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Sample records for geocoding police collision

  1. Geocoding police collision report data from California: a comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision geocoding is the process of assigning geographic descriptors, usually latitude and longitude coordinates, to a traffic collision record. On California police reports, relative collision location is recorded using a highway postmile marker or a street intersection. The objective of this study was to create a geocoded database of all police-reported, fatal and severe injury collisions in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS for years 1997-2006 for use by public agencies. Results Geocoding was completed with a multi-step process. First, pre-processing was performed using a scripting language to clean and standardize street name information. A state highway network with postmile values was then created using a custom tool written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA in ArcGIS software. Custom VBA functionality was also used to incorporate the offset direction and distance. Intersection and address geocoding was performed using ArcGIS, StreetMap Pro 2003 digital street network, and Google Earth Pro. A total of 142,007 fatal and severe injury collisions were identified in SWITRS. The geocoding match rate was 99.8% for postmile-coded collisions and 86% for intersection-coded collisions. The overall match rate was 91%. Conclusions The availability of geocoded collision data will be beneficial to clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the fields of traffic safety and public health. Potential uses of the data include studies of collision clustering on the highway system, examinations of the associations between collision occurrence and a variety of variables on environmental and social characteristics, including housing and personal demographics, alcohol outlets, schools, and parks. The ability to build maps may be useful in research planning and conduct and in the delivery of information to both technical and non-technical audiences.

  2. VT E911 road address range geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  3. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  4. VT E911 road name geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road name geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode addresses...

  5. Applications of Geocoding and Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    The application of computer programing to construction of maps and geographic distributions of data has been called geocoding. This new use of the computer allows much more rapid analysis of various demographic characteristics. In particular, this paper describes the use of computer geocoding in the development of a plot of student density in…

  6. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes.

  7. Examining the impact of the precision of address geocoding on estimated density of crime locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yutaka; Shimada, Takahito

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the impact of the precision of address geocoding on the estimated density of crime locations in a large urban area of Japan. The data consist of two separate sets of the same Penal Code offenses known to the police that occurred during a nine-month period of April 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001 in the central 23 wards of Tokyo. These two data sets are derived from older and newer recording system of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (TMPD), which revised its crime reporting system in that year so that more precise location information than the previous years could be recorded. Each of these data sets was address-geocoded onto a large-scale digital map, using our hierarchical address-geocoding schema, and was examined how such differences in the precision of address information and the resulting differences in address-geocoded incidence locations affect the patterns in kernel density maps. An analysis using 11,096 pairs of incidences of residential burglary (each pair consists of the same incidents geocoded using older and newer address information, respectively) indicates that the kernel density estimation with a cell size of 25×25 m and a bandwidth of 500 m may work quite well in absorbing the poorer precision of geocoded locations based on data from older recording system, whereas in several areas where older recording system resulted in very poor precision level, the inaccuracy of incident locations may produce artifactitious and potentially misleading patterns in kernel density maps.

  8. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  9. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  10. An evaluation framework for comparing geocoding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Daniel W.; Ballard, Morven; Boyd, James H; Mullan, Narelle; Garfield, Carol; Rosman, Diana; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of converting textual information describing a location into one or more digital geographic representations, is a routine task performed at large organizations and government agencies across the globe. In a health context, this task is often a fundamental first step performed prior to all operations that take place in a spatially-based health study. As such, the quality of the geocoding system used within these agencies is of paramount concern to the agency (...

  11. VT E911 Composite geocoder - uses ESITE, RDSNAME, and RDSRANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 Composite geocoder - uses ESITE, RDSNAME, and RDSRANGE. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be...

  12. A method and a tool for geocoding and record linkage

    OpenAIRE

    CHARIF Omar; OMRANI Hichem; Klein, Olivier; Schneider, Marc; Trigano, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    For many years, researchers have presented the geocoding of postal addresses as a challenge. Several research works have been devoted to achieve the geocoding process. This paper presents theoretical and technical aspects for geolocalization, geocoding, and record linkage. It shows possibilities and limitations of existing methods and commercial software identifying areas for further research. In particular, we present a methodology and a computing tool allowing the correction and the geo-cod...

  13. The Application of Geocoded Data to Educational Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Donald N.; And Others

    The papers presented at a symposium on geocoding describe the preparation of a geocoded data file, some basic applications for education planning, and its use in trend analysis to produce contour maps for any desired characteristic. Geocoding data involves locating each entity, such as students or schools, in terms of grid coordinates on a…

  14. The Afghan National Police: Turning a Counterinsurgency Problem into a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    i. 131 Afghanistan Information Management Service, “ Anatomy of the Geocode.” 132 United States Government Accountability Office, DC, Afghanistan...Mohammad Gul pointed to two compounds of neighbors where pre- teen children had been abducted by police to be used for the local practice of...Society (Contemporary Society: Tribal Studies) 5 (2002), 265–282. 203 Afghanistan Information Management Service, “ Anatomy of the Geocode.” 204

  15. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  16. Automated rectification and geocoding of SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Curlander, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    An automated post-processing system has been developed for rectification and geocoding of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The system uses as input a raw uncorrected image from the operational SAR correlator, and produces as a standard output a rectified and geocoded product. The accurate geolocation of SAR image pixels is provided by a spatial transformation model which maps the slant range-azimuth SAR image pixels into their location on a prespecified map grid. This model predicts the geodetic location of each pixel by utilizing: the sensor platform position; a geoid model; the parameters of the data collection system and the processing parameters used in the SAR correlator. Based on their geodetic locations, the pixels are mapped by using the desired cartographic projection equations. This rectification and geocoding technique has been tested with Seasat and SIR-B images. The test results demonstrate absolute location uncertainty of less than 50 m and relative distortion (scale factor and skew) of less than 0.1 percent relative to local variations from the assumed geoid.

  17. Extending a geocoding database by Web information extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Niu, Zheng

    2008-10-01

    Local Search has recently attracted much attention. And the popular architecture of Local Search is map-and-hyperlinks, which links geo-referenced Web content to a map interface. This architecture shows that a good Local Search not only depends on search engine techniques, but also on a perfect geocoding database. The process of building and updating a geocoding database is laborious and time consuming so that it is usually difficult to keep up with the change of the real world. However, the Web provides a rich resource of location related information, which would be a supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper introduces how to extract geographic information from Web documents to extend a geocoding database. Our approach involves two major steps. First, geographic named entities are identified and extracted from Web content. Then, named entities are geocoded and put into storage. By this way, we can extend a geocoding database to provide better local Web search services.

  18. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  19. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  20. Protesting police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William

    2016-01-01

    We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of poli

  1. An effective and efficient approach for manually improving geocoded data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoblock Craig A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of geocoding produces output coordinates of varying degrees of quality. Previous studies have revealed that simply excluding records with low-quality geocodes from analysis can introduce significant bias, but depending on the number and severity of the inaccuracies, their inclusion may also lead to bias. Little quantitative research has been presented on the cost and/or effectiveness of correcting geocodes through manual interactive processes, so the most cost effective methods for improving geocoded data are unclear. The present work investigates the time and effort required to correct geocodes contained in five health-related datasets that represent examples of data commonly used in Health GIS. Results Geocode correction was attempted on five health-related datasets containing a total of 22,317 records. The complete processing of these data took 11.4 weeks (427 hours, averaging 69 seconds of processing time per record. Overall, the geocodes associated with 12,280 (55% of records were successfully improved, taking 95 seconds of processing time per corrected record on average across all five datasets. Geocode correction improved the overall match rate (the number of successful matches out of the total attempted from 79.3 to 95%. The spatial shift between the location of original successfully matched geocodes and their corrected improved counterparts averaged 9.9 km per corrected record. After geocode correction the number of city and USPS ZIP code accuracy geocodes were reduced from 10,959 and 1,031 to 6,284 and 200, respectively, while the number of building centroid accuracy geocodes increased from 0 to 2,261. Conclusion The results indicate that manual geocode correction using a web-based interactive approach is a feasible and cost effective method for improving the quality of geocoded data. The level of effort required varies depending on the type of data geocoded. These results can be used to choose between

  2. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  3. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS: COMPARISON OF GEOCODED AND NON-GEOCODED POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded residence at delivery will be used ...

  4. Geocoding of AIRSAR/TOPSAR SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecz, Francesco; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and recognized that radar interferometry is a promising method for the determination of digital elevation information and terrain slope from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An important application of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) data in areas with topographic variations is that the derived elevation and slope can be directly used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the amplitude SAR data as well as for scattering mechanisms analysis. On the other hand polarimetric SAR data has long been recognized as permitting a more complete inference of natural surfaces than a single channel radar system. In fact, imaging polarimetry provides the measurement of the amplitude and relative phase of all transmit and receive polarizations. On board the NASA DC-8 aircraft, NASA/JPL operates the multifrequency (P, L and C bands) multipolarimetric radar AIRSAR. The TOPSAR, a special mode of the AIRSAR system, is able to collect single-pass interferometric C- and/or L-band VV polarized data. A possible configuration of the AIRSAR/TOPSAR system is to acquire single-pass interferometric data at C-band VV polarization and polarimetric radar data at the two other lower frequencies. The advantage of this system configuration is to get digital topography information at the same time the radar data is collected. The digital elevation information can therefore be used to correctly calibrate the SAR data. This step is directly included in the new AIRSAR Integrated Processor. This processor uses a modification of the full motion compensation algorithm described by Madsen et al. (1993). However, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with the additional products such as local incidence angle map, and the SAR data are in a geometry which is not convenient, since especially DEMs must be referred to a specific cartographic reference system. Furthermore, geocoding of SAR data is important for multisensor and/or multitemporal purposes. In this paper, a procedure to

  5. A Different Web-Based Geocoding Service Using Fuzzy Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, P.; Abbaspour, R. A.; Zare Zadiny, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geocoding - the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  6. A DIFFERENT WEB-BASED GEOCODING SERVICE USING FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pahlavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding – the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  7. Geocoded data structures and their applications to Earth science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    A geocoded data structure is a means for digitally representing a geographically referenced map or image. The characteristics of representative cellular, linked, and hybrid geocoded data structures are reviewed. The data processing requirements of Earth science projects at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the basic tools of geographic data processing are described. Specific ways that new geocoded data structures can be used to adapt these tools to scientists' needs are presented. These include: expanding analysis and modeling capabilities; simplifying the merging of data sets from diverse sources; and saving computer storage space.

  8. Towards Introducing a Geocoding Information System for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siksnans, J.; Pirupshvarre, Hans R.; Lind, M.; Mioc, D.; Anton, F.

    2011-08-01

    Currently, addressing practices in Greenland do not support geocoding. Addressing points on a map by geographic coordinates is vital for emergency services such as police and ambulance for avoiding ambiguities in finding incident locations (Government of Greenland, 2010) Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the current addressing practices in Greenland. Asiaq (Asiaq, 2011) is a public enterprise of the Government of Greenland which holds three separate databases regards addressing and place references: - list of locality names (towns, villages, farms), - technical base maps (including road center lines not connected with names, and buildings), - the NIN registry (The Land Use Register of Greenland - holds information on the land allotments and buildings in Greenland). The main problem is that these data sets are not interconnected, thus making it impossible to address a point in a map with geographic coordinates in a standardized way. The possible solutions suffer from the fact that Greenland has a scattered habitation pattern and the generalization of the address assignment schema is a difficult task. A schema would be developed according to the characteristics of the settlement pattern, e.g. cities, remote locations and place names. The aim is to propose an ontology for a common postal address system for Greenland. The main part of the research is dedicated to the current system and user requirement engineering. This allowed us to design a conceptual database model which corresponds to the user requirements, and implement a small scale prototype. Furthermore, our research includes resemblance findings in Danish and Greenland's addressing practices, data dictionary for establishing Greenland addressing system's logical model and enhanced entity relationship diagram. This initial prototype of the Greenland addressing system could be used to evaluate and build the full architecture of the addressing information system for Greenland. Using software engineering

  9. Comparing a single-stage geocoding method to a multi-stage geocoding method: how much and where do they disagree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geocoding methods vary among spatial epidemiology studies. Errors in the geocoding process and differential match rates may reduce study validity. We compared two geocoding methods using 8,157 Washington State addresses. The multi-stage geocoding method implemented by the state health department used a sequence of local and national reference files. The single-stage method used a single national reference file. For each address geocoded by both methods, we measured the distance between the locations assigned by each method. Area-level characteristics were collected from census data, and modeled as predictors of the discordance between geocoded address coordinates. Results The multi-stage method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method: 99% versus 95%. Of 7,686 addresses were geocoded by both methods, 96% were geocoded to the same census tract by both methods and 98% were geocoded to locations within 1 km of each other by the two methods. The distance between geocoded coordinates for the same address was higher in sparsely populated and low poverty areas, and counties with local reference files. Conclusion The multi-stage geocoding method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method. An examination of differences in the location assigned to the same address suggested that study results may be most sensitive to the choice of geocoding method in sparsely populated or low-poverty areas.

  10. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Castro, Marcia C; Blossom, Jeffrey C; Bennett, Gary G; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude) difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com). Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748) collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705), 2% (n = 18) were tied and 3% (n = 25) were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4%) were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis). Six hundred thirteen (87.6%) of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude coordinates

  11. Geographic bias related to geocoding in epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siadaty Mir

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes geographic bias in GIS analyses with unrepresentative data owing to missing geocodes, using as an example a spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence among whites and African Americans in Virginia, 1990–1999. Statistical tests for clustering were performed and such clusters mapped. The patterns of missing census tract identifiers for the cases were examined by generalized linear regression models. Results The county of residency for all cases was known, and 26,338 (74% of these cases were geocoded successfully to census tracts. Cluster maps showed patterns that appeared markedly different, depending upon whether one used all cases or those geocoded to the census tract. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, in the most rural counties (where the missing data were concentrated, the percent of a county's population over age 64 and with less than a high school education were both independently associated with a higher percent of missing geocodes. Conclusion We found statistically significant pattern differences resulting from spatially non-random differences in geocoding completeness across Virginia. Appropriate interpretation of maps, therefore, requires an understanding of this phenomenon, which we call "cartographic confounding."

  12. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  13. Policing Transgender People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.

  14. An analysis of the process and results of manual geocode correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda J. McDonald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding is the science and process of assigning geographical coordinates (i.e. latitude, longitude to a postal address. The quality of the geocode can vary dramatically depending on several variables, including incorrect input address data, missing address components, and spelling mistakes. A dataset with a considerable number of geocoding inaccuracies can potentially result in an imprecise analysis and invalid conclusions. There has been little quantitative analysis of the amount of effort (i.e. time to perform geocoding correction, and how such correction could improve geocode quality type. This study used a low-cost and easy to implement method to improve geocode quality type of an input database (i.e. addresses to be matched through the processes of manual geocode intervention, and it assessed the amount of effort to manually correct inaccurate geocodes, reported the resulting match rate improvement between the original and the corrected geocodes, and documented the corresponding spatial shift by geocode quality type resulting from the corrections. Findings demonstrated that manual intervention of geocoding resulted in a 90% improvement of geocode quality type, took 42 hours to process, and the spatial shift ranged from 0.02 to 151,368 m. This study provides evidence to inform research teams considering the application of manual geocoding intervention that it is a low-cost and relatively easy process to execute.

  15. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  16. Geocoding and social marketing in Alabama's cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Julianna W; White, Arica; Lubenow, Anne E; Palmer, Sally

    2005-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama's Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute's cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute's profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  17. Police and higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenberg, K.; Cockcroft, TW

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between police and higher education is not a new phenomenon. However, in the UK, co-operation between police and the academy has been slow to develop, particularly when compared to the United States and Europe. Nevertheless, a number of police-university partnerships and a variety of courses from Foundation to Masters level aimed at current and aspiring police officers has mushroomed over the last decade, illustrating a recent formalisation of the police-academia ...

  18. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  19. Policing Football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  20. A research agenda: does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding positional uncertainty, primarily because of a lack of theory, methods and tools for quantifying, modeling, and adjusting for geocoding positional errors in health analysis. This paper proposes a research agenda to address this need. It summarizes the basics of the geocoding process, its assumptions, and empirical evidence describing the magnitude of geocoding positional error. An overview of the impacts of positional error in health analysis, including accessibility, disease clustering, exposure reconstruction, and spatial weights estimation is presented. The proposed research agenda addresses five key needs: (1) a lack of standardized, open-access geocoding resources for use in health research; (2) a lack of geocoding validation datasets that will allow the evaluation of alternative geocoding engines and procedures; (3) a lack of spatially explicit geocoding positional error models; (4) a lack of resources for assessing the sensitivity of spatial analysis results to geocoding positional error; (5) a lack of demonstration studies that illustrate the sensitivity of health policy decisions to geocoding positional error.

  1. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com. Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748 collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705, 2% (n = 18 were tied and 3% (n = 25 were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4% were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis. Six hundred thirteen (87.6% of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude

  2. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  3. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.

  4. Spatial Quality of Manually Geocoded Multispectral and Multiresolution Mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Krtalić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The digital airborne multisensor and multiresolution system for collection of information (images about mine suspected area was created, within European commission project Airborne Minefield Area Reduction (ARC, EC IST-2000-25300, http://www.arc.vub.ac.be to gain a better perspective in mine suspected areas (MSP in the Republic of Croatia. The system consists of a matrix camera (visible and near infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum, 0.4-1.1 µm, thermal (thermal range of electromagnetic spectrum, 8-14 µm and a hyperspectral linear scanner. Because of a specific purpose and seeking object on the scene, the flights for collecting the images took place at heights from 130 m to 900 m above the ground. The result of a small relative flight height and large MSPs was a large number of images which cover MSPs. Therefore, the need for merging images in largest parts, for a better perspective in whole MSPs and the interaction of detected object influences on the scene appeared. The mentioned system did not dispose of the module for automatic mosaicking and geocoding, so mosaicking and after that geocoding were done manually. This process made the classification of the scene (better distinguishing of objects on the scene and fusion of multispectral and multiresolution images after that possible. Classification and image fusion can be even done by manually mosaicking and geocoding. This article demonstrated this claim.

  5. Geocoding coronial data: tools and techniques to improve data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Darren; Williamson, Dianne; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Clinical, administrative and demographic health information is fundamental to understanding the nature of health and evaluating the effectiveness of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality of the population. The demographic data item 'location' is an integral part of any injury surveillance tool or injury prevention strategy. The true value of location data can only be realised once these data have been appropriately classified and quality assured. Geocoding as a means of classifying location is increasingly used in various health fields to enable spatial analysis of data. This article reports on research carried out in Australia at the National Coroners Information System (NCIS). Trends in the use of NCIS location-based data by researchers were identified. The research also aimed to establish the factors that impacted on the quality of geocoded data and the extent of this impact. A systematic analysis of the geocoding process identified source documentation, data cleaning, and software settings as key factors impacting on data quality. Understanding and application of these processes can improve data quality and therefore inform the analysis and interpretation of these data by researchers.

  6. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...... that ‘good order and police’ was in demand by the subjects and also adapted to local needs. Inspired by this research this article investigates the enforcement of police ordinances in the market towns of Aalborg and Sæby and the country district of Børglum-Jerslev. The results show that policing remained...... focused on local needs even after the creation of a royal police office in 1682. Policing mainly concerned the welfare and privileges of burghers in market towns until the introduction of a country police in 1791, when agrarian reforms began to erode the patriarchal order in the countryside. As a new way...

  7. Police in political life

    OpenAIRE

    Kešetović, Želimir

    2012-01-01

    In the paper author is are discussing on the general level relations between the police and politics and the most important factors that determine the nature of this relations. He describes the way the politics directly or indirectly interfere and influence police work, and also how the police influence politics and interfere political processes, emphasizing the principle of political neutrality of the police and pointing out the problems in fulfillment of this principle. The position of the ...

  8. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya Kumar; Ming Liu; Syni-An Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA...

  9. Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error in street geocoding on the analysis of traffic-related air pollution on children. Methods For a case-study of a large sample of school children in Orange County, Florida (n = 104,865) the posi...

  10. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets at three spatial resolutions - zip code, street, and parcel. We achieve high geocoding rates at all three resolutions, with statewide street geocoding rates of 88.0% for births and 93.2% for deaths. We observe differences in geocoding rates across demographics and health outcomes, with lower geocoding rates in disadvantaged populations and the most dramatic differences occurring across the urban-rural spectrum. Our results suggest highly resolved spatial data architectures for population-level datasets are viable through geocoding individual street addresses. We recommend routinely geocoding administrative datasets to the highest spatial resolution feasible, allowing public health researchers to choose the spatial resolution used in analysis based on an understanding of the spatial dimensions of the health outcomes and exposures being investigated. Such research, however, must acknowledge how disparate geocoding success across subpopulations may affect findings.

  11. Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandbergen Paul A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error in street geocoding on the analysis of traffic-related air pollution on children. Methods For a case-study of a large sample of school children in Orange County, Florida (n = 104,865 the positional error of street geocoding was determined through comparison with a parcel database. The effect of this error was evaluated by analyzing the proximity of street and parcel geocoded locations to road segments with high traffic volume and determining the accuracy of the classification using the results of street geocoding. Of the original sample of 163,886 addresses 36% were not used in the final analysis because they could not be reliably geocoded using either street or parcel geocoding. The estimates of positional error can therefore be considered conservative underestimates. Results Street geocoding was found to have a median error of 41 meters, a 90th percentile of 100 meters, a 95th percentile of 137 meters and a 99th percentile of 273 meters. These positional errors were found to be non-random in nature and introduced substantial bias and error in the estimates of potential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Street geocoding was found to consistently over-estimate the number of potentially exposed children at small distances up to 250 meters. False positives and negatives were also found to be very common at these small distances. Conclusion Results of the case-study presented here strongly suggest that typical street geocoding is insufficient for fine-scale analysis and more accurate alternatives need to be considered.

  12. COMPARISON OF GEOCODING METHODS USED IN CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Accurate geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded maternal residence a...

