health-harming food outlets was also associated with higher odds of T2D (odds ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.33). These results suggest that local food environment, including changes that result in greater access to unhealthy food outlets, is associated with T2D.

  14. Spatial Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  15. Geographic information systems and chronic kidney disease: racial disparities, rural residence and forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Hotchkiss, John R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of health and health care provision in the United States vary substantially across regions, and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in population density, age distribution, disease prevalence, race and ethnicity, poverty and the ability to access care. Geocoding and geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools to link patient or population location to information regarding these characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of basic GIS concepts and provide examples to illustrate how GIS techniques have been applied to the study of kidney disease, and in particular to understanding the interplay between race, poverty, rural residence and the planning of renal services for this population. The interplay of socioeconomic status and renal disease outcomes remains an important area for investigation and recent publications have explored this relationship utilizing GIS techniques to incorporate measures of socioeconomic status and racial composition of neighborhoods. In addition, there are many potential challenges in providing care to rural patients with chronic kidney disease including long travel times and sparse renal services such as transplant and dialysis centers. Geospatially fluent analytic approaches can also inform system level analyses of health care systems and these approaches can be applied to identify an optimal distribution of dialysis facilities. GIS analysis could help untangle the complex interplay between geography, socioeconomic status, and racial disparities in chronic kidney disease, and could inform policy decisions and resource allocation as the population ages and the prevalence of renal disease increases.

  16. Separate and unequal: the influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng

    2010-08-01

    Social science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school racial demographics, and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. We geocoded fast food locations from 2006 (n=817) and schools from 2004-2005 (n=2096; public and private, elementary and secondary) in the five boroughs of New York City. A point process model (inhomogeneous cross-K function) examined spatial clustering. A minimum of 25% of schools had a fast food restaurant within 400 m. High schools had higher fast food clustering than elementary schools. Public elementary and high schools with large proportions of Black students or in block groups with large proportions of Black residents had higher clustering than White counterparts. Finally, public high schools had higher clustering than private counterparts, with 1.25 to 2 times as many restaurants than expected by chance. The results suggest that the geography of opportunity as it relates to school food environments is unequal in New York City. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  18. A closer examination of the relationship between children's weight status and the food and physical activity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Lloyd, Kristen; Delia, Derek; Tulloch, David; Yedidia, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Conflicting findings on associations between food and physical activity (PA) environments and children's weight status demand attention in order to inform effective interventions. We assess relationships between the food and PA environments in inner-city neighborhoods and children's weight status and address sources of conflicting results of prior research. Weight status of children ages 3-18 was assessed using parent-measured heights and weights. Data were collected from 702 children living in four low-income cities in New Jersey between 2009 and 2010. Proximity of a child's residence to a variety of food and PA outlets was measured in multiple ways using geo-coded data. Multivariate analyses assessed the association between measures of proximity and weight status. Significant associations were observed between children's weight status and proximity to convenience stores in the 1/4 mile radius (OR = 1.9) and with presence of a large park in the 1/2 mile radius (OR = 0.41). No associations were observed for other types of food and PA outlets. Specific aspects of the food and PA environments are predictors of overweight and obese status among children, but the relationships and their detection are dependent upon aspects of the geospatial landscape of each community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  20. Associations between food environment around schools and professionally measured weight status for middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuyang; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Abbott, Joshua K; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (pstores, that offer healthy food options and supermarkets around middle and high schools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students.

  1. Changes in the food environment over time: examining 40 years of data in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Seward, Michael W; James O'Malley, A; Subramanian, S V; Block, Jason P

    2017-06-24

    Research has explored associations between diet, body weight, and the food environment; however, few studies have examined historical trends in food environments. In the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (N = 3321) and Omni (N = 447) cohorts, we created food environment metrics in four Massachusetts towns utilizing geocoded residential, workplace, and food establishment addresses from 1971 to 2008. We created multilevel models adjusted for age, sex, education, and census tract poverty to examine trends in home, workplace, and commuting food environments. Proximity to and density of supermarkets, fast-food, full service restaurants, convenience stores, and bakeries increased over time for residential, workplace, and commuting environments; exposure to grocery stores decreased. The greatest increase in access was for supermarkets, with residential distance to the closest supermarket 1406 m closer (95% CI 1303 m, 1508 m) by 2005-2008 than in 1971-1975. Although poorer census tracts had higher access to fast-food restaurants consistently across follow-up, this disparity dissipated over time, due to larger increases in proximity to fast-food in wealthier neighborhoods. Access to most food establishment types increased over time, with similar trends across home, workplace, and commuter environments.

  2. Residential property values are associated with obesity among women in King County, WA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Studies of social determinants of weight and health in the US have typically relied on self-reported education and incomes as the two primary measures of socioeconomic status (SES). The assessed value of one's home, an important component of wealth, may be a better measure of the underlying SES construct and a better predictor of obesity. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS), conducted in 2008-9, was a cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey of 2001 adults in King County, Washington State, US. Participants' addresses were geocoded and residential property values for each tax parcel were obtained from the county tax assessor's database. Prevalence ratios of obesity by property values, education, and household income were estimated separately for women and men, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, household size, employment status and home ownership. Among women, the inverse association between property values and obesity was very strong and independent of other SES factors. Women in the bottom quartile of property values were 3.4 times more likely to be obese than women in the top quartile. No association between property values and obesity was observed for men. The present data strengthen the evidence for a social gradient in obesity among women. Property values may represent a novel and objective measure of SES at the individual level in the US. Measures based on tax assessment data will provide a valuable resource for future health studies.

  3. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA and Seattle (WA, USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  5. Examining fire department injury data as a tool for epidemiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elise C; Shields, Wendy C; O'Brocki, Raymond; Bishai, David; Frattaroli, Shannon; Jones, Vanya; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Residential fires, while constituting a small fraction of fire incidents, are responsible for the majority of civilian fire-related injuries. This study investigates census tract neighborhood socioeconomic factors as correlates of civilian injuries occurring during residential fires in Baltimore, Maryland, between 2004 and 2007. Civilian residential fire related injuries were geocoded and linked to the American Community Survey 2005-2009 data. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze the relationship between fire-injury rates and neighborhood socioeconomic indicators including household income and percentages of households below the poverty line, persons aged 25 years or older with at least a bachelor's degree, homes built in 1939 or earlier, vacant properties, and owner-occupied homes. Between January 2004 and July 2007, there were 482 civilian fire-related injuries that occurred during 309 fires. At the census tract level, a 10% increase in the number of vacant homes was associated with an increase in injury rates by a factor of 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.55). A 10% increase in persons aged more than 25 years with at least a bachelor's degree was associated with a decrease in injury rates by a factor of 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.77-0.96). Neighborhood measures of education and housing age proved good indicators for identifying areas with a higher burden of fire-related injuries. Such analyses can be useful for fire department planning.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silva Dias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma.

  7. Supporting Management of European Refugee Streams by Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komp, K.-U.; Müterthies, A.

    2016-06-01

    The sharp increase in refugee numbers arriving in the European Union has recently caused major and manifold challenges for the member states and their administrative services. Location based situation reports and maps may support the refugee management from local to European level. The first support is mapping of the geographical distribution of migrating people which needs more or less real time data. The actual data sources are location related observations along the routes of refugees, actual satellite observations and data mining results. These tools and data are used to monitor spatial distributions as well as extrapolate the arrival of refugees for the subsequent weeks. The second support is the short term update of the location of initial registration facilities and first reception facilities, their capacities, and their occupancy. The third management level is the systematic inquiry for unoccupied housing facilities and for empty places within build-up areas. Geo-coded data sets of house numbers have to be cross-referenced with city maps and communal inhabitants address data. The legal aspects of data mining and secured access to personal data are strictly controlled by the administration allowing only limited access and distribution of data and results. However, the paper will not disclose scientific progress in Earth Observation and GIS, but will actually demonstrate an urgently needed new combination of existing methods to support actual needs. The societal benefits of EO/GIS are no longer just potential possibilities, but actual results in real political, administrative and humanitarian day to day reality.

  8. Analysis of full-waveform LiDAR pulse properties for vegetation discrimination and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieber, K.; Davenport, I.; Ferryman, J.; Gurney, R.; Walker, J.; Hacker, J.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate information about vegetation/forest structure, health and growth is needed in many fields of forest management, environmental planning, resource management, fire risk assessment and soil moisture retrievals. Airborne laser scanning has proven over the last nearly two decades to be an invaluable tool in describing vegetation and providing 3D information about its structure. In particular, the new generation full-waveform laser scanners offer an excellent source of not only accurate XYZ information, but also allow the extraction of additional parameters in the process of light curve analysis and interpretation. This analysis was carried out on full-waveform airborne LiDAR data that was collected with a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument in the Yanco area (NSW) in Australia. The initial analysis was performed on the data acquired in 2006 during the National Airborne Field Experiment. The way the waveform data was extracted made it impossible for the targets included in the footprint to be geo-coded accurately. Nevertheless it was still possible to analyse the waveforms' shapes. For the purpose of this experiment two test sites were chosen - one very small site covering only a single Eucalyptus tree, and the second over an orange orchard (218m by 110m). Analysis included peaks detection, pulse width calculation and waveforms classification according to the number of peaks present within them. Subsequently, an amplitude-width analysis was carried out, including two-tailed t-tests, histograms and scatter plots. Based on the assumption that the first and middle returns were from vegetation (due to specifics of the sites), it was concluded from the analysis that vegetation returns are wide and weak (wider than emitted pulse). The scatter plots of amplitude versus width according to the pulse type played a crucial role in the analysis - they clearly indicated different 'fingerprints' of vegetation and last return (assumed to be a mixture of vegetation and ground returns

  9. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of SAR data has become increasingly popular in recent years and in a wide array of industries. Having access to SAR can be highly important and critical especially for public safety. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. SAR imaging offers the great advantage, over its optical counterparts, of not being affected by darkness, meteorological conditions such as clouds, fog, etc., or smoke and dust, frequently associated with disaster zones. In this paper we present the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. For this technique we integrated the SARscape modules for ENVI with ArcGIS®, eliminating the need to switch between software packages. Thereby the premier algorithms for SAR image analysis can be directly accessed from ArcGIS desktop and server environments. They allow processing and analyzing SAR data in almost real time and with minimum user interaction. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. The Bacchiglione River burst its banks on Nov. 2nd after two days of heavy rainfall throughout the northern Italian region. The community of Bovolenta, 22 km SSE of Padova, was covered by several meters of water. People were requested to stay in their homes; several roads, highways sections and railroads had to be closed. The extent of this flooding is documented by a series of Cosmo-SkyMed acquisitions with a GSD of 2.5 m (StripMap mode). Cosmo-SkyMed is a constellation of four Earth observation satellites, allowing a very frequent coverage, which enables monitoring using a very high temporal resolution. This data is processed in ArcGIS using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach consisting of 3 steps: (1) The single images are filtered with a Gamma DE-MAP filter. (2) The filtered images are geocoded using a reference

  10. Analysis of the spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Silvia; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-08-17

    Analyze the spatial distribution of classical dengue and severe dengue cases in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Exploratory study, considering cases of classical dengue and severe dengue with laboratory confirmation of the infection in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the years 2011/2012. The georeferencing technique was applied for the cases notified in the Notification Increase Information System in the period of 2011 and 2012. For this process, the fields "street" and "number" were used. The ArcGis10 program's Geocoding tool's automatic process was performed. The spatial analysis was done through the kernel density estimator. Kernel density pointed out hotspots for classic dengue that did not coincide geographically with severe dengue and were in or near favelas. The kernel ratio did not show a notable change in the spatial distribution pattern observed in the kernel density analysis. The georeferencing process showed a loss of 41% of classic dengue registries and 17% of severe dengue registries due to the address in the Notification Increase Information System form. The hotspots near the favelas suggest that the social vulnerability of these localities can be an influencing factor for the occurrence of this aggravation since there is a deficiency of the supply and access to essential goods and services for the population. To reduce this vulnerability, interventions must be related to macroeconomic policies. Analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos de dengue clássico e dengue grave no município do Rio de Janeiro. Estudo exploratório, considerando casos de dengue clássico e de dengue grave com comprovação laboratorial da infecção, ocorridos no município do Rio de Janeiro nos anos de 2011/2012. Foi aplicada a técnica de georreferenciamento dos casos notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, no período de 2011 e 2012. Para esse processo, utilizaram-se os campos "logradouro" e "número". Foi realizado o processo automático da

