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Sample records for geocoding accuracy liga

  1. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquez Geoffrey M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy. We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density

  2. Geocoding accuracy and the recovery of relationships between environmental exposures and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship – statistical power – between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of positional accuracy and completeness of the geocodes from which the measures of environmental exposure are made. This paper summarizes the results of simulation studies conducted to examine the impact of inaccuracies of geocoded addresses generated by three types of geocoding processes: a addresses located on orthophoto maps, b addresses matched to TIGER files (U.S Census or their derivative street files; and, c addresses from E-911 geocodes (developed by local authorities for emergency dispatch purposes. Results The simulated odds of disease using exposures modelled from the highest quality geocodes could be sufficiently recovered using other, more commonly used, geocoding processes such as TIGER and E-911; however, the strength of the odds relationship between disease exposures modelled at geocodes generally declined with decreasing geocoding accuracy. Conclusion Although these specific results cannot be generalized to new situations, the methods used to determine the sensitivity of results can be used in new situations. Estimated measures of positional accuracy must be used in the interpretation of results of analyses that investigate relationships between health outcomes and exposures measured at residential locations. Analyses similar to those employed in this paper can be used to validate interpretation of results from empirical analyses that use geocoded locations with estimated measures of positional accuracy.

  3. Accuracy of two geocoding methods for geographic information system-based exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Elodie; Danjou, Aurélie M N; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-02-24

    Environmental exposure assessment based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and study participants' residential proximity to environmental exposure sources relies on the positional accuracy of subjects' residences to avoid misclassification bias. Our study compared the positional accuracy of two automatic geocoding methods to a manual reference method. We geocoded 4,247 address records representing the residential history (1990-2008) of 1,685 women from the French national E3N cohort living in the Rhône-Alpes region. We compared two automatic geocoding methods, a free-online geocoding service (method A) and an in-house geocoder (method B), to a reference layer created by manually relocating addresses from method A (method R). For each automatic geocoding method, positional accuracy levels were compared according to the urban/rural status of addresses and time-periods (1990-2000, 2001-2008), using Chi Square tests. Kappa statistics were performed to assess agreement of positional accuracy of both methods A and B with the reference method, overall, by time-periods and by urban/rural status of addresses. Respectively 81.4% and 84.4% of addresses were geocoded to the exact address (65.1% and 61.4%) or to the street segment (16.3% and 23.0%) with methods A and B. In the reference layer, geocoding accuracy was higher in urban areas compared to rural areas (74.4% vs. 10.5% addresses geocoded to the address or interpolated address level, p < 0.0001); no difference was observed according to the period of residence. Compared to the reference method, median positional errors were 0.0 m (IQR = 0.0-37.2 m) and 26.5 m (8.0-134.8 m), with positional errors <100 m for 82.5% and 71.3% of addresses, for method A and method B respectively. Positional agreement of method A and method B with method R was 'substantial' for both methods, with kappa coefficients of 0.60 and 0.61 for methods A and B, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of geocoding

  4. The effects of local street network characteristics on the positional accuracy of automated geocoding for geographic health studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated geocoding of patient addresses for the purpose of conducting spatial epidemiologic studies results in positional errors. It is well documented that errors tend to be larger in rural areas than in cities, but possible effects of local characteristics of the street network, such as street intersection density and street length, on errors have not yet been documented. Our study quantifies effects of these local street network characteristics on the means and the entire probability distributions of positional errors, using regression methods and tolerance intervals/regions, for more than 6000 geocoded patient addresses from an Iowa county. Results Positional errors were determined for 6376 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa, as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its ground-truthed location. Mean positional error magnitude was inversely related to proximate street intersection density. This effect was statistically significant for both rural and municipal addresses, but more so for the former. Also, the effect of street segment length on geocoding accuracy was statistically significant for municipal, but not rural, addresses; for municipal addresses mean error magnitude increased with length. Conclusion Local street network characteristics may have statistically significant effects on geocoding accuracy in some places, but not others. Even in those locales where their effects are statistically significant, street network characteristics may explain a relatively small portion of the variability among geocoding errors. It appears that additional factors besides rurality and local street network characteristics affect accuracy in general.

  5. An effective and efficient approach for manually improving geocoded data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoblock Craig A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of geocoding produces output coordinates of varying degrees of quality. Previous studies have revealed that simply excluding records with low-quality geocodes from analysis can introduce significant bias, but depending on the number and severity of the inaccuracies, their inclusion may also lead to bias. Little quantitative research has been presented on the cost and/or effectiveness of correcting geocodes through manual interactive processes, so the most cost effective methods for improving geocoded data are unclear. The present work investigates the time and effort required to correct geocodes contained in five health-related datasets that represent examples of data commonly used in Health GIS. Results Geocode correction was attempted on five health-related datasets containing a total of 22,317 records. The complete processing of these data took 11.4 weeks (427 hours, averaging 69 seconds of processing time per record. Overall, the geocodes associated with 12,280 (55% of records were successfully improved, taking 95 seconds of processing time per corrected record on average across all five datasets. Geocode correction improved the overall match rate (the number of successful matches out of the total attempted from 79.3 to 95%. The spatial shift between the location of original successfully matched geocodes and their corrected improved counterparts averaged 9.9 km per corrected record. After geocode correction the number of city and USPS ZIP code accuracy geocodes were reduced from 10,959 and 1,031 to 6,284 and 200, respectively, while the number of building centroid accuracy geocodes increased from 0 to 2,261. Conclusion The results indicate that manual geocode correction using a web-based interactive approach is a feasible and cost effective method for improving the quality of geocoded data. The level of effort required varies depending on the type of data geocoded. These results can be used to choose between

  6. VT E911 road address range geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  7. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  8. VT E911 road name geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road name geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode addresses...