  13. Evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Police Leadership and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Book Review -- Police Leadership and Management by Margaret Mitchell and John Casey (editors, Federation Press, Sydney, 2007, 290 pages, ISBN 9781862876491, Reviewed by Alan Beckley

  15. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  16. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjaya; Liu, Ming; Hwang, Syni-An

    2012-11-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate), geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7%) were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3%) by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid ("true" location) compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  17. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate, geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7% were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3% by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid (“true” location compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  18. Geocoding accuracy and the recovery of relationships between environmental exposures and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship – statistical power – between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of positional accuracy and completeness of the geocodes from which the measures of environmental exposure are made. This paper summarizes the results of simulation studies conducted to examine the impact of inaccuracies of geocoded addresses generated by three types of geocoding processes: a addresses located on orthophoto maps, b addresses matched to TIGER files (U.S Census or their derivative street files; and, c addresses from E-911 geocodes (developed by local authorities for emergency dispatch purposes. Results The simulated odds of disease using exposures modelled from the highest quality geocodes could be sufficiently recovered using other, more commonly used, geocoding processes such as TIGER and E-911; however, the strength of the odds relationship between disease exposures modelled at geocodes generally declined with decreasing geocoding accuracy. Conclusion Although these specific results cannot be generalized to new situations, the methods used to determine the sensitivity of results can be used in new situations. Estimated measures of positional accuracy must be used in the interpretation of results of analyses that investigate relationships between health outcomes and exposures measured at residential locations. Analyses similar to those employed in this paper can be used to validate interpretation of results from empirical analyses that use geocoded locations with estimated measures of positional accuracy.

  19. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquez Geoffrey M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy. We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density

  20. Police and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  1. Policing Metropolitan America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  2. Geocoding and stereo display of tropical forest multisensor datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R.; Jordan, T. R.; Luvall, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the future of tropical forests has led to a demand for geocoded multisensor databases that can be used to assess forest structure, deforestation, thermal response, evapotranspiration, and other parameters linked to climate change. In response to studies being conducted at the Braulino Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica, digital satellite and aircraft images recorded by Landsat TM, SPOT HRV, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, and Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner sensors were placed in register using the Landsat TM image as the reference map. Despite problems caused by relief, multitemporal datasets, and geometric distortions in the aircraft images, registration was accomplished to within + or - 20 m (+ or - 1 data pixel). A digital elevation model constructed from a multisensor Landsat TM/SPOT stereopair proved useful for generating perspective views of the rugged, forested terrain.

  3. Modelling Iteration Convergence Condition for Single SAR Image Geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuting; Liao, Minghsheng; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Xuguo

    2014-11-01

    Single SAR image geocoding is to determine the ground coordinate for each pixel in the SAR image assisted with an external DEM. Due to the uncertainty of the elevation of each pixel in SAR image, an iterative procedure is needed, which suffers from the problem of divergence in some difficult areas such as shaded and serious layover areas. This paper aims at theoretically analysing the convergence conditions that has not been intensively studied till now. To make the discussion easier, the Range-Doppler (RD) model is simplified and then the general surface is simplified into a planar surface. Mathematical deduction is carried out to derive the convergence conditions and the impact factors for the convergence speed are analysed. The theoretical findings are validated by experiments for both simulated and real surfaces.

  4. Geocoding location expressions in Twitter messages: A preference learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolving location expressions in text to the correct physical location, also known as geocoding or grounding, is complicated by the fact that so many places around the world share the same name. Correct resolution is made even more difficult when there is little context to determine which place is intended, as in a 140-character Twitter message, or when location cues from different sources conflict, as may be the case among different metadata fields of a Twitter message. We used supervised machine learning to weigh the different fields of the Twitter message and the features of a world gazetteer to create a model that will prefer the correct gazetteer candidate to resolve the extracted expression. We evaluated our model using the F1 measure and compared it to similar algorithms. Our method achieved results higher than state-of-the-art competitors.

  5. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daikwon; Bonner, Matthew R; Nie, Jing; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-05-01

    The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  6. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikwon Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  7. Accuracy of two geocoding methods for geographic information system-based exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Elodie; Danjou, Aurélie M N; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-02-24

    Environmental exposure assessment based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and study participants' residential proximity to environmental exposure sources relies on the positional accuracy of subjects' residences to avoid misclassification bias. Our study compared the positional accuracy of two automatic geocoding methods to a manual reference method. We geocoded 4,247 address records representing the residential history (1990-2008) of 1,685 women from the French national E3N cohort living in the Rhône-Alpes region. We compared two automatic geocoding methods, a free-online geocoding service (method A) and an in-house geocoder (method B), to a reference layer created by manually relocating addresses from method A (method R). For each automatic geocoding method, positional accuracy levels were compared according to the urban/rural status of addresses and time-periods (1990-2000, 2001-2008), using Chi Square tests. Kappa statistics were performed to assess agreement of positional accuracy of both methods A and B with the reference method, overall, by time-periods and by urban/rural status of addresses. Respectively 81.4% and 84.4% of addresses were geocoded to the exact address (65.1% and 61.4%) or to the street segment (16.3% and 23.0%) with methods A and B. In the reference layer, geocoding accuracy was higher in urban areas compared to rural areas (74.4% vs. 10.5% addresses geocoded to the address or interpolated address level, p < 0.0001); no difference was observed according to the period of residence. Compared to the reference method, median positional errors were 0.0 m (IQR = 0.0-37.2 m) and 26.5 m (8.0-134.8 m), with positional errors <100 m for 82.5% and 71.3% of addresses, for method A and method B respectively. Positional agreement of method A and method B with method R was 'substantial' for both methods, with kappa coefficients of 0.60 and 0.61 for methods A and B, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of geocoding

  8. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Lisa G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. Results The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130 and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters. Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Conclusions Although the study was limited by small

  9. Drug policing in four Danish police districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg

    2016-01-01

    studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...

  10. Pittsburgh Police Incident Blotter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Police blotter information is a listing of arrests that are documented very shortly after an arrest occurs but does not include investigative, intelligence, nor...

  11. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  12. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  13. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  14. A research agenda: Does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquez, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding...

  15. Methods for Retrospective Geocoding in Population Studies: The Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer C.; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, Demarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details, hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in th...

  16. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets a...

  17. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Dale L.; Fang, Xiangming; Mazumdar, Soumya; Rushton, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our stu...

  18. GIS-based geocoding methods for area-based addresses and 3D addresses in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyeong Lee

    2009-01-01

    For more than four decades, two address-matching methods, the street-based address geocoding method and address-point-matching method, have been used to identify geographical coordinates from postal addresses. However, street-based address geocoding methods developed for the US addressing system are not universally applicable in developing a single-portal geocoding middleware for worldwide Internet-based geographic information systems applications. Problems also exist with address-point match...

  19. [Who Hits the Mark? A Comparative Study of the Free Geocoding Services of Google and OpenStreetMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, D; Mattauch, V; Heidinger, O; Hense, H W

    2015-09-01

    Geocoding, the process of converting textual information (addresses) into geographic coordinates is increasingly used in public health/epidemiological research and practice. To date, little attention has been paid to geocoding quality and its impact on different types of spatially-related health studies. The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 freely available geocoding services (Google and OpenStreetMap) with regard to matching rate (percentage of address records capable of being geocoded) and positional accuracy (distance between geocodes and the ground truth locations). Residential addresses were geocoded by the NRW state office for information and technology and were considered as reference data (gold standard). The gold standard included the coordinates, the quality of the addresses (4 categories), and a binary urbanity indicator based on the CORINE land cover data. 2 500 addresses were randomly sampled after stratification for address quality and urbanity indicator (approximately 20 000 addresses). These address samples were geocoded using the geocoding services from Google and OSM. In general, both geocoding services showed a decrease in the matching rate with decreasing address quality and urbanity. Google showed consistently a higher completeness than OSM (>93 vs. >82%). Also, the cartographic confounding between urban and rural regions was less distinct with Google's geocoding API. Regarding the positional accuracy of the geo-coordinates, Google also showed the smallest deviations from the reference coordinates, with a median of Google that nearly 95% and for OSM 50% of the addresses were geocoded within Google is superior to OSM regarding completeness and positional accuracy of the geocoded addresses. On the other hand, Google has several restrictions, such as the limitation of the requests to 2 500 addresses per 24 h and the presentation of the results exclusively on Google Maps, which may complicate the use for scientific purposes.

  20. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code.

  1. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  2. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  3. Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Further inquiry into processes that lead to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. Suicide ideation in police officers and possible correlates associated with such ideation is explored in this paper. The focus was on psychologically traumatic police work experiences, the development of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in officers, and the…

  4. Spatial autocorrelation among automated geocoding errors and its effects on testing for disease clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dale L; Li, Jie; Fang, Xiangming

    2010-04-30

    Automated geocoding of patient addresses is an important data assimilation component of many spatial epidemiologic studies. Inevitably, the geocoding process results in positional errors. Positional errors incurred by automated geocoding tend to reduce the power of tests for disease clustering and otherwise affect spatial analytic methods. However, there are reasons to believe that the errors may often be positively spatially correlated and that this may mitigate their deleterious effects on spatial analyses. In this article, we demonstrate explicitly that the positional errors associated with automated geocoding of a data set of more than 6000 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa are spatially autocorrelated. Furthermore, through two simulation studies of disease processes, including one in which the disease process is overlain upon the Carroll County addresses, we show that spatial autocorrelation among geocoding errors maintains the power of two tests for disease clustering at a level higher than that which would occur if the errors were independent. Implications of these results for cluster detection, privacy protection, and measurement error modeling of geographic health data are discussed.

  5. ERS-1 SAR geocoding system as link between spaceborne and earth reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Gunter; Roth, Achim; Knöpfle, Walter

    1993-08-01

    The operational European ground segment of the European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 supports geocoded SAR image data generated by the German Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich. Geocoding of spaceborne satellite data means to establish an easy and user friendly link between the satellite measurements and Geo-Information Systems (GIS) as well as the possibility to intercompare SAR data with other geocoded satellite based information. Although the near to fully automatic geocoding system is based on precisely known satellite house-keeping data, it strongly depends on georeference information at least for the validation of the data and the verification of its results. Such reference information are large scale topographic maps, which are still the unique global source for earth based information and Digital Elevation Models. The later are necessary to correct SAR data for disturbing height induced geometric and radiometric defects. Additionally automatically generated Image Ground Control Chips aid the precision of the system. To accomplish the task of operational geocoding, several consistent data bases have been generated at DLR to store these types of reference data. Both, relational data base techniques as well as spatial binary reference systems are in use for the data storage. The article will present the architecture of these operational systems and will give a first review of the experience with these systems during the ERS-1 commissioning and early operations phase.

  6. 扁平化改革与传统科层制的碰撞--以河南警务机制改革的博弈期为视角%Collision between Flat Organization Reform and Traditional Hierarchies---from the Perspective of Henan Police Reform Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2014-01-01

    河南公安机关于2010年全面实行警务机制改革,改变60余年的三级管理模式。目前,改革已进行三年,新体制进入与旧体制进行博弈的时期,许多新的问题显现。通过研究当前警务机制改革中扁平化与科层制的组织结构发生点对点碰撞的有关方面,并针对目前存在的问题提出新的对策,能够更好地推进警务机制深入改革,并真正发挥其应有的作用。%A comprehensive police reform mechanism has been implemented since 2010 in Henan public security organs, changing the three-tier management model existing for over 60 years. So far, the reforms have been carried out for three years, and problems arise during the collision between the new and old mechanism. The research focuses on the collisions between flat organization reform and traditional hierarchies and puts forward new proposals for the current problems so as to promote the reform and play its due role.

  7. Norwegian police students' attitudes towards armament

    OpenAIRE

    Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Strype, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Whether the police should routinely carry firearms is an ongoing debate in Norway. Although the police can carry weapons under special circumstances, the normal situation for the police in Norway is to store firearms in sealed cases in the police cars until armament orders are given by the police chief. In the present study, we examine attitudes towards routine police armament among Norwegian police students. First, we investigate the distribution of these attitudes among the students, and th...

  8. Geometric rectification and geocoding of JPL's AIRSAR data over hilly terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroof, H.; Degrandi, G.; Sieber, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    A post-processing system was developed to georeference and geocode airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the JPL-Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) System over hilly terrain during the 1990 MAESTRO1 campaign. Georectification relates image coordinates and object coordinates while the geocoding involves resampling. The georectification method uses a hybrid method based upon a number of navigational parameters and minimal two ground-control points which are referenced in both image and map space. The calculation of the intersection of the SAR signal wavefront and a digital elevation model allowed, within certain error bounds, acquisition of the object-to-image and image-to-object relationships.

  9. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.

  10. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  11. Near real-time geocoding of SAR imagery with orbit error removal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    When utilizing knowledge of the spacecraft trajectory for near real-time geocoding of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, the main problem is that predicted satellite orbits have to be used, which may be in error by several kilometres. As part of the development of a Dutch autonomous mobile groun

  12. The effect of administrative boundaries and geocoding error on cancer rates in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel W; Cockburn, Myles G

    2012-04-01

    Geocoding is often used to produce maps of disease rates from the diagnosis addresses of incident cases to assist with disease surveillance, prevention, and control. In this process, diagnosis addresses are converted into latitude/longitude pairs which are then aggregated to produce rates at varying geographic scales such as Census tracts, neighborhoods, cities, counties, and states. The specific techniques used within geocoding systems have an impact on where the output geocode is located and can therefore have an effect on the derivation of disease rates at different geographic aggregations. This paper investigates how county-level cancer rates are affected by the choice of interpolation method when case data are geocoded to the ZIP code level. Four commonly used areal unit interpolation techniques are applied and the output of each is used to compute crude county-level five-year incidence rates of all cancers in California. We found that the rates observed for 44 out of the 58 counties in California vary based on which interpolation method is used, with rates in some counties increasing by nearly 400% between interpolation methods.

  13. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  14. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute’s cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute’s profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  15. Police enforcement and traffic safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesemann, P.

    1988-01-01

    Research has clearly shown that police-enforcement can improve road safety, and it can be questioned whether the police organisation is prepared and able to give priority to preventive control in stead of repression. Dutch police officers aim primarily at catching offenders, not deterring them. Further, many policymakers and citizens prefer other solutions for this type of problems. An opponent remark is presented by J. Dilling.

  16. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as un...

  17. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as un...

  18. Geocoding uncertainty analysis for the automated processing of Sentinel-1 data using Sentinel-1 Toolbox software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Naeimi, Vahid; Wagner, Wolfgang; Elefante, Stefano; Cao, Senmao; Persson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    One of the major advantages of the Sentinel-1 data is its capability to provide very high spatio-temporal coverage allowing the mapping of large areas as well as creation of dense time-series of the Sentinel-1 acquisitions. The SGRT software developed at TU Wien aims at automated processing of Sentinel-1 data for global and regional products. The first step of the processing consists of the Sentinel-1 data geocoding with the help of S1TBX software and their resampling to a common grid. These resampled images serve as an input for the product derivation. Thus, it is very important to select the most reliable processing settings and assess the geocoding uncertainty for both backscatter and projected local incidence angle images. Within this study, selection of Sentinel-1 acquisitions over 3 test areas in Europe were processed manually in the S1TBX software, testing multiple software versions, processing settings and digital elevation models (DEM) and the accuracy of the resulting geocoded images were assessed. Secondly, all available Sentinel-1 data over the areas were processed using selected settings and detailed quality check was performed. Overall, strong influence of the used DEM on the geocoding quality was confirmed with differences up to 80 meters in areas with higher terrain variations. In flat areas, the geocoding accuracy of backscatter images was overall good, with observed shifts between 0 and 30m. Larger systematic shifts were identified in case of projected local incidence angle images. These results encourage the automated processing of large volumes of Sentinel-1 data.

  19. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip;

    2016-01-01

    observations between March 6th and May 9th 2016. The report provides a detailed, comprehensive, in depth and powerful review of the nature of the safety and security problems being confronted by Swedish top flight football and in so doing provides some critical analysis of existing practices, as well...... of evidence gathering in order to analyse, identify and develop good practice in the management of crowds attending Swedish Professional Football matches. This is the first full report from the second phase of the ENABLE project with a specific focus on policing and stewarding on the basis of five field...

  20. Preparation of Police Fitness Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the declining level of physical fitness of police officers has led the Bureau of Training of the Kentucky Department of Justice and the Department of Physical Education at Eastern Kentucky University to implement a training course for police instructors. (LH)

  1. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  2. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  3. On Teaching Material Development of Police English for Police College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌晓靖

    2013-01-01

    English plays an important role in foreign police affairs. To well master the language has become a must for policemen. While, police English teaching materials haven’t been divorced from ordinary academic education, without its own police educa⁃tion characteristics. It has been far behind the real need, which can’t adapt to the new situation. Ideas of the development of teaching material have been proposed: to be practical; to highlight the vocational characteristics; to increase the real situation, to pay attention to cross-cultural communication and to form stereoscopic and individual teaching material system.

  4. RPC Modeling For Spaceborne SAR And Its Application In Radar Image Geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohong; He, Xueyan; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2010-10-01

    The Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) model is a typical replacement sensor model which relates image coordinates and object coordinates through rational polynomial functions. This paper investigates the methodology of RPC modeling for spaceborne SAR and its application in radar image geocoding. A hybrid approach is proposed to combine the L-curve and the IMCCV (Iteration method by correcting characteristic value) methods for RPC modeling. Experimental results show that the hybrid approach is superior to traditional methods in terms of both fitting accuracy and computation time cost. The results of different settings in RPC modeling will be shown. To ensure high accuracy of image geocoding, an additional mathematical transformation is used to remove the systematic errors in the RPC model. An Envisat ASAR image is used as experimental data to verify the application.

  5. Error propagation models to examine the effects of geocoding quality on spatial analysis of individual-level datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, P A; Hart, T C; Lenzer, K E; Camponovo, M E

    2012-04-01

    The quality of geocoding has received substantial attention in recent years. A synthesis of published studies shows that the positional errors of street geocoding are somewhat unique relative to those of other types of spatial data: (1) the magnitude of error varies strongly across urban-rural gradients; (2) the direction of error is not uniform, but strongly associated with the properties of local street segments; (3) the distribution of errors does not follow a normal distribution, but is highly skewed and characterized by a substantial number of very large error values; and (4) the magnitude of error is spatially autocorrelated and is related to properties of the reference data. This makes it difficult to employ analytic approaches or Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation modeling because these rely on generalized statistical characteristics. The current paper describes an alternative empirical approach to error propagation modeling for geocoded data and illustrates its implementation using three different case-studies of geocoded individual-level datasets. The first case-study consists of determining the land cover categories associated with geocoded addresses using a point-in-raster overlay. The second case-study consists of a local hotspot characterization using kernel density analysis of geocoded addresses. The third case-study consists of a spatial data aggregation using enumeration areas of varying spatial resolution. For each case-study a high quality reference scenario based on address points forms the basis for the analysis, which is then compared to the result of various street geocoding techniques. Results show that the unique nature of the positional error of street geocoding introduces substantial noise in the result of spatial analysis, including a substantial amount of bias for some analysis scenarios. This confirms findings from earlier studies, but expands these to a wider range of analytical techniques.

  6. Integrating Address Geocoding, Land Use Regression, and Spatiotemporal Geostatistical Estimation for Groundwater Tetrachloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, Kyle P.; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques t...

  7. The effects of local street network characteristics on the positional accuracy of automated geocoding for geographic health studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated geocoding of patient addresses for the purpose of conducting spatial epidemiologic studies results in positional errors. It is well documented that errors tend to be larger in rural areas than in cities, but possible effects of local characteristics of the street network, such as street intersection density and street length, on errors have not yet been documented. Our study quantifies effects of these local street network characteristics on the means and the entire probability distributions of positional errors, using regression methods and tolerance intervals/regions, for more than 6000 geocoded patient addresses from an Iowa county. Results Positional errors were determined for 6376 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa, as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its ground-truthed location. Mean positional error magnitude was inversely related to proximate street intersection density. This effect was statistically significant for both rural and municipal addresses, but more so for the former. Also, the effect of street segment length on geocoding accuracy was statistically significant for municipal, but not rural, addresses; for municipal addresses mean error magnitude increased with length. Conclusion Local street network characteristics may have statistically significant effects on geocoding accuracy in some places, but not others. Even in those locales where their effects are statistically significant, street network characteristics may explain a relatively small portion of the variability among geocoding errors. It appears that additional factors besides rurality and local street network characteristics affect accuracy in general.

  8. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  9. The approach adopted by police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    It is indicated how police enforcement can be effectively implemented. Police enforcement is linked to other measures in order to achieve safe behaviour. Police enforcement represents an important instrument in the stimulation of safe behaviour. Police enforcement has a bearing on how road users eva

  10. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  11. Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L

    2012-03-06

    Geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend.

  12. Automatic geocoding of high-value targets using structural image analysis and GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Uwe; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    Geocoding based merely on navigation data and sensor model is often not possible or precise enough. In these cases an improvement of the preregistration through image-based approaches is a solution. Due to the large amount of data in remote sensing automatic geocoding methods are necessary. For geocoding purposes appropriate tie points, which are present in image and map, have to be detected and matched. The tie points are base of the transformation function. Assigning the tie points is combinatorial problem depending on the number of tie points. This number can be reduced using structural tie points like corners or crossings of prominent extended targets (e.g. harbors, airfields). Additionally the reliability of the tie points is improved. Our approach extracts structural tie points independently in the image and in the vector map by a model-based image analysis. The vector map is provided by a GIS using ATKIS data base. The model parameters are extracted from maps or collateral information of the scenario. The two sets of tie points are automatically matched with a Geometric Hashing algorithm. The algorithm was successfully applied to VIS, IR and SAR data.

  13. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  14. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  15. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  16. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  17. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  18. Using an Optimized Chinese Address Matching Method to Develop a Geocoding Service: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the coming era of big data and the rapid development and widespread applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISs, geocoding technology is playing an increasingly important role in bridging the gap between non-spatial data resources and spatial data in various fields. However, Chinese geocoding faces great challenges because of the complexity of the address string format in Chinese, which contains no delimiters between Chinese words, and the poor address management resulting from the existence of multiple address authorities spread among different governmental agencies. This paper presents a geocoding service based on an optimized Chinese address matching method, including address modeling, address standardization and address matching. The address model focuses on the spatial semantics of each address element, and the address standardization process is based on an address tree model. A geocoding service application is implemented in practice using a large quantity of data from Shenzhen Municipality. More than 1,460,000 data records were used to test the geocoding service, and good matching rates were achieved with good adaptability and intelligence.