  11. Análise espacial dos riscos à saúde associados à incineração de resíduos sólidos: avaliação preliminar Spatial analysis of the health risks associated with solid waste incineration: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar se as emissões do incinerador de resíduos sólidos Vergueiro estavam associadas a um risco aumentado de câncer entre a população residente em seu entorno. MÉTODO: a área de influência deste incinerador foi delimitada por um raio de 7 km a partir de seu centróide georeferenciado. Os óbitos de indivíduos residentes em distritos administrativos contidos nessa área, no período de 1998 a 2002, por câncer de pulmão, fígado, laringe e linfoma não-Hodgkin em adultos, e por leucemia e todos cânceres combinados em crianças, foram selecionados e geocodificados. A área estudada foi dividida em 7 (sete anéis concêntricos delimitados por raios de 1 a 7 km a partir do incinerador. A análise da associação entre proximidade residencial ao incinerador e mortalidade por câncer foi baseada na comparação entre número de casos observados e esperados, utilizando-se o teste de Stone para examinar o declínio do risco (razão O/E com a distância do incinerador. RESULTADOS: a área estudada incluiu 1.599.532 habitantes, sendo 92.894 crianças 40 anos. Não se observou um gradiente espacial nas razões de mortalidade conforme aumenta a distância do incinerador para nenhuma das causas e morte examinadas. CONCLUSÃO: embora não tenha sido detectado aumento no risco dos cânceres previamente selecionados, é importante monitorar as emissões de incineradores ainda em funcionamento e seus possíveis efeitos na saúde. O estudo da distribuição da morbimortalidade em áreas circunvizinhas a essas instalações pode vir a ser uma opção metodológica para atividades de vigilância.OBJECTIVES: to examine if emissions from the Vergueiro solid waste incinerator are associated with an increased risk of cancer in the population in its vicinity. METHODS: the area under influence of this incinerator was delimited by a 7 km radius from its geocoded centroid. Deaths of city residents in administrative districts inside this area due to

  12. Measuring Micro-Level Effects of a New Supermarket: Do Residents Within 0.5 Mile Have Improved Dietary Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus, Stephanie; Athens, Jessica; Cantor, Jonathan; Elbel, Brian

    2017-08-08

    Local and national policies to encourage supermarket opening or expansion are popular strategies for improving access to healthy food for residents in neighborhoods lacking these types of stores, yet few evaluations of such initiatives exist. Our aim was to test whether a newly opened supermarket in the Bronx, NY, changed household availability of healthy and unhealthy food items and reported daily consumption of these items among respondents residing in close proximity (≤0.5 mile) to the new supermarket. This quasi-experimental study evaluated changes in purchasing and consumption habits of residents within 0.5 mile of the new supermarket as compared to residents living more than 0.5 mile from the supermarket. Data were collected through street intercept surveys at three different times: once before the store opened (March to August 2011) and in two follow-up periods (1 to 5 months and 13 to 17 months after the store opened). This study analyzed a subset of successfully geocoded resident intersections from the larger study. We surveyed 3,998 residents older than the age of 18 years in two Bronx neighborhoods about their food-purchasing behaviors before the store opened and in two follow-up periods. Responses from residents whose intersections were successfully geocoded (N=3,378) were analyzed to examine the consumption and purchasing behaviors of those in close proximity to the new store. A new supermarket opened in a low-access neighborhood in the Bronx with the help of financial incentives through New York City's Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program. The primary outcome evaluated was the change in percent of respondents reporting that the following food items were "always available" in the home: milk, fruit juice, soda, pastries, packaged snacks, fruits, and vegetables. As a secondary outcome, we explored changes in self-reported daily servings of these items. A difference-in-difference analysis was performed, controlling for age, education

  13. Global distribution of outbreaks of water-associated infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON, a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000, annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, "hotspots" of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. CONCLUSIONS: At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated

  14. Is the closest facility the one actually used? An assessment of travel time estimation based on mammography facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Lange, Jane M; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I; Haas, Jennifer S; Shi, Xun; Carlos, Heather A; Henderson, Louise; Hill, Deirdre; Tosteson, Anna N A; Onega, Tracy

    2016-02-18

    Characterizing geographic access depends on a broad range of methods available to researchers and the healthcare context to which the method is applied. Globally, travel time is one frequently used measure of geographic access with known limitations associated with data availability. Specifically, due to lack of available utilization data, many travel time studies assume that patients use the closest facility. To examine this assumption, an example using mammography screening data, which is considered a geographically abundant health care service in the United States, is explored. This work makes an important methodological contribution to measuring access--which is a critical component of health care planning and equity almost everywhere. We analyzed one mammogram from each of 646,553 women participating in the US based Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium for years 2005-2012. We geocoded each record to street level address data in order to calculate travel time to the closest and to the actually used mammography facility. Travel time between the closest and the actual facility used was explored by woman-level and facility characteristics. Only 35% of women in the study population used their closest facility, but nearly three-quarters of women not using their closest facility used a facility within 5 min of the closest facility. Individuals that by-passed the closest facility tended to live in an urban core, within higher income neighborhoods, or in areas where the average travel times to work was longer. Those living in small towns or isolated rural areas had longer closer and actual median drive times. Since the majority of US women accessed a facility within a few minutes of their closest facility this suggests that distance to the closest facility may serve as an adequate proxy for utilization studies of geographically abundant services like mammography in areas where the transportation networks are well established.

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue in Malaysia: combining address and sub-district level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Y. Ling

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue risk in Malaysia were studied both at the address and the sub-district level in the province of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. We geocoded laboratory-confirmed dengue cases from the years 2008 to 2010 at the address level and further aggregated the cases in proportion to the population at risk at the sub-district level. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic was applied for the investigation that identified changing spatial patterns of dengue cases at both levels. At the address level, spatio-temporal clusters of dengue cases were concentrated at the central and south-eastern part of the study area in the early part of the years studied. Analyses at the sub-district level revealed a consistent spatial clustering of a high number of cases proportional to the population at risk. Linking both levels assisted in the identification of differences and confirmed the presence of areas at high risk for dengue infection. Our results suggest that the observed dengue cases had both a spatial and a temporal epidemiological component, which needs to be acknowl- edged and addressed to develop efficient control measures, including spatially explicit vector control. Our findings highlight the importance of detailed geographical analysis of disease cases in heterogeneous environments with a focus on clustered populations at different spatial and temporal scales. We conclude that bringing together information on the spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases with a deeper insight of linkages between dengue risk, climate factors and land use constitutes an important step towards the development of an effective risk management strategy.

  16. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG) 109 refs.

  17. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  18. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  19. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS. Separate appendix report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG)

  20. Ethnic differences in in-hospital place of death among older adults in California: effects of individual and contextual characteristics and medical resource supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackan, Nuha A; Eschbach, Karl; Stimpson, Jim P; Freeman, Jean L; Goodwin, James S

    2009-02-01

    : Substantial ethnic differences have been reported in the probability that death will occur in a hospital setting rather than at home, in a hospice, or in a nursing home. To date, no study has investigated the role of both individual characteristics and contextual characteristics, including local health care environments, to explain ethnic differentials in end-of-life care. : The study purpose is to examine ethnic differences in the association between death as a hospital in-patient and individual and contextual characteristics, as well as medical resource supply. : This study employed a secondary data analysis. : We used data from the California Death Statistical Master file for the years 1999-2001, which included 472,382 complete cases. These data were geocoded and linked to data from the US Census Bureau and the American Hospital Association. : Death as an in-patient was most common for Asian (54%) and Hispanic immigrants (49%) and least common for non-Hispanic whites (36%) and US-born Asians (41%). Medical resource supply variables are of considerable importance in accounting for ethnic differentials in the probability of dying in a hospital. Residual differences in in-hospital site of death were largest for immigrant populations. : There are sizeable ethnic differentials in the probability that a death will occur in a hospital in California. These differences are substantially mediated by sociodemographic characteristics of the decedent and local medical care supply. One implication of these findings is that variation exists in the efficiency and quality of end of life care delivered to ethnic minorities.

  1. Tuberculosis DALY-Gap: Spatial and Quantitative Comparison of Disease Burden Across Urban Slum and Non-slum Census Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Mariel A; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Sales, Carolina Maia Martins; Gomes, Teresa; Snyder, Robert E; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Riley, Lee W

    2015-08-01

    To quantitatively assess disease burden due to tuberculosis between populations residing in and outside of urban informal settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we compared disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), or "DALY-gap." Using the 2010 Brazilian census definition of informal settlements as aglomerados subnormais (AGSN), we allocated tuberculosis (TB) DALYs to AGSN vs non-AGSN census tracts based on geocoded addresses of TB cases reported to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases in 2005 and 2010. DALYs were calculated based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease methodology. DALY-gap was calculated as the difference between age-adjusted DALYs/100,000 population between AGSN and non-AGSN. Total TB DALY in Rio in 2010 was 16,731 (266 DALYs/100,000). DALYs were higher in AGSN census tracts (306 vs 236 DALYs/100,000), yielding a DALY-gap of 70 DALYs/100,000. Attributable DALY fraction for living in an AGSN was 25.4%. DALY-gap was highest for males 40-59 years of age (501 DALYs/100,000) and in census tracts with <60% electricity (12,327 DALYs/100,000). DALY-gap comparison revealed spatial and quantitative differences in TB burden between slum vs non-slum census tracts that were not apparent using traditional measures of incidence and mortality. This metric could be applied to compare TB burden or burden for other diseases in mega-cities with large informal settlements for more targeted resource allocation and evaluation of intervention programs.