  9. A research agenda: does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding positional uncertainty, primarily because of a lack of theory, methods and tools for quantifying, modeling, and adjusting for geocoding positional errors in health analysis. This paper proposes a research agenda to address this need. It summarizes the basics of the geocoding process, its assumptions, and empirical evidence describing the magnitude of geocoding positional error. An overview of the impacts of positional error in health analysis, including accessibility, disease clustering, exposure reconstruction, and spatial weights estimation is presented. The proposed research agenda addresses five key needs: (1) a lack of standardized, open-access geocoding resources for use in health research; (2) a lack of geocoding validation datasets that will allow the evaluation of alternative geocoding engines and procedures; (3) a lack of spatially explicit geocoding positional error models; (4) a lack of resources for assessing the sensitivity of spatial analysis results to geocoding positional error; (5) a lack of demonstration studies that illustrate the sensitivity of health policy decisions to geocoding positional error.

  10. Applications of Geocoding and Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    The application of computer programing to construction of maps and geographic distributions of data has been called geocoding. This new use of the computer allows much more rapid analysis of various demographic characteristics. In particular, this paper describes the use of computer geocoding in the development of a plot of student density in…

  11. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  12. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  13. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Castro, Marcia C; Blossom, Jeffrey C; Bennett, Gary G; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude) difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com). Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748) collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705), 2% (n = 18) were tied and 3% (n = 25) were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4%) were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis). Six hundred thirteen (87.6%) of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude coordinates

  14. Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandbergen Paul A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error in street geocoding on the analysis of traffic-related air pollution on children. Methods For a case-study of a large sample of school children in Orange County, Florida (n = 104,865 the positional error of street geocoding was determined through comparison with a parcel database. The effect of this error was evaluated by analyzing the proximity of street and parcel geocoded locations to road segments with high traffic volume and determining the accuracy of the classification using the results of street geocoding. Of the original sample of 163,886 addresses 36% were not used in the final analysis because they could not be reliably geocoded using either street or parcel geocoding. The estimates of positional error can therefore be considered conservative underestimates. Results Street geocoding was found to have a median error of 41 meters, a 90th percentile of 100 meters, a 95th percentile of 137 meters and a 99th percentile of 273 meters. These positional errors were found to be non-random in nature and introduced substantial bias and error in the estimates of potential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Street geocoding was found to consistently over-estimate the number of potentially exposed children at small distances up to 250 meters. False positives and negatives were also found to be very common at these small distances. Conclusion Results of the case-study presented here strongly suggest that typical street geocoding is insufficient for fine-scale analysis and more accurate alternatives need to be considered.

  15. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  16. [Who Hits the Mark? A Comparative Study of the Free Geocoding Services of Google and OpenStreetMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, D; Mattauch, V; Heidinger, O; Hense, H W

    2015-09-01

    Geocoding, the process of converting textual information (addresses) into geographic coordinates is increasingly used in public health/epidemiological research and practice. To date, little attention has been paid to geocoding quality and its impact on different types of spatially-related health studies. The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 freely available geocoding services (Google and OpenStreetMap) with regard to matching rate (percentage of address records capable of being geocoded) and positional accuracy (distance between geocodes and the ground truth locations). Residential addresses were geocoded by the NRW state office for information and technology and were considered as reference data (gold standard). The gold standard included the coordinates, the quality of the addresses (4 categories), and a binary urbanity indicator based on the CORINE land cover data. 2 500 addresses were randomly sampled after stratification for address quality and urbanity indicator (approximately 20 000 addresses). These address samples were geocoded using the geocoding services from Google and OSM. In general, both geocoding services showed a decrease in the matching rate with decreasing address quality and urbanity. Google showed consistently a higher completeness than OSM (>93 vs. >82%). Also, the cartographic confounding between urban and rural regions was less distinct with Google's geocoding API. Regarding the positional accuracy of the geo-coordinates, Google also showed the smallest deviations from the reference coordinates, with a median of Google that nearly 95% and for OSM 50% of the addresses were geocoded within Google is superior to OSM regarding completeness and positional accuracy of the geocoded addresses. On the other hand, Google has several restrictions, such as the limitation of the requests to 2 500 addresses per 24 h and the presentation of the results exclusively on Google Maps, which may complicate the use for scientific purposes.

  17. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  18. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjaya; Liu, Ming; Hwang, Syni-An

    2012-11-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate), geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7%) were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3%) by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid ("true" location) compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  19. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate, geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7% were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3% by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid (“true” location compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  20. Geocoding of AIRSAR/TOPSAR SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecz, Francesco; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    geocode the new AIRSAR/TOPSAR data is presented. As an example an AIRSAR/TOPSAR image acquired in 1994 is geocoded and evaluated in terms of geometric accuracy.

  1. A research agenda: Does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquez, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding...

  2. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  3. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com. Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748 collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705, 2% (n = 18 were tied and 3% (n = 25 were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4% were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis. Six hundred thirteen (87.6% of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude

  4. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Lisa G

    2010-04-01

    numbers, our results suggest that the use of county E911 data in rural areas increases the rate of successful geocoding. Furthermore, positional accuracy of rural addresses in the study area appears to vary by geocoding method. In a large epidemiological study investigating the health effects of PFOA-contaminated public drinking water, this could potentially result in exposure misclassification if addresses are incorrectly geocoded to a street segment not serviced by public water.

  5. Liga developer apparatus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Dale R.; Bankert, Michelle A.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2003-01-01

    A system to fabricate precise, high aspect ratio polymeric molds by photolithograpic process is described. The molds for producing micro-scale parts from engineering materials by the LIGA process. The invention is a developer system for developing a PMMA photoresist having exposed patterns comprising features having both very small sizes, and very high aspect ratios. The developer system of the present invention comprises a developer tank, an intermediate rinse tank and a final rinse tank, each tank having a source of high frequency sonic agitation, temperature control, and continuous filtration. It has been found that by moving a patterned wafer, through a specific sequence of developer/rinse solutions, where an intermediate rinse solution completes development of those portions of the exposed resist left undeveloped after the development solution, by agitating the solutions with a source of high frequency sonic vibration, and by adjusting and closely controlling the temperatures and continuously filtering and recirculating these solutions, it is possible to maintain the kinetic dissolution of the exposed PMMA polymer as the rate limiting step.