  19. Improving environmental exposure analysis using cumulative distribution functions and individual geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Jayajit

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessments of environmental exposure and health risks that utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS often make simplifying assumptions when using: (a one or more discrete buffer distances to define the spatial extent of impacted regions, and (b aggregated demographic data at the level of census enumeration units to derive the characteristics of the potentially exposed population. A case-study of school children in Orange County, Florida, is used to demonstrate how these limitations can be overcome by the application of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and individual geocoded locations. Exposure potential for 159,923 school children was determined at the childrens' home residences and at school locations by determining the distance to the nearest gasoline station, stationary air pollution source, and industrial facility listed in the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI. Errors and biases introduced by the use of discrete buffer distances and data aggregation were examined. Results The use of discrete buffers distances in proximity-based exposure analysis introduced substantial bias in terms of determining the potentially exposed population, and the results are strongly dependent on the choice of buffer distance(s. Comparisons of exposure potential between home and school locations indicated that different buffer distances yield different results and contradictory conclusions. The use of a CDF provided a much more meaningful representation and is not based on the a-priori assumption that any particular distance is more relevant than another. The use of individual geocoded locations also provided a more accurate characterization of the exposed population and allowed for more reliable comparisons among sub-groups. In the comparison of children's home residences and school locations, the use of data aggregated at the census block group and tract level introduced variability as well as bias, leading to incorrect conclusions as

  20. Data management based on geocoding index and adaptive visualization for airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaodong

    2008-10-01

    With more surveying practice and deeper application, data post-process for airborne LiDAR system has been extracted lots of attention in data accuracy, post-process, fusion, modeling, automation and visualization. However, post-process and flexible visualization were found to be the bottle-neck which limits the LiDAR data usage for industrial applications. The cause of above bottle-neck problems is great capacity for LiDAR system. Thus in article a geocoding index based multivariate data management and adaptive visualization will be studied for based on the feature of airborne LiDAR's data to improve automatization of post-process and surveying efficiency.

  1. The enforcement of cooperation by policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

    2010-07-01

    Policing is regarded as an important mechanism for maintaining cooperation in human and animal social groups. A simple model providing a theoretical overview of the coevolution of policing and cooperation has been analyzed by Frank (1995, 1996b, 2003, 2009), and this suggests that policing will evolve to fully suppress cheating within social groups when relatedness is low. Here, we relax some of the assumptions made by Frank, and investigate the consequences for policing and cooperation. First, we address the implicit assumption that the individual cost of investment into policing is reduced when selfishness dominates. We find that relaxing this assumption leads to policing being favored only at intermediate relatedness. Second, we address the assumption that policing fully recovers the loss of fitness incurred by the group owing to selfishness. We find that relaxing this assumption prohibits the evolution of full policing. Finally, we consider the impact of demography on the coevolution of policing and cooperation, in particular the role for kin competition to disfavor the evolution of policing, using both a heuristic "open" model and a "closed" island model. We find that large groups and increased kin competition disfavor policing, and that policing is maintained more readily than it invades. Policing may be harder to evolve than previously thought.

  2. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  3. POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM IN ENGLAND AND WALES

    OpenAIRE

    Balcıoğlu, Ercan; Pala, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the reader with a literature review with the aim of finding out about the origin and system of police accountability in England and Wales. It is hoped that the article will help to identify some important conceptual considerations that ought to betaken into account by any professional and responsible police departments seeking to embrace accountability in its policing procedures.This article explores the sensitive issue of police accountability to civilian oversight bodi...

  4. Spatial error in geocoding physician location data from the AMA Physician Masterfile: implications for spatial accessibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Sara; Freeman, Vincent L; Barrett, Richard E; Luo, Lan; Shockley, Alisa

    2012-04-01

    The accuracy of geocoding hinges on the quality of address information that serves as input to the geocoding process; however errors associated with poor address quality are rarely studied. This paper examines spatial errors that arise due to incorrect address information with respect to physician location data in the United States. Studies of spatial accessibility to physicians in the U.S. typically rely on data from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile. These data are problematic because a substantial proportion of physicians only report a mailing address, which is often the physician's home (residential) location, rather than the address for the location where health care is provided. The incorrect geocoding of physicians' practice locations based on inappropriate address information results in a form of geocoding error that has not been widely analyzed. Using data for the Chicago metropolitan region, we analyze the extent and implications of geocoding error for measurement of spatial accessibility to primary care physicians. We geocode the locations of primary care physicians based on mailing addresses and office addresses. The spatial mismatch between the two is computed at the county, zip code and point location scales. Although mailing and office address locations are quite close for many physicians, they are far apart (>20 km) for a substantial minority. Kernel density estimation is used to characterize the spatial distribution of physicians based on office and mailing addresses and to identify areas of high spatial mismatch between the two. Errors are socially and geographically uneven, resulting in overestimation of physician supply in some high-income suburban communities, and underestimation in certain central city locations where health facilities are concentrated. The resulting errors affect local measures of spatial accessibility to primary care, biasing statistical analyses of the associations between spatial access to care and

  5. A 10-digit geo-coding system for classification of geomorphosites in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Vishwas

    2015-04-01

    India is a country with rich geo-wealth and geoheritage. There are numerous fascinating and exquisite landforms and landscapes in the Indian subcontinent that have immense cultural, socio-economic and scientific value and are significant from the point of view of geotourism and geoeducation. Presently, India has 32 World Heritage Properties, including seven natural properties. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has declared 26 geosites as National Geological Monuments. Although a few attempts have been made in the last ten years to identify and catalog noteworthy geomorphosites in India, till date no attempt has been made to undertake multi-criteria or multi-attribute assessment and classification of the potential geomorphosites. In view of the limitations and difficulties in the ranking and/or scoring system adopted in many earlier studies on geoheritage sites, a simple ten-digit geo-coding system for some potential geomorphosites in India is suggested. The 10-digit coding system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of geomorphosites on the basis of some key scientific value criteria, additional value criteria and management criteria as well as the IUCN geo-theme codes and the code numbers assigned to major geomorphic provinces in a region/country. This coding system could be used to establish a classification and the priority of geomorphosites and could be applied to any area or region in the world. The user-friendly geo-coding system has the potential to classify and sort geomorphosites of different characters, origin and value.

  6. Social evolution: policing without genetic conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2013-03-04

    Insect societies have evolved ways of policing selfish behaviour that arises due to genetic conflicts within the colony. A new case of policing in an ant where colony members are genetically identical highlights the role of colony economics for policing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oversight of the Liberian National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Capetown , 2005. 3 Open Society Foundation for South Africa, Strengthening Police Oversight in South Africa, 2005. African Experience 7 The national...Berg, Police Accountability in Southern Africa Commonwealth Countries, Cape Town, South Africa: Institute of Crimi- nology, University of Capetown ...Institute of Criminology, University of Capetown , 2005. ———, Police Accountability in Southern Africa Commonwealth Countries, Cape Town, South Africa

  8. A Bibliography on Police and Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin G., Comp.

    A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…

  9. Police Brutality--the New Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.

    1978-01-01

    Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)

  10. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  11. Mentoring First Year Police Constables: Police Mentors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Mark A.; McKenzie, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mentoring as a tool for the support and development of novices in many organisations has been considered a putative success. Nevertheless, the literature reveals a paucity of reporting of the mentoring strategies used within the policing profession within Australia. This paper aims to focus on what mentoring is and how it is deployed from…

  12. At the Heart of Policing: Emotional labor among police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I wonder

  13. At the Heart of Policing: Emotional labor among police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I

  14. RELIANCE ON GEOCODED MATERNAL RESIDENCE: IMPACT ON A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing population-based case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded res...

  15. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  16. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Louise Skinner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  17. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  18. The Police Executive and Governance: Adapting Police Leadership to an Increase in Oversight and Accountability in Police Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ellis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.

  19. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  20. Alleviating Stress In Police Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Neely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Policestress has been examined in many studies, many of which have focused upon thedevelopment of prevention and treatment programs for the police officers(Maslach, 1982; Maslach & Jackson, 1979; Mitchell, 1983; Mitchell &Everly, 1993. The trend of combating stress began with the police agenciesusing employee assistance programs, funding conferences, conducting research,and establishing prevention programs, but the fact remains that the health ofpolice officers and their families becomes a large concern as most officerstend not use free counseling due to concerns regarding confidentiality and thecompetence of the counselors. An example of one program is the New JerseyCOP-2-COP confidential hotline for police officers and their families (Ussery& Waters, 2006. COP-2-COP was a volunteer program and its usefulness wasseen post-September 11, 2001, in its response to the needs of the survivors ofthe World Trade Center disaster and also after the New Orleans disaster in theCritical Incident Stress Debriefing process after Hurricane Katrina.  Police stress can have a bad influence onpolice performance and can cause many problems such as poor job performance,increased accidents, sleep disturbances, marital discord, domestic violence,posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, alcohol and other drugabuse, ulcers and other digestive disorders, respiratory ailments, andcardiovascular disease.

  1. Suicide in police--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, E; Berg, A M; Ekeberg, A O

    2001-01-01

    Police officers are commonly referred to as a high-risk group for suicide. So far no comprehensive review has been published about epidemiologic studies among police. This article systematically explores the worldwide literature on suicide in police. None of the recent nationwide studies show elevated suicide rates among police. Other studies show inconsistent results. Conclusively, it is not documented that there is an elevated suicide rate in police. A particular problem in previous research has been methodological shortcomings. There is need for further systematic research, and this review points out some strategies of research.

  2. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  3. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  4. Exploring the potential of geocoding the impact of disasters: The experience of global and national databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Davis, Rhonda; Gall, Melanie; Wallemacq, Pascaline; Cutter, Susan

    2015-04-01

    As extreme climate events such as precipitation driven flooding, storms and droughts are increasingly devastating, assessing impacts accurately becomes critically important in guiding decisions and investments on disaster risk reduction. Capturing disaster impacts includes not only quantitative information such as the economic and human effects but also the determination of where and when the impacts occurred. Among the most commonly used impact indicators are the number of deaths and the number of people affected or homeless, and the economic damages. Unfortunately, these figures are typically used in their raw form and conclusions are drawn without due consideration to denominators. For example, key parameters such as the population base or the size of the region affected are often not factored in when judging the severity of the event or calculating increases or decreases in an indicator. To increase the meaningfulness and comparability of disaster impacts across time and space, however, it is important to mathematically standardize indicators and utilize common denominators such as number of population exposed, area affected, GDP, and so forth. Geospatial techniques such as geo-referencing and spatial overlays are coming into greater use to facilitate this process. In 2013, EM-DAT, one of the main providers of global disaster impact data, launched an effort to enhance its contents through spatial analyses. The challenge was to develop a sustainable methodology and protocol for a large dataset and to systematically collect and enter geocoded profiles for each event that is registered in EM-DAT. Along with specialists in geography from different institutions EM-DAT launched an effort to geocode each disaster event working backwards in time starting from the most recent. For geo-referencing purposes, EM-DAT requires a standardized dataset of sub-national administrative boundaries. Though a number of such initiatives exist, the Food and Agriculture Organization

  5. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Mumma, Michael T; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-05-01

    To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO) Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses). One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density geocoding than those in areas with >920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR) = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.23, 6.49), as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11). This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  6. Diversity Policing–Policing Diversity: Performing Ethnicity in Police and Private-Security Work in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.

  7. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  8. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  9. The effects of education on police officer job satisfaction: The case of Turkish National Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an assumed relationship between police officer job satisfaction and education for many decades. There is small number of quantitative research to demonstrate the relationship between education and police officer job satisfaction. This study examines to what extent education is related to job satisfaction facets, including police officers’ satisfaction with colleagues, supervisors, promotions and work. The population of this study consisted of police officers of all ranks from various departments of the Turkish National Police (TNP. This study specifically addresses the question of intrinsic job satisfaction and education for police officers. These findings should add to management literature on job satisfaction and provide some of the first findings of this type for a police population, because there are already some studies in general on the relationship between education and job satisfaction which are mentioned in the literature review. This study also contributes to the body of literature that exists on police officer satisfaction and education.

  10. The effects of education on police officer job satisfaction: The case of Turkish National Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an assumed relationship between police officer job satisfaction and education for many decades. There is small number of quantitative research to demonstrate the relationship between education and police officer job satisfaction. This study examines to what extent education is related to job satisfaction facets, including police officers��� satisfaction with colleagues, supervisors, promotions and work. The population of this study consisted of police officers of all ranks from various departments of the Turkish National Police (TNP. This study specifically addresses the question of intrinsic job satisfaction and education for police officers. These findings should add to management literature on job satisfaction and provide some of the first findings of this type for a police population, because there are already some studies in general on the relationship between education and job satisfaction which are mentioned in the literature review. This study also contributes to the body of literature that exists on police officer satisfaction and education.

  11. The effects of education on police officer job satisfaction: The case of Turkish National Police

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-01-01

    There has been an assumed relationship between police officer job satisfaction and education for many decades. There is small number of quantitative research to demonstrate the relationship between education and police officer job satisfaction. This study examines to what extent education is related to job satisfaction facets, including police officers’ satisfaction with colleagues, supervisors, promotions and work. The population of this study consisted of police officers of all ranks ...

  12. Informing police, why, when, where and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul K Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of burn victims involve trauma in suspicious situation. There is inherent responsibility of all citizens, to report incidences of unexplainable nature to the police. Responsibility of a doctor is an extension of the general duty of a citizen. There are some norms, followed by doctor fraternity and the police, which actually are the guiding factors to maintain channel of information between the law enforcing agencies and the doctor. Alternate procedures of informing police are also enlisted.

  13. Police suicide research: conflict and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M

    2008-01-01

    Despite new frontiers in suicide research over the past ten years, police suicide remains a difficult, persistent, and controversial problem. Controversy appears to focus on the accuracy and validity of police suicide rates, but other controversies exist as well. This is likely due to studies that are methodologically flawed, incomplete, or specific to limited geographic areas. The objective of this paper is to review issues related to both conflicts and consensus on police suicide.

  14. A New Paradigm for the Iraq Police: Applying Community-Oriented Policing to Iraqi Police Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    institutions to deliver services, advance the rule of law, and nurture civil society.‖ 11 The explanation of how COP actually works is covered in...signature on the Magna- Carta in 1215 granted certain rights to the people, which cleared the way for the 1285 Statute of Winchester. The statute revised...their fear regardless of the actual in crime rate. 26 Police departments worked on involving the community with a series of programs during the mid

  15. Why Community Oriented Policing Has Failed and the Rise of Policing through Practical Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Justice (www.usdoj.gov), Community Policing is defined as: "The focus on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances…

  16. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  17. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  18. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  19. Road and Street Centerlines, Full geocoded street centerlines, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Delaware County Office of Geographic Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Full geocoded street centerlines'....

  20. Linking community policing activities with social disorganization theory: Examples from Turkish National Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Odabaşı

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Police departments in Turkey utilize community policing philosophy in an effort to create a social bond between police and the citizens they serve. Although Turkish National Police has a centralized organizational structure, the way community policing is implemented is not the same at every police department. Most police departments use project designs as means to create community policing programs. This study suggests implementing a community policing program by using social disorganization theory (SDT as a theoretical framework. According to SDT, one of the major predictors of social control in a community is the level of control by the community over adolescent groups. It is argued that uncontrolled teenagers often turn into gang groups and display delinquent behaviors. Therefore, the community’s ability to supervise its teenagers is a way to stop the creation of gangs and delinquent behaviors. In explaining the linkage between social disorganization theory and different types of community policing implementations, Mardin Police Department’s project “Ideallerimizdeki yarinlar” is offered as a case study. This project enables young individuals to understand and value the importance of community involvement and hard work in creating a better future both for them and for their families.

  1. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  2. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  3. La policía administrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alejandro Olano García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor recoge los aspectos más relevantes de la doctrina relacionadas con la policía administrativa y desarrolla el concepto de orden público, sus elementos, los bienes protegidos por la policía administrativa, los medios coercitivos y la distinción entre poder, función y actividad policiales.

  4. Police performing and training under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Nieuwenhuys, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we will present our work with police officers. First, Oudejans (2008) found that reality based practice under pressure helps in preventing degradation of handgun shooting performance under pressure for police officers. The experimental group practiced handgun shooting under pre

  5. The Professions, the Police, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Gordon

    In presenting a forecast of the emergence of the police profession using a sociological approach based on societal processes and relations, both the discussion of professionalization of the police in the bourgeois literature and a more general discussion of the professions by Talcott Parsons, taken as the foremost structural-functional theorist of…

  6. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...

  7. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  8. Proactive Policing by Post and Community Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famega, Christine N.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected through social observations of 188 police officer shifts, the current research examines the time allocated to proactive and reactive activities by traditional and community police officers to assess (a) the extent to which post officers engage in proactive activities, (b) whether these activities differ from the (proactive)…

  9. Community policing in Kakuma camp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Brankamp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Community policing has become a popular way of promoting local ownership of security in refugee camps in Kenya and more widely, but it can also fall victim to its ambivalent position at the intersection of refugee communities and state policing.

  10. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  11. Policing organized crime : a new direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Frederik E.; Bruinsma, Gerben J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent criminological research in the Netherlands underscores the fact that organized crime is embedded in society and the overall picture makes it clear that police emphasis on a crime fighting model of the police, based solely on criminal law will not be entirely effective. Therefore, the Twente p

  12. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Meijer, Albert J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  13. Police enforcement of drinking driving laws.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, W.L.G. & Gundy, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This survey of Dutch police officers was designed to investigate their opinions, expectations and experiences with the enforcement of drinking driving laws. Although many studies have been done on the subject of drinking driving, and police enforcement is a familiar measure against this problem, les

  14. La policía administrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Alejandro Olano García

    2010-01-01

    El autor recoge los aspectos más relevantes de la doctrina relacionadas con la policía administrativa y desarrolla el concepto de orden público, sus elementos, los bienes protegidos por la policía administrativa, los medios coercitivos y la distinción entre poder, función y actividad policiales.

  15. Occupational Stress among Nigerian Police Officers: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    ... of Psychology. University of Nicosia, Cyprus ... Police officers who experienced stress took to alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and religiousity to ... effects of these coping strategies on the wellbeing, and performance of police officers and also .... development and even their academic and social life. ..... young adults.

  16. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  17. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  18. GEOCODING OF TRAUMA IN CHILDREN AS A MODELING OF CITY RISK ASSESSMENT AREAS (GIS BASED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIAN ABSALON

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding of trauma in children as a modeling of city risk assessment areas (GIS based method. The article presents the results of statistical evaluation of fractures in children who were treated in 2009 – 2010 in the Upper Silesian Child Health Center in Katowice, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology and it attempts to calculate the risk of injury. The overall statistical analysis involved all types of fractures and injuries have been divided due to their location pointing to the most common and the rarest ones and the difference in the amount of fractures in each gender. In the section on the method of calculating the risk of injury in children owing to the ability to take many factors (age, sex into account that affect the occurrence of fracture and the type of injury. This ratio allows to accurately calculate the percentage of those risks. Using a mathematical formula allows the calculation of risk for a number of administrative units and an indication of the existence of such risks in a particular administrative unit. This allows for a spatial representation of the phenomenon through a system of geographic information systems (GIS. Moreover, in both cases, either spatial or just a statistical presentation of data, it is possible to observe dynamic changes in risks over the years.

  19. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  20. Collision Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Servis, D.P.; Zhang, Shengming;

    1999-01-01

    The first section of the present report describes the procedures that are being programmed at DTU for evaluation of the external collision dynamics. Then follows a detailed description of a comprehensive finite element analysis of one collision scenario for MS Dextra carried out at NTUA. The last...

  1. Modelling intelligence-led policing to identify its potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to

  2. FTO Views on the Community Policing Skills of Probationary Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Community policing is an approach to policing that goes beyond responding to emergency calls and incorporates the needs of specific communities into the entire fabric of the police force. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has made changes at the level of training to proactively create a more professional and community-oriented police…

  3. Dutch "COP": developing community policing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punch, Maurice; Vijver, van der Kees; Zoomer, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Dutch policing has followed the three generations of community policing identified elsewhere. The paper outlines the three waves, arguing that progressive Dutch society has influenced policing styles, giving Dutch policing a strong social orientation. The material draws on action research projects f

  4. Modelling intelligence-led policing to identify its potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to inc

  5. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls.

  6. Police Training in El Salvador: Challenges and Opportunities in Promoting the Community Police Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390

  7. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  8. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police refor...

  9. The Importance of Police Performance as a Determinant of Satisfaction with Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Larsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Citizen satisfaction with police performance is an important concern of public managers because police performance is central to citizens and accounts for a large share of urban budgets. Also, there is substantial disagreement in the literature regarding determents of citizen satisfaction. Approach: Logistic regression was used to investigate the results of three public opinion surveys, conducted biannually, to identify determinants of citizen satisfaction with police. Results: The explanatory power of the models was indicated by concordance of over .80. The findings indicated that satisfaction was largely determined by citizen perception of police behaviors. Four variables reflecting perceptions of police performance were particularly important: Response time to a crime in progress, visibility on the street, the quality of the relationship between the police and community and police efforts to reduce crime, indicating a chi square significance of Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings suggested that public officials could improve citizen satisfaction by focusing on specific aspects of police behavior. Training programs should be oriented accordingly. Further research regarding how citizens interpret certain words, gestures, postures, or other behaviors by police promises to enhance satisfaction.

  10. Analysis towards Effective Policing in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    director operation, training, communications, and the mobile police. The Directorate of Administration was composed of an administration unit headed by an assistant inspector general (AIG), and budget and personnel ..... welfare activities.

  11. POLICE BODY CAMERAS: SEEING MAY BE BELIEVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Otu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of body-mounted cameras (BMC worn by police officers is a controversial issue, it is not new. Since in the early-2000s, police departments across the United States, England, Brazil, and Australia have been implementing wearable cameras. Like all devices used in policing, body-mounted cameras can create a sense of increased power, but also additional responsibilities for both the agencies and individual officers. This paper examines the public debate regarding body-mounted cameras. The conclusions drawn show that while these devices can provide information about incidents relating to police–citizen encounters, and can deter citizen and police misbehavior, these devices can also violate a citizen’s privacy rights. This paper outlines several ramifications for practice as well as implications for policy.

  12. the Public Order Police Unit in Durban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sign of deepening social inequality, weak states, and a lack of 'social glue'. Consequently ... all these reasons, it is important to engage directly with police Workers ..... are to occur in Africa, whose states he believes are corrupt and have a.