  2. Assessing patterns of spatial behavior in health studies: their socio-demographic determinants and associations with transportation modes (the RECORD Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Kestens, Yan; Thomas, Frédérique; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thierry, Benoit; Chaix, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Prior epidemiological studies have mainly focused on local residential neighborhoods to assess environmental exposures. However, individual spatial behavior may modify residential neighborhood influences, with weaker health effects expected for mobile populations. By examining individual patterns of daily mobility and associated socio-demographic profiles and transportation modes, this article seeks to develop innovative methods to account for daily mobility in health studies. We used data from the RECORD Cohort Study collected in 2011-2012 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A sample of 2062 individuals was investigated. Participants' perceived residential neighborhood boundaries and regular activity locations were geocoded using the VERITAS application. Twenty-four indicators were created to qualify individual space-time patterns, using spatial analysis methods and a geographic information system. Three domains of indicators were considered: lifestyle indicators, indicators related to the geometry of the activity space, and indicators related to the importance of the residential neighborhood in the overall activity space. Principal component analysis was used to identify main dimensions of spatial behavior. Multilevel linear regression was used to determine which individual characteristics were associated with each spatial behavior dimension. The factor analysis generated five dimensions of spatial behavior: importance of the residential neighborhood in the activity space, volume of activities, and size, eccentricity, and specialization of the activity space. Age, socioeconomic status, and location of the household in the region were the main predictors of daily mobility patterns. Activity spaces of small sizes centered on the residential neighborhood and implying a large volume of activities were associated with walking and/or biking as a transportation mode. Examination of patterns of spatial behavior by individual socio-demographic characteristics and in

  3. Understanding the role of violence as a social determinant of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Cha, Susan; Chapman, Derek A; Chelmow, David

    2017-02-01

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Although major strides have been made in identifying risk factors for preterm birth, the complexities between social and individual risk factors are not well understood. This study examines the association between neighborhood youth violence and preterm birth. A 10-year live birth registry data set (2004 through 2013) from Richmond, VA, a mid-sized, racially diverse city, was analyzed (N = 27,519). Data were geocoded and merged with census tract and police report data. Gestational age at birth was classified as violence rates were calculated for each census tract area and categorized into quartiles. Hierarchical models were examined fitting multilevel logistic regression models incorporating randomly distributed census tract-specific intercepts assuming a binary distribution and a logit link function. Nearly a fifth of all births occurred in areas with the highest quartiles of violence. After adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, paternal presence, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, pregnancy complications, history of preterm birth, insurance, and tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, census tracts with the highest level of violence had 38% higher odds of very preterm births (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.80), than census tracts with the lowest level of violence. There is an association between high rate of youth violence and very preterm birth. Findings from this study may help inform future research to develop targeted interventions aimed at reducing community violence and very preterm birth in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level Familial and Socio-Demographic Factors and Diagnosed Childhood Obesity: A Nationwide Multilevel Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio

  5. Targeting the hotspots: investigating spatial and demographic variations in HIV infection in small communities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Handan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, the severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic varies according to geographical location; hence, localized monitoring of the epidemic would enable more effective prevention strategies. Our objectives were to assess the core areas of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using epidemiological data among sexually active women from localized communities. Methods A total of 5753 women from urban, peri-rural and rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal were screened from 2002 to 2005. Each participant was geocoded using a global information system, based on residence at time of screening. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excesses in HIV prevalence and incidence. Results This study identified three hotspots with excessively high HIV prevalence rates of 56%, 51% and 39%. A total of 458 sexually active women (19% of all cases were included in these hotspots, and had been exclusively recruited by the Botha's Hill (west of Durban and Umkomaas (south of Durban clinic sites. Most of these women were Christian and Zulu-speaking. They were also less likely to be married than women outside these areas (12% vs. 16%, p = 0.001 and more likely to have sex more than three times a week (27% vs. 20%, p Conclusions Geographic excesses of HIV infections at rates among the highest in the world were detected in certain rural communities of Durban, South Africa. The results reinforce the inference that risk of HIV infection is associated with definable geographical areas. Localized monitoring of the epidemic is therefore essential for more effective prevention strategies - and particularly urgent in a region such as KwaZulu-Natal, where the epidemic is particularly rampant.

  6. Finding targets for obesity intervention in urban communities: school-based health centers and the interface with affected youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Maria; Jennings, Jacky M; Waterfield, Gerry; Lyman, Lisa M; Thomas, Helen

    2009-07-01

    Urban schools and school-based health centers (SBHCs) in low-income minority communities may be important points of intervention for overweight and obese youth. To date, little is known about the interface of overweight youth and the public health system through SBHCs. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, sociodemographic, and comorbidity factors associated with obese status as a part of a public health system needs assessment. We conducted a cross-sectional clustered sampling utilizing prospective anthropometric measurement and chart review. Demographic, anthropometric, and medical comorbidity data were collected from 2,630 students in SBHCs in Baltimore, MD, USA. Students were geocoded to their primary residential address and assigned to a census block group using MapInfo v6.5. Demographic and comorbidity associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.5 (SD 6.6), and prevalence of obesity (BMI > 95th percentile) and overweight (BMI 85th-95th percentile) was 26.5% and 15.7%, respectively. Obesity was distributed among all the schools without one school being significantly more affected than others. Obese status was associated with gender, poverty, and several medical comorbidities such as asthma, high blood pressure, and disordered eating. Public health practitioners in this SBHC system appear to be faced with a greater burden of obesity than predicted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates. Given the ongoing interface with affected youth, these schools and health centers may be well situated to deliver public health obesity interventions.

  7. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607

  8. Remote sensing and Geomatics in the service of environment management: case study of eastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Abdelkrim; Chenchouni, Haroun

    In the early 70s, geomatics was referring to the combination of Earth measures with the com-puter science. It is now a crucial tool for decision-making in many areas such as environmental information systems and management of natural hazards. The use of classical statistics led to forget the first time in objects location, supplemented by the cartography, then found in an analysis in terms of residues, the spatial effects. GIS based software applications have been used widely for environment management and analysis studies. The usage of GIS in environmental risk management ranges from simple development of databases/inventory systems, to advanced GIS layers overlay, then to complex spatial decision-making systems for study of the impact of air, water and soil pollutions, ecological imbalance, and natural disasters on the environmental and human receptors. Moreover, as tools of geomatics, the methods of geostatistics and math-ematical morphology, when grouped in spatial statistics, they analyze the information directly in a geocoded structure. In this paper, the use of Geomatics tools (Remote Sensing and GIS) for the execution and spatial analysis of land cover in the eastern Algeria is discussed. This study highlights the advantages and limits of these tools and to know its potential for asses the natural environment. In addition, its aims firstly to create a multi-temporal database on land-cover that revealing different states and dynamics of land use in the study area from satel-lite images of Landsat. On the other hand, it is involved in the integration of GIS by creating a Digital Elevation Model "DEM" to carry out a spatial analysis that allows the assessment of the real surface for each class of land-cover, because without correction, DEM gives only surface of flat area. Moreover, this permits also to evaluate the spatiotemporal evolution and changes in land-cover and/or land-use. Keywords: East Algeria, Geomatics, GIS, land cover, remote sensing, spatial

  9. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Small Business Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of small businesses in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each business establishment size category to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the earthquake on small businesses. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by business establishment size.

  10. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general's report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. METHODS: A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6 genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. RESULTS: Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = -0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = -0.071 se 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence of "gene-policy" interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use.

  11. The study design and methodology for the ARCHER study - adolescent rural cohort study of hormones, health, education, environments and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbeck Katharine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is characterized by marked psychosocial, behavioural and biological changes and represents a critical life transition through which adult health and well-being are established. Substantial research confirms the role of psycho-social and environmental influences on this transition, but objective research examining the role of puberty hormones, testosterone in males and oestradiol in females (as biomarkers of puberty on adolescent events is lacking. Neither has the tempo of puberty, the time from onset to completion of puberty within an individual been studied, nor the interaction between age of onset and tempo. This study has been designed to provide evidence on the relationship between reproductive hormones and the tempo of their rise to adult levels, and adolescent behaviour, health and wellbeing. Methods/Design The ARCHER study is a multidisciplinary, prospective, longitudinal cohort study in 400 adolescents to be conducted in two centres in regional Australia in the State of New South Wales. The overall aim is to determine how changes over time in puberty hormones independently affect the study endpoints which describe universal and risk behaviours, mental health and physical status in adolescents. Recruitment will commence in school grades 5, 6 and 7 (10–12 years of age. Data collection includes participant and parent questionnaires, anthropometry, blood and urine collection and geocoding. Data analysis will include testing the reliability and validity of the chosen measures of puberty for subsequent statistical modeling to assess the impact over time of tempo and onset of puberty (and their interaction and mean-level repeated measures analyses to explore for significant upward and downward shifts on target outcomes as a function of main effects. Discussion The strengths of this study include enrollment starting in the earliest stages of puberty, the use of frequent urine samples in addition to annual

  12. The study design and methodology for the ARCHER study--adolescent rural cohort study of hormones, health, education, environments and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Katharine; Hazell, Philip; Cumming, Robert G; Skinner, S Rachel; Ivers, Rebecca; Booy, Robert; Fulcher, Greg; Handelsman, David J; Martin, Andrew J; Morgan, Geoff; Starling, Jean; Bauman, Adrian; Rawsthorne, Margot L; Bennett, David L; Chow, Chin Moi; Lam, Mary K; Kelly, Patrick; Brown, Ngiare J; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine

    2012-09-05

    Adolescence is characterized by marked psychosocial, behavioural and biological changes and represents a critical life transition through which adult health and well-being are established. Substantial research confirms the role of psycho-social and environmental influences on this transition, but objective research examining the role of puberty hormones, testosterone in males and oestradiol in females (as biomarkers of puberty) on adolescent events is lacking. Neither has the tempo of puberty, the time from onset to completion of puberty within an individual been studied, nor the interaction between age of onset and tempo. This study has been designed to provide evidence on the relationship between reproductive hormones and the tempo of their rise to adult levels, and adolescent behaviour, health and wellbeing. The ARCHER study is a multidisciplinary, prospective, longitudinal cohort study in 400 adolescents to be conducted in two centres in regional Australia in the State of New South Wales. The overall aim is to determine how changes over time in puberty hormones independently affect the study endpoints which describe universal and risk behaviours, mental health and physical status in adolescents. Recruitment will commence in school grades 5, 6 and 7 (10-12 years of age). Data collection includes participant and parent questionnaires, anthropometry, blood and urine collection and geocoding. Data analysis will include testing the reliability and validity of the chosen measures of puberty for subsequent statistical modeling to assess the impact over time of tempo and onset of puberty (and their interaction) and mean-level repeated measures analyses to explore for significant upward and downward shifts on target outcomes as a function of main effects. The strengths of this study include enrollment starting in the earliest stages of puberty, the use of frequent urine samples in addition to annual blood samples to measure puberty hormones, and the simultaneous use of

  13. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  14. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI Translational Research Network (RTRN Data Coordinating Center (DCC and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Methods: Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha (α were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks. Results: Cronbach’s α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p < 0.0001, fast food restaurants (r = 0.729; p < 0.0001, parks (r = 0.773; p < 0.0001 and sidewalks (r = 0.648; p < 0.0001 within a mile from homes. It was also significantly associated with diversity index (r = 0.138, p = 0.0023, median household incomes (r = −0.181; p < 0.0001, and owner occupied rates (r = −0.440; p < 0.0001. However, its non-significant correlation was found with median age, vulnerability, unemployment rate, labor force, and population growth rate. Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that geospatial data generated by the web-based application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long

  15. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O

    2017-08-01

    With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

  16. GIS-measured walkability, transit, and recreation environments in relation to older Adults' physical activity: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Michael; Adams, Marc A; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Buman, Matthew P; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    An infrequently studied question is how diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features relate to physical activity (PA) for older adults. We derived patterns of geographic information systems- (GIS) measured BE features and explored how they accounted for differences in objective and self-reported PA, sedentary time, and BMI in a sample of older adults. Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=714, aged 66-97years, 52.1% women, 29.7% racial/ethnic minority) were sampled in 2005-2008 from the Seattle-King County, WA and Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC regions. Participants' home addresses were geocoded, and net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit density, and public park and private recreation facility density measures for 1-km network buffers were derived. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these GIS-based measures. In multilevel regression models, profiles were compared on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. LPAs yielded three profiles: low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). Three PA outcomes were more favorable in the HHH than the LLL profile group (difference of 7.2min/day for MVPA, 97.8min/week for walking for errands, and 79.2min/week for walking for exercise; all ps<0.02). The most and least activity-supportive BE profiles showed greater differences in older adults' PA than did groupings based solely on a 4-component walkability index, suggesting that diverse BE features are important for healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-07-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk.

  18. Urban CO2 emissions metabolism: The Hestia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A central expression of urban metabolism is the consumption of energy and the resulting environmental impact, particularly the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Quantification of energy and emissions has been performed for numerous cities but rarely has this been done in explicit space/time detail. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing for the city of Los Angeles (Figure 1). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model which we constrain through lidar data, county assessor parcel data and GIS layers. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. Finally, all pointwise data in the Vulcan Project are transferred to our urban landscape and additional time distribution is performed. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban environment. Next steps in this research from the metabolism perspective is to consider the carbon footprint of material goods and their lateral transfer in addition to the connection between electricity consumption and production.