  6. An evaluation framework for comparing geocoding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Daniel W.; Ballard, Morven; Boyd, James H; Mullan, Narelle; Garfield, Carol; Rosman, Diana; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of converting textual information describing a location into one or more digital geographic representations, is a routine task performed at large organizations and government agencies across the globe. In a health context, this task is often a fundamental first step performed prior to all operations that take place in a spatially-based health study. As such, the quality of the geocoding system used within these agencies is of paramount concern to the agency (...

  7. VT E911 Composite geocoder - uses ESITE, RDSNAME, and RDSRANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 Composite geocoder - uses ESITE, RDSNAME, and RDSRANGE. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be...

  8. A method and a tool for geocoding and record linkage

    OpenAIRE

    CHARIF Omar; OMRANI Hichem; Klein, Olivier; Schneider, Marc; Trigano, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    For many years, researchers have presented the geocoding of postal addresses as a challenge. Several research works have been devoted to achieve the geocoding process. This paper presents theoretical and technical aspects for geolocalization, geocoding, and record linkage. It shows possibilities and limitations of existing methods and commercial software identifying areas for further research. In particular, we present a methodology and a computing tool allowing the correction and the geo-cod...

  9. The Application of Geocoded Data to Educational Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Donald N.; And Others

    The papers presented at a symposium on geocoding describe the preparation of a geocoded data file, some basic applications for education planning, and its use in trend analysis to produce contour maps for any desired characteristic. Geocoding data involves locating each entity, such as students or schools, in terms of grid coordinates on a…

  10. UV-LIGA: From Development to Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Genolet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major breakthrough in UV-LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanoformung and Abformung started with the use of epoxy-based EPON® SU-8 photoresist in the mid-1990s. Using this photoresist has enabled the fabrication of tall and high aspect ratio structures without the use of a very expensive synchrotron source needed to expose the photoresist layer in X-ray LIGA. SU-8 photoresist appeared to be well-suited for LIGA templates, but also as a permanent material. Based on UV-LIGA and SU-8, Mimotec SA has developed processes to manufacture mold inserts and metallic components for various market fields. From one to three-level parts, from Ni to other materials, from simple to complicated parts with integrated functionalities, UV-LIGA has established itself as a manufacturing technology of importance for prototyping, as well as for mass-fabrication. This paper reviews some of the developments that led to commercial success in this field.

  11. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  12. Automated rectification and geocoding of SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Curlander, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    An automated post-processing system has been developed for rectification and geocoding of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The system uses as input a raw uncorrected image from the operational SAR correlator, and produces as a standard output a rectified and geocoded product. The accurate geolocation of SAR image pixels is provided by a spatial transformation model which maps the slant range-azimuth SAR image pixels into their location on a prespecified map grid. This model predicts the geodetic location of each pixel by utilizing: the sensor platform position; a geoid model; the parameters of the data collection system and the processing parameters used in the SAR correlator. Based on their geodetic locations, the pixels are mapped by using the desired cartographic projection equations. This rectification and geocoding technique has been tested with Seasat and SIR-B images. The test results demonstrate absolute location uncertainty of less than 50 m and relative distortion (scale factor and skew) of less than 0.1 percent relative to local variations from the assumed geoid.

  13. Use of base metal casting alloys for implant framework: marginal accuracy analysis Uso de ligas metálicas básicas em próteses sobre implantes: análise da adaptação marginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Carvalho Kano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The original protocol for implant prosthesis recommends the use of a gold framework for acrylic and ceramic prosthesis. However, due to its high cost, the use of alternative alloys is desired. This study compares the marginal accuracy of pre-made cylinders versus plastic cylinders cast with two different base metal casting alloys. Five samples each of (1 plastic cylinder cast in cobalt-chromium alloy, (2 plastic cylinder cast in nickel-chromium alloy, and (3 silver-palladium pre-made cylinder (control were examined for marginal accuracy according to: (A vertical gap; (B horizontal gap and (C horizontal gap depth at the abutment/cylinder interface. Data were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Student-Newman Keuls, pO protocolo para prótese sobre implantes recomenda o uso de uma infra-estrutura em ouro para próteses metalo-plásticas e metalo-cerâmicas. No entanto, devido ao seu alto custo, o uso de ligas alternativas é desejado. OBJETIVO: Este estudo compara a adaptação marginal de cilindros protéticos pré-fabricados e cilindros protéticos plásticos fundidos com dois tipos de ligas metálicas básicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: 05 amostras de (1 cilindros plásticos fundidos em liga de cobalto cromo; (2 cilindros plásticos fundidos em liga de níquel cromo e (3 cilindros pré-fabricados com cinta metálica em paládio, foram examinados na interface intermediário/cilindro protético na análise de desajuste marginal, considerando-se (A desajuste vertical, (B desajuste horizontal e (C profundidade de fenda. RESULTADOS: os valores médios para o desajuste vertical, horizontal e profundidade foram, respectivamente, 4,13µm, 14,5µm e 6,93µm para o cilindro pré-fabricado em paládio, 23,18µm, 33,2µm e 88µm para os cilindros plásticos fundidos em Níquel cromo e 25,6µm, 51,8µm e 114,54 µm para os cilindros fundidos em cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos fundidos (grupo 1