  13. Controlling police (excessive force: The American case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Gül

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of police abuse of power, particularly police use of excessive force. Since the misuse of force by police is considered a problem, some entity must discover a way to control and prevent the illegal use of coercive power. Unlike most of the previous studies on the use of excessive force, this study uses a path analysis. However, not all the findings are consistent with the prior studies and hypotheses. In general, findings indicate that training may be a useful tool in terms of decreasing the use of excessive force, thereby reducing civilians’ injuries and citizens’ complaints. The results show that ethics training in the academy is significantly related to the use of excessive force. Further, it was found that community-oriented policing training in the academy was associated with the citizens’ complaints. A national (secondary data, collected from the law enforcement agencies in the United States are used to explore the research questions.

  14. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confronting institutional change in public police agencies. It is an .... management and the role and function of unions in different ... employee perceptions and attitudes (Steinheider ... of expectations' whilst the 'sources of resistance' emanate ...

  15. Sensemaking and organising in the policing of high risk situations : Focusing the Swedish Police National Counter-Terrorist Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Rantatalo, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Specialised policing of critical incidents has previously been underexplored within scholarly research. Simultaneously, this type of policing has been recognised as a highly complex endeavour which hinges on an organisationalability to make sense of uncertainty and external contingencies. To build knowledge on the subject of specialised policing, the present thesis aims to explore processes of sensemaking and organising in the work context of specialised police units dedicated to the policing...

  16. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  17. Policing for Conflict Zones: What Have Local Policing Groups Taught Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Baker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.

  18. Legal Advice in Police Custody: From Europe to a Local Police Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ogorodova (Anna); T. Spronken (Taru)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In October 2013, the European Union adopted a Directive, which guarantees, inter alia, the right of access to a lawyer to suspects of criminal offences from the outset of police custody and during police interrogation. However, adoption of the relevant legislation is no

  19. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  20. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  1. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  2. Police punishment and the infrapolitics of (online) anti-police protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diarmaid Harkin recently called for a theory of police punishment and its public acceptance. He stated that police violence is ‘provided with a warranty of approval and encouragement from larger, aggregate, deeply held emotions and sensibilities’. We lend our support to his demand for a penal theory

  3. Doing Gender within the Police Doing Gender Within the Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Nienhaus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the

  4. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of involvement of members of this gender in every sphere of social life. The study of this issue that has to do with engagement, namely employment of women in the police, will be shown in this paper as follows: Background of women employed in the police; Emancipated and non-emancipated women in the police; Attitude towards female police officers.

  5. Nightlife Partnership Policing: (Dis)trust Building Between Bouncers and the Police in the War on Gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Søgaard, Thomas; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the research on trust in policing by examining how private security actors (bouncers) experience the police as a partner in informal policing networks emerging as part of the ‘war on bikers and gangs’ in the Danish nightlife. While much international research about...... partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... show that the formation of informal police-bouncer networks has significantly increased the degree of police influence in private nightlife environments such as bars and nightclubs. Our findings also indicate that inter-agency trust building is crucial to the collaborative willingness and capability...

  6. Occupational colour vision requirements for police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jennifer; Chisholm, Catharine M

    2008-11-01

    Inclusion of public service professions in the UK Disability Discrimination Act in 2004 prompted a review of occupational colour vision requirements for police officers. Changes in the regulations which existed prior to 2003 were proposed. The aim of this study was to obtain the views of serving police officers in Northern Ireland on the importance of good colour discrimination in everyday police work and on the recruitment regulations for patrol constables introduced in 2003 in mainland UK. These views were obtained by means of a questionnaire and informal discussions. More than 65% of police officers who responded to the questionnaire considered that good colour vision was very important for effective policing. Fewer than 2% considered that colour vision was unimportant. Experienced police officers agreed that the employment of colour-deficient patrol constables, as permitted in the new regulations, would lead to reduced efficiency and organisational difficulties at the local level. A number of everyday activities were described which showed the need for accurate colour discrimination. The change in recruitment policy and the lack of clarity in the new regulations show inadequate appreciation of the needs of the occupation, of different types of colour vision anomalies and of the diagnostic function of colour vision tests. Failure to provide guidance on appropriate colour vision tests, examination procedures and counselling services is likely to result in inconsistent employment policies in different police forces. It is recommended that the colour vision standard in place prior to 2003 is reinstated at the recruitment stage. The Ishihara test should be used for screening, and colour-deficient applicants further examined with the Farnsworth D15 test as a replacement for the City University Test 2nd edition.

  7. Residential address errors in public health surveillance data: a description and analysis of the impact on geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Jauvin, Christian; Verma, Aman; Bedard, Lucie; Allard, Robert; Schwartzman, Kevin; de Montigny, Luc; Charland, Katia; Buckeridge, David L

    2010-07-01

    The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of the corresponding impact of these errors on geocoding and routine public health practices. The objectives of this study were to examine address errors for a selected reportable disease in a large urban center in Canada and to assess the impact of identified errors on geocoding and the estimated spatial distribution of the disease. We extracted data for all notifications of campylobacteriosis from the Montreal public health department from 1995 to 2008 and used an address verification algorithm to determine the validity of the residential address for each case and to suggest corrections for invalid addresses. We assessed the types of address errors as well as the resulting positional errors, calculating the distance between the original address and the correct address as well as changes in disease density. Address errors and missing addresses were prevalent in the public health records (10% and 5%, respectively) and they influenced the observed distribution of campylobacteriosis in Montreal, with address correction changing case location by a median of 1.1 km. Further examination of the extent of address errors in public health data is essential, as is the investigation of how these errors impact routine public health functions.

  8. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus.

  9. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2... Director has approved a Police Corps plan, and (4) Who is killed in the course of performing policing...

  10. Alcohol and tobacco consumption among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Devine, Sue; Leggat, Peter A; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    Police occupy an important position within the community as both enforcers of the law and as role models for appropriate behavior. Despite this interesting juxtaposition, research has shown that they may consume alcohol and tobacco at rates higher than the general population. A significant causal factor is occupational stress, and the fact that police are regularly exposed to stressors beyond the range of normal human experiences. Given this ongoing and unavoidable relationship, the recognition and control of stress is paramount within law enforcement. Because police stressors are usually multi-faceted, health promotion interventions should focus on stress-reduction at both the institutional and individual level. Examples of health promotion strategies may include reducing overtime, carefully organizing shift rosters, streamlining administrative processes and allowing rest breaks for those on the night-shift. Interventions which focus on the individual are also important, because excess alcohol and tobacco consumption levels often relate to individual stress-coping mechanisms. Programs to help recognize and prevent excess alcohol and tobacco consumption may be worthwhile, as too, counseling, interpersonal support and critical incident debriefing. Promoting non-drinking and non-smoking stress-reduction activities where police can socialize and de-brief with their colleagues may be beneficial. Encouraging social events at sports clubs and gymnasiums has also been suggested. In order to achieve these goals however, governments will need to place a greater emphasis on the occupational health of police officers and the law enforcement agencies in which they work.

  11. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  12. On Integration of police and procurator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zonghui

    2006-01-01

    In order to reform and improve the relationship between the police and the procurator,it has been asserted for many years that the system of integrating the police and the procurator,under which the procuratorate leads the police,should be established in China.However,it still has not been resolved.For ages it has been ignored that integrating the police and procurator in foreign countries is essentially based on the separation of powers and the litigious idea on doctrine of function and power.This system is not conformed with the primary purpose of the criminal justice system reform in China,which will result in misunderstanding the idea and ignoring the specialty of the political and law systems.Therefore,if the abuse is discovered only in the system of integrating the police and procurator,the outlet will never be found.The point is that,the reform should depend upon the change and the discrimination of the ideology.By only cloning the system of other countries,the inner relations won't be seen.

  13. Factors affecting trust in police in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Çakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement administrators generally evaluate their performance using statistics related to crime control. These statistics are important indicators for measuring performance, but it is also crucial to measure of public opinions toward the police. This study examines the determinants of public trust in the police. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS Round 4, for the analysis, a total sample of 2,416 persons is selected from respondents from Turkey. The study provides a snapshot of citizens’ perceptions toward law enforcement. Overall, the results of this study regarding the demographic variables, including age, gender, marital status, and education, were consistent with previous research and proved to be significantly related to trust in the police. Surprisingly, perceived victimization failed to show a significant relationship. However, important predictors included perceived fear of crime and trust in the political system, which had significant impacts on public trust in the police. Especially, fear of crime was a significant predictor of satisfaction with police. Effective crime control and lowering crime rates are considered the core functions of law enforcement by citizens. Therefore, perceived effectiveness in fighting crime can lower individual fear of crime and thus increase satisfaction with law enforcement.

  14. Factors associated with excited delirium deaths in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D L

    1998-11-01

    Increasingly, police respond to confrontations in which the individual demonstrates violent and combative behavior as a result of drug-induced delirium. From medical, legal, and police documents, 61 cases of excited delirium decedents in police custody between 1988 and 1997 are analyzed. In all of the cases, the person fought with and was restrained by police; the person was more likely to die at the scene of the incident or during police transport; and the police were likely to be responding to a disturbance call. In a number of cases, survival time was less than 1 hour. In a majority of cases, acute cocaine toxicity and physical restraint in police custody were contributory to death. The literature is reviewed, analyses of case circumstances are provided, and recommendations for medicolegal investigators and police personnel are discussed.

  15. The Regulation of Health Requirements for Police and Current Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramazan Akçan; Mahmut Şerif Yıldırım; Aykut Lale; Abdurrahman İsak; Mehmet Cavlak; Aysun Balseven Odabaşı; Ali Rıza Tümer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic medicine specialists might prepare reports about health conditions of candidates for Police Organization or assessment of organization's staff based on The Regulation of Health Requirements for Police...

  16. The Blue Planet: Informal International Police Networks and National Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    equivalent, border and immigration police, customs police, coastal and river police, military police, inspectors general, gendarmerie, tax and revenue...Embassy in Bogota concerning the location of the camp run by Edgar Navarro, a FARC commander believed to have been involved in the kidnapping. Th e...of over 300 (oft en notorious) American fugitives from overseas. He has served multi-year tours in Bogota , Colombia; Istanbul, Turkey; and most

  17. Perspectives on the police profession : an international investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerl, P. Saskia; Horton, Kate E.; Jacobs, Gabriele; Rogiest, Sofie; Reguli, Zdenko; Gruschinske, Mario; Costanzo, Pietro; Stojanovski, Trpe; Vonas, Gabriel; Gasco, Mila; Elliott, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to clarify the diversity of professional perspectives on police culture in an international context. Design/methodology/approach In a first step the authors developed a standardized instrument of 45 occupational features for comparative analysis of police professional views. This set was inductively created from 3,441 descriptors of the police profession from a highly diverse sample of 166 police officers across eight European countries. Using th...

  18. Recommandations from the Geneva Police Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  19. Proposition on the theory of policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Jobard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article revient sur les débats que Jean-Paul Brodeur avait développés durant au moins deux décennies autour de la place de la force dans la définition et la théorie de la police. L’auteur expose d’abord le projet théorique de The Policing Web, son dernier ouvrage, et la place qu’occupe dans celui-ci « l’illégalisme policier », qui constitue la pierre fondatrice de la théorie de la police avancée par Jean-Paul Brodeur. Il esquisse ensuite une approche sociologique de cet illégalisme policier, en montrant pour quelles raisons la méthode retenue par Jean-Paul Brodeur ne pouvait être qualifiée de sociologique, avant de formuler une « théorie sociologique de la police », fondée sur la notion de souveraineté. L’emploi de cette notion le conduit à préciser son acception, avant de formuler une proposition de « théorie politique de la police ».This article revisits several arguments that Jean-Paul Brodeur developed for at least two decades on the role of the use of force in the definition and a general theory of policing. The author examines the theoretical project that characterizes The Policing Web, his last book, and assesses where “legal lawlessness”, the touchstone of the theory of policing put forward in the book, fits. He then outlines a sociological approach of legal lawlessness, considering that Jean-Paul Brodeur’s chosen method could not be considered a sociological one. At that point, a “sociological theory of policing” will emerge, based on the concept of sovereignty. After having clearly defined this concept’s accepted meaning, a “political theory of policing” is formulated.

  20. Assessing Ethical Governance in a Policing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anona Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Governance describes the processes by which organisations are directed, controlled and held to account. It encompasses authority, accountability, stewardship, leadership, the direction and control exercised in the organisation. This paper argues that the shape of policing has changed in recent years; the service is more innovative and less risk averse than ever before. In this environment, governance structures are needed that support the complexities of the change in police roles and functions and assessment of corporate performance must include criteria such as ethical values and codes of conduct.

  1. Police Districts, reno police patrol districts, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'reno police...

  2. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  3. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  4. Proactive policing and equal treatment of ethnic-minority youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; Saharso, Sawitri

    2015-01-01

    Proactive policing aims at suppressing delinquency at an early stage. In the Netherlands, it is applied, inter alia, to youths and youth groups to prevent them from slipping off into delinquent behaviour and crime. Proactive policing implies that police officers keep in touch with local youths and

  5. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  6. Campus Community Policing: It All Started with Us...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; March, Noel C.

    2008-01-01

    The first police in the United States to embrace the kind of community-focused policing that "modern" law enforcement embraces, and which was extolled by Sir Robert Peel in 1826, were the New Haven, Connecticut police officers hired by Yale University in 1894 to patrol and keep order on campus. Why did Yale not simply rely on the New…

  7. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  8. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  9. Researchers Study Police Brutality against Hispanics and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    Research on police brutality against ethnic groups is increasing, particularly in Latino communities. Findings suggest a pattern of abuse, often without evidence of a crime and without appropriate review of police action. It is suggested that abuse will abate only when police departments operate openly and undergo public scrutiny. (MSE)

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  11. Police Stations - POLICE_STATIONS_MHMP_IN: Police Station Facilities in Indiana, derived from Essential Facilities Data of the Multi-Hazard Mitigation Planning Data (The Polis Center, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — POLICE_STATIONS_MHMP_IN.SHP is a point shapefile that shows police station facilities in Indiana. POLICE_STATIONS_MHMP_IN.SHP was derived from the shapefile named...

  12. Policía, conducta y control : el caso de la policía de Guadalajara, México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Alvarado, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and

  13. Nightlife partnership policing: (Dis)trust building between bouncers and the police in the war on gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the research on trust in policing by examining how private security actors (bouncers) experience the police as a partner in informal policing networks emerging as part of the ‘war on bikers and gangs’ in Danish nightlife. While much international research about...

  14. Policía Local como Policía Judicial. Intervenciones relevantes en el proceso penal

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Martínez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Ponencia comparativa de las funciones más habituales de la práctica forense en que la Policía Local actúa en funciones de Policía Judicial. Ponencia presentada en el curso "La reforma del Código Penal", Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Policía Local, 17-18 diciembre 2012. Ayuntamiento de Alicante

  15. Simulations of Pedestrian Impact Collisions with Virtual CRASH 3 and Comparisons with IPTM Staged Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Tony; Scurlock, Bob

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present results from a series of Virtual CRASH-based pedestrian impact simulations. We compare the results of these Virtual CRASH pedestrian impact simulations to data from pedestrian impact collisions staged at the Institute of Police Technology and Management.

  16. The Costs of Policing: Psychosocial Capital and Mental Health Outcomes in a Nigeria Police Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Balogun, Shyngle K

    2015-10-14

    This study examined the influence of psychosocial capital (psychological and workplace social capital) on mental health outcomes among 340 police personnel in Nigeria. Data were collected via anonymously completed questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling, and the results revealed that in the context of stress and traumatic stress, resilience p police organization pay attention to how psychological capital influence the development of psychopathology or resilience and how such issues can be addressed through psychological training in the workplace.

  17. Performance culture in the UK police forces, a case study of Kent Police.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, C

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a case study of the management of performance in Kent Police. The method used was to conduct semi-structured interviews with a small number of serving members of Kent Police. The techniques used were based on an Interpretive Phenomenological Assessment pioneered by Jonathan A Smith, Paul Flowers and Michael Larkin. During the literature review many sources were used including current management journals, text books, government publications and websites.

  18. Now & Then: Roger Whitmore, Police Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1995-01-01

    Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)

  19. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  20. Policing in Sofia. From centralisation to decentralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Petrov, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, which is embedded in the special issue of the Journal which focuses on the comparative research project ‘Policing European Metropolises’, the general aim is to provide an answer to the research question: ‘Are underlying Anglo-American assumptions regarding trends towards plural poli

  1. Critical moments in police-citizen reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Sara; Adang, Otto M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction of police and citizen representatives during critical moments in reconciliation processes through a relational model. Design/methodology/approach - Based on 26 in-depth interviews with key actors in three different cases of media-sali

  2. Belize: Reflections on Police Training and Professionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barrachina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.

  3. Performing Ruhe: Police, Prevention, and the Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazardzig, J.; Bank, R.K.; Kobialka, M.

    2015-01-01

    At the dawn of the nineteenth century, under the influence of that new historical actor the masses, the supervision and surveillance of theatre in the German-speaking world was turned over to the institution that already possessed a certain biopolitical expertise: the police.1 To understand why thea

  4. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are

  5. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  6. Language style matching and police interrogation outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J.; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between co

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  8. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  9. Police organizational stress: the impact of negative discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the police organization is considered a difficult work stressor by officers. Of stress factors stemming from the police organization, excessive or unfair discipline rates high among rank and file officers. The police organization may be considered a punishment centered bureaucracy, where emphasis is placed on what is wrong and not on proper or laudatory behavior Although discipline is essential in critical occupations such as police work, it is important that such discipline be properly administered in order to avoid stress and feelings of organizational abandonment. This paper provides a general overview of present police organizational discipline prescriptions, and an example of an alternative positive-based discipline program.

  10. The Potential Use of Legitimate Force for the Preservation of Order: Defining the Inherent Role of Public Police Through Policing Functions that cannot be Carried out by Private Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Arnež

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, private policing institutions have been rapidly increasing since the 1980s, so the lines between public- and private police have been blurred. This paper explores whether there is a policing function that is inherent in public police and if so, why it occupies this position. It integrates Rousseau’s social contract theory, Bittner’s definition of police functions, Brodeur’s reasoning on force and Loader and Walker’s concept of ‘policing as public good’ to argue that the potential use of legitimate force for the preservation of order is the function intrinsic to public police. It shows why it cannot and should not be carried out by private police and outlines how it depends on police legitimacy. It concludes with an abstract rethinking of public-state-police relations to determine that this function remains in the realm of public policing.

  11. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk.

  12. Police corruption and the national security challenge in Nigeria: a study of Rivers State Police Command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngboawaji Daniel Nte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make a modest attempt to examine the linkage between police corruption and national security in such a developing country like Nigeria. In doing this, the study selected Rivers State - a key state in the Niger Delta for specific analysis. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approach to get an in-depth insight into the problem under study. A sample size of 200 was selected, while a 4-Likert questionnaire was administered to the selected respondents. The study found out that police corruption in Nigeria is structural as part of the wider web of corruption in Nigeria. It also showed that poor working conditions/ poverty are aggravating factors of police corruption in Nigeria. Furthermore, poor recruitment policies also contribute to police corruption. More so, the study found out that there is an inverse relationship between police corruption and national security in Nigeria. Finally, on the basis of these findings, the study offered useful recommendations that could help stem this social problem.

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE POLICE ISSUES AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana VULPAȘU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administrative police, fundamental form of public administration, which aims to ensure public order and the protection of human rights, through prevention, knows no uniform conceptualization in the European states. However, it appears in various forms in national systems and is sustained and strengthened by EU policies whose objectives aim at the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice with respect for fundamental rights and the different legal systems and traditions of the Member States and to ensure a high level of security through measures of preventing crime, racism and xenophobia. This article aims to show how the concept of administrative police is reflected in the European Union, the complementary and coordinating role of the latter, and the need for a uniform legal framework in European national systems which can allow the shaping of a European model.

  14. A Development Model for Foreign Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    automated fingerprint identification system. And lastly, it sought to provide training to Malian and other regional police on countering money laundering and...international policies” (Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development 2005, 2). Consisting of Australia , Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech...reliable or significant funding support plan for the PNTL until 2004, when Australia committed AU$40 million over four years (Hood 2006). Another

  15. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  16. Corporate Governance in Policing: Standards and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold: one is to canvass some issues relating to corporate governance for police work, particularly to emphasise the importance of expressing appropriate values. The second point is to illustrate that suggestion by providing examples of strategic governance issues of importance for police functioning: these latter points derive from the principles of corporate governance, and from the behavioural sciences. The conclusion is drawn that as policing is a constantly evolving process and organisation that can and should learn from recent developments. The paper also argues that the values expressed in a Code of Ethics are vital to efficient and moral functioning, and invests the principles of governance with both meaning and a means of judging the worth of such principles. The concept of paradoxical cause is mentioned in outline. It is designed to alert practitioners to issues which may be counterproductive in implementation. Five moderate suggestions are itemised and documented which are: the importance of the formal rules for meetings; using the strategies proposed by master strategists; the importance of having an ethical infrastructure; in discussions and debates the importance of separating issues from personality; and the setting of key performance indicators for assessing success.

  17. Death during police interrogation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasijević Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of criminal suspects in presence of police always have special forensic medical approach. Often, such deaths are preceded by a state of extreme psychophysical activity (excitated delirium of suspects, when they may injure themselves. Police attempts to prevent that can inevitably lead to struggle. Immediately after the struggle ends (but also during a struggle, they abruptly become unresponsive, and develop cardiopulmonary arrest and death. Presence of drugs significantly intensifies the harmful effect of such state and leads to death. Case outline. We present a case of death of a young man brought into custody during police interrogation. Autopsy showed injuries and presence of MDMA, with suspicion that death was preceded by the state of excitated delirium. After thorough analysis of the case (complete autopsy, toxicological screening, microscopic survey of all organs, circumstances of death etc., our conclusion is that death was related to drug consumption - ecstasy. Concentration of ecstasy found in kidneys is the minimum concentration possible that could lead to heart malfunction and death. Conclusion. Our opinion is that there are no medical data by which we could determine if, and in what dosage, undesirable effects of ecstasy were enhanced by the circumstances of the case. .

  18. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic distance, to observe reactions towards measures designed to improve the situation of vulnerable groups, to consider the relationship among institutions regarding their responsibility for the occurrence of discrimination and its impact on the reduction of it, to discuss personal experiences of discrimination and to analyse attitudes regarding certain claims of a stereotypical character. Moreover, the paper also presents a comparative analysis of similar surveys on the perception of citizens towards discrimination that have thus far been conducted in Serbia. The results demonstrated that the police in Serbia did not exhibit a particularly discriminatory attitude towards citizens. It is important to note that the most prominent socio-ethnic distances were exhibited in relation to Roma and members of the LGBT community.