  19. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  20. Spatial patterns of malaria in a land reform colonization project, Juruena municipality, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Santos Reinaldo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, 99% of malaria cases are concentrated in the Amazon, and malaria's spatial distribution is commonly associated with socio-environmental conditions on a fine landscape scale. In this study, the spatial patterns of malaria and its determinants in a rural settlement of the Brazilian agricultural reform programme called "Vale do Amanhecer" in the northern Mato Grosso state were analysed. Methods In a fine-scaled, exploratory ecological study, geocoded notification forms corresponding to malaria cases from 2005 were compared with spectral indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the third component of the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TC_3 and thematic layers, derived from the visual interpretation of multispectral TM-Landsat 5 imagery and the application of GIS distance operators. Results Of a total of 336 malaria cases, 102 (30.36% were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 174 (51.79% by Plasmodium vivax. Of all the cases, 37.6% (133 cases were from residents of a unique road. In total, 276 cases were reported for the southern part of the settlement, where the population density is higher, with notification rates higher than 10 cases per household. The local landscape mostly consists of open areas (38.79 km². Training forest occupied 27.34 km² and midsize vegetation 7.01 km². Most domiciles with more than five notified malaria cases were located near areas with high NDVI values. Most domiciles (41.78% and malaria cases (44.94% were concentrated in areas with intermediate values of the TC_3, a spectral index representing surface and vegetation humidity. Conclusions Environmental factors and their alteration are associated with the occurrence and spatial distribution of malaria cases in rural settlements.

  1. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  2. Road Traffic Pollution and Childhood Leukemia: A Nationwide Case-control Study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Corrado; Ranucci, Alessandra; Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Ferrante, Daniela; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Rondelli, Roberto; Bisanti, Luigi; Zambon, Paola; Cannizzaro, Santina; Michelozzi, Paola; Cocco, Pierluigi; Celentano, Egidio; Assennato, Giorgio; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Mosciatti, Paola; Minelli, Liliana; Cuttini, Marina; Torregrossa, Maria Valeria; Lagorio, Susanna; Haupt, Riccardo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The association of childhood leukemia with traffic pollution was considered in a number of studies from 1989 onwards, with results not entirely consistent and little information regarding subtypes. We used the data of the Italian SETIL case-control on childhood leukemia to explore the risk by leukemia subtypes associated to exposure to vehicular traffic. We included in the analyses 648 cases of childhood leukemia (565 Acute lymphoblastic-ALL and 80 Acute non lymphoblastic-AnLL) and 980 controls. Information on traffic exposure was collected from questionnaire interviews and from the geocoding of house addresses, for all periods of life of the children. We observed an increase in risk for AnLL, and at a lower extent for ALL, with indicators of exposure to traffic pollutants. In particular, the risk was associated to the report of closeness of the house to traffic lights and to the passage of trucks (OR: 1.76; 95% CI 1.03-3.01 for ALL and 6.35; 95% CI 2.59-15.6 for AnLL). The association was shown also in the analyses limited to AML and in the stratified analyses and in respect to the house in different period of life. Results from the SETIL study provide some support to the association of traffic related exposure and risk for AnLL, but at a lesser extent for ALL. Our conclusion highlights the need for leukemia type specific analyses in future studies. Results support the need of controlling exposure from traffic pollution, even if knowledge is not complete. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Spatial Association Between Federally Qualified Health Centers and County-Level Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Spatial Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Romaguera, Raul A

    2017-08-16

    The number of categorical sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is declining in the United States. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) have the potential to supplement the needed sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of FQHC sites and determine if reported county-level nonviral STI morbidity were associated with having FQHC(s) using spatial regression techniques. We extracted map data from the Health Resources and Services Administration data warehouse on FQHCs (ie, geocoded health care service delivery [HCSD] sites) and extracted county-level data on the reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and, primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (2008-2012) from surveillance data. A 3-equation seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedure (with a spatial regression specification that controlled for county-level multiyear (2008-2012) demographic and socioeconomic factors) was used to determine the association between reported county-level STI morbidity and HCSD sites. Counties with HCSD sites had higher STI, poverty, unemployment, and violent crime rates than counties with no HCSD sites (P < 0.05). The number of HCSD sites was associated (P < 0.01) with increases in the temporally smoothed rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and P&S syphilis, but there was no significant association between the number of HCSD per 100,000 population and reported STI rates. There is a positive association between STI morbidity and the number of HCSD sites; however, this association does not exist when adjusting by population size. Further work may determine the extent to which HCSD sites can meet unmet needs for safety net STI services.

  4. Design of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial: ecological approach to increasing physical activity in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Rachel C; Cochrane, Thomas; Gidlow, Christopher; Fairburn, Jon; Smith, Graham

    2008-09-01

    This study was set up to test an ecological intervention using a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled design (RCT) aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) within the community in a deprived inner-city area in the UK. The research will provide a detailed mapping (using Graphical Information Systems GIS) of the environment at lower super output area (SOA) level in Stoke-on-Trent (SoT) and will evaluate the relationship between the environment, PA behaviour, health and healthcare utilisation. The environmental mapping will aggregate data from a wide range of available databases, augmented by local data gathering and validation, to produce a comprehensive geo-coded map of 10 SOAs (covering a population ~15,000). GIS will be used to derive indices through which to evaluate the relationship between environmental characteristics and levels of physical activity and health, using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM). Environmental indices used will include: proximity of PA spaces and facilities, street connectivity, land use mix, population density, mass transport provision, traffic, safety, crime, proximity of food outlets and shops, "Walkability Index", weather and indices of multiple deprivation (IMD). The areas for mapping, baseline assessment and intervention will be considered in two parts, a) community-based and b) schools-based. The effectiveness of the community-based intervention will be assessed by an independent panel survey conducted at baseline and at 2 years follow-up, with an expected 10% increase in the proportion of the population more active in the intervention arm. Effectiveness of the schools-based intervention will be designed to detect an increase of ~15 min/day in school children's moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Resource use, cost, willingness to pay and incidental consequences data will be collected alongside the community-based intervention to enable economic modelling from health and social care, societal, other public service and

  5. A pilot GIS database of active faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily): A tool for integrated hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Giovanni; Bonforte, Alessandro; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active faults affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referenced arc-features and associated database. Arc-type features, georeferenced into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, represent the five main fault systems that develop in the analysed region. The backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was collected from the literature and then stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty five alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us location, kinematics, landform, slip rate, etc. Although the system has been implemented according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the database represent a pilot backbone for digital storing of fault parameters, providing a powerful tool in modelling hazard related to the active tectonics of Mt. Etna. The database collects, organises and shares all scientific currently available information about the active faults of the volcano. Furthermore, thanks to the strong effort spent on defining the fields of the database, the structure proposed in this paper is open to the collection of further data coming from future improvements in the knowledge of the fault systems. By layering additional user-specific geographic information and managing the proposed database (topological querying) a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps can be produced by the user. This is a proposal of a backbone for a comprehensive geographical database of fault systems, universally applicable to other sites.

  6. Volcano-tectonic control of Merapi's lava dome splitting observed from high resolution TerraSAR-X data

    KAUST Repository

    Luehr, Birger-G.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanism at active andesite-dacite volcanoes is often associated with the formation and collapse of circular shaped protrusions of extruded, highly viscous lava, the so-called domes, which are emplaced in the near summit region. Growing domes may experience stable and instable structural phases, with a gradual transition in between. Dome collapse and the break-off of instable blocks of viscous lava may lead to pyroclastic flows, one of the most lethal hazards at stratovolcanoes. At Merapi volcano, Indonesia, nearly 50 % of all eruptions are accompanied by these phenomena. After the climactic eruption in 2010 which left an amphitheater in the summit region, a new dome started growing. Three years later, the dome reached a height of approximately 100 m and diameters of 220 and 190 m with a plateau-like surface area of 40,000m2 approximately. On 18/11/2013, an explosion occurred without identified precursors, leaving a major fracture cutting the complete dome structure. Based on high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite radar imagery, we could identify this linear fracture, traceable over ~200m in the long axis, and up to 40m width. After geocoding of the radar amplitude imagery, the fractures azimuthal trend could be compared to other structural lineaments, indicative of a significant NNW-SSE structural direction that has formed on Merapi volcano in the past. This alignment is also visible in a seismic velocity tomographic imagery for the upper crust, down to 15 km depth. The Merapi dome fractured in a NW-SE direction, and is consistent with the alignment of regional tectonic structures and of anticipated directions of pyroclastic flows. The fracture may be part of a larger volcano-tectonic system and may affect the dynamics and the stability of the Merapi dome.

  7. Social inequalities in use of prenatal care in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Green, Chris G; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Elliott, Lawrence J; Helewa, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of regional variations in use of prenatal care to identify individual-level and neighbourhood-level determinants of inadequate prenatal care among women giving birth in the province of Manitoba. Data were obtained from Manitoba Health administrative databases and the 1996 Canadian Census. An index of prenatal care use was calculated for each singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 149,291). Births were geocoded into 498 geographic districts, and a spatial analysis was conducted, consisting of data visualization, spatial clustering, and data modelling using Poisson regression. We found wide variation in rates of inadequate prenatal care across geographic areas, ranging from 1.1% to 21.5%. Higher rates of inadequate care were found in the inner-city of Winnipeg and in northern Manitoba. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care were among women living in neighbourhoods with the lowest average family income, the highest proportion of the population who were unemployed, the highest rates of recent immigrants, the highest percentage of the population reporting Aboriginal status, the highest percentage of single parent families, the highest percentage of the population with fewer than nine years of education, and the highest rates of women who smoked during pregnancy. Social inequalities exist in the use of prenatal care among Manitoba women, despite there being a universally funded health care system. Regional disparities in rates of inadequate prenatal care emphasize the need for further research to determine specific risk factors for inadequate prenatal care in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, followed by provision of effective targeted services.

  8. Sparse modeling of spatial environmental variables associated with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Timothy S; Gangnon, Ronald E; David Page, C; Buckingham, William R; Tandias, Aman; Cowan, Kelly J; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Arndt, Brian G; Hanrahan, Lawrence P; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2015-02-01

    Geographically distributed environmental factors influence the burden of diseases such as asthma. Our objective was to identify sparse environmental variables associated with asthma diagnosis gathered from a large electronic health record (EHR) dataset while controlling for spatial variation. An EHR dataset from the University of Wisconsin's Family Medicine, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics Departments was obtained for 199,220 patients aged 5-50years over a three-year period. Each patient's home address was geocoded to one of 3456 geographic census block groups. Over one thousand block group variables were obtained from a commercial database. We developed a Sparse Spatial Environmental Analysis (SASEA). Using this method, the environmental variables were first dimensionally reduced with sparse principal component analysis. Logistic thin plate regression spline modeling was then used to identify block group variables associated with asthma from sparse principal components. The addresses of patients from the EHR dataset were distributed throughout the majority of Wisconsin's geography. Logistic thin plate regression spline modeling captured spatial variation of asthma. Four sparse principal components identified via model selection consisted of food at home, dog ownership, household size, and disposable income variables. In rural areas, dog ownership and renter occupied housing units from significant sparse principal components were associated with asthma. Our main contribution is the incorporation of sparsity in spatial modeling. SASEA sequentially added sparse principal components to Logistic thin plate regression spline modeling. This method allowed association of geographically distributed environmental factors with asthma using EHR and environmental datasets. SASEA can be applied to other diseases with environmental risk factors.