  14. Geocoding uncertainty analysis for the automated processing of Sentinel-1 data using Sentinel-1 Toolbox software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Naeimi, Vahid; Wagner, Wolfgang; Elefante, Stefano; Cao, Senmao; Persson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    One of the major advantages of the Sentinel-1 data is its capability to provide very high spatio-temporal coverage allowing the mapping of large areas as well as creation of dense time-series of the Sentinel-1 acquisitions. The SGRT software developed at TU Wien aims at automated processing of Sentinel-1 data for global and regional products. The first step of the processing consists of the Sentinel-1 data geocoding with the help of S1TBX software and their resampling to a common grid. These resampled images serve as an input for the product derivation. Thus, it is very important to select the most reliable processing settings and assess the geocoding uncertainty for both backscatter and projected local incidence angle images. Within this study, selection of Sentinel-1 acquisitions over 3 test areas in Europe were processed manually in the S1TBX software, testing multiple software versions, processing settings and digital elevation models (DEM) and the accuracy of the resulting geocoded images were assessed. Secondly, all available Sentinel-1 data over the areas were processed using selected settings and detailed quality check was performed. Overall, strong influence of the used DEM on the geocoding quality was confirmed with differences up to 80 meters in areas with higher terrain variations. In flat areas, the geocoding accuracy of backscatter images was overall good, with observed shifts between 0 and 30m. Larger systematic shifts were identified in case of projected local incidence angle images. These results encourage the automated processing of large volumes of Sentinel-1 data.

  15. Extending a geocoding database by Web information extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Niu, Zheng

    2008-10-01

    Local Search has recently attracted much attention. And the popular architecture of Local Search is map-and-hyperlinks, which links geo-referenced Web content to a map interface. This architecture shows that a good Local Search not only depends on search engine techniques, but also on a perfect geocoding database. The process of building and updating a geocoding database is laborious and time consuming so that it is usually difficult to keep up with the change of the real world. However, the Web provides a rich resource of location related information, which would be a supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper introduces how to extract geographic information from Web documents to extend a geocoding database. Our approach involves two major steps. First, geographic named entities are identified and extracted from Web content. Then, named entities are geocoded and put into storage. By this way, we can extend a geocoding database to provide better local Web search services.

  16. RPC Modeling For Spaceborne SAR And Its Application In Radar Image Geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohong; He, Xueyan; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2010-10-01

    The Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) model is a typical replacement sensor model which relates image coordinates and object coordinates through rational polynomial functions. This paper investigates the methodology of RPC modeling for spaceborne SAR and its application in radar image geocoding. A hybrid approach is proposed to combine the L-curve and the IMCCV (Iteration method by correcting characteristic value) methods for RPC modeling. Experimental results show that the hybrid approach is superior to traditional methods in terms of both fitting accuracy and computation time cost. The results of different settings in RPC modeling will be shown. To ensure high accuracy of image geocoding, an additional mathematical transformation is used to remove the systematic errors in the RPC model. An Envisat ASAR image is used as experimental data to verify the application.

  17. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  18. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  19. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes.

  20. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS: COMPARISON OF GEOCODED AND NON-GEOCODED POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded residence at delivery will be used ...

  1. A Different Web-Based Geocoding Service Using Fuzzy Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, P.; Abbaspour, R. A.; Zare Zadiny, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geocoding - the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  2. A DIFFERENT WEB-BASED GEOCODING SERVICE USING FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pahlavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding – the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  3. Geocoded data structures and their applications to Earth science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    A geocoded data structure is a means for digitally representing a geographically referenced map or image. The characteristics of representative cellular, linked, and hybrid geocoded data structures are reviewed. The data processing requirements of Earth science projects at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the basic tools of geographic data processing are described. Specific ways that new geocoded data structures can be used to adapt these tools to scientists' needs are presented. These include: expanding analysis and modeling capabilities; simplifying the merging of data sets from diverse sources; and saving computer storage space.

  4. Spatial error in geocoding physician location data from the AMA Physician Masterfile: implications for spatial accessibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Sara; Freeman, Vincent L; Barrett, Richard E; Luo, Lan; Shockley, Alisa

    2012-04-01

    The accuracy of geocoding hinges on the quality of address information that serves as input to the geocoding process; however errors associated with poor address quality are rarely studied. This paper examines spatial errors that arise due to incorrect address information with respect to physician location data in the United States. Studies of spatial accessibility to physicians in the U.S. typically rely on data from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile. These data are problematic because a substantial proportion of physicians only report a mailing address, which is often the physician's home (residential) location, rather than the address for the location where health care is provided. The incorrect geocoding of physicians' practice locations based on inappropriate address information results in a form of geocoding error that has not been widely analyzed. Using data for the Chicago metropolitan region, we analyze the extent and implications of geocoding error for measurement of spatial accessibility to primary care physicians. We geocode the locations of primary care physicians based on mailing addresses and office addresses. The spatial mismatch between the two is computed at the county, zip code and point location scales. Although mailing and office address locations are quite close for many physicians, they are far apart (>20 km) for a substantial minority. Kernel density estimation is used to characterize the spatial distribution of physicians based on office and mailing addresses and to identify areas of high spatial mismatch between the two. Errors are socially and geographically uneven, resulting in overestimation of physician supply in some high-income suburban communities, and underestimation in certain central city locations where health facilities are concentrated. The resulting errors affect local measures of spatial accessibility to primary care, biasing statistical analyses of the associations between spatial access to care and

  5. Comparing a single-stage geocoding method to a multi-stage geocoding method: how much and where do they disagree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geocoding methods vary among spatial epidemiology studies. Errors in the geocoding process and differential match rates may reduce study validity. We compared two geocoding methods using 8,157 Washington State addresses. The multi-stage geocoding method implemented by the state health department used a sequence of local and national reference files. The single-stage method used a single national reference file. For each address geocoded by both methods, we measured the distance between the locations assigned by each method. Area-level characteristics were collected from census data, and modeled as predictors of the discordance between geocoded address coordinates. Results The multi-stage method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method: 99% versus 95%. Of 7,686 addresses were geocoded by both methods, 96% were geocoded to the same census tract by both methods and 98% were geocoded to locations within 1 km of each other by the two methods. The distance between geocoded coordinates for the same address was higher in sparsely populated and low poverty areas, and counties with local reference files. Conclusion The multi-stage geocoding method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method. An examination of differences in the location assigned to the same address suggested that study results may be most sensitive to the choice of geocoding method in sparsely populated or low-poverty areas.