  19. The Use of Exhaustive Micro-Data Firm Databases for Economic Geography: The Issues of Geocoding and Usability in the Case of the Amadeus Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official spatial data dissemination alows for geocoding of such databases using means that are accessible for researchers with minimal programming knowledge. For the specific case of the Amadeus database of the Bureau Van Dijk, I show that its limitations in terms of coverage have to be taken into acount, but do not hinder its use for analysis. Resulting maps show how the data allows to go further than classic databases such as the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics.

  20. Nurse-police coalition: improves safety in acute psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Diane E; Harris, Frank N; de Nesnera, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Although police officers protect and secure the safety of citizens everywhere, nurses are the primary guardians of patient safety within the treatment milieu. At New Hampshire Hospital, both nurses and police officers share ownership of this responsibility, depending on the needs that arise specific to each profession. Psychiatric nurses take pride in their ability to de-escalate agitated and potentially aggressive patients; however, times arise when the best efforts of nurses fail, or when a situation requires intervention from police officers. Nurses and police officers at New Hampshire Hospital have worked together for many years to develop a trusting, respectful alliance. This coalition has resulted in a safe, clear, orderly process for transfer of authority from nurses to police during violent, clinically unmanageable psychiatric emergencies. Nurses and police officers work collaboratively toward the common goal of ensuring safety for patients and staff, while also acknowledging the unique strengths of each profession.

  1. Police liaison and section 136: comparison of two different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Oliver; Dye, Stephen; Obeng-Asare, Franklin; Nguyen, Nam; Wright, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Aims and method Two police liaison and section 136 schemes were developed alongside police services at different sites within the same NHS trust. In one, a mental health nurse worked with frontline police attending incidents related to mental health. The other involved nurses providing advice from the police control room. Section 136 detentions were measured over two 6-month periods (6 months apart) before and after practice change. Data analysed included total numbers of section 136 assessments, outcomes following subsequent assessment, and relevant diagnostic and demographic factors. Association of any change in section 136 total numbers and proportion subsequently admitted was investigated in both sites. Results The model involving a nurse alongside frontline police showed significant reduction in section 136 numbers (38%, P section 136 detention but showed a non-significant (P = 0.16) decrease in subsequent admission. Clinical implications Mental health nurses working alongside frontline police officers can help improve section 136 numbers and outcomes.

  2. Remembrance of Things Past: Somali Roads to Police Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Hills

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.

  3. The use of exhaustive Micro-Data firm databases for Economic Geography: The issues of geocoding and usability in the case of the Amadeus Database

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official ...

  4. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the ...

  5. Policing and Islamophobia in Germany: The Role of Workplace Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mescher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.

  6. Intelligent Emergency Response System for Police Vehicles in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganeshan, Ishan; Memon, Nasrullah

    2015-01-01

    . Based on this crime mapping, the administrator assigns patrol schedules for different police vehicles throughout the day. The proposed system would make it very easy for people to call for the help, and the police authorities to know the locations of the callers and identify crime hot spots...... time by the police vehicles. In the proposed system, the administrator can view the performance of all the police vehicles at any time through a web portal. The system used traditional data mining algorithms in order to analyze crimes in different areas of a city and at different times of the day...

  7. ESP NEEDS ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ORDER POLICE OFFICERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Gökhan Ulum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With this study, 105 public order police officers in the national police forces were surveyed in order to assess their needs when using English on the job. In other words, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 105 police officers serving at the department of public order. The findings from the questionnaire with open ended questions displayed that, (1 speaking and listening are the most important skills, (2 four language skills are moderately difficult, (3 there are motivational factors important to learn English, and (4 the functional use of English is important for the public order police officers. Recommendations and pedagogical implications were suggested.

  8. MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

  9. 75 FR 14183 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of..., Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington...

  10. 75 FR 30061 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Policing Services (COPS) has submitted the following information collection request to the Office of... Community Oriented Policing Services, 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20530. Written comments and...

  11. 75 FR 75697 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of a... Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has submitted the following information collection request to the Office..., please contact Ashley Hoornstra, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services...

  12. Relationship between the police and crime victims: An analysis of the process and the level of satisfaction with police work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klisarić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.

  13. Two Decades of Estonian Police and the (Irrelevance of Police Models for the Development of Safety Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Suve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Police models are designed to improve safety in society. Although Estonia has not deliberately used any (combination of police models for developing its policies of safety and its police reforms since the country regained independence, its safety has improved considerably during the last couple of decades. The scholarly discussions about police models are overwhelmingly about the possible effects of different models on safety management and about their application to particular countries. However, countries like Estonia with no consistent conceptions of police have received little attention in academic literature. We aim to fill this gap by analysing the developments of the Estonian police in its philosophical, strategic, tactical and organisational dimensions over the period between 1991 and 2013. The analysed materials include the official police development plans, legislation, statutes, training programs and statistics about the police. Our analysis shows that although safety in Estonia has improved considerably, developments of the Estonian police are characterised by internal discrepancies and inconsistencies. In view of this, we put forth some hypotheses for further studies regarding policy development in a situation where policy is not explicitly stated or where organisational reforms are seen not as “simple” or “complex” problems, but as “wicked” problems.

  14. Factors influencing the occurrence and outcome of car rear-end collisions - the problem of whiplash injury in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B. van

    2000-01-01

    Police based national accident data from the Netherlands show an enormous increase of both in number and in share of car rear-end collisions resulting in injury over the last 15 years. The average severity of those accidents remains low (illustrated by very low shares of occupants killed or

  15. Community Policing and D.A.R.E.: A Practitioner's Perspective. BJA Bulletin. Community Policing Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David L.

    Community policing and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) are evolving initiatives that can respond to changing social problems and demands. However, many of the challenges faced by both programs arise out of the fundamentals of human nature. Among the greatest barriers to overcome are: (1) the resistance to change that affects law…

  16. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  17. Stress Management in the Police Work

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu); Maria Roxana Dorobantu

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization estimates, stress is one of the risk factors most frequently affecting human health, along with obesity, alcoholism, drugs and smoking, and the suicide due to work-related stress will be the main cause of death in 2025 (Turc, 2006). Given this, and the that the profession of police officer has been ranked in the top ten most stressful jobs the U.S. (by The American Institute of Stress) and categorized as one of the most stressful occupations in the w...

  18. EURO2008 - practical information from the police

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp

  19. EURO2008 - Informations utiles de la police

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    (English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp

  20. Twilight policing: private security and violence in urban South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their

  1. Is ‘real’ Police Work masculinely Gendered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    characteristics into account? The data in this paper are part of the quantitative research project ‘Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police: A European Longitudinal Study’ (RECPOL) . The project has a longitudinal research design, following police recruits over time by regularly surveys...

  2. 25 IMAGE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE AS PORTRAYED IN GEORGIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    In practice, many members of the Nigeria. Police are ... Key words: image, Night Duty, Nigeria police, drama ... Many African communities and/or countries have a number ... same vein, Nwabueze (2011), names the creative writer the referee ... that were 'acted' in front of audiences in a theatron (Australian .... T-o-o m-u-c-h.

  3. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  4. Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Lorenzo R S; Miller, Sophie D L; Faria, Christiana M A; Almond, Edd J; Huggins, Tim J; Jordan, William C; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2012-12-01

    Worker policing (mutual repression of reproduction) in the eusocial Hymenoptera represents a leading example of how coercion can facilitate cooperation. The occurrence of worker policing in "primitively" eusocial species with low mating frequencies, which lack relatedness differences conducive to policing, suggests that separate factors may underlie the origin and maintenance of worker policing. We tested this hypothesis by investigating conflict over male parentage in the primitively eusocial, monandrous bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Using observations, experiments, and microsatellite genotyping, we found that: (a) worker- but not queen-laid male eggs are nearly all eaten (by queens, reproductive, and nonreproductive workers) soon after being laid, so accounting for low observed frequencies of larval and adult worker-produced males; (b) queen- and worker-laid male eggs have equal viabilities; (c) workers discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs using cues on eggs and egg cells that almost certainly originate from queens. The cooccurrence in B. terrestris of these three key elements of "classical" worker policing as found in the highly eusocial, polyandrous honeybees provides novel support for the hypothesis that worker policing can originate in the absence of relatedness differences maintaining it. Worker policing in B. terrestris almost certainly arose via reproductive competition among workers, that is, as "selfish" policing. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Can Racially Unbiased Police Perpetuate Long-Run Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunzel, H.; Marcoul, P.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer is given incentives to arrest criminals, but faces a per stop cost of stop which increases when the racial mix of the persons he stops di.ers from the racial mix of the population.We define the fair jail

  6. Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories

  7. The Quality of Police Education: An AACJC Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James R.; Rasmussen, Howard M.

    These two symposium presentations are endorsed by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges in response to the book, "The Quality of Police Education," which was prepared by the Police Foundation with support from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Specifically, the papers refute allegations made in the book in…

  8. The Optimal Dispatch of Traffic and Patrol Police Service Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Quan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present a minmax programming model for the optimal dispatch of Traffic and Patrol Police Service Platforms with single traffic congestion. The objective is to minimize the longest time of the dispatch for Traffic and Patrol Police Service Platforms. Some numerical experiments are carried out, and the optimal project is given.

  9. Hill Street Blues Post Conflict: Host Nation Police Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    completely new police recruits would need to be trained and fielded.”129 - Ms. Adrienne Lauzon One must first understand Iraq that prior to the...And The State Border Service, 2004, 6. 128Ibid. 129Ms. Adrienne Lauzon, Local Security, Policing, and Counterinsurgency: Lessons From Iraq (Norfolk

  10. "Policing Schools" Strategies: A Review of the Evaluation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…

  11. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  12. Teens and police officers learn leadership skills in summer camps

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2006-01-01

    This summer, rising 10th graders and police officers from all over the state will learn leadership skills in two separate programs on the Virginia Tech campus sponsored by the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation and organized by the Pamplin College of Business. Both programs start on Sunday, June 17.

  13. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... police are in the national security interest of the United States. This Determination shall...

  14. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  15. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police wo

  16. Trust in the Police: Argentina and Mexico in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sergio Bergman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the relationship between the evaluation of police performance and citizen trust in the police. Using data from similar victimization surveys for the city of Buenos Aires and for Mexico City we test several logistic regression models. We find that the perception of police performance emerges as the most relevant factor in accounting for variation in levels of trust in both cases. These results imply that, even in contexts of high criminality and low institutional trust, the police can do a lot to earn the trust of citizens and engage them in a virtuous cycle, whereby citizens provide information useful to crime prevention thus increasing trust in the police.

  17. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers' Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....

  18. Does Size Matter? Short and Tall Officers Policing the Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.

  19. The crime prevention value of hot spots policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews the available research evidence on the effectiveness of hot spots policing programs in reducing crime and disorder. The research identified five randomized controlled experiments and four non-equivalent control group quasi-experiments evaluating the effects of hot spots policing interventions on crime. Seven of nine selected evaluations reported noteworthy crime and disorder reductions. Meta-analyses of the randomized experiments revealed statistically significant mean effect sizes favoring hot spots policing interventions in reducing citizen calls for service in treatment places relative to control places. When immediate spatial displacement was measured, it was very limited and unintended crime prevention benefits were associated with the hot spots policing programs. The results of this review suggest that hot spots policing is an effective crime prevention strategy.

  20. Bugetary Perspective on Police Force: A Case Study on Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš PINTERIČ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author explores some of the generally overlooked roles of police force in contemporary world. The last decade was strongly marked by a need for increased safety, and police forces were strongly motivated to change the security paradigm. However, a connection between police and security can be seen as well, through the budget, where the activity of the police is measured using the amount of revenues obtained from fees and fines. In the case of the Slovenian security situation and fine revenues, police has both the main role in providing a certain level of national internal security and an important budgetary role by providing 1% of the Slovenian budgetary revenues that are sufficient to cover the expenses of approximately 15 main institutions belonging to the political system.

  1. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  2. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  3. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  4. Policing and risk of overdose mortality in urban neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Nandi, Arijit; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Background Accidental drug overdose is a major cause of mortality among drug users. Fears of police arrest may deter witnesses of drug overdose from calling for medical help and may be a determinant of drug overdose mortality. To our knowledge, no studies have empirically assessed the relation between levels of policing and drug overdose mortality. We hypothesized that levels of police activity, congruent with fears of police arrest, are positively associated with drug overdose mortality. Methods We assembled cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City (NYC) police precincts over the period 1990–1999 using data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of NYC, the NYC Police Department, and the US Census Bureau. Misdemeanor arrest rate—reflecting police activity—was our primary independent variable of interest, and overdose rate our primary dependent variable of interest. Results The mean overdose rate per 100,000 among police precincts in NYC between 1990 and 1999 was 10.8 (standard deviation = 10.0). In a Bayesian hierarchical model that included random spatial and temporal effects and a space-time interaction, the misdemeanor arrest rate per 1,000 was associated with higher overdose mortality (posterior median = 0.003, 95% Credible Interval = 0.001, 0.005) after adjustment for overall drug use in the precinct and demographic characteristics. Conclusions Levels of police activity in a precinct are associated with accidental drug overdose mortality. Future research should examine aspects of police-community interactions that contribute to higher overdose mortality. PMID:20727684

  5. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  6. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  7. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  8. The Role of Police Officers in Elementary and Secondary Schools: Implications for Police-School Social Work Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, George T.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between law enforcement agencies and elementary and secondary schools focus on the provision of education to students, the safety and security of school property, and public relations efforts aimed at changing youths' attitudes toward the police both inside and outside of schools. The use of police officers in school settings…

  9. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such…

  10. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  11. Relationship Between the Police Educational Formation System and Public Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Beu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization between the Albanian police education system and the EuropeanFramework and in particular with the Bologna System is a must of nowadays and for thepolice organization itself. In this context, the police organization needs to be upgradeespecially in the upper level but it can’t be understood without an adequate educationalsystem. Currently, the challenges of the police education system face some obstacles offormation type which lead to a lack in the police education to achieve university levels.This will return into a boomerang for the forthcoming generations which are beingprepared to be police staff, due to the lack of relevant university education. Based on thecurrent education model, a police officer recruit has the opportunity to joint policeorganization after the high school (18 years old, and his education level is destined to benot upgraded in any way in order to reach university levels. It seems that Albania has somuch need to an escalation process when it comes to the police education system that itcan accept a missing formation which could lead to real problems in the near future. Thistype of model could function in the basic operational level but it is destined tomalfunction in the upper level of leadership. In this contexts it is needed a paralleluniversity education level associated to the police education formation in order toupgrade the police leadership. Currently, there is no experience of cooperation betweenuniversities and police formation institution in this regard. In Europe and other countriesof the Region the main goal is the unification of curricula in order to have some commoncore curricula and in this manner to improve the mutual exchange of students and cadetsfrom one to another institution and from one to another country. This is absolutelyachievable also in police education and formation framework. A more effectivecooperation and exchange process of students among police academies and

  12. Unmasking the health problems faced by the police personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Jahnavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.

  13. [Risk and (in)security in the police mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Adorno, Sérgio

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a discussion on the history and use of the concepts of risk and security applied to the police officer's mission. The text is developed in an essay format that shows how both terms developed under the constitution of modern industrial societies. The authors begin with the assumption that the organizational structure of the police in various parts of the world retains the same logic since they were created during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and that this format is in crisis: whether it is because the concept of risk and current management thereof has now become much broader; or because the concept of security has also deepened and broadened, fleeing from the scope of the police institution. The crisis of the police apparatus is an international issue and the authors point to the case of the French police. Reverting to the thoughts of important authors in the sociological area, the authors resume the debate on some issues that they consider urgent: reformulation of the breadth of the concepts of risk and security to understand the police mission; enhancement of the police inside and outside corporations; review of the weight of the hierarchical rigidity or inflexibility on careers in a plural and flexible society.

  14. Ideal Police Oversight and Review: The Next Piece of the Community Policing Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ceiling for budgets was set at $1.5 million, twice the initial criterion, allowing six boards to be researched further. Thus, boards from Oakland...Common Sense about Police Review, 260. 80 “Office of Civil Rights and Wage Enforcement / Civilian Review Board / Civilian Board FAQs,” City of...Civil Rights and Wage Enforcement,” City of Baltimore. 85 Hunt, request for information response. 29 activities of the oversight entity, they

  15. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of...

  16. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of...

  17. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  18. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  19. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  20. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  1. Expanding Police Educators' Understanding of Teaching, Are They as Learner-Centred as They Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Police educators, that is, police and non-police teachers involved in recruit education and training, have traditionally suffered from a lack of organisational focus on developing their teaching and learning practices. The New South Wales (NSW) Police College, which is currently implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL), has begun to take a more…

  2. Descriptions of Motor Vehicle Collisions by Participants in Emergency Department–Based Studies: Are They Accurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young M. Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examined the accuracy of research participant characterizations of motor vehicle collisions (MVC.Methods: We conducted an emergency department-based prospective study of adults presenting for care after experiencing an MVC. Study participants completed a structured clinical interview that assessed the number of lanes of the road where the collision took place, vehicle type, road condition, speed limit, seat belt use, airbag deployment, vehicle damage, time of collision, and use of ambulance transportation. Study participant data were then compared with information recorded by Michigan State Police at the scene of the MVC. Agreement between research participant reports and police-reported data were assessed by using percentage agreement and j coefficients for categorical variables and correlation coefficients for continuous variables.Results: There were 97 study participants for whom emergency department interviews and Michigan State Police Report information were available. Percentage agreement was 51% for number of lanes,76% for car drivability, 88% for road condition, 91% for vehicle type, 92% for seat belt use, 94% for airbag deployment, 96% for speed limit, 97% for transportation by ambulance, and 99% for vehicle seat position. j values were 0.32 for seat belt use, 0.34 for number of lanes, 0.73 for vehicle type, 0.76 for speed limit, 0.77 for road condition, 0.87 for airbag deployment, 0.90 for vehicle seat position, and 0.94for transport by ambulance. Correlation coefficients were 0.95 for the time of the collision, and 0.58 for extent of damage to the vehicle. Most discrepancies between patients and police about extent of vehicle damage occurred for cases in which the patient reported moderate or severe damage but the police reported only slight damage.Conclusion: For most MVC characteristics, information reported by research participants was consistent with police-reported data. Agreement was moderate or high for

  3. New Concepts in Modern Policing – Criminal Personality Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TASU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of criminal profiling is widely accepted. As an investigative tool, this method of crime scene approach may provide useful information in serious crimes management, including homicide, rape, arson or burglary. Based on crime scene data and personality theories, rofiling may be seen as a deductive inferring process which can help police officers to apprehend a serial offender. Although in most modern police agencies the use of criminal profiling is mandatory, Romanian police has his first step in it. This article will provide the general principles of the method.

  4. Public confidence in the police : the impact of verbal encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Rønneberg, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The main part of ordinary police work consists of patrolling and answering calls, which means that most police officers are in a daily and direct contact with members of the public. During such encounters, especially if they take place by means of a telephone, language not only provides an important means to solve problems and exert social control, but it also helps to build relations, as well as to inspire confidence and trust. In this way, the communication process between police and the pu...

  5. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    -based survey on the basis of the SERVQUAL approach to detecting strengths, opportunities and threats with crash reporting to the police at a strategic level. Transportation stakeholders (e.g. researchers, authorities, consultants, NGO representatives, suppliers) with an interest in traffic safety in Denmark....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....

  6. Young people and the formation of attitudes towards the police

    OpenAIRE

    Sindall, K; McCarthy, D J; Brunton-Smith, I.

    2016-01-01

    Much is now known about public trust and confidence in the police, especially regarding the important role of procedural justice in police–citizen engagements. However, less is known about perceptions of the police amongst young people and how their views are formed. We use survey data from more than 1500 young people aged 10–15 years whose parents were also interviewed in the Crime Survey for England and Wales (2010–12) to explore the extent that children’s views of the police correspond wit...

  7. Cross-cultural Training of Danish Police Officers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Lorenzen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    . The empirical data for this case emanates from the collaboration between the Greenlandic and Danish police in 2015. Every summer, a group of Danish officers are sent to Greenland to assist the police force while local officers are on summer holidays. The case centers on a one-week course in January of 2015...... that is provided to the selected group of Danish officers going to Greenland the following summer. The main focus is kept on how a group of leaders from the Greenlandic police, with Danish and Greenlandic backgrounds, present the upcoming experience and work to the Danish officers, as well as the officers...

  8. MapAffil: A Bibliographic Tool for Mapping Author Affiliation Strings to Cities and Their Geocodes Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Vetle I

    2015-01-01

    Bibliographic records often contain author affiliations as free-form text strings. Ideally one would be able to automatically identify all affiliations referring to any particular country or city such as Saint Petersburg, Russia. That introduces several major linguistic challenges. For example, Saint Petersburg is ambiguous (it refers to multiple cities worldwide and can be part of a street address) and it has spelling variants (e.g., St. Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburg, and Leningrad, USSR). We have designed an algorithm that attempts to solve these types of problems. Key components of the algorithm include a set of 24,000 extracted city, state, and country names (and their variants plus geocodes) for candidate look-up, and a set of 1.1 million extracted word n-grams, each pointing to a unique country (or a US state) for disambiguation. When applied to a collection of 12.7 million affiliation strings listed in PubMed, ambiguity remained unresolved for only 0.1%. For the 4.2 million mappings to the USA, 97.7% were complete (included a city), 1.8% included a state but not a city, and 0.4% did not include a state. A random sample of 300 manually inspected cases yielded six incompletes, none incorrect, and one unresolved ambiguity. The remaining 293 (97.7%) cases were unambiguously mapped to the correct cities, better than all of the existing tools tested: GoPubMed got 279 (93.0%) and GeoMaker got 274 (91.3%) while MediaMeter CLIFF and Google Maps did worse. In summary, we find that incorrect assignments and unresolved ambiguities are rare (< 1%). The incompleteness rate is about 2%, mostly due to a lack of information, e.g. the affiliation simply says "University of Illinois" which can refer to one of five different campuses. A search interface called MapAffil has been developed at the University of Illinois in which the longitude and latitude of the geographical city-center is displayed when a city is identified. This not only helps improve geographic information

  9. Influence of leadership factors on the work engagement of uniformed police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Žužman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: Are any statistically significant correlations between the factors in the management of the police and the degree of engagement between uniformed police officers. Purpose: The aim of this master’s thesis is to examine the influence of leadership factors on the work engagement of uniformed police officers in the analysed police stations, as well as to provide recommendations for improvement. Methodology: A quantitative survey was conducted among 932 uniformed police officers from all 22 police stations of the Police Directorate Ljubljana. Results: No positive correlation was found between elements of police station leadership and the level of work engagement of uniformed police officers. A positive correlation was identified between the level of work engagement of uniformed police officers and length of service. There was no positive correlation between leadership factors and the police officers’ posts. Organization: The findings will be of practical use to police station managers of Police Directorate Ljubljana in planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. They can also serve as a foundation for other researchers to conduct further research on the subject with the help of additional data. Originality: Based on the survey data, we identify and clarify the factors keeping on Police stations and factors engagement uniformed police officers at police stations. We have gained new knowledge that cannot be read in the domestic and foreign literature, with which we have contributed to the upgrading of existing knowledge. Limitation: The survey was carried out between uniformed police officers at police stations in the area of the Ljubljana Police Directorate, and the results from the study cannot be generalized to all Police stations in Slovenia.