  9. Integrated approach of nutritional and molecular epidemiology, mineralogical and chemical pollutant characterisation: the protocol of a cross-sectional study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Maugeri, Andrea; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Catalfo, Alfio; De Guidi, Guido; Iemmolo, Maria; Crimi, Nunzio; Agodi, Antonella

    2017-04-04

    Environmentally-related health and disease are the result of the exposome, the totality of a person's environmental exposures, from all sources and routes, across their lifespan. Epigenetic phenomena, including DNA methylation, can be potentially modified by environmental and lifestyle factors, and result in environmental reprogramming of the genome for exposed individuals and for future generations of offspring. The objective of the project is to evaluate the risk of DNA hypomethylation due to air pollution, Mediterranean diet adherence, folate intake, and demographic and socioeconomic factors, in healthy women living in the metropolitan area of Catania, Italy. Non-pregnant healthy women will be enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary intake information will be collected. LINE-1 methylation will be measured by pyrosequencing. The participants' home addresses will be geocoded and each woman will be assigned to the closest monitoring station for particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment. Mineralogical-chemical characterisation of PM and cellular model assays will be performed. An integrated approach will be designed to estimate the combined possible effect of air pollution, Mediterranean diet adherence, folate intake and other lifestyle characteristics on LINE-1 methylation levels. The project has been approved by the ethics committees of the involved institution and funded by the University of Catania (Finanziamento della Ricerca, FIR 2014). All participants will be fully informed of the purpose and procedures of the study, and signed written consents will be obtained. All the data collected will be treated confidentially and analysed in an aggregate and anonymous way. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and communicated to local public health agencies, in order to provide essential information for timely and effective public health action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  10. Vape Shop Density and Socio-demographic Disparities: A U.S. Census Tract Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang; Catley, Delwyn

    2017-03-20

    Vape shops are an emerging business specializing in the sales and promotion of e-cigarette, e-juice and other vaping products. This study sought to evaluate the associations between vape shop density and socio-demographic characteristics at the U.S. census tract level. Vape shop data (n=9,943) were collected from three online directories: Yelp.com, Yellowpages.com, and Guidetovaping.com. Addresses of vape shops were geocoded and the density per 10,000 people was estimated at each U.S. census tract. Zero inflated negative binomial regression model was performed to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with vape shop density. Overall, there was a higher vape shop density in urban versus non-urban census tracts. In urban areas, higher vape shop density was associated with larger proportions of Hispanics and Asians, adults aged 18-44 years old and higher poverty, while the decrease in vape shop density was associated with larger proportions of population under 18 years old, higher education, larger household size, and a higher percentage of owner occupied housing units. In non-urban areas, higher vape shop density was associated larger proportions of African Americans and Hispanics, smaller household size and a lower percentage of owner occupied housing units. At the national level, there are inequalities of vape shop density by some socio-demographic characteristics and heterogeneity between urban and non-urban areas. Vape shops are more likely to be concentrated in areas where people with a higher risk for vaping and smoking reside. Our findings could inform initiatives aimed at a stronger licensing requirement for vape shops and federal and state-level regulations of this industry to prevent vape shop from targeting minority and other socially disadvantaged groups.

  11. Does availability of physical activity and food outlets differ by race and income? Findings from an enumeration study in a health disparate region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jennie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-income, ethnic/racial minorities and rural populations are at increased risk for obesity and related chronic health conditions when compared to white, urban and higher-socio-economic status (SES peers. Recent systematic reviews highlight the influence of the built environment on obesity, yet very few of these studies consider rural areas or populations. Utilizing a CBPR process, this study advances community-driven causal models to address obesity by exploring the difference in resources for physical activity and food outlets by block group race and income in a small regional city that anchors a rural health disparate region. To guide this inquiry we hypothesized that lower income and racially diverse block groups would have fewer food outlets, including fewer grocery stores and fewer physical activity outlets. We further hypothesized that walkability, as defined by a computed walkability index, would be lower in the lower income block groups. Methods Using census data and GIS, base maps of the region were created and block groups categorized by income and race. All food outlets and physical activity resources were enumerated and geocoded and a walkability index computed. Analyses included one-way MANOVA and spatial autocorrelation. Results In total, 49 stores, 160 restaurants and 79 physical activity outlets were enumerated. There were no differences in the number of outlets by block group income or race. Further, spatial analyses suggest that the distribution of outlets is dispersed across all block groups. Conclusions Under the larger CPBR process, this enumeration study advances the causal models set forth by the community members to address obesity by providing an overview of the food and physical activity environment in this region. This data reflects the food and physical activity resources available to residents in the region and will aid many of the community-academic partners as they pursue intervention

  12. Legendary lost city Ciudad Blanca found under tropical forest in Honduras, using ERS-2 and JERS-1 SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakam-Simen, Francis; Nezry, Edmond; Ewing, James J.; Maschal, Ted

    1998-10-01

    The legendary 'Ciudad Blanca' of Honduras was first referred to under the name Xucutaco by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes already in 1526. Located in the remote, impenetrable and incompletely mapped rainforest of the Mosquito Coast, it was never conquered by the Spanish. With the time, it was slowly abandoned and forgotten. Two JERS-1 and one ERS-2 SLC Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been used to identify and to locate the lost city, a task made difficult due to the thick vegetation cover. To this end, advanced processing tools for the detection of artificial targets under forest cover, and for SAR data fusion have been used. Among the techniques used, a new Bayesian Distribution Entropy Maximum A Posteriori (DE-MAP) vector speckle filter, particularly suited for the restoration of a strongly textured scene, has been used to enhance the SAR images. This new speckle filter incorporates a statistical description of the effects of the SAR imaging system: in order to account for the effects due to the spatial correlation of the speckle in SAR images, an estimator originating from the local spatial autocorrelation function (ACF) of the SAR signal are incorporated to this filter, to refine the evaluation of the non-stationary first order local statistics, to improve the restoration of the scene textural properties, and to preserve the useful spatial resolution in the speckle filtered image. On the other hand, radargrammetric techniques have been used to: (1) produce a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area; (2) fuse ERS and JERS information in order to allow visual identification of the remnants of Ciudad Blanca by visual photo-interpretation. Using the processed images, geocoded UTM spatio-maps of the region have also been produced to locate accurately our findings, and guide a ground expedition in the future.

  13. Primary Spoken Language and Neuraxial Labor Analgesia Use Among Hispanic Medicaid Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Paloma; Eosakul, Stanley T; Grobman, William A; Feinglass, Joe; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women are less likely than non-Hispanic Caucasian women to use neuraxial labor analgesia. It is unknown whether there is a disparity in anticipated or actual use of neuraxial labor analgesia among Hispanic women based on primary language (English versus Spanish). In this 3-year retrospective, single-institution, cross-sectional study, we extracted electronic medical record data on Hispanic nulliparous with vaginal deliveries who were insured by Medicaid. On admission, patients self-identified their primary language and anticipated analgesic use for labor. Extracted data included age, marital status, labor type, delivery provider (obstetrician or midwife), and anticipated and actual analgesic use. Household income was estimated from census data geocoded by zip code. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for anticipated and actual neuraxial analgesia use. Among 932 Hispanic women, 182 were self-identified as primary Spanish speakers. Spanish-speaking Hispanic women were less likely to anticipate and use neuraxial anesthesia than English-speaking women. After controlling for confounders, there was an association between primary language and anticipated neuraxial analgesia use (adjusted relative risk: Spanish- versus English-speaking women, 0.70; 97.5% confidence interval, 0.53-0.92). Similarly, there was an association between language and neuraxial analgesia use (adjusted relative risk: Spanish- versus English-speaking women 0.88; 97.5% confidence interval, 0.78-0.99). The use of a midwife compared with an obstetrician also decreased the likelihood of both anticipating and using neuraxial analgesia. A language-based disparity was found in neuraxial labor analgesia use. It is possible that there are communication barriers in knowledge or understanding of analgesic options. Further research is necessary to determine the cause of this association.

  14. Hispanic residential ethnic density and depression in post-acute coronary syndrome patients: Re-thinking the role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Ellen-Ge D; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Alcantara, Carmela; Clemow, Lynn; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The ethnic density hypothesis suggests that ethnic density confers greater social support and consequently protects against depressive symptoms in ethnic minority individuals. However, the potential benefits of ethnic density have not been examined in individuals who are facing a specific and salient life stressor. We examined the degree to which the effects of Hispanic ethnic density on depressive symptoms are explained by socioeconomic resources and social support. Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, N = 472) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and measures of demographics, ACS clinical factors and perceived social support. Neighborhood characteristics, including median income, number of single parent households and Hispanic ethnic density, were extracted from the American Community Survey Census (2005-2009) for each patient using his or her geocoded address. In a linear regression analysis adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, Hispanic ethnic density was positively associated with depressive symptoms (β = .09, standard error (SE) = .04, p = .03). However, Hispanic density was no longer a significant predictor of depressive symptoms when neighborhood characteristics were controlled. The relationship of Hispanic density on depressive symptoms was moderated by nativity status. Among US-born patients with ACS, there was a significant positive relationship between Hispanic density and depressive symptoms and social support significantly mediated this effect. There was no observed effect of Hispanic density to depressive symptoms for foreign-born ACS patients. Although previous research suggests that ethnic density may be protective against depression, our data suggest that among patients with ACS, living in a community with a high concentration of Hispanic individuals is associated with constrained social and economic resources that are themselves associated with greater depressive symptoms. These data add to a growing body of literature

  15. Immigrant Latino neighborhoods and mortality among infants born to Mexican-origin Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Choi, Hwajung; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-06-01

    To compare the association between neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration and infant mortality by maternal nativity among singleton births to Mexican-origin women in Los Angeles County. Information about births, infant deaths, and infant and maternal characteristics were obtained from geocoded Los Angeles County vital statistics records (2002-2005). Linked data on neighborhood characteristics (census tracts) were obtained from the 2000 census. Logistic regression models were used to predict infant mortality while accounting for spatial clustering by census tract. Two-thirds of births to Mexican-origin mothers were to foreign-born women. Foreign-born mothers were older, had less education, and were more likely to have delivery costs paid by Medicaid than US-born mothers. Infants born to foreign-born women had a lower infant mortality rates than infants born to US-born women (3.8/1,000 live births vs. 4.6, p = .002). Among infants of foreign-born mothers, the odds of infant mortality increased with increasing immigrant concentration (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 1.01-1.66). There was a similar pattern of association between immigrant concentration and mortality for infants of US-born mothers (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 0.99-1.67). In Los Angeles County, the odds of infant mortality among foreign-born Mexican-origin Latina were higher in higher-density immigrant neighborhoods, with a similar trend among US-born mothers. Thus, living in immigrant enclaves likely does not help to explain the lower than expected infant mortality rate among infants born to Latina women. Instead, higher neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration may indicate a neighborhood with characteristics that negatively impact maternal and infant health for Latinos.

  16. Racial disparities in all-cause mortality among younger commercially insured women with incident metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christine; Wagner, Anita K; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Christine Y; Earle, Craig; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Degnan, Dennis-Ross; Frank Wharam, J

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist and are likely related to multiple factors. Over the past decade, progress has been made in treating metastatic breast cancer, particularly in younger women. Whether disparities exist in this population is unknown. Using administrative claims data between 2000 and 2011 (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN) of members insured through a large national US health insurer, we identified women aged 25-64 years diagnosed with incident metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between November 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008. We examined time from diagnosis to death, with up to 3 years of follow-up. We stratified analyses by geocoded race and socio-economic status, age-at-diagnosis, morbidity score, US region of residence, urban/non-urban, and years of diagnosis. We constructed Kaplan-Meier survival plots and analyzed all-cause mortality using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Among 6694 women with incident metastatic breast cancer (78 % Caucasian, 4 % African American, and 18 % other), we found higher mortality rates among women residing in predominantly African American versus Caucasian neighborhoods (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84; 95 % confidence interval, CI 1.39-2.45), women with high versus lower morbidity (HR 1.30 [1.12-1.51]), and women whose incident metastatic diagnosis was during 2000-2004 versus 2005-2008 (HR 1.60 [1.39-1.83]). Caucasian (HR 0.61 [0.52-0.71]) but not African American women (HR not significant) experienced improved mortality in 2005-2008 versus 2000-2004. Despite insured status, African American women and women with multi-morbidity had poorer survival. Only Caucasian women had improved mortality over time. Modifiable risk factors for increased mortality need to be addressed in order to reduce disparities.