  6. Data management based on geocoding index and adaptive visualization for airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaodong

    2008-10-01

    With more surveying practice and deeper application, data post-process for airborne LiDAR system has been extracted lots of attention in data accuracy, post-process, fusion, modeling, automation and visualization. However, post-process and flexible visualization were found to be the bottle-neck which limits the LiDAR data usage for industrial applications. The cause of above bottle-neck problems is great capacity for LiDAR system. Thus in article a geocoding index based multivariate data management and adaptive visualization will be studied for based on the feature of airborne LiDAR's data to improve automatization of post-process and surveying efficiency.

  7. Geographic bias related to geocoding in epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siadaty Mir

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes geographic bias in GIS analyses with unrepresentative data owing to missing geocodes, using as an example a spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence among whites and African Americans in Virginia, 1990–1999. Statistical tests for clustering were performed and such clusters mapped. The patterns of missing census tract identifiers for the cases were examined by generalized linear regression models. Results The county of residency for all cases was known, and 26,338 (74% of these cases were geocoded successfully to census tracts. Cluster maps showed patterns that appeared markedly different, depending upon whether one used all cases or those geocoded to the census tract. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, in the most rural counties (where the missing data were concentrated, the percent of a county's population over age 64 and with less than a high school education were both independently associated with a higher percent of missing geocodes. Conclusion We found statistically significant pattern differences resulting from spatially non-random differences in geocoding completeness across Virginia. Appropriate interpretation of maps, therefore, requires an understanding of this phenomenon, which we call "cartographic confounding."

  8. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  9. An analysis of the process and results of manual geocode correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda J. McDonald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding is the science and process of assigning geographical coordinates (i.e. latitude, longitude to a postal address. The quality of the geocode can vary dramatically depending on several variables, including incorrect input address data, missing address components, and spelling mistakes. A dataset with a considerable number of geocoding inaccuracies can potentially result in an imprecise analysis and invalid conclusions. There has been little quantitative analysis of the amount of effort (i.e. time to perform geocoding correction, and how such correction could improve geocode quality type. This study used a low-cost and easy to implement method to improve geocode quality type of an input database (i.e. addresses to be matched through the processes of manual geocode intervention, and it assessed the amount of effort to manually correct inaccurate geocodes, reported the resulting match rate improvement between the original and the corrected geocodes, and documented the corresponding spatial shift by geocode quality type resulting from the corrections. Findings demonstrated that manual intervention of geocoding resulted in a 90% improvement of geocode quality type, took 42 hours to process, and the spatial shift ranged from 0.02 to 151,368 m. This study provides evidence to inform research teams considering the application of manual geocoding intervention that it is a low-cost and relatively easy process to execute.

  10. Geocoding police collision report data from California: a comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision geocoding is the process of assigning geographic descriptors, usually latitude and longitude coordinates, to a traffic collision record. On California police reports, relative collision location is recorded using a highway postmile marker or a street intersection. The objective of this study was to create a geocoded database of all police-reported, fatal and severe injury collisions in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS for years 1997-2006 for use by public agencies. Results Geocoding was completed with a multi-step process. First, pre-processing was performed using a scripting language to clean and standardize street name information. A state highway network with postmile values was then created using a custom tool written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA in ArcGIS software. Custom VBA functionality was also used to incorporate the offset direction and distance. Intersection and address geocoding was performed using ArcGIS, StreetMap Pro 2003 digital street network, and Google Earth Pro. A total of 142,007 fatal and severe injury collisions were identified in SWITRS. The geocoding match rate was 99.8% for postmile-coded collisions and 86% for intersection-coded collisions. The overall match rate was 91%. Conclusions The availability of geocoded collision data will be beneficial to clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the fields of traffic safety and public health. Potential uses of the data include studies of collision clustering on the highway system, examinations of the associations between collision occurrence and a variety of variables on environmental and social characteristics, including housing and personal demographics, alcohol outlets, schools, and parks. The ability to build maps may be useful in research planning and conduct and in the delivery of information to both technical and non-technical audiences.

  11. Geocoding and social marketing in Alabama's cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Julianna W; White, Arica; Lubenow, Anne E; Palmer, Sally

    2005-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama's Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute's cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute's profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  12. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.

  13. Final-part metrology for LIGA springs, Build Group 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Mills, Bernice E.

    2004-03-01

    The LIGA spring is a recently designed part for defense program applications. The Sandia California LIGA team has produced an initial group build of these nickel alloy parts. These are distinctive in having a macroscopic lateral size of about 1 cm, while requiring microscopic dimensional precision on the order of a few micrometers. LIGA technology capabilities at Sandia are able to manufacture such precise structures. While certain aspects of the LIGA process and its production capabilities have been dimensionally characterized in the past, [1-6] the present work is exclusive in defining a set of methods and techniques to inspect and measure final LIGA nickel alloy parts in large prototype quantities. One hundred percent inspection, meaning that every single LIGA part produced needs to be measured, ensures quality control and customer satisfaction in this prototype production run. After a general visual inspection of the parts and an x-ray check for voids, high precision dimensional metrology tools are employed. The acquired data is analyzed using both in house and commercially available software. Examples of measurements illustrating these new metrology capabilities are presented throughout the report. These examples furthermore emphasize that thorough inspection of every final part is not only essential to characterize but also improve the LIGA manufacturing process.

  14. Spatial Quality of Manually Geocoded Multispectral and Multiresolution Mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Krtalić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The digital airborne multisensor and multiresolution system for collection of information (images about mine suspected area was created, within European commission project Airborne Minefield Area Reduction (ARC, EC IST-2000-25300, http://www.arc.vub.ac.be to gain a better perspective in mine suspected areas (MSP in the Republic of Croatia. The system consists of a matrix camera (visible and near infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum, 0.4-1.1 µm, thermal (thermal range of electromagnetic spectrum, 8-14 µm and a hyperspectral linear scanner. Because of a specific purpose and seeking object on the scene, the flights for collecting the images took place at heights from 130 m to 900 m above the ground. The result of a small relative flight height and large MSPs was a large number of images which cover MSPs. Therefore, the need for merging images in largest parts, for a better perspective in whole MSPs and the interaction of detected object influences on the scene appeared. The mentioned system did not dispose of the module for automatic mosaicking and geocoding, so mosaicking and after that geocoding were done manually. This process made the classification of the scene (better distinguishing of objects on the scene and fusion of multispectral and multiresolution images after that possible. Classification and image fusion can be even done by manually mosaicking and geocoding. This article demonstrated this claim.