  10. Community-Oriented Counterterrorism: Incorporating National Homeland Security Mandates into the Local Community Policing Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    attempting to win over the hearts and minds of the community will simply not work in combating terrorism because a terrorist cannot be won over.77...the heart of community policing and community policing simply cannot exist absent these partnerships.144 Agency representatives were asked if... PINE BLUFF POLICE DEPARTMENT AR 50100 LITTLE ROCK POLICE DEPARTMENT AR 50100 NORTH LITTLE ROCK POLICE DEPARTMENT AZ 60100 SIERRA VISTA DEPARTMENT

  11. Pamplin program helps build leadership skills among police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine law enforcement officers from across Virginia will be graduating on Sept. 23 from a Pamplin College of Business program on leadership skills, developed in partnership with the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation.

  12. Internal Affairs Sector: Towards a new Law on Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Nenad P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By establishing the Inspector General's Service within the Department of Public Safety in 2001, Serbia became one of the countries that have institutionalized internal control of the police. By the adoption of the Law on Police in 2005, the name of the Service was renamed in the Internal Affairs Sector. Ten years of work of the Internal Affairs Sector revealed the existence of certain problems because of a inadequate and not complete legal framework. That was, among other, the reason for initiating the adoption of the new Law on Police. This paper presents solutions of the Draft Law on Police, in part related to the work of the Sector. The Draft contains some new solutions that could improve the efficiency of the Sector, but some doubts and uncertainties still remain, that will also be explained in this paper.

  13. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  14. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.

  15. Aggressive policing and the mental health of young urban men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Fagan, Jeffrey; Tyler, Tom; Link, Bruce G

    2014-12-01

    We surveyed young men on their experiences of police encounters and subsequent mental health. Between September 2012 and March 2013, we conducted a population-based telephone survey of 1261 young men aged 18 to 26 years in New York City. Respondents reported how many times they were approached by New York Police Department officers, what these encounters entailed, any trauma they attributed to the stops, and their overall anxiety. We analyzed data using cross-sectional regressions. Participants who reported more police contact also reported more trauma and anxiety symptoms, associations tied to how many stops they reported, the intrusiveness of the encounters, and their perceptions of police fairness. The intensity of respondent experiences and their associated health risks raise serious concerns, suggesting a need to reevaluate officer interactions with the public. Less invasive tactics are needed for suspects who may display mental health symptoms and to reduce any psychological harms to individuals stopped.

  16. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.

  17. Police lie detection accuracy: the effect of lie scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet

    2009-12-01

    Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.

  18. Is met Predictive Policing de heilige graal gevonden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Het politiewerk gaat ingrijpend veranderen door de invoering van Predictive Policing. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data over eerdere incidenten – en die hoeveelheid gegevens neemt alleen maar toe – kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen.

  19. Police Stations, policestations, Published in 2005, Carbon County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Stations dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'policestations'. Data by this publisher are often...

  20. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  1. POLICE OFFICE MODEL IMPROVEMENT FOR SECURITY OF SWARM ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on aspects of information security for group of mobile robotic systems with swarm intellect. The ways for hidden attacks realization by the opposing party on swarm algorithm are discussed. We have fulfilled numerical modeling of potentially destructive information influence on the ant shortest path algorithm. We have demonstrated the consequences of attacks on the ant algorithm with different concentration in a swarm of subversive robots. Approaches are suggested for information security mechanisms in swarm robotic systems, based on the principles of centralized security management for mobile agents. We have developed the method of forming a self-organizing information security management system for robotic agents in swarm groups implementing POM (Police Office Model – a security model based on police offices, to provide information security in multi-agent systems. The method is based on the usage of police station network in the graph nodes, which have functions of identification and authentication of agents, identifying subversive robots by both their formal characteristics and their behavior in the swarm. We have suggested a list of software and hardware components for police stations, consisting of: communication channels between the robots in police office, nodes register, a database of robotic agents, a database of encryption and decryption module. We have suggested the variants of logic for the mechanism of information security in swarm systems with different temporary diagrams of data communication between police stations. We present comparative analysis of implementation of protected swarm systems depending on the functioning logic of police offices, integrated in swarm system. It is shown that the security model saves the ability to operate in noisy environments, when the duration of the interference is comparable to the time necessary for the agent to overcome the path between police stations.

  2. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...

  3. Simulation Combined Approach to Police Patrol Services Staffing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanjing; Tako, Antuela; Lisa M. Jackson; Liu, Jiyin

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the squeeze on public service expenditure, staffing is an important issue for service systems, which are required to maintain or even improve their service levels in order to meet general public demand. This paper considers Police Patrol Service Systems (PPSSs) where staffing issues are extremely serious and important because they have an impact on service costs, quality and public-safety. Police patrol service systems are of particularly interest because the demand for service e...

  4. Can Local Police and Sheriff’s Departments Provide a Higher Degree of Homeland Security Coordination and Collaboration Through Consolidation of Police Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    resources and consolidate in ways that would provide the most 21 effective police services at the most cost efficient price ( Katzenbach , 1967...According to John Bryson (2004) in his book, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, achieving successful collaboration becomes more...document, Twin Cities Police Department, Larkspur, CA. Katzenbach , N. (1967), Task force report-the police, U.S.task force on the police, the

  5. Honeybee workers use cues other than egg viability for policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2005-01-01

    Worker policing, wherein social insect workers prevent their sisters from reproducing by eating worker-laid eggs, is recognized as a textbook example of kin selection in action. However, the evolutionary basis of policing was recently challenged in a study that suggested that police-workers remove worker-laid eggs not because rearing workers' sons reduces worker fitness, but merely because worker-laid eggs have low viability. Here, we refute Pirk et al.'s conclusions. First, we confirm earlier work that showed equal viability of eggs laid by queens and workers. Second, a statistical analysis of the data of Pirk et al. reveals that their own data do not support the conclusion that worker-laid eggs are policed merely because of their low viability. Third, we present data that unequivocally show that police-workers cannot discriminate between dead and live eggs. Hence, our study seriously weakens the challenge to the kin-selected basis of policing in honeybees. PMID:17148146

  6. Enforcement of reproductive synchrony via policing in a clonal ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Kronauer, Daniel J C; Jaisson, Pierre; Châline, Nicolas

    2013-02-18

    In insect societies, worker policing controls genetic conflicts between individuals and increases colony efficiency. However, disentangling relatedness from colony-level effects is usually impossible. We studied policing in the parthenogenetic ant Cerapachys biroi, where genetic conflicts are absent due to clonality and reproduction is synchronized through stereotyped colony cycles. We show that larval cues regulate the cycles by suppressing ovarian activity and that individuals that fail to respond to these cues are policed and executed by their nestmates. These individuals are genetically identical to other colony members, confirming the absence of intracolonial genetic conflicts. At the same time, they bear distinct cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which could serve as proximate recognition cues for policing. Policing in C. biroi keeps uncontrolled reproduction at bay and thereby maintains the colony-level phenotype. This study shows that policing can enforce adaptive colony-level phenotypes in societies with minimal or no potential genetic conflicts. In analogy to immunosurveillance on cancer cells in genetically homogeneous multicellular organisms, colony efficiency is improved via the control of individuals that do not respond properly to regulatory signals and compromise the functioning of the higher-level unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Policing effectiveness depends on relatedness and group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bartosz; Brunner, Elisabeth; Heinze, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Cohesion of social groups requires the suppression of individual selfishness. Indeed, worker egg laying in insect societies is usually suppressed or punished through aggression and egg removal. The effectiveness of such "policing" is expected to increase with decreasing relatedness, as inclusive fitness of group members is more strongly affected by selfish worker reproduction when group members are less closely related to each other. As inclusive fitness is also influenced by the costs and benefits of helping, the effectiveness of policing should decrease with increasing colony size, because the costs for the whole colony from selfish worker reproduction are proportionally reduced in large groups. Here, we show that policing effectiveness in colonies of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus is low in large groups and high in small groups when relatedness is high. When we experimentally decreased the relatedness in groups, the policing effectiveness reached the same high level as in small, highly related groups, irrespective of group size. Therefore, our results indicate that policing effectiveness is simultaneously shaped by relatedness and group size, that is, an ecological factor. This may have major implications for testing policing across species of animals.

  8. [The identity of civil police officers and successive mirroring studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Romeu; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perceptions of civil police officers regarding their professional identity, the institution they belong to and their opinion concerning the image society has of their performance. The data are derived from a survey focused on their work and health conditions, using a questionnaire, interviews and focus groups including managers, sheriffs and officers. The relative frequency and average return for answers about working conditions, professional fulfillment and life quality improvement after joining the institution were then determined. Qualitative questions were selected about the officers' opinion of how society perceives the civil police and what it is to be a police officer in the area under study using sense interpretation method analysis. The results point to a negative image that the police officers believe society has about them, which reaffirms the bad image associated with the profession. Rejecting this negative identity, they try to distinguish the differences between the civil police and the military police officers. The conclusion is that action is required to improve working conditions and develop channels of dialogue with the community and promote health campaigns.

  9. Effective State, Local, and Tribal Police Intelligence: The New York City Police Department’s Intelligence Enterprise -- A Smart Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Arab Emirates; Singapore, Malaysia , Toronto and Montreal, Canada; and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In addition, ILU and other units of NYPD have...visited or had short postings to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Afghanistan; Bali, Indonesia; Germany; Kuwait; Malaysia ; Pakistan; Singapore; Beslan, Russia...police had little or no control over. Notwithstanding, NYPD has a penchant for maverick policing and reform. 85 In 1970, New York Mayor John V

  10. Community Policing in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus-Michael Müller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, political factionalism and police corruption, which therefore renders its contribution to a sustainable improvement of local accountability and police legitimacy unlikely. Against this background the article calls for more empirical studies on this topic and a greater sensitivity for the embeddedness of policing programmes within a wider political context.    Resumen: Colaboración ciudadana en América Latina: Lecciones de Ciudad de México  Los programas de colaboración ciudadana son ampliamente percibidos y presentados como una importante solución para los apremiantes problemas de inseguridad en las ciudades latinoamericanas de hoy, y para mejorar las relaciones entre la ciudadanía y la policía. Basándonos en los resultados de trabajo de campo realizado en Ciudad de México, en el presente artículo se ofrece un análisis crítico del programa local de policía comunitaria y se demuestra que está excesivamente determinado por un contexto local caracterizado por el clientelismo, las lealtades políticas y la corrupción policial. Por eso, el aporte del programa a un mejoramiento sustentable de la rendición de cuentas local y de legitimidad policial es improbable. Contra este telón de fondo, en el artículo se demandan más estudios empíricos sobre el tema y una mayor sensibilidad para la integración de los programas de policía comunitaria dentro de un contexto político más amplio.

  11. Helping the police with their inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Anthony J.

    1995-09-01

    The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.

  12. POLICE ACTION WITH THE USE OF PPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kh. Indreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of development of society for the professional level of police officers demanding, in this regard, a special role is given to a competent, mobile and professional staff of internal affairs units serving in extreme conditions, with a high degree of risk. Undoubtedly, mental stability and competent organization performing professional tasks is given a lot of attention, as well as professional-applied physical training of the data. Professional - important qualities may be defined as a special ability personnel, certain functional systems that implement the individual processes of the individual activity. Awareness of the chosen profession is to gain insight into their chosen profession, to merge it into a coherent whole, the profession becomes a part of himself, he brings satisfaction and does not appear a single gram of doubts about the correctness, once the selection. It is in this case the activity of the employee becomes interesting, effective and quality, helping to transfer its complexity. All this makes this quality is not just professionally important and fundamental, underlying the entire STC system, causing constantly improve, expand their horizons and erudition, improve professional skills and to develop border areas of expertise. Without the awareness of and interest in their profession all other professional qualities are not working. Wrong choice of profession turns the inner tragedy and internal conflict, the loss of irreplaceable time and resource worst thing - understanding irretrievably lost part of life, strength and energy. And not everyone can correct or adjust once the admitted mistake and start all over again.

  13. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    -principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough...... to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  14. Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas; Page, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    We undertook qualitative interviews with 209 injecting drug users (IDUs) (primarily heroin) in three Russian cities: Moscow, Barnaul, and Volgograd. We explored IDU's accounts of HIV and health risk. Policing practices and how these violate health and self, emerged as a primary theme. Findings show that policing practices violate health and rights directly, but also indirectly, through the reproduction of social suffering. Extrajudicial policing practices produce fear and terror in the day-to-day lives of drug injectors, and ranged from the mundane (arrest without legal justification; the planting of evidence to expedite arrest or detainment; and the extortion of money or drugs for police gain) to the extreme (physical violence as a means of facilitating "confession" and as an act of "moral" punishment without legal cause or rationale; the use of methods of "torture"; and rape). We identify the concept of police bespredel-living with the sense that there are "no limits" to police power-as a key to perpetuating fear and terror, internalized stigma, and a sense of fatalist risk acceptance. Police besprediel is analyzed as a form of structural violence, contributing to "oppression illness." Yet, we also identify cases of resistance to such oppression, characterized by strategies to preserve dignity and hope. We identify hope for change as a resource of risk reduction as well as escape, if only temporarily, from the pervasiveness of social suffering. Future drug use(r)-related policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope, and dignity.

  15. Street policing, injecting drug use and harm reduction in a Russian city: a qualitative study of police perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Sarang, Anya; Vlasov, Alexander; Mikhailova, Larissa; Monaghan, Geoff

    2006-09-01

    We undertook a qualitative exploration of police perspectives on injecting drug use and needle and syringe access among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a Russian city which has witnessed explosive spread of HIV associated with drug injecting. Twenty-seven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in May 2002 with police officers of varying rank who reported having regular contact with IDUs. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated and coded thematically. Accounts upheld an approach to policing which emphasised high street-based visibility and close surveillance of IDUs. IDUs were depicted as 'potential criminals' warranting a 'pre-emptive' approach to the prevention of drug-related crime. Street policing was described as a means of maintaining close surveillance leading to the official registration of persons suspected or proven to be users of illicit drugs. Such registration enabled further ongoing surveillance, including through stop and search procedures. While aware of drug users' reluctance to carry injecting equipment linked to their fears of detention or arrest, accounts suggested that the confiscation of previously used injecting equipment can constitute evidence in relation to drugs possession charges and that discovery of clean injecting equipment may be sufficient to raise suspicion and/or further investigation, including through stop and search or questioning. Our findings suggest an uneasy relationship between street policing and needle and syringe access, whereby policing strategies can undermine an HIV prevention ethos promoting needle and syringe accessibility among IDUs. We conclude that facilitating partnerships between policing agencies and HIV prevention initiatives are a critical feature of creating environments conducive for risk reduction.

  16. AN ARRANGED MARRIAGE: POLICE - MEDIA CONFLICT & COLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrismas, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Media and police professionals are bound together in interdependent, and often tense, working relationships. For different purposes both professions need to work effectively together while simultaneously retaining independence from each other. These complex inter-reliant relationships create unique challenges that often call for improvement. This essay examines whether relationships between interdependent professional organizations can be improved through a collaborative problem-solving intervention, based on the interactive methods of facilitated dialogue and appreciative inquiry. The article describes a case study of a large Canadian police agency working with local media outlets to improve their working relationship. It highlights the importance of conflict analysis followed by effective change management strategies in implementation of collaborative solutions that meet everyone’s needs. This case study illustrates dynamics that generalize to organizations that have strong organizational cultures and are highly independent and simultaneously required to work together. Some examples of such organizations are military, prison guards, scholars, medical professionals, social workers, teachers, lawyers and most government agenciesLes médias et les corps policiers sont à la fois interreliés et interdépendants, et leur collaboration est souvent tendue. Dans divers objectifs, ils doivent travailler efficacement ensemble tout en maintenant leur propre autonomie. Ces relations complexes donnent lieu à des difficultés auxquelles il faut remédier. Cet essai porte sur les améliorations pouvant être apportées dans les relations entre deux organisations professionnelles interdépendants par l’entremise d’une intervention visant à résoudre les problèmes fondée sur des méthodes interactives de facilitation du dialogue et d’interrogation appréciative. Cet article décrit un cas où une grande agence policière canadienne a collabor

  17. Specialization in policing behaviour among workers in the ant Pachycondyla inversa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Fürst, Matthias A; Heinze, Jürgen; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2007-06-07

    Most animal societies are non-clonal and thus subject to conflicts. In social insects, conflict over male production can be resolved by worker policing, i.e. eating of worker-laid eggs (WLE) or aggression towards reproductive workers. All workers in a colony have an interest in policing behaviour being expressed, but there can be asymmetries among workers in performing the actual behaviour. Here, we show that workers of the ant Pachycondyla inversa specialize in policing behaviour. In two types of behavioural assays, workers developed their ovaries and laid eggs. In the first experiment, reproductive workers were introduced into queenright colonies. In the second experiment, WLE were introduced. By observing which individuals policed, we found that aggressive policing was highly skewed among workers that had opportunity to police, and that a similar tendency occurred in egg policing. None of the policing workers had active ovaries, so that policing did not incur a direct selfish benefit to the policer. This suggests that policing is subject to polyethism, just like other tasks in the colony. We discuss several hypotheses on the possible causes of this skew in policing tasks. This is the first non-primate example of specialization in policing tasks without direct selfish interests.

  18. Work stress in aging police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Lin, Susan; Li, Xianbin

    2002-02-01

    Data are sparse regarding the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, even for employees working in high-stress occupations, such as law enforcement. To improve our understanding of this issue in older workers, we assessed and characterized work stress, coping strategies, and stress-related health outcomes in a sample of police officers aged 50 years and older (n = 105). The most important risk factors associated with officers' perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviors (e.g., excessive drinking or problem gambling) (odds ratio [OR], 4.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 11.6) and exposure to critical incidents (e.g., shootings) (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.71 to 8.65). In turn, perceived work stress was significantly associated with anxiety (OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 2.81 to 16.65), depression (OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 3.81 to 22.54), somatization (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 2.47 to 13.33), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29 to 6.47), symptoms of "burnout" (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 2.54 to 13.86), chronic back pain (OR, = 3.55; 95% CI, 1.57 to 8.06), alcohol abuse (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.45 to 7.22), and inappropriately aggressive behavior (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.34 to 11.88). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviors to cope with stress. Given the size of the rapidly aging US workforce and the likelihood that many are employed in high-stress jobs, interventions are urgently needed to address this emerging public health issue.

  19. Quality-of-life policing Do offenders get the message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Angela; Eterno, John

    2003-01-01

    In the 1990s, the New York City Police Department expanded its focus on reducing behaviors that detract from the overall quality of life (QOL) in the city. Many have credited this effort for the decline in the city's overall crime rate. They often cite the fixing broken windows argument, which maintains that reducing disorder sets off a chain of events leading to less crime. However, systematic research has not yet documented this chain of events. Looks at one of the first linkages, whether QOL policing sends a message to offenders not to engage in disorderly behaviors in public locales. The project interviewed 539 New York City arrestees in 1999. Almost all of them were aware that police were targeting various disorderly behaviors. Among those that engaged in disorderly behaviors, about half reported that they had stopped or cut back in the past six months. They reported a police presence was the most important factor behind their behavioral changes. These findings support the idea that QOL policing has a deterrent effect.

  20. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic "hands-on" scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  1. Mainstreaming gender in the police: the Maharashtra experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S

    1998-11-01

    This study reviewed the history of sex segregation in the police forces of Maharashtra state, India, and policy interventions since 1994 to reverse the trends; it also describes the process of improving gender equity in the policy department as part of a gender aim to control violence against women. Police jobs are allocated based on gender. Passage of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act was not implemented fully within police departments. In fact, the Police Force actively worked to keep itself outside the purview of the Act. Supervisors maintained the attitude that women were unsuitable for police work. Women were suspected of lacking in career commitments and were limited to only a small number within the force. These attitudes restricted women's entry, deployment, and promotions. The Government of Maharashtra has been pressured by district level women's groups to secure women's rights and to change the social environment that supports violence against women. The efforts uncovered violence unreported due to social pressure. It was thought that women's greater presence in policy departments would encourage women to report domestic crimes. The policemen disliked the interference of women. Since women were recruited for specific duties, the result was low self-esteem, frustration due to lack of promotions, sexual harassment, ostracism, and reduced job expectations. In 1993, officers received gender-sensitizing training. The training at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex focused on rules, practices, access to resources, and formal and informal inclusions and exclusions.

  2. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  3. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  4. Bubble collision with gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.

  5. POLICE INTERACTIONS WITH THE MENTALLY ILL: THE ROLE OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana B. Kara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Police encounters with mentally ill individuals that involve the use of force by police are relatively infrequent, but sometimes quite volatile. Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, poorly funded and fragmented community treatment alternatives, plus increasingly restrictive civil commitment criteria have led to increased contacts with the police. Police need to exercise restraint when using force against individuals suffering from a mental disorder. There is a clear need for specialized crisis intervention police training for dealing with the mentally ill. Procedural justice theory offers a promising approach to improving police-citizen interactions. According to this framework, the fairness with which an individual is treated during an encounter by an authority figure, such as the police, can affect the perceived legitimacy of these interactions and any disposition that flows from them. This is particularly important regarding interactions between the police and those suffering from a mental disorder.

  6. Post G20: The Challenge of Change, Implementing Evidence-based Public Order Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...... the change called for appears to have been so slow and what can be done to assist reform. This paper suggests that developing an evidence-based policing approach within the field of public order policing to inform police decision-making would provide the answers. By doing so, the paper addresses some...... of the possible barriers to implementing evidence-based policing in public order and calls for police academic partnership to overcome these to make ‘change’ an ongoing reality....