  17. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M

    2013-06-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities.

  18. Exploring the Linkage between Activity-Friendly Zoning, Inactivity, and Cancer Incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-03-07

    Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ). For each zoning measure, single mediation regression models and Sobel tests examined whether activity-friendly zoning was associated with reduced cancer incidence, and whether inactivity mediated those associations. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs and significance at the P Zoning for crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths were associated with reduced cancer incidence (β between -0.71 and -1.27, P zoning. Except for crosswalks, each association was mediated by inactivity. However, county smoking attenuated these results, with only crosswalks remaining significant. Results were similar for males (with zoning for bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths), but not females, alone.Conclusions: Zoning can help to create activity-friendly environments that support decreased inactivity, and possibly reduced cancer incidence.Impact: Given low physical activity levels nationwide, cross-sectoral collaborations with urban planning can inform cancer prevention and public health efforts to decrease inactivity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-9. ©2017 AACR.See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population

  19. Development of an electronic emergency department-based geo-information injury surveillance system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C B; Leung, M; Lai, Adela; Chow, Y H; Chung, Joanne; Tong, K M; Lit, Albert

    2012-06-01

    To describe the experience in the development of an electronic emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance (IS) system in Hong Kong using data-mining and geo-spatial information technology (IT) for a Safe Community setup. This paper described the phased development of an emergency department-based IS system based on World Health Organization (WHO) injury surveillance Guideline to support safety promotion and injury prevention in a Safe Community in Hong Kong starting 2002. The initial ED data-based only collected data on name, sex, age, address, eight general categories of injury types (traffic, domestic, common assault, indecent assault, batter, industrial, self-harm and sports) and disposal from ED. Phase 1--manual data collection on International Classification of External Causes of Injury pre-event data; Phase 2--manual form was converted to electronic format using web-based data mining technology with built in data quality monitoring mechanism; Phase 3--integration of injury surveillance-data with in-patient hospital information; and Phase 4--geo-spatial information and body mapping were introduced to geo-code exact place of injury in an electronic map and site of injury on body map. It was feasible to develop a geo-spatial IS system at busy ED to collect valuable information for safety promotion and injury prevention at Safe Community setting. The keys for successful development and implementation involves engagement of all stakeholders at design and implementation of the system with injury prevention as ultimate goal, detail workflow planning at front end, support from the management, building on exiting system and appropriate utilisation of modern technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Population density, call-response interval, and survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Toshio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effects of geographic variation on outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The present study investigated the relationship between population density, time between emergency call and ambulance arrival, and survival of OHCA, using the All-Japan Utstein-style registry database, coupled with geographic information system (GIS data. Methods We examined data from 101,287 bystander-witnessed OHCA patients who received emergency medical services (EMS through 4,729 ambulatory centers in Japan between 2005 and 2007. Latitudes and longitudes of each center were determined with address-match geocoding, and linked with the Population Census data using GIS. The endpoints were 1-month survival and neurologically favorable 1-month survival defined as Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance categories 1 or 2. Results Overall 1-month survival was 7.8%. Neurologically favorable 1-month survival was 3.6%. In very low-density (2 and very high-density (≥10,000/km2 areas, the mean call-response intervals were 9.3 and 6.2 minutes, 1-month survival rates were 5.4% and 9.1%, and neurologically favorable 1-month survival rates were 2.7% and 4.3%, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, cause of arrest, first aid by bystander and the proportion of neighborhood elderly people ≥65 yrs, patients in very high-density areas had a significantly higher survival rate (odds ratio (OR, 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.44 - 1.87; p Conclusion Living in a low-density area was associated with an independent risk of delay in ambulance response, and a low survival rate in cases of OHCA. Distribution of EMS centers according to population size may lead to inequality in health outcomes between urban and rural areas.

  1. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST commonly emphasize the built environment (BE as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school, and trip-end (home or school. Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP], the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future

  2. Application and Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Data for Monitoring of Mining Induced Surface Deformations Using Interferometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Diana; Wegmuller, Urs; Spreckels, Volker; Busch, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the projects "Determination of ground motions in mining areas by interferometric analyses of ALOS data" (ALOS ADEN 3576, ESA) and "Monitoring of mining induced surface deformation" (ALOS-RA-094, JAXA) is to evaluate PALSAR data for surface deformation monitoring, using interferometric techniques. We present monitoring results of surface movements for an active hard coal colliery of the German hard coal mining company RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (RAG). Underground mining activities lead to ground movements at the surface with maximum subsidence rates of about 10cm per month for the test site. In these projects the L-band sensor clearly demonstrates the good potential for deformation monitoring in active mining areas, especially in rural areas. In comparison to C-band sensors we clearly observe advantages in resolving the high deformation gradients that are present in this area and we achieve a more complete spatial coverage than with C-band. Extensive validation data based on levelling data and GPS measurements are available within RAǴs GIS based database "GeoMon" and thus enable an adequate analysis of the quality of the interferometric results. Previous analyses confirm the good accuracy of PALSAR data for deformation monitoring in mining areas. Furthermore, we present results of special investigations like precision geocoding of PALSAR data and corner reflector analysis. At present only DInSAR results are obtained due to the currently available number of PALSAR scenes. For the future we plan to also apply Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using longer series of PALSAR data.

  3. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Trigo Nasser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants, São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012.METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49 notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases.RESULTS: Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6% aged 20-49 years old (49%. Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods.CONCLUSIONS: The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  4. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker James R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948 and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources

  5. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Where We Used to Live: Validating Retrospective Measures of Childhood Neighborhood Context for Life Course Epidemiologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Kehm, Rebecca; Misra, Dawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate), we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693). We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization), with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis), as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach’s α =0.89, 0.93). Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40), as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to operationalize early

  7. SUPPORTING MANAGEMENT OF EUROPEAN REFUGEE STREAMS BY EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-U. Komp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sharp increase in refugee numbers arriving in the European Union has recently caused major and manifold challenges for the member states and their administrative services. Location based situation reports and maps may support the refugee management from local to European level. The first support is mapping of the geographical distribution of migrating people which needs more or less real time data. The actual data sources are location related observations along the routes of refugees, actual satellite observations and data mining results. These tools and data are used to monitor spatial distributions as well as extrapolate the arrival of refugees for the subsequent weeks. The second support is the short term update of the location of initial registration facilities and first reception facilities, their capacities, and their occupancy. The third management level is the systematic inquiry for unoccupied housing facilities and for empty places within build-up areas. Geo-coded data sets of house numbers have to be cross-referenced with city maps and communal inhabitants address data. The legal aspects of data mining and secured access to personal data are strictly controlled by the administration allowing only limited access and distribution of data and results. However, the paper will not disclose scientific progress in Earth Observation and GIS, but will actually demonstrate an urgently needed new combination of existing methods to support actual needs. The societal benefits of EO/GIS are no longer just potential possibilities, but actual results in real political, administrative and humanitarian day to day reality.

  8. Accreditation Status and Geographic Location of Outpatient Echocardiographic Testing Facilities Among Medicare Beneficiaries: The VALUE-ECHO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Yi, Li; Marinovic Gutierrez, Carolina; Di Tullio, Marco R; Farrell, Mary Beth; Burgess, Pamela; Gornik, Heather L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Needleman, Laurence; Orsinelli, David; Robison, Susana; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-08-08

    Accreditation of echocardiographic testing facilities by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) is supported by the American College of Cardiology and American Society of Echocardiography. However, limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of echocardiographic facilities in the United States. Our study aimed to identify (1) the proportion of outpatient echocardiography facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries that are IAC accredited, (2) their geographic distribution, and (3) variations in procedure type and volume by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE-ECHO (Value of Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation-Echocardiography) study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities performing outpatient echocardiography in the 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services outpatient limited data set (100% sample) and their geographic distribution using geocoding in ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Among 4573 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for echocardiographic testing in 2013, 99.6% (n = 4554) were IAC accredited (99.7% in the 50 US states and 86.2% in Puerto Rico). The proportion IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities varied by region, with 98.7%, 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.5%, and 86.2% of facilities accredited in the Northeast, South, Midwest, West, and Puerto Rico, respectively (P facilities. Most procedures (90.9%) were transthoracic echocardiograms, of which 99.7% were conducted in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Almost all outpatient echocardiographic facilities billed by Medicare are IAC accredited. This accreditation rate is substantially higher than previously reported for US outpatient vascular testing facilities (13% IAC accredited). The uniformity of imaging and interpretation protocols from a single accrediting body is important to facilitate optimal cardiovascular care. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  10. Using GIS technology to identify areas of tuberculosis transmission and incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost Kenneth C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently in the U.S. it is recommended that tuberculosis screening and treatment programs be targeted at high-risk populations. While a strategy of targeted testing and treatment of persons most likely to develop tuberculosis is attractive, it is uncertain how best to accomplish this goal. In this study we seek to identify geographical areas where on-going tuberculosis transmission is occurring by linking Geographic Information Systems (GIS technology with molecular surveillance. Methods This cross-sectional analysis was performed on data collected on persons newly diagnosed with culture positive tuberculosis at the Tarrant County Health Department (TCHD between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 2000. Clinical isolates were molecularly characterized using IS6110-based RFLP analysis and spoligotyping methods to identify patients infected with the same strain. Residential addresses at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis were geocoded and mapped according to strain characterization. Generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis models were used to identify risk factors involved in clustering. Results Evaluation of the spatial distribution of cases within zip-code boundaries identified distinct areas of geographical distribution of same strain disease. We identified these geographical areas as having increased likelihood of on-going transmission. Based on this evidence we plan to perform geographically based screening and treatment programs. Conclusion Using GIS analysis combined with molecular epidemiological surveillance may be an effective method for identifying instances of local transmission. These methods can be used to enhance targeted screening and control efforts, with the goal of interruption of disease transmission and ultimately incidence reduction.

  11. Geospatial Information System Analysis of Healthcare Need and Telemedicine Delivery in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Taylor; Geraghty, Estella M; Dullet, Navjit; King, Jesse; Kissee, Jamie; Marcin, James P

    2017-05-01

    Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) superimpose data on geographical maps to provide visual representations of data by region. Few studies have used GIS data to investigate if telemedicine services are preferentially provided to communities of greatest need. This study compared the healthcare needs of communities with and without telemedicine services from a university-based telemedicine program. Originating sites for all telemedicine consultations between July 1996 and December 2013 were geocoded using ArcGIS software. ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) were extracted from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau's Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing file and assigned a community needs index (CNI) score to reflect the ZCTA community's healthcare needs based on evidence-based barriers to healthcare access. CNI scores were compared across communities with and without active telemedicine services. One hundred ninety-four originating telemedicine clinic sites in California were evaluated. The mean CNI score for ZCTAs with at least one telemedicine clinic was significantly higher (3.32 ± 0.84) than those without a telemedicine site (2.95 ± 0.99) and higher than the mean ZCTAs for all of California (2.99 ± 1.01). Of the 194 telemedicine clinics, 71.4% were located in communities with above average need and 33.2% were located in communities with very high needs. Originating sites receiving telemedicine services from a university-based telemedicine program were located in regions with significantly higher community healthcare needs. Leveraging a geospatial information system to understand community healthcare needs provides an opportunity for payers, hospitals, and patients to be strategic in the allocation of telemedicine services.

  12. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  13. Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on Beach Morphology from Analysis of Terrestrial Scanning Laser Time Series Data, Waimea Bay, Oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Becker, J.; Merrifield, M.; Foster, J.; Ericksen, T.; Hilmer, T.; Vitousek, S.