  15. Geocoding coronial data: tools and techniques to improve data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Darren; Williamson, Dianne; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Clinical, administrative and demographic health information is fundamental to understanding the nature of health and evaluating the effectiveness of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality of the population. The demographic data item 'location' is an integral part of any injury surveillance tool or injury prevention strategy. The true value of location data can only be realised once these data have been appropriately classified and quality assured. Geocoding as a means of classifying location is increasingly used in various health fields to enable spatial analysis of data. This article reports on research carried out in Australia at the National Coroners Information System (NCIS). Trends in the use of NCIS location-based data by researchers were identified. The research also aimed to establish the factors that impacted on the quality of geocoded data and the extent of this impact. A systematic analysis of the geocoding process identified source documentation, data cleaning, and software settings as key factors impacting on data quality. Understanding and application of these processes can improve data quality and therefore inform the analysis and interpretation of these data by researchers.

  16. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  17. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.

    1998-03-23

    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  18. Ureteric Injury due to the Use of LigaSure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. LigaSure is a bipolar clamping device used in open and laparoscopic surgeries for producing haemostasis in vascular pedicles up to 7 mm in diameter (“Covidien LigaSure technology: consistent, reliable, trusted vessel sealing,” 2012. The use of LigaSure has made securing haemostasis and tissue dissection relatively easy especially in laparoscopic surgery; however, if not used with care it can cause damage to the surrounding structures through lateral spread of energy. Case Report. This case report discusses the induction of a thermal ureteral injury associated with the use of LigaSure. An 80-year-old gentleman was operated for bowel cancer. LigaSure was used for securing haemostasis and tissue dissection. Postoperatively, he was found to have damage to the right ureter secondary to lateral spread of energy from the jaws of LigaSure with high abdominal drain output. Conclusion. Judicious and careful use of electrosurgical devices should be done to prevent inadvertent damage to the surrounding structures. Early recognition and involvement of a urologist can prevent long-term complications.

  19. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya Kumar; Ming Liu; Syni-An Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA...

  20. Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error in street geocoding on the analysis of traffic-related air pollution on children. Methods For a case-study of a large sample of school children in Orange County, Florida (n = 104,865) the posi...

  1. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets at three spatial resolutions - zip code, street, and parcel. We achieve high geocoding rates at all three resolutions, with statewide street geocoding rates of 88.0% for births and 93.2% for deaths. We observe differences in geocoding rates across demographics and health outcomes, with lower geocoding rates in disadvantaged populations and the most dramatic differences occurring across the urban-rural spectrum. Our results suggest highly resolved spatial data architectures for population-level datasets are viable through geocoding individual street addresses. We recommend routinely geocoding administrative datasets to the highest spatial resolution feasible, allowing public health researchers to choose the spatial resolution used in analysis based on an understanding of the spatial dimensions of the health outcomes and exposures being investigated. Such research, however, must acknowledge how disparate geocoding success across subpopulations may affect findings.

  2. COMPARISON OF GEOCODING METHODS USED IN CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Accurate geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded maternal residence a...

  3. Inspection strategy for LIGA microstructures using a programmable optical microscope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfess, Thomas R (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Aigeldinger, Georg; Ceremuga, Joseph T.

    2004-07-01

    The LIGA process has the ability to fabricate very precise, high aspect ratio mesoscale structures with microscale features [l]. The process consists of multiple steps before a final part is produced. Materials native to the LIGA process include metals and photoresists. These structures are routinely measured for quality control and process improvement. However, metrology of LIGA structures is challenging because of their high aspect ratio and edge topography. For the scale of LIGA structures, a programmable optical microscope is well suited for lateral (XU) critical dimension measurements. Using grayscale gradient image processing with sub-pixel interpolation, edges are detected and measurements are performed. As with any measurement, understanding measurement uncertainty is necessary so that appropriate conclusions are drawn from the data. Therefore, the abilities of the inspection tool and the obstacles presented by the structures under inspection should be well understood so that precision may be quantified. This report presents an inspection method for LIGA microstructures including a comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty for each inspection scenario.

  4. Torsion Testing of Diffusion Bonded LIGA Formed Nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.

    1999-01-27

    A test technique has been devised which is suitable for the testing of the bond strength of batch diffusion bonded LIGA or DXRL defined structures. The method uses a torsion tester constructed with the aid of LIGA fabrication and distributed torsion specimens which also make use of the high aspect ratio nature of DXRL based processing. Measurements reveal achieved bond strengths of 130MPa between electroplated nickel with a bond temperature of 450 C at 7 ksi pressure which is a sufficiently low temperature to avoid mechanical strength degradation.

  5. Geocoding and stereo display of tropical forest multisensor datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R.; Jordan, T. R.; Luvall, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the future of tropical forests has led to a demand for geocoded multisensor databases that can be used to assess forest structure, deforestation, thermal response, evapotranspiration, and other parameters linked to climate change. In response to studies being conducted at the Braulino Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica, digital satellite and aircraft images recorded by Landsat TM, SPOT HRV, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, and Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner sensors were placed in register using the Landsat TM image as the reference map. Despite problems caused by relief, multitemporal datasets, and geometric distortions in the aircraft images, registration was accomplished to within + or - 20 m (+ or - 1 data pixel). A digital elevation model constructed from a multisensor Landsat TM/SPOT stereopair proved useful for generating perspective views of the rugged, forested terrain.