  7. Current Trends in Local Policing Provision in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Krulík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the current trends of national police forces as they increasingly often pull back from their positions, and the consequences which many municipal councils in the Czech Republic are now facing. In the last couple of years, some municipalities chose relatively unconventional ways to deal with increased levels of crime and other forms of antisocial behaviour on their territories. This created space – for example – for signing public agreements with other municipalities, hiring private security companies to perform the role of municipal police or various forms of sponsoring the Police of the Czech Republic.

  8. The interiorization of Brazilian violence, policing, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Steeves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.

  9. Resultados operacionales de la Policía Nacional, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn Norza Céspedes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.

  10. Global Policing and the Case of Kim Dotcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Palmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies.  This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.

  11. Sex and monstrosity. A genealogy of the sexual police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines different forms of Western sexual police from the Seventeen Century to the present. The genealogy will approach the problem from the point of view of hermaphroditism and transvestism. By “sexual police” I mean the determinations, forms, norms and ethos that defines sex through times, as well as the categories of which it is composed, and what is permitted and is possible to do, see and say through these sexual categories. This essay, pays special attention to the fears and its embodiment in some paradigmatic figures. In particular, it analyzes the historical meaning of sexual “monstrosity”, key to understand the different polices, including the own sexual police of gender feminism.

  12. La généalogie de la police

    OpenAIRE

    L'Heuillet, Hélène

    2003-01-01

    S'interroger sur la généalogie de la police peut paraître étrange. C'est en effet une généalogie de la politique que l'analyse de la police semble d'abord rendre possible. Si, en effet, on entend par « généalogie » la méthode inventée par Nietzsche, qui consiste à tenter de regarder les phénomènes « par en dessous », c'est-à-dire à soupçonner que la cruauté, la méchanceté et la laideur constituent le ressort souterrain des valeurs de la morale, alors la police paraît bien la face grimaçante d...

  13. Co-responding Police-Mental Health Programs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G K; Cusi, A; Kirst, M; O'Campo, P; Nakhost, A; Stergiopoulos, V

    2015-09-01

    Co-responding police-mental health programs are increasingly used to respond to 'Emotionally Disturbed Persons' in the community; however, there is limited understanding of program effectiveness and the mechanisms that promote program success. The academic and gray literature on co-responding police-mental health programs was reviewed. This review synthesized evidence of outcomes along seven dimensions, and the available evidence was further reviewed to identify potential mechanisms of program success. Co-responding police-mental health programs were found to have strong linkages with community services and reduce pressure on the justice system, but there is limited evidence on other impacts. The relevance of these findings for practitioners and the major challenges of this program model are discussed, and future research directions are identified.

  14. Police peer support programs: current knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwiler, Peggy; Barocas, Briana; Mills, Linda G

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the current empirical research and literature on peer assistance programs, peer support, and peer-facilitated interventions for police officers. A literature search was conducted to identify studies on police, peer support, and peer assistance programs. Studies were examined in terms of the following criteria: description of data collection methods, findings, study limitations, implications for police, workplace assistance, and peer support. Articles on peer support in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center rescue and recovery efforts were also reviewed. The research studies reviewed in this article do not evaluate peer program effectiveness from the perspective of those officers receiving peer services. To better serve this invaluable population, efforts must be made to incorporate their views. Information is also needed on the effectiveness of peer assistance programs and peer-driven crisis intervention models. Finally, research is needed that specifically examines the effectiveness of programs that utilize trained peers in partnership with professional mental health practitioners.

  15. AN ANALYSIS ON VIOLENCE AND SUICIDE AMONG POLICE OFFICERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURDA-NICOARĂ (NETOTEA-SUCIU VALERIA-LILIANA-AMELIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption and intensive computerization have generated an increasing interest in the production process and increased productivity at the expense of the human factor and its performance, and the progressive brutalization of occupations and organizations has become one of the most important sources of suffering at the workplace. Worrying mutations suffered by society are also reflected, of course, in individuals working for the police. For these reasons, it is necessary that being a policeman should be further examined in all its dimensions. The objective of this paper is to present some difficulties met by police officers, their behavior and their feelings, the sources of stress, pain or discomfort in the workplace so that these issues can be taken into account to improve the work climate, the professional practices in the field, and to prevent the negative impact these may have on police organizations.

  16. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...... preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...... for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We identify the higher likelihood that a suspect will be named by a victim or witness as an important mechanism though which response time makes a difference....

  17. External Police Oversight in Mexico: Experiences, Challenges, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Guzmán Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 20 years of ‘reformist’ measures, the police in Mexico continues to be an ineffective, unreliable, and ‘far from citizen’ institution. The efforts made so far have faded amongst political interests and agendas; multidimensional frameworks out-dated at both conceptual and interagency levels; short-sighted competition for resources; evaluation and performance monitors that are handicapped by bureaucratic inaction; and weak transparency and accountability that perpetuate the opacity in which the police operate. In this context, the agenda of external police oversight is still at a rudimentary stage. However, there are several initiatives that have managed to push the issue to the frontier of new knowledge and promising practices. This paper outlines the experiences and challenges of—as well as the lessons learned by—the Institute for Security and Democracy (Insyde A.C., one of the most recognised think tanks in Mexico.

  18. Police interviewing and interrogation: a self-report survey of police practices and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M; Leo, Richard A; Meissner, Christian A; Richman, Kimberly D; Colwell, Lori H; Leach, Amy-May; La Fon, Dana

    2007-08-01

    By questionnaire, 631 police investigators reported on their interrogation beliefs and practices-the first such survey ever conducted. Overall, participants estimated that they were 77% accurate at truth and lie detection, that 81% of suspects waive Miranda rights, that the mean length of interrogation is 1.6 hours, and that they elicit self-incriminating statements from 68% of suspects, 4.78% from innocents. Overall, 81% felt that interrogations should be recorded. As for self-reported usage of various interrogation tactics, the most common were to physically isolate suspects, identify contradictions in suspects' accounts, establish rapport, confront suspects with evidence of their guilt, and appeal to self-interests. Results were discussed for their consistency with prior research, policy implications, and methodological shortcomings.

  19. 公安传播论%Police Communication Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耀春

    2013-01-01

    The police communication belongs to the category of government communication. The characteristics of police communication are the combination of politics and news, authenticity and effectiveness, popularity and policy. The main body of police communication has the features of administration, timeliness and popularity. The police communication includes the types of individual communication, group communication, organization communication and public communication. Its agents are police signs, traditional publicity and public communication, of which the audience are the public and police, the fundamental methods are both informative mode and persuasive mode.%“公安传播”主要属于政府传播的范畴。公安传播的基本特征为政治性与新闻性、真实性与时效性、广泛性与政策性。公安传播主体具有行政管理性、实时性和广泛性。公安传播包括人际传播、群体传播、组织传播和大众传播等各种类型,公安传播的媒介主要为警方标识、传统宣传载体和大众传播媒介,其受众为社会公众和公安机关民警,其基本传播模式为告知传播模式与劝服传播模式。

  20. [Greater success by cooperation between claim review experts and the police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, P; Milbradt, H; Schyma, C

    1999-12-01

    The examination of claims settlement in life assurance usually begins when police investigation is finished. During the acute phase of police investigation there is very rarely contact between the police and the life insurance company concerned. The advantages of early cooperation are demonstrated by two case reports. Immediate communication during the first four days after death initially helps the police investigators; later the life insurance company profits from the accelerated examination of the insured event.

  1. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brink Rob HS; Broer Jan; Tholen Alfons J; Winthorst Wim H; Visser Ellen; Wiersma Durk

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from ...

  2. Expectations of and satisfaction with the South African Police Service in the Rustenburg area / Ebenhaezer Kleyn

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Ebenhaezer

    2002-01-01

    Little quantitative research has been published on expectations of and satisfaction with the South African Police Service (SAPS) from the perspective of both the public and the police. Furthermore, scientific information is also needed about how police members perceive their own jobs and services to their clients, namely the public. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the expectations and satisfaction of the community and the police as well as the congruen...

  3. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding

  4. Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: the Belgian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebosch, Heidi; Beirens, Luc; D'Haese, Wim; Wegge, Denis; Pabian, Sara

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst youngsters, with potentially severe negative effects. Besides students, parents, schools, and Internet Service Providers, the police have been identified as an important actor in approaches against cyberbullying. Departing from the situation in Belgium, this article describes how the police can: help to prevent cyberbullying, by informing students, parents, and schools about the issue; play a role in the detection of cyberbullying, for instance, by creating online reporting systems (apart from the offline channels) and finally, assist in handling existing cyberbullying cases, by identifying perpetrators and helping victims.

  5. La Policía y el Ministerio Público

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César González Sandoval

    2000-01-01

    Las nuevas funciones asignadas por ley al Ministerio Público son una necesidad dentro del marco global de modernización del Sistema de Justicia Penal Nicaragüense ya que, en el nuevo proceso penal, la Policía continuará cumpliendo con las atribuciones y funciones establecidas tanto en la Constitución Política como en la Ley No. 228 (Ley de la Policía Nacional). Pero una nueva ley buena y necesaria, además de ser obedecida, necesita legitimidad social que la haga viable en su aplicación, s...

  6. Secretly Recording the Police: The Confluence of Communication, Culture, and Technology in the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies have changed the way that police do their job. Since the Rodney King beating outside of Los Angeles in 1991, literally thousands of police brutality videos have surfaced on the internet that document perceived acts of violence carried out against seemingly defenseless perpetrators. Police organizations throughout…

  7. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  8. 78 FR 66953 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of a... ACTION: 60-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services... Ouellette, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 145 N Street NE...

  9. "The Regular Routine": Proactive Policing and Adolescent Development among Young, Poor Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, proactive policing, in which departments use data on reported crimes to determine where local police officers will target their surveillance, has increased police contact with residents in certain neighborhoods. Drawing on field research conducted over a three-year period (2007-2010) among adult and adolescent…

  10. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  11. 78 FR 40175 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the... Ouellette, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 145 N Street NE... Oriented Policing Services (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as a brief...

  12. Should You Turn Yourself in? The Consequences of Environmental Self-Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Sarah L.

    2007-01-01

    Facilities that self-police under the Environmental Protection Agency's Audit Policy are eligible for reduced penalties on disclosed violations. This paper investigates whether self-policing has additional consequences; in particular, whether self-policing reduces future enforcement activity. Using data on U.S. hazardous waste enforcement and…

  13. 76 FR 5207 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision to a... Review: Community Policing Self-Assessment (CP-SAT). The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the...

  14. 75 FR 77904 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a... Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of... Ashley Hoornstra, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 145 N Street, NE...

  15. Police Departments Connect to School District Camera Feeds to Aid Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    School systems and police departments are community partners, and ensuring student, faculty, and officer safety is a high priority for both. In Pennsylvania, police departments are being both innovative and proactive by using wireless technology to handle school safety. If there's an emergency, local police departments can increase situational…

  16. An Ex Post Facto Evaluation Framework for Place-Based Police Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…

  17. The Quality of Police Education. A Critical Review with Recommendations for Improving Programs in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; And Others

    The findings of a two-year national study on the problems of U.S. police education are examined in this report of a commission whose members were noted educators, police administrators, and public officials. The following recommendations are among those offered: (1) the majority of federal funds for police higher education should go to programs…

  18. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  19. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  20. Police Response to Domestic Violence: Making Decisions about Risk and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…

  1. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  2. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  3. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  4. Secretly Recording the Police: The Confluence of Communication, Culture, and Technology in the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies have changed the way that police do their job. Since the Rodney King beating outside of Los Angeles in 1991, literally thousands of police brutality videos have surfaced on the internet that document perceived acts of violence carried out against seemingly defenseless perpetrators. Police organizations throughout…

  5. Police Response to Domestic Violence: Making Decisions about Risk and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…

  6. Collisions of Random Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, Martin T; Sousi, Perla

    2010-01-01

    A recurrent graph $G$ has the infinite collision property if two independent random walks on $G$, started at the same point, collide infinitely often a.s. We give a simple criterion in terms of Green functions for a graph to have this property, and use it to prove that a critical Galton-Watson tree with finite variance conditioned to survive, the incipient infinite cluster in $\\Z^d$ with $d \\ge 19$ and the uniform spanning tree in $\\Z^2$ all have the infinite collision property. For power-law combs and spherically symmetric trees, we determine precisely the phase boundary for the infinite collision property.

  7. Police Tweets and Public Perceptions of Safety and Police Performance: An Experiment on Framing and Other Tweet Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Smulders

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address.  The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.

  8. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  10. A New Platform of Cyber Policing for the Interaction of Police and Public%网络警务互动的新平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦博

    2012-01-01

    Cyber policing,makes the police affairs extend in virtual area,and leads a reformation by informationalized means.Network is an important channel for observing public opinions,it also improves policing efficiency.Meanwhile,cyber policing prompts the transition on serving conception and innovation of serving mode.This paper starts from the definition of cyber policing.Subsequently,it illustrates the significance and problems in practicing.At last,the paper shows the trend of evolution of police micro-blog.%本文从网络警务的概念入手,对其存在的现实意义和存在问题进行了分析,以此探究出公安机关在未来推行公安微博的一些发展趋势。

  11. Quorum sensing and policing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa social cheaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Greenberg, E Peter

    2015-02-17

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium.

  12. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inex

  13. Police in the Dorms: Student Safety or Privacy Infringement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970, officers on the Seattle campus have regularly patrolled the hallways of dormitories of the University of Washington. It is a community-policing strategy, a low-key way to engage students. However, the practice might cease this fall. In June, the state's Court of Appeals ruled that students have the same right to privacy in dormitory…

  14. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers’ Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...

  15. Applications of Social Psychology in Police-Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Neil

    Many techniques can be utilized to improve citizen attitude toward police. Research in social psychology provides considerable information concerning attitude change processes. This paper explores interpersonal attraction (attitudes toward individuals) and helping behavior (assisting others) within the broader context of attitude change.…

  16. Village Stability Operations and the Afghan Local Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    52 JSOU Report 14-7 three to four months during the warm months, when the enemy resistance was strongest, and two to three months during the colder...not always trustworthy . More often than not, the lack of pay was the result of the failure of ALP commanders or police chiefs to submit the proper

  17. ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The University at Albany Police and the University at Albany Athletics Department have teamed together to implement a ground breaking program aimed at identifying, addressing and managing negative behavior among student athletes. ATLAS stands for: Athletics, Team Building, Leadership Development, And Mentoring for Student Athletes. The program was…

  18. Language style matching and confessions in police interrogations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, P.J.; Snook, Brent; Conchie, S M; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Studies of police interrogation have often sought to understand how the ebb-and-flow of dialogue relates to a confession. There is now a considerable body of work examining the effect of questioning style (e.g., Granhag, Montecinos, & Oleszkiewicz, in press; Snook, Luther, Quinlan, & Milne, 2012) an

  19. Information Behavior of Taiwanese Internal Investigation Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explored how Taiwanese internal investigation police officers investigate cases and seek information. The tasks performed by internal investigation police officers are more difficult than those allocated to other officers, because internal investigation officers are investigating colleagues. This study examined the information sources that are available to internal investigation police officers, as well as how the officers analyze collected information. In-depth interviews with eight officers who have held their current positions for between 8 months and 3 years revealed that the main information sources used by the officers were their peer officers, informants, the Internet, personal profile, wiretapping, and surveillance. For each case, the information sources varied according to the stage of investigation. The financial status, keywords used in conversation, daily habits, and some behaviors were the primary information sources when the officers analyzed the collected information. Five factors were identified as contributing to their information barriers: language, laws and regulations, equipment, human resources, and psychological factors. Our observations indicate that police officers have unique information behaviors and sources.

  20. How Should Police Respect and Protect Human Rights?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIUHONG

    2007-01-01

    @@ A11 people are equal before law and human rights must be respected and guaranteed.This is an established principle in China in bringing about a harmonious society. But how should police respect and ensure human rights in exercising their powers?

  1. Policing 'Vancouver's Mental Health Crisis': A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jade; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper to explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Department (VPD) policy reports on "Vancouver's mental health crisis" from 2008-2013, which include recommendations for action. Analyzed is the VPD's role in framing issues of mental health in one urban space. This study is the first analysis to critically examine the VPD reports on mental health in Vancouver, B.C. The reports reproduce negative discourses about deinstitutionalization, mental illness and dangerousness that may contribute to further stigma and discrimination of persons with mental illness. Policing reports are widely drawn upon, thus critical analyses are particularly significant for policy makers and public health professionals in and outside of Canada.

  2. Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A; Nichols, Hazel J; Johnstone, Rufus A; Hodge, Sarah J

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by "policing" selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common.

  3. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  4. Far and away: police negotiators on overseas deployments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini-Nieboer, H.A.; Dolnik, A.; Giebels, E.

    2012-01-01

    The growing presence of Western expats and travelers in fragile states and conflict zones has led to a rise in the deployment of police negotiators overseas to assist in the management of kidnap cases. However, despite the fact that the conflict setting and dynamics of overseas cases arguably differ

  5. Officers at work in a multicultural police force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijes, C.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service. Design/methodol

  6. Case Disposition: An Assessment of Literature on Police Referral Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric J.; And Others

    This report reviews the manner in which police handle citizen requests for social services. The focus is on how officers make their decisions--whether they handle such requests themselves, direct them elsewhere in the department, or refer citizens to other agencies. In their assessment of the literature on referral practices, the authors point out…

  7. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  8. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  9. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Robertson

    Full Text Available Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  10. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  11. Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

  12. Downside Seen in Rush to Hire School-Based Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…

  13. Knowledge of Normal versus Pathological Memory Aging among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Karri S.; Garrity, April W.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined police officers' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood utilizing the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ). The KMAQ is a 28-item true/false questionnaire that covers a broad range of topics related to normal memory aging due to maturational processes and pathological memory aging, such as adult dementia. Results…

  14. ICT trends in European policing (Deliverable 4.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Denef (Sebastian); N. Kaptein (Nico); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); K. Birdi (Kamal); F. Bisogni (Fabio); D. Cassan (Damien); J. Christe-Zeyse (Jochen); P. Costanzo (Pietro); M. Gasco (Mila); K.E. Horton (Kate); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele); T. Jochoms (Theo); K. Krstevska (Katerina); S. Mirceva (Stojanka); A. van den Oord (Ad); C. Otoiu (Catalina); R. Rajkovchevski (Rade); Z. Reguli (Zdenko); T. Stojanovski (Trpe); G. Vonas (Gabriel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this report we present the results from interviews and document analyses of current and planned information and communication technology (ICT) projects with police forces from 10 European countries and from interviews with technology vendors in the field of ICT for

  15. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.V. Vigneswaran

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  16. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  17. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  18. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Charge (SAC) or unit commander. (c) The control and processing of a crime scene and the collection... in charge of the crime scene when the military police have investigative responsibility. To prevent the possible loss or destruction of evidence, the investigator or supervisor in charge of the crime...

  19. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates.

  20. Analysis of physical fitness and coronary heart disease risk of Dallas area police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M L; Gettman, L R; Meyer, B U

    1978-06-01

    Two hundred thirteen male police officers between 21 and 52 years of age volunteered to participate in a physical evaluation and conditioning program. Information concerning the physical fitness status and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) of police officers were shown. Younger police officers (less than 30 years of age) were average in physical fitness levels and CHD risk compared to the population of the same age. Middle-aged police officers were shown to be lower in physical fitness levels and higher in CHD risk compared to their cohorts. The results from this investigation support the need for physical fitness and preventive medicine programs for police officers.

  1. Police Work Absence: An Analysis of Stress and Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2014-03-01

    Police work is a high stress occupation and stress has been implicated in work absence. The present study examined (1) associations between specific types of police stress and work absences, (2) distinctions between "voluntary" (1-day) and "involuntary" (> 3-days) absences; and (3) the modifying effect of resiliency. Officers (n=337) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study were included in the present study. The sample was 72% male, 77% Caucasian, 73% married, and 75% patrol officers. Mean age was 41 years (SD=6.4). Measures included: the Spielberger Police Stress Survey, 1-year payroll absence data, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale. The negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) of 1-day and >3-days work absences for increasing stress scores. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, rank, smoking status, alcohol intake, and sleep duration. For one-unit increase in stress scores, the covariate adjusted RRs for one-day work absences were: total stress score (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.36); administrative stress (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.18); physical/psychological stress (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.07); and lack of support (RR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01-3.05). Results suggest that officers were more likely to take voluntary 1-day absences due to specific types of stress at work. When the entire sample was considered, there was no significant association between police specific stress and episodes of work absence lasting at least three consecutive days. Hardy individuals, including those with high scores on the challenge sub-score, may use 1-day absences as a positive coping strategy.

  2. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  3. Police enforcement of drinking and driving laws: A field study of police decisions for requiring a roadside breath test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M. & Verschuur, W.L.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to arresting a driver on suspicion of alcohol intoxication, a police officer needs good reason to believe that such an arrest is justifiable. He is then often forced to rely on his own judgement, and often looks for gross signs of impairment. This paper presents part of the results of a field

  4. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L.; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-01-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42% of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints…

  5. Ion Collision, Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Anil K.

    2013-09-11

    The outcome of a collision between an ion and neutral species depends on the chemical and physical properties of the two reactants, their relative velocities, and the impact parameter of their trajectories. These include elastic and inelastic scattering of the colliding particles, charge transfer (including dissociative charge transfer), atom abstraction, complex formation and dissociation of the colliding ion. Each of these reactions may be characterized in terms of their energy-dependent rate coefficients, cross sections and reaction kinetics. A theoretical framework that emphasizes simple models and classical mechanics is presented for these processes. Collision processes are addressed in two categories of low-energy and high-energy collisions. Experiments under thermal or quasi-thermal conditions–swarms, drift tubes, chemical ionization and ion cyclotron resonance are strongly influenced by long-range forces and often involve collisions in which atom exchange and extensive energy exchange are common characteristics. High-energy collisions are typically impulsive, involve short-range intermolecular forces and are direct, fast processes.

  6. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.

  7. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  8. Political Culture versus Socioeconomic Approaches to Predicting Police Strength in U.S. Police Agencies: Results of a Longitudinal Study, 1993 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…

  9. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  10. Brigade Combat Team the World’s Police: Understanding the United States Army Brigade Combat Team’s role in Developing Foreign Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis to measure the efficacy of the BCT’s organic structure in conducting foreign police...Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis to measure the efficacy of the BCT’s organic structure in conducting foreign police development, potential...57 Brigade Combat Team SWOT Analysis ....................................................................... 60 DOTMLPF Analysis

  11. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Rob H S; Broer, Jan; Tholen, Alfons J; Winthorst, Wim H; Visser, Ellen; Wiersma, Durk

    2012-10-17

    The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year). Half of these individuals (N=162) were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention). In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49%) if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58%) of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services.