    2008-12-01

    To determine the environmental conditions and timing leading to long time scale (O(years)) and specific event (O(days-hours)) changes in beach morphology we collected terrestrial scanning laser (TLS) topographic time series, offshore wave data, and high resolution digital photographs of the entire beach at Waimea Bay, Oahu from January through June 2007. Each survey had better than 1cm range-resolution, average spot-spacing of 10 cm, and had tilts removed using GPS-based geocoding. The TLS surveys on monthly time-scales quantify the seasonal transition in beach morphology and volume forced by high waves (winter) to small waves (summer). The surveys over daily to hourly time scales quantify the evolution of discrete morphological features. For instance, two surveys taken three hours apart on 27 April 2007 when significant wave height was roughly 0.7m document an order 0.1 m increase in sand elevation occurring along the foreshore indicating active sand accretion following an erosion event on 24 April 2007 when significant wave height was roughly 2.5m. Well-defined fore-beach and back-beach cuspate features were present during the surveys. The elevation difference map shows that the main area of accretion occurred in the fore-beach cusp embayments, i.e., the beach cusps appear to be filling in with sand. We further use the TLS time series data to quantify the subaerial morphologic signal and volumetric beach change budget of foot-traffic on the beach. Our initial observations indicate that the upper portions of the beach, rarely affected by waves but receiving hundreds to thousands of visitors per day, exhibits convex upward character typical of diffusive forcing. We assess whether a diffusive landscape evolution model based on linear or non-linear flux laws describes the temporal and spatial evolution of the upper parts of beaches where wave forcing rarely occurs.

  14. Disease maps as context for community mapping: a methodological approach for linking confidential health information with local geographical knowledge for community health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Comstock, Sara; Seagren, Renea

    2010-12-01

    Health is increasingly understood as a product of multiple levels of influence, from individual biological and behavioral influences to community and societal level contextual influences. In understanding these contextual influences, community health researchers have increasingly employed both geographic methodologies, including Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and community participatory approaches. However, despite growing interest in the role for community participation and local knowledge in community health investigations, and the use of geographical methods and datasets in characterizing community environments, there exist few examples of research projects that incorporate both geographical and participatory approaches in addressing health questions. This is likely due in part to concerns and restrictions regarding community access to confidential health data. In order to overcome this barrier, we present a method for linking confidential, geocoded health information with community-generated experiential geographical information in a GIS environment. We use sophisticated disease mapping methodologies to create continuously defined maps of colorectal cancer in Iowa, then incorporate these layers in an open source GIS application as the context for a participatory community mapping exercise with participants from a rural Iowa town. Our method allows participants to interact directly with health information at a fine geographical scale, facilitating hypothesis generation regarding contextual influences on health, while simultaneously protecting data confidentiality. Participants are able to use their local, geographical knowledge to generate hypotheses about factors influencing colorectal cancer risk in the community and opportunities for risk reduction. This work opens the door for future efforts to integrate empirical epidemiological data with community generated experiential information to inform community health research and practice.

  15. Geoprocessamento dos dados da saúde: o tratamento dos endereços Geoprocessing of health data: treatment of information on addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Albert Skaba

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho faz uma análise da situação atual das informações de endereços nos Sistemas de Informações em Saúde (SIS em alguns municípios, visando a sua utilização em Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIG, para a análise e avaliação de riscos dos eventos de saúde pública em grandes cidades, com localização destes eventos em áreas intra-urbanas. Utiliza como base de dados uma amostra dos cadastros do Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN e tem como objetivo propor alternativas para aproveitamento de grandes volumes de dados já existentes. Nas amostras trabalhadas, cerca de metade dos endereços foi localizada automaticamente e aproximadamente 19%, em uma busca manual. As principais perdas ocorreram por falta de completitude ou de consistência nos dados de endereço.This paper analyzes the current status of address data in the Brazilian Health Information System (SIS, with a view towards mapping large-city health events in geographic information systems (GIS for risk analysis and evaluation. It is thus necessary to geocode these events to small geographic areas inside city limits. This study used a sample from the Reportable Health Events Information System (SINAN database and also proposes alternatives to work with this large amount of events. Approximately 50% of addresses were referenced automatically and another 19% through conventional search. Data losses occurred mainly due to incomplete or inconsistent address data.

  16. ARIA: Delivering state-of-the-art InSAR products to end users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agram, P. S.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Sacco, G. F.; Bue, B. D.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Center for Natural Hazards aims to bring state-of-the-art geodetic imaging capabilities to an operational level in support of local, national, and international hazard response communities. ARIA project's first foray into operational generation of InSAR products was with Calimap Project, in collaboration with ASI-CIDOT, using X-band data from the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation. Over the last year, ARIA's processing infrastructure has been significantly upgraded to exploit the free stream of high quality C-band SAR data from ESA's Sentinel-1 mission and related algorithmic improvements to the ISCE software. ARIA's data system can now operationally generate geocoded unwrapped phase and coherence products in GIS-friendly formats from Sentinel-1 TOPS mode data in an automated fashion, and this capability is currently being exercised various study sites across the United States including Hawaii, Central California, Iceland and South America. The ARIA team, building on the experience gained from handling X-band data and C-band data, has also built an automated machine learning-based classifier to label the auto-generated interferograms based on phase unwrapping quality. These high quality "time-series ready" InSAR products generated using state-of-the-art processing algorithms can be accessed by end users using two different mechanisms - 1) a Faceted-search interface that includes browse imagery for quick visualization and 2) an ElasticSearch-based API to enable bulk automated download, post-processing and time-series analysis. In this talk, we will present InSAR results from various global events that ARIA system has responded to. We will also discuss the set of geospatial big data tools including GIS libraries and API tools, that end users will need to familiarize themselves with in order to maximize the utilization of continuous stream of InSAR products from the Sentinel-1 and NISAR missions that the ARIA project will generate.

  17. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spengler John D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008 and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32, the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  18. Hispanic residential ethnic density and depression in post-ACS patients: Re-thinking the role of social support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Ellen-ge D.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Alcantara, Carmela; Clemow, Lynn; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ethnic density hypothesis suggests that ethnic density confers greater social support and consequently protects against depressive symptoms in ethnic minority individuals. However, the potential benefits of ethnic density have not been examined in individuals who are facing a specific and salient life stressor. We examined the degree to which the effects of Hispanic ethnic density on depressive symptoms are explained by socioeconomic resources and social support. Methods Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, N = 472) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and measures of demographics, ACS clinical factors and disease severity, and perceived social support. Neighborhood characteristics, including median income, number of single-parent households, and Hispanic ethnic density, were extracted from the American Community Survey Census (2005 – 2009) for each patient using his/her geocoded address. Results In a linear regression analysis adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, Hispanic ethnic density was positively associated with depressive symptoms (β = .09, SE = .04, p = .03). However, Hispanic density was no longer a significant predictor of depressive symptoms when measures of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were controlled. In addition, the effects of Hispanic density were not the same for all groups. The relationship of Hispanic density on depressive symptoms was moderated by nativity status. Among US-born patients with ACS, there was a significant positive relationship between Hispanic density and depressive symptoms, and social support significantly mediated this effect. There was no observed effect of Hispanic density to depressive symptoms for foreign-born ACS patients. Discussion Although previous research suggests that ethnic density may be protective against depression, our data suggest that among patients with ACS, living in a community with a high concentration of Hispanic individuals is associated with

  19. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  20. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Ashley C; Salkeld, Daniel J; Fritz, Curtis L; Tucker, James R; Gong, Peng

    2009-06-28

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans) samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948) and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources. In addition, Maxent model results were significantly

  1. NASADEM Initial Production Processing Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing with Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at one-arcsecond spacing and delivered by continent: North America, South America, Australia, Eurasia, Africa, and Island Groups. We are in the production phase of the project. This involves radar interferometry (InSAR) processing on thousands of radar datatakes. New phase unwrapping and height ripple error correction (HREC) procedures are applied to the data. The resulting strip DEMs and ancillary information are passed to a back-end processor to create DEM mosaics and new geocoded single-swath products. Manual data quality assessment (QA) and fixes are performed at several steps in the processing chain. Post-production DEM void-filling is described in a companion AGU Fall Meeting presentation. The team completed the InSAR processing for all continents and the manual QA of the strip DEMs for more than half the world. North America strip DEM void areas are reduced by more than 50%. The ICESat data is used for height ripple error correction and as control for continent-scale adjustment of the strip DEMs. These ripples are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. After an initial assessment of the NASADEM production processing for the Americas, we further refined the selection of ICESat data for control by excluded data over glaciers, snow cover, forest clear cuts, and sloped areas. The HREC algorithm reduces the North America ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m.

  2. Prevalence of cigarette advertising and other promotional strategies at the point of sale in St Louis, Missouri: analysis by store type and distance from a school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-04-17

    Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, "no sales to minors" signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail.

  3. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  4. The Sociospatial Network: Risk and the Role of Place in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Logan

    Full Text Available Control of sexually transmitted infections and blood-borne pathogens is challenging due to their presence in groups exhibiting complex social interactions. In particular, sharing injection drug use equipment and selling sex (prostitution puts people at high risk. Previous work examining the involvement of risk behaviours in social networks has suggested that social and geographic distance of persons within a group contributes to these pathogens' endemicity. In this study, we examine the role of place in the connectedness of street people, selected by respondent driven sampling, in the transmission of blood-borne and sexually transmitted pathogens. A sample of 600 injection drug users, men who have sex with men, street youth and homeless people were recruited in Winnipeg, Canada from January to December, 2009. The residences of participants and those of their social connections were linked to each other and to locations where they engaged in risk activity. Survey responses identified 101 unique sites where respondents participated in injection drug use or sex transactions. Risk sites and respondents' residences were geocoded, with residence representing the individuals. The sociospatial network and estimations of geographic areas most likely to be frequented were mapped with network graphs and spatially using a Geographic Information System (GIS. The network with the most nodes connected 7.7% of respondents; consideration of the sociospatial network increased this to 49.7%. The mean distance between any two locations in the network was within 3.5 kilometres. Kernel density estimation revealed key activity spaces where the five largest networks overlapped. Here, the combination of spatial and social entities in network analysis defines the overlap of vulnerable populations in risk space, over and above the person to person links. Implications of this work are far reaching, not just for understanding transmission dynamics of sexually transmitted

  5. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  6. The Spatial Business Landscape of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available India has in the last decade become of the fastest growing entrepreneurial landscapes in the world. With a total population of almost 1.2 billion inhabitants, it has developed from a rural economy into a highly competitive market. This study analyses the spatial configuration across the country from a regional perspective, offering an assessment of the spatial autocorrelation of business as to understand the spatial configuration of what I define as a regional-spatial business landscape. In this study, the patterns of distribution of all the registered Indian businesses are assessed counting a total of 6500 registered businesses from 1850 to 2010, which were geocoded and imported into a Geographic Information System environment. A geostatistical analysis is conducted measuring business growth and performance at a national level by means of a Global Moran’s I calculation and followed by assembling a Local Getis-Ord for regional assessment of correlation of road networks. These local spatial statistics reveal clustering of hot spots within threshold distances of road concentrations, suggesting a positive relation between location of businesses and concentration of road networks. The agglomeration of Indian businesses becomes defined by the importance of road infrastructures to allow commutes and interaction of businesses. As a result, it becomes possible to see that India’s business landscape is far from homogenous, and responds well to Weber’s theory of industrial agglomeration, while predicting possible interfirm collaboration. These business hubs in the business landscape are assessed at national level through spatial autocorrelation and then regionally diagnosed by identifying hot spots of business location given business density, and bringing to light the precise location of India’s business hubs from a spatial business landscape perspective at present.