  6. Modelling Iteration Convergence Condition for Single SAR Image Geocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuting; Liao, Minghsheng; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Xuguo

    2014-11-01

    Single SAR image geocoding is to determine the ground coordinate for each pixel in the SAR image assisted with an external DEM. Due to the uncertainty of the elevation of each pixel in SAR image, an iterative procedure is needed, which suffers from the problem of divergence in some difficult areas such as shaded and serious layover areas. This paper aims at theoretically analysing the convergence conditions that has not been intensively studied till now. To make the discussion easier, the Range-Doppler (RD) model is simplified and then the general surface is simplified into a planar surface. Mathematical deduction is carried out to derive the convergence conditions and the impact factors for the convergence speed are analysed. The theoretical findings are validated by experiments for both simulated and real surfaces.

  7. Geocoding location expressions in Twitter messages: A preference learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolving location expressions in text to the correct physical location, also known as geocoding or grounding, is complicated by the fact that so many places around the world share the same name. Correct resolution is made even more difficult when there is little context to determine which place is intended, as in a 140-character Twitter message, or when location cues from different sources conflict, as may be the case among different metadata fields of a Twitter message. We used supervised machine learning to weigh the different fields of the Twitter message and the features of a world gazetteer to create a model that will prefer the correct gazetteer candidate to resolve the extracted expression. We evaluated our model using the F1 measure and compared it to similar algorithms. Our method achieved results higher than state-of-the-art competitors.

  8. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daikwon; Bonner, Matthew R; Nie, Jing; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-05-01

    The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  9. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikwon Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  10. Development of a LIGA-based elastodynamic flying mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Adam G.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    1998-07-01

    With the emergence of MEMS and LIGA technology piezoceramics can be integrated to create tiny solid state devices. The precision motion that piezoelectric materials can provide is complimented by the tolerances that can be achieved through MEMS and LIGA micromachining. The integration of these two technologies is ideal for microactuation. A LIGA based devices has been developed that is capable of amplifying small motions from a piezoelectric element into an output stroke angle large enough to produce flight. Micro flight is a difficult aerodynamic problem. With small wing areas conventional lift requires velocities that are difficult to achieve. However it is possible to induce lift using drag in the same manner as some birds and insects. Flapping is a highly efficient way to produce flight. For sustained low energy flight both insects and birds use a complex elastodynamic system that only requires them to excite it at its natural frequency. The actuation device presented is based on the same flight principle of insects and birds, a resonating elastodynamic system excited at its natural frequency or at a lower harmonic. This allows for long distance flights that require little energy. Piezoceramics posses a high energy level and force output that can excite the device and induce a flapping motion. The dynamics of the system rely on the LIGA flexure mechanism, the piezoelectric element, as well as the aerodynamic interaction of the wing and the air which is a complex nonlinear problem.

  11. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  12. Methods for Retrospective Geocoding in Population Studies: The Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer C.; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, Demarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details, hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in th...

  13. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets a...

  14. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Dale L.; Fang, Xiangming; Mazumdar, Soumya; Rushton, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our stu...

  15. Examining the impact of the precision of address geocoding on estimated density of crime locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yutaka; Shimada, Takahito

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the impact of the precision of address geocoding on the estimated density of crime locations in a large urban area of Japan. The data consist of two separate sets of the same Penal Code offenses known to the police that occurred during a nine-month period of April 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001 in the central 23 wards of Tokyo. These two data sets are derived from older and newer recording system of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (TMPD), which revised its crime reporting system in that year so that more precise location information than the previous years could be recorded. Each of these data sets was address-geocoded onto a large-scale digital map, using our hierarchical address-geocoding schema, and was examined how such differences in the precision of address information and the resulting differences in address-geocoded incidence locations affect the patterns in kernel density maps. An analysis using 11,096 pairs of incidences of residential burglary (each pair consists of the same incidents geocoded using older and newer address information, respectively) indicates that the kernel density estimation with a cell size of 25×25 m and a bandwidth of 500 m may work quite well in absorbing the poorer precision of geocoded locations based on data from older recording system, whereas in several areas where older recording system resulted in very poor precision level, the inaccuracy of incident locations may produce artifactitious and potentially misleading patterns in kernel density maps.

  16. UV-LIGA microfabrication process for sub-terahertz waveguides utilizing multiple layered SU-8 photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekabadi, Ali; Paoloni, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    A microfabrication process based on UV LIGA (German acronym of lithography, electroplating and molding) is proposed for the fabrication of relatively high aspect ratio sub-terahertz (100-1000 GHz) metal waveguides, to be used as a slow wave structure in sub-THz vacuum electron devices. The high accuracy and tight tolerances required to properly support frequencies in the sub-THz range can be only achieved by a stable process with full parameter control. The proposed process, based on SU-8 photoresist, has been developed to satisfy high planar surface requirements for metal sub-THz waveguides. It will be demonstrated that, for a given thickness, it is more effective to stack a number of layers of SU-8 with lower thickness rather than using a single thick layer obtained at lower spin rate. The multiple layer approach provides the planarity and the surface quality required for electroforming of ground planes or assembly surfaces and for assuring low ohmic losses of waveguides. A systematic procedure is provided to calculate soft and post-bake times to produce high homogeneity SU-8 multiple layer coating as a mold for very high quality metal waveguides. A double corrugated waveguide designed for 0.3 THz operating frequency, to be used in vacuum electronic devices, was fabricated as test structure. The proposed process based on UV LIGA will enable low cost production of high accuracy sub-THz 3D waveguides. This is fundamental for producing a new generation of affordable sub-THz vacuum electron devices, to fill the technological gap that still prevents a wide diffusion of numerous applications based on THz radiation.

  17. GIS-based geocoding methods for area-based addresses and 3D addresses in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyeong Lee

    2009-01-01

    For more than four decades, two address-matching methods, the street-based address geocoding method and address-point-matching method, have been used to identify geographical coordinates from postal addresses. However, street-based address geocoding methods developed for the US addressing system are not universally applicable in developing a single-portal geocoding middleware for worldwide Internet-based geographic information systems applications. Problems also exist with address-point match...

  18. Estudo da adesão liga (Ni-Cr)-porcelana em protese dentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Luci Fernandes

    1992-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho _em como objetivo principal o estudo da adesão entre ligas niquel-cromo e porcelana. utilizadas na confecção de próteses odontológicas. Para tanto foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica detalhada sobre o desenvolvimento dessas próteses. Foram selecionadas para o estudo duas ligas Ni-Cr comerciais. Uma delas contendo pequeno teor de Be. E uma porcelana. Os seguintes ensaios foram realizados: dureza. Análise microestrutural das ligas e da interface liga-porcelana através ...

  19. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code.

  20. Spatial autocorrelation among automated geocoding errors and its effects on testing for disease clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dale L; Li, Jie; Fang, Xiangming

    2010-04-30

    Automated geocoding of patient addresses is an important data assimilation component of many spatial epidemiologic studies. Inevitably, the geocoding process results in positional errors. Positional errors incurred by automated geocoding tend to reduce the power of tests for disease clustering and otherwise affect spatial analytic methods. However, there are reasons to believe that the errors may often be positively spatially correlated and that this may mitigate their deleterious effects on spatial analyses. In this article, we demonstrate explicitly that the positional errors associated with automated geocoding of a data set of more than 6000 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa are spatially autocorrelated. Furthermore, through two simulation studies of disease processes, including one in which the disease process is overlain upon the Carroll County addresses, we show that spatial autocorrelation among geocoding errors maintains the power of two tests for disease clustering at a level higher than that which would occur if the errors were independent. Implications of these results for cluster detection, privacy protection, and measurement error modeling of geographic health data are discussed.

  1. ERS-1 SAR geocoding system as link between spaceborne and earth reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Gunter; Roth, Achim; Knöpfle, Walter

    1993-08-01

    The operational European ground segment of the European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 supports geocoded SAR image data generated by the German Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich. Geocoding of spaceborne satellite data means to establish an easy and user friendly link between the satellite measurements and Geo-Information Systems (GIS) as well as the possibility to intercompare SAR data with other geocoded satellite based information. Although the near to fully automatic geocoding system is based on precisely known satellite house-keeping data, it strongly depends on georeference information at least for the validation of the data and the verification of its results. Such reference information are large scale topographic maps, which are still the unique global source for earth based information and Digital Elevation Models. The later are necessary to correct SAR data for disturbing height induced geometric and radiometric defects. Additionally automatically generated Image Ground Control Chips aid the precision of the system. To accomplish the task of operational geocoding, several consistent data bases have been generated at DLR to store these types of reference data. Both, relational data base techniques as well as spatial binary reference systems are in use for the data storage. The article will present the architecture of these operational systems and will give a first review of the experience with these systems during the ERS-1 commissioning and early operations phase.

  2. Towards Introducing a Geocoding Information System for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siksnans, J.; Pirupshvarre, Hans R.; Lind, M.; Mioc, D.; Anton, F.

    2011-08-01

    Currently, addressing practices in Greenland do not support geocoding. Addressing points on a map by geographic coordinates is vital for emergency services such as police and ambulance for avoiding ambiguities in finding incident locations (Government of Greenland, 2010) Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the current addressing practices in Greenland. Asiaq (Asiaq, 2011) is a public enterprise of the Government of Greenland which holds three separate databases regards addressing and place references: - list of locality names (towns, villages, farms), - technical base maps (including road center lines not connected with names, and buildings), - the NIN registry (The Land Use Register of Greenland - holds information on the land allotments and buildings in Greenland). The main problem is that these data sets are not interconnected, thus making it impossible to address a point in a map with geographic coordinates in a standardized way. The possible solutions suffer from the fact that Greenland has a scattered habitation pattern and the generalization of the address assignment schema is a difficult task. A schema would be developed according to the characteristics of the settlement pattern, e.g. cities, remote locations and place names. The aim is to propose an ontology for a common postal address system for Greenland. The main part of the research is dedicated to the current system and user requirement engineering. This allowed us to design a conceptual database model which corresponds to the user requirements, and implement a small scale prototype. Furthermore, our research includes resemblance findings in Danish and Greenland's addressing practices, data dictionary for establishing Greenland addressing system's logical model and enhanced entity relationship diagram. This initial prototype of the Greenland addressing system could be used to evaluate and build the full architecture of the addressing information system for Greenland. Using software engineering

  3. LigaSure small jaws versus cold knife dissection in superficial parotidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Christoffer Holst; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of LigaSure small jaws in superficial parotidectomy for blood loss, operative time and facial nerve function. This was a prospective non-randomized study of 35 patients with a benign parotid tumor. Sixteen patients had LigaSure small jaws paroti...

  4. Geometric rectification and geocoding of JPL's AIRSAR data over hilly terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroof, H.; Degrandi, G.; Sieber, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    A post-processing system was developed to georeference and geocode airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the JPL-Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) System over hilly terrain during the 1990 MAESTRO1 campaign. Georectification relates image coordinates and object coordinates while the geocoding involves resampling. The georectification method uses a hybrid method based upon a number of navigational parameters and minimal two ground-control points which are referenced in both image and map space. The calculation of the intersection of the SAR signal wavefront and a digital elevation model allowed, within certain error bounds, acquisition of the object-to-image and image-to-object relationships.

  5. Ligas Finemet nanocristalizadas a partir de precursores amorfos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Aparecida Mariano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, há muito interesse no desenvolvimento de materiais nanocristalinos e amorfos, que apresentem alta resistência mecânica combinada com boa ductilidade, abrindo grandes perspectivas tecnológicas para o processamento desses materiais. Devido a sua versatilidade, as ligas amorfas têm mostrado ter propriedades que podem ser utilizadas em diversas áreas, como em memórias de computadores, aplicações em vários tipos de transformadores para potência e usos eletrônicos. A técnica para obter as