  12. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Brink Rob HS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. Results The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year. Half of these individuals (N=162 were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention. In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49% if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58% of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. Conclusions The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services.

  13. Multiple collisions in turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    kuhle, Michel Voß; Wilkinson, Michael; Pumir, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In turbulent suspensions, collision rates determine how rapidly particles coalesce or react with each other. To determine the collision rate, many numerical studies rely on the 'Ghost Collision Approximation' (GCA), which simply records how often pairs of point particles come within a threshold distance. In many applications, the suspended particles stick (or in the case of liquid droplets, coalesce) upon collision, and it is the frequency of first contact which is of interest. If a pair of 'ghost' particles undergoes multiple collisions, the GCA may overestimate the true collision rate. Here, using fully resolved Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds number (R_\\lambda = 130), we investigate the prevalence and properties of multiple collisions. We demonstrate that the GCA leads to a systematic overestimate of the collision rate, which is of the order of 15% when the particle inertia is small, and slowly decreases when inertia increases. We investigate the probability P(N) for a ...

  14. Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...

  15. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...

  16. Ice particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Turnbull, Barbara; Hill, Richard; Swift, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Granular interactions of ice occur in a range of geophysical, astrophysical and industrial applications. For example, Saturn's Rings are composed of icy particles from micrometers to kilometres in size - inertial and yet too small to interact gravitationally. In clouds, ice crystals are smashed to pieces before they re-aggregate to for snow floccules in a process that is very much open to interpretation. In a granular flow of ice particles, the energy spent in collisions can lead to localized surface changes and wetting, which in turn can promote aggregation. To understand the induced wetting and its effects, we present two novel experimental methods which provide snippets of insight into the collisional behaviour of macroscopic ice particles. Experiment 1: Microgravity experiments provide minute details of the contact between the ice particles during the collision. A diamagnetic levitation technique, as alternative to the parabolic flight or falling tower experiments, was used to understand the collisional behaviour of individual macroscopic icy bodies. A refrigerated cylinder, that can control ambient conditions, was inserted into the bore of an 18 Tesla superconducting magnet and cooled to -10°C. Initial binary collisions were created, where one 4 mm ice particle was levitated in the magnet bore whilst another particle was dropped vertically from the top of the bore. The trajectories of both particles were captured by high speed video to provide the three-dimensional particle velocities and track the collision outcome. Introducing complexity, multiple particles were levitated in the bore and an azimuthal turbulent air flow introduced, allowing the particles to collide with other particles within a coherent fluid structure (mimicking Saturn's rings, or an eddy in a cloud). In these experiments, a sequence of collisions occur, each one different to the previous one due to the changes in surface characteristics created by the collisions themselves. Aggregation

  17. Comprehensive methodology for identification of Kratom in police laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna Paulina; Łozak, Anna; Zjawiony, Jordan Kordian

    2013-12-10

    Leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), commonly known as Kratom, are a popular narcotic product among recreational users all over the world. This product is widely distributed on the Internet and via smart-shops and is often a subject of examination in police laboratories. A major psychoactive component of Kratom is mitragynine which occurs exclusively in this species. The variety of combinations among M. speciosa products, cases of plant or chemical composition adulteration, give rise to a need to develop an universal methodology for identification of both, plant material and its active metabolite, mitragynine. Herein we propose a comprehensive authentication procedure which involves the microscopic analysis of plant material and inexpensive mitragynine detection using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The developed methodology was successfully applied for the plant material investigation. Five samples of dried, shredded or powdered Kratom leaves, purchased via the Internet and one sample delivered by police have been identified.

  18. The Injury Profile of an Australian Specialist Policing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Silk, Aaron

    2016-03-25

    This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars) over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower) may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.

  19. Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

  20. La Policía y el Ministerio Público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César González Sandoval

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Las nuevas funciones asignadas por ley al Ministerio Público son una necesidad dentro del marco global de modernización del Sistema de Justicia Penal Nicaragüense ya que, en el nuevo proceso penal, la Policía continuará cumpliendo con las atribuciones y funciones establecidas tanto en la Constitución Política como en la Ley No. 228 (Ley de la Policía Nacional. Pero una nueva ley buena y necesaria, además de ser obedecida, necesita legitimidad social que la haga viable en su aplicación, sin que las instituciones que han acumulado experiencia en el campo de la investigación criminal pierdan identidad y capacidad de desarrollo.

  1. Detecting true lies: police officers' ability to detect suspects' lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Samantha; Vrij, Aldert; Bull, Ray

    2004-02-01

    Ninety-nine police officers, not identified in previous research as belonging to groups that are superior in lie detection, attempted to detect truths and lies told by suspects during their videotaped police interviews. Accuracy rates were higher than those typically found in deception research and reached levels similar to those obtained by specialized lie detectors in previous research. Accuracy was positively correlated with perceived experience in interviewing suspects and with mentioning cues to detecting deceit that relate to a suspect's story. Accuracy was negatively correlated with popular stereotypical cues such as gaze aversion and fidgeting. As in previous research, accuracy and confidence were not significantly correlated, but the level of confidence was dependent on whether officers judged actual truths or actual lies and on the method by which confidence was measured.

  2. When are victims unlikely to cooperate with the police?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Lantz, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to examine the tendency for victims of physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery to refuse to cooperate with the police (N= 3,856,171). Analyses of physical assaults involving homosexual and heterosexual couples did not support the hypothesis that women attacked by their male partners are less likely to cooperate than victims of other assaults. Analyses of violent offenses more generally showed that victims of violence were more likely to refuse to cooperate if they knew the offender in any way than if the offender was a stranger. In the case of physical and sexual assault, these effects were mainly observed for minor incidents. Finally, victims of sexual assault were more likely to cooperate with the police than victims of physical assault. The findings suggest the importance of comparing the victim's reactions to intimate partner violence and sexual assault to their reactions to other offenses.

  3. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  4. Physical fitness capacity and absenteeism of police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, R W; Jones, G R; Hiatt, A R

    1991-11-01

    Police officers (n = 514) were studied to determine the relationship between physical fitness capacity and annual absenteeism rate. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that for officers aged 34 years and younger, only 5% of the variability in absenteeism could be accounted for by age, sex, and physical fitness variables. For officers 35 years old and older, 7% of the variability was explained by these variables, and a bicycle ergometer score was a significant predictor of absenteeism. Each individual test and an overall physical fitness score were classified into five levels. ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between overall fitness levels and absenteeism. However, men 35 and over who were most fit on the bicycle ergometer test had fewer absences, and women 34 and under who were thinnest had more absences. In conclusion, at least among police officers, the extent to which physical fitness capacity can predict absenteeism is low.

  5. Mobile Police Information System Based on Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The demand for communications anywhere, anytime, and on any device without recording the date is growing with the development of modern information technologies. Current wireless communications enable people to freely exchange information, while web services provide loosely-coupled, language-neutral, and platform-independent ways of linking applications within organizations, across enterprises, and across the Internet. This paper describes a mobile information system for police service, which integrates wireless communication technologies and web service technologies. The system satisfies the special demands of police information systems, such as security and interoperability. Policemen in the system can use various kinds of mobile terminals, such as mobile phones, tablet PCs, personal digital assistants, and laptops equipped with wireless LAN or GPRS to access data in the central database. The system is based on web services with a secure web service architecture and simple object access protocol message passing.

  6. Occupational Stress and Coping among Portuguese Military Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the professional experience of military police officers from the Portuguese Republican National Guard (N = 95). We focused on the main sources and consequences of stress and the coping strategies used to deal with stress. The evaluation protocol included one closed-ended question and four open-ended questions. Data analysis of meaningful text segments was conceptually based and data categorization followed deductive content analysis. Results allowed the identification of ...

  7. Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS): Current Legislative Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-14

    largest police forces also have the highest number of reported crimes. 23 Steven D. Levitt , “Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors...amount. 59 Both Evans and Owens and Muhlhausen cite research conducted by Ted R. Miller, Mark A. Cohen...expenses (e.g., medical care and property losses); reduced productivity related to work, home, and school; and quality of life losses. See Ted R

  8. Resultados operativos de la Policía Nacional, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeizon Andrés Duarte Velásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene los resultados estadísticos de los logros operativos y de los servicios de la Policía Nacional en el año 2012, que sin dudas han posibilitado prevenir, disuadir, controlar e investigar conductas desviadas, como hechos delictivos y contravenciones, que han permitido lograr el mantenimiento de la convivencia y seguridad ciudadana a través de procedimientos y operaciones policiales en Colombia.

  9. U.S. Army Military Police Professionalization -- Relevancy Beyond 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    was developed during a period of lower operational tempo in the Army which allowed MP companies more flexibility to cross- pollinate training with...formed in 2000 in an effort to increase the professionalism of federal law enforcement training. A task force of key training leaders from principal ...Credentialing - Local/Regional Policing partnerships that capitalizes on cross pollinating best practices (LEPs, ICITAP, NIJ, etc.) - Emphasize knowledge

  10. Shift work and occupational stress in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Claudia C; Andrew, Michael E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27-66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Non-day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered.

  11. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come t...

  12. The Role of the Police in Violence Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Neild

    1999-01-01

    This document is one of a series of technical notes that describe the nature and magnitude of violence in the region, its causes and effects, and how it can be prevented and controlled. The notes provide useful information on designing programs and policies to prevent and deal with violence. This technical note discusses the roles of police in controlling and preventing violence and crime. These issues are the subject of much debate. Broadly, the debate breaks down into two opposing views tha...

  13. Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2013-01-01

    In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...

  14. Resultados operativos de la Policía Nacional, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nilson Harvey Barco Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una breve reseña introductoria a las tablas estadísticas que presentan los resultados operativos alcanzados por la Policía Nacional para el 2013, en el desarrollo de estrategias ajustadas a políticas gubernamentales e institucionales, que permitan un despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia de todos los colombianos.

  15. Applying Resilience Promotion Training Among Special Forces Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Police Special Forces (a.k.a. special weapons and tactics [SWAT] officers are tasked with responding to the most critical situations, including incidents that require specialized skills and equipment beyond typical policing activities. In this study, we tested the feasibility of applying Arnetz and colleagues’ resilience promotion training that was developed for patrol officers to SWAT team officers (n = 18. The resilience promotion training program included psychoeducation focused on police stress and resilience, and the practice of resilience promotion techniques (controlled breathing and imagery while listening to audio-recorded critical incident scenarios. The aims of this study were to (a examine if a resilience training program was relevant and accepted by SWAT team officers and (b assess participants’ physiological stress responses (heart rate, respiration during the resilience training sessions to note if there were improvements in stress responding over time. Our findings revealed that participants were able to significantly reduce their average heart rate and improve their ability to engage in controlled respiration (i.e., breathing during simulated critical incidents over the course of the 5-day training. Improvements in stress responding were observed even when the critical incident scenarios became more graphic. Results suggest that an intervention to reduce stress responses of SWAT officers to critical incident scenarios works in a simulated training setting. Translation of these findings to real-world occupational hazards is a recommended next step.

  16. Linking Educational Institutions with Police Officer Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Wood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Community partnerships that are formed through Community Oriented Policing help to assist law enforcement officers with academy education and post academy education. The training offered in the academy and the post academy Field Training Officer Program traditionally places little to no emphasis on critical thinking, professional self-regulation, communication skills or problem-based learning. In the last several years a new approach has been spawned. The Police Training Officer Program (PTO is an innovative form of education that focuses on problem based learning for post academy graduates. The PTO Program emphasizes adult education, problem solving, emotional intelligence, and conflict resolution. This education is necessary to assist officers in de-escalation strategies within their communities and can lend to the reduction of civil disturbances. However, currently, relatively few agencies are offering this education to their post academy graduates and none are offering it to their academy recruits due, in part, to a lack of qualified instructors. PTO instructors must be proficient and fully trained in problem based learning techniques. Through Community Oriented Policing, law enforcement agencies can address this instructor shortage by partnering with university educational institutions to secure instructors who are competent in andragogy, critical thinking, and problem-based learning.

  17. Visual function of police officers who have undergone refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jeffery K; Ramaswamy, Shankaran

    2006-11-01

    The visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of police recruits and officers was evaluated in both normal and dim illumination conditions to determine whether officers who have had refractive surgery have compromised night vision. The control group consisted of 76 officers and recruits who have not had refractive surgery and the refractive surgery group consisted of 22 officers and recruits who had refractive surgery. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured under both room illumination and dim illumination. The room illumination test series included high contrast acuity, low contrast acuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. The dim illumination test series included high contrast acuity, low contrast acuity, Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity, license plate number acuity (with and without glare) and the Mesotest. The general findings were that the refractive surgery group had lower acuity scores on low contrast targets in both room and dim light levels along with a reduction in the Mesotest scores with a glare source compared to the control group. Although refractive surgery police recruits and officers had reduced performance on some vision tests, these reductions were small and it is unlikely that their performance on vision related tasks would be compromised, on average. The major concern is the small number of refractive surgery candidates whose results were well outside the range of the non-surgical candidates. Their vision may be unacceptable for policing. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  19. Assuring gender equity in recruitment standards for police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J; Bonneau, Jean

    2002-06-01

    Human Rights Tribunals require application of non-discriminatory fitness standards in the hiring, promotion, and retention of employees. This issue has become controversial for public safety officers such as police, where differences in average levels of absolute fitness between men and women cause a high proportion of female applicants to fail many entrance tests. The present review summarizes the impact on physical working capacity of commonly encountered gender differences in size, body composition, haemoglobin levels, and muscular strength. The principles applied in designing content- and construct-validity occupational fitness tests are described, and Human Rights policies are reviewed in the light of the Meiorin judgment. Criteria are indicated for establishing a bona-fide occupational fitness requirement, and description is given of the approach used in developing standards that satisfy these criteria. Requirements are based on the task to be accomplished. The potential training response of female applicants is likely at least to match that of their male peers, and the needs of female police recruits are thus best accommodated by providing every opportunity to augment fitness to the required minimum level. The main weakness of any current requirement is that most police forces do not yet apply an equivalent criterion to older incumbent officers, where similar issues may arise.

  20. Longitudinal changes in strength of police officers with gender comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W; Jones, Glenn R; Schendt, Katherine E; Lloyd, Cameron L; Boone, Edward L

    2009-11-01

    Strength is a critical factor in the health and job performance of police officers. Using a retrospective longitudinal design, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in strength scores from initial recruitment to in-service tests and to compare gender differences. Strength changes were also compared in low- to high-strength groups. Strength scores included bench press, bench press/lean weight, and bench press/weight. Body weight, percent body fat, and bench press scores were retrieved for the 1990-1995 recruit classes and were paired to most recent scores on 2006 in-service fitness record. Sample included 327 police officers: 30 females and 297 males. Mean age at initial recruitment was 24.6 years and for in-service was 37.1 years. Average time between tests was 12.5 years. Over this period bench press and bench press/lean weight significantly increased for both gender groups (p officers increased in strength well into their late 30s. The practical applications of this study include documented benefits gained from maintaining ongoing fitness training and testing, as well as the potentially positive role of weight gain on strength. Also, low- to high-strength groups did not change relative positions over time even with improvements in strength scores, demonstrating the importance of minimum selection criteria for police.

  1. CMS SEES FIRST COLLISIONS

    CERN Multimedia

      A very special moment.  On 23rd November, 19:40 we recorded our first collisions with 450GeV beams well centred in CMS.   If you have any comments / suggestions please contact Karl Aaron GILL (Editor)

  2. Droplet collisions in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid droplets occur in many natural phenomena and play an important role in a large number of industrial applications. One of the distinct properties of droplets as opposed to solid particles is their ability to merge, or coalesce upon collision. Coalescence of liquid drops is of importance in for

  3. Droplet collisions in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid droplets occur in many natural phenomena and play an important role in a large number of industrial applications. One of the distinct properties of droplets as opposed to solid particles is their ability to merge, or coalesce upon collision. Coalescence of liquid drops is of importance in for

  4. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Elementary Collisions with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, I; Agakichiev, G; Agodi, C; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Daz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, Paulo J R; Friese, J; Galatyuk, T; Garzn, J A; Gernhuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kmpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krizek, F; Krcken, R; Khn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lopes, L; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marn, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Mishra, D; Morinire, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, Lutz; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Prez Cavalcanti, T; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Simon, R; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Strbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Wen, H; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zumbruch, P

    2007-01-01

    The "High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer" (HADES) at GSI, Darmstadt, is investigating the production of e+e- pairs in A+A, p+A and N+N collisions. The latter program allows for the reconstruction of individual sources. This strategy will be roughly outlined in this contribution and preliminary pp/pn data is shown.

  6. Collision Probability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Friis; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1998-01-01

    probability, i.e. a study of the navigator's role in resolving critical situations, a causation factor is derived as a second step.The report documents the first step in a probabilistic collision damage analysis. Future work will inlcude calculation of energy released for crushing of structures giving...

  7. Collisions in soccer kicking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Bull; Dörge, Henrik C.; Thomsen, Franz Ib

    1999-01-01

    An equation to describe the velocity of the soccer ball after the collision with a foot was derived. On the basis of experimental results it was possible to exclude certain factors and only describe the angular momentum of the system, consisting of the shank, the foot and the ball, leading...

  8. Policing Visible Sexual/Gender Diversity as a Program of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dwyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Using interview data on LGBT young people’s policing experiences, I argue policing and security works as a program of government (Dean 1999; Foucault 1991; Rose 1999 that constrains the visibilities of diverse sexuality and gender in public spaces. While young people narrated police actions as discriminatory, the interactions were complex and multi-faceted with police and security working to subtly constrain the public visibilities of ‘queerness’. Same sex affection, for instance, was visibly yet unverifiably (Mason 2002 regulated by police as a method of governing the boundaries of proper gender and sexuality in public. The paper concludes by noting how the visibility of police interactions with LGBT young people demonstrates to the public that public spaces are, and should remain, heterosexual spaces.

  9. Pathogenic Policy: Immigrant Policing, Fear, and Parallel Medical Systems in the US South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Nolan

    2017-01-01

    Medical anthropology has a vital role in identifying health-related impacts of policy. In the United States, increasingly harsh immigration policies have formed a multilayered immigrant policing regime comprising state and federal laws and local police practices, the effects of which demand ethnographic attention. In this article, I draw from ethnographic fieldwork in Atlanta, Georgia, to examine the biopolitics of immigrant policing. I underscore how immigrant policing directly impacts undocumented immigrants' health by producing a type of fear based governance that alters immigrants' health behaviors and sites for seeking health services. Ethnographic data further point to how immigrant policing sustains a need for an unequal, parallel medical system, reflecting broader social inequalities impacting vulnerable populations. Moreover, by focusing on immigrant policing, I demonstrate the analytical utility in examining the biopolitics of fear, which can reveal individual experiences and structural influents of health-related vulnerability.

  10. Linking Neighborhood Characteristics and Drug-Related Police Interventions: A Bayesian Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of drug-related police interventions and the neighborhood characteristics influencing these spatial patterns. To this end, police officers ranked each census block group in Valencia, Spain (N = 552, providing an index of drug-related police interventions. Data from the City Statistics Office and observational variables were used to analyze neighborhood characteristics. Distance to the police station was used as the control variable. A Bayesian ecological analysis was performed with a spatial beta regression model. Results indicated that high physical decay, low socioeconomic status, and high immigrant concentration were associated with high levels of drug-related police interventions after adjustment for distance to the police station. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial approach to understanding crime.

  11. Building Partnerships Towards a Democratic Police Force in the Post-Revolutionary Tunisia Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Lavut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes security sector reform in Tunisia, and focuses on Tunisia’s Community Policing (CP program in particular. CP is identified as an effective form of policing in the context of Tunisia’s political transition and continuing security concerns. This work pinpoints a number of gaps in the existing pilot CP program and areas for improvement, and proposes additional ways to address separate but interrelated problems by means of new policing methods, based on comparative research into methods used in the United States and Germany. It proposes to expand the existing private-public partnerships, which are at the heart of CP, and it identifies some areas of cooperation between the police and society that can be generalized across nations. Finally, the argument is put forth that police reform is a multi-pronged, multi-sectoral effort, relying on the efforts of many actors other than the police

  12. Policing in the United States: Has the Time Come for a Full-Time National Police Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    possible without her encouragement. Her patience over this last year and while I continue to drag her around the world amazes me. vi TABLE OF... surprise , but it still represents an inescapable gap in the literature review. Delimitations Delimitations are factors within the control of the author...to equip and train police officers like soldiers, it should come as no surprise if they start acting like soldiers.52 There is no shortage of

  13. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  14. A test of evolutionary policing theory with data from human societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerli, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness) among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates) because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.

  15. A qualitative study of police interactions as perceived by people living with mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Police officers are often the first responders to individuals in crises. Understanding the dynamic interaction between police and persons living with mental illness is critical to developing interventions and appropriate services for this population. Using procedural justice theory, this study involves a qualitative thematic analysis of interviews conducted with 60 people living with mental illness regarding their interactions with police officers. The results indicate that common factors ...

  16. Reforming the Police in Post-Soviet States: Georgia and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    regime must feel accountable to the broader public to guide reform and destroy the Soviet legacy of a militarized police, while also introducing the...regime must feel accountable to the broader public to guide the reform and destroy the Soviet leg- acy of a militarized police, while also introducing...abuse of power begins the day after a cadet graduates from the Police Academy.81 In summer 2011, to celebrate their gradu- ation, new policemen in

  17. A test of evolutionary policing theory with data from human societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kümmerli

    Full Text Available In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.

  18. Evaluation of an educational policing strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime associated with licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan

    2012-02-01

    Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.

  19. Experiences with Policing among People Who Inject Drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings

  20. Policing and Muslim Communities in Germany: Structures, Workplace Cultures and the Threat of Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    In recognizing that today most organizations in modern societies have been confronted with the necessity of engaging with the processes of an intercultural interaction, this paper focuses on the police and the role police officers play in shaping the interaction between majority and minority ethnic populations in multi-ethnic societies. Empirical data of 727 serving police officers have been analysed emphasising interactions and contact with as well as attitudes towards Muslim members of soci...