  7. An Android based location service using GSMCellID and GPS to obtain a graphical guide to the nearest cash machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jurma; Edlich, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    There is a broad range of potential useful mobile location-based applications. One crucial point seems to be to make them available to the public at large. This case illuminates the abilities of Android - the operating system for mobile devices - to fulfill this demand in the mashup way by use of some special geocoding web services and one integrated web service for getting the nearest cash machines data. It shows an exemplary approach for building mobile location-based mashups for everyone: 1. As a basis for reaching as many people as possible the open source Android OS is assumed to spread widely. 2. Everyone also means that the handset has not to be an expensive GPS device. This is realized by re-utilization of the existing GSM infrastructure with the Cell of Origin (COO) method which makes a lookup of the CellID in one of the growing web available CellID databases. Some of these databases are still undocumented and not yet published. Furthermore the Google Maps API for Mobile (GMM) and the open source counterpart OpenCellID are used. The user's current position localization via lookup of the closest cell to which the handset is currently connected to (COO) is not as precise as GPS, but appears to be sufficient for lots of applications. For this reason the GPS user is the most pleased one - for this user the system is fully automated. In contrary there could be some users who doesn't own a GPS cellular. This user should refine his/her location by one click on the map inside of the determined circular region. The users are then shown and guided by a path to the nearest cash machine by integrating Google Maps API with an overlay. Additionally, the GPS user can keep track of him- or herself by getting a frequently updated view via constantly requested precise GPS data for his or her position.

  8. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Miller

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was

  9. An integrated model of environmental factors in adult asthma lung function and disease severity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Patricia P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse environmental exposures, studied separately, have been linked to health outcomes in adult asthma, but integrated multi-factorial effects have not been modeled. We sought to evaluate the contribution of combined social and physical environmental exposures to adult asthma lung function and disease severity. Methods Data on 176 subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis were collected via telephone interviews for sociodemographic factors and asthma severity (scored on a 0-28 point range. Dust, indoor air quality, antigen-specific IgE antibodies, and lung function (percent predicted FEV1 were assessed through home visits. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, proximity to traffic, land use, and ambient air quality data were linked to the individual-level data via residential geocoding. Multiple linear regression separately tested the explanatory power of five groups of environmental factors for the outcomes, percent predicted FEV1 and asthma severity. Final models retained all variables statistically associated (p Results Mean FEV1 was 85.0 ± 18.6%; mean asthma severity score was 6.9 ± 5.6. Of 29 variables screened, 13 were retained in the final model of FEV1 (R2 = 0.30; p 2 = 0.16; p 1 as an independent variable to the severity model further increased its explanatory power (R2 = 0.25. Conclusions Multivariate models covering a range of individual and environmental factors explained nearly a third of FEV1 variability and, taking into account lung function, one quarter of variability in asthma severity. These data support an integrated approach to modeling adult asthma outcomes, including both the physical and the social environment.

  10. A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet for 2003 and 2009 to obtain infor- mation on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification tax- onomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments cap- tured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol out- lets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both. This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop meas- ures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replic- able methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited.

  11. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  12. MATCHING ALTERNATIVE ADDRESSES: A SEMANTIC WEB APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariannamazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature’s literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  13. Georeferencing on Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzade, M.; Amini, J.; Zakeri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the SAR1 geometry imaging, SAR images include geometric distortions that would be erroneous image information and the images should be geometrically calibrated. As the radar systems are side looking, geometric distortion such as shadow, foreshortening and layover are occurred. To compensate these geometric distortions, information about sensor position, imaging geometry and target altitude from ellipsoid should be available. In this paper, a method for geometric calibration of SAR images is proposed. The method uses Range-Doppler equations. In this method, for the image georeferencing, the DEM2 of SRTM with 30m pixel size is used and also exact ephemeris data of the sensor is required. In the algorithm proposed in this paper, first digital elevation model transmit to range and azimuth direction. By applying this process, errors caused by topography such as foreshortening and layover are removed in the transferred DEM. Then, the position of the corners on original image is found base on the transferred DEM. Next, original image registered to transfer DEM by 8 parameters projective transformation. The output is the georeferenced image that its geometric distortions are removed. The advantage of the method described in this article is that it does not require any control point as well as the need to attitude and rotational parameters of the sensor. Since the ground range resolution of used images are about 30m, the geocoded images using the method described in this paper have an accuracy about 20m (subpixel) in planimetry and about 30m in altimetry. 1 Synthetic Aperture Radar 2 Digital Elevation Model

  14. Exposure estimation errors to nitrogen oxides on a population scale due to daytime activity away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Yuval; Levy, Ilan; Broday, David M

    2017-02-15

    Accurate estimation of exposure to air pollution is necessary for assessing the impact of air pollution on the public health. Most environmental epidemiology studies assign the home address exposure to the study subjects. Here, we quantify the exposure estimation error at the population scale due to assigning it solely at the residence place. A cohort of most schoolchildren in Israel (~950,000), age 6-18, and a representative cohort of Israeli adults (~380,000), age 24-65, were used. For each subject the home and the work or school addresses were geocoded. Together, these two microenvironments account for the locations at which people are present during most of the weekdays. For each subject, we estimated ambient nitrogen oxide concentrations at the home and work or school addresses using two air quality models: a stationary land use regression model and a dynamic dispersion-like model. On average, accounting for the subjects' work or school address as well as for the daily pollutant variation reduced the estimation error of exposure to ambient NOx/NO2 by 5-10ppb, since daytime concentrations at work/school and at home can differ significantly. These results were consistent regardless which air quality model as used and even for subjects that work or study close to their home. Yet, due to their usually short commute, assigning schoolchildren exposure solely at their residential place seems to be a reasonable estimation. In contrast, since adults commute for longer distances, assigning exposure of adults only at the residential place has a lower correlation with the daily weighted exposure, resulting in larger exposure estimation errors. We show that exposure misclassification can result from not accounting for the subjects' time-location trajectories through the spatiotemporally varying pollutant concentrations field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The spatial dynamics of dengue virus in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic to the rural province of Kamphaeng Phet, Northern Thailand. A decade of prospective cohort studies has provided important insights into the dengue viruses and their generated disease. However, as elsewhere, spatial dynamics of the pathogen remain poorly understood. In particular, the spatial scale of transmission and the scale of clustering are poorly characterized. This information is critical for effective deployment of spatially targeted interventions and for understanding the mechanisms that drive the dispersal of the virus.We geocoded the home locations of 4,768 confirmed dengue cases admitted to the main hospital in Kamphaeng Phet province between 1994 and 2008. We used the phi clustering statistic to characterize short-term spatial dependence between cases. Further, to see if clustering of cases led to similar temporal patterns of disease across villages, we calculated the correlation in the long-term epidemic curves between communities. We found that cases were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.2 more likely to live in the same village and be infected within the same month than expected given the underlying spatial and temporal distribution of cases. This fell to 1.4 times (1.2-1.7 for individuals living in villages 1 km apart. Significant clustering was observed up to 5 km. We found a steadily decreasing trend in the correlation in epidemics curves by distance: communities separated by up to 5 km had a mean correlation of 0.28 falling to 0.16 for communities separated between 20 km and 25 km. A potential explanation for these patterns is a role for human movement in spreading the pathogen between communities. Gravity style models, which attempt to capture population movement, outperformed competing models in describing the observed correlations.There exists significant short-term clustering of cases within individual villages. Effective spatially and temporally targeted interventions deployed within villages may

  16. Fine-Scale Mapping by Spatial Risk Distribution Modeling for Regional Malaria Endemicity and Its Implications under the Low-to-Moderate Transmission Setting in Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Okami

    Full Text Available The disease burden of malaria has decreased as malaria elimination efforts progress. The mapping approach that uses spatial risk distribution modeling needs some adjustment and reinvestigation in accordance with situational changes. Here we applied a mathematical modeling approach for standardized morbidity ratio (SMR calculated by annual parasite incidence using routinely aggregated surveillance reports, environmental data such as remote sensing data, and non-environmental anthropogenic data to create fine-scale spatial risk distribution maps of western Cambodia. Furthermore, we incorporated a combination of containment status indicators into the model to demonstrate spatial heterogeneities of the relationship between containment status and risks. The explanatory model was fitted to estimate the SMR of each area (adjusted Pearson correlation coefficient R2 = 0.774; Akaike information criterion AIC = 149.423. A Bayesian modeling framework was applied to estimate the uncertainty of the model and cross-scale predictions. Fine-scale maps were created by the spatial interpolation of estimated SMRs at each village. Compared with geocoded case data, corresponding predicted values showed conformity [Spearman's rank correlation r = 0.662 in the inverse distance weighed interpolation and 0.645 in ordinal kriging (95% confidence intervals of 0.414-0.827 and 0.368-0.813, respectively, Welch's t-test; Not significant]. The proposed approach successfully explained regional malaria risks and fine-scale risk maps were created under low-to-moderate malaria transmission settings where reinvestigations of existing risk modeling approaches were needed. Moreover, different representations of simulated outcomes of containment status indicators for respective areas provided useful insights for tailored interventional planning, considering regional malaria endemicity.

  17. Geoparsing text for characterizing urban operational environments through machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, Noah W.; Selig, Lucas; Perkins, Timothy K.; Calfas, George W.

    2017-05-01

    Increasing worldwide internet connectivity and access to sources of print and open social media has increased near realtime availability of textual information. Capabilities to structure and integrate textual data streams can contribute to more meaningful representations of operational environment factors (i.e., Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, Information, Physical Environment, and Time [PMESII-PT]) and tactical civil considerations (i.e., Areas, Structures, Capabilities, Organizations, People and Events [ASCOPE]). However, relying upon human analysts to encode this information as it arrives quickly proves intractable. While human analysts possess an ability to comprehend context in unstructured text far beyond that of computers, automated geoparsing (the extraction of locations from unstructured text) can empower analysts to automate sifting through datasets for areas of interest. This research evaluates existing approaches to geoprocessing as well as initiating the research and development of locally-improved methods of tagging parts of text as possible locations, resolving possible locations into coordinates, and interfacing such results with human analysts. The objective of this ongoing research is to develop a more contextually-complete picture of an area of interest (AOI) including human-geographic context for events. In particular, our research is working to make improvements to geoparsing (i.e., the extraction of spatial context from documents), which requires development, integration, and validation of named-entity recognition (NER) tools, gazetteers, and entity-attribution. This paper provides an overview of NER models and methodologies as applied to geoparsing, explores several challenges encountered, presents preliminary results from the creation of a flexible geoparsing research pipeline, and introduces ongoing and future work with the intention of contributing to the efficient geocoding of information containing valuable

  18. Remote sensing for land management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet

    1983-05-01

    The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes

  19. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  20. Integrated approach of nutritional and molecular epidemiology, mineralogical and chemical pollutant characterisation: the protocol of a cross-sectional study in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Maugeri, Andrea; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Catalfo, Alfio; De Guidi, Guido; Iemmolo, Maria; Crimi, Nunzio; Agodi, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Environmentally-related health and disease are the result of the exposome, the totality of a person's environmental exposures, from all sources and routes, across their lifespan. Epigenetic phenomena, including DNA methylation, can be potentially modified by environmental and lifestyle factors, and result in environmental reprogramming of the genome for exposed individuals and for future generations of offspring. Objective The objective of the project is to evaluate the risk of DNA hypomethylation due to air pollution, Mediterranean diet adherence, folate intake, and demographic and socioeconomic factors, in healthy women living in the metropolitan area of Catania, Italy. Methods and analysis Non-pregnant healthy women will be enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary intake information will be collected. LINE-1 methylation will be measured by pyrosequencing. The participants' home addresses will be geocoded and each woman will be assigned to the closest monitoring station for particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment. Mineralogical-chemical characterisation of PM and cellular model assays will be performed. An integrated approach will be designed to estimate the combined possible effect of air pollution, Mediterranean diet adherence, folate intake and other lifestyle characteristics on LINE-1 methylation levels. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the ethics committees of the involved institution and funded by the University of Catania (Finanziamento della Ricerca, FIR 2014). All participants will be fully informed of the purpose and procedures of the study, and signed written consents will be obtained. All the data collected will be treated confidentially and analysed in an aggregate and anonymous way. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and communicated to local public health agencies, in order to provide essential information for timely and effective public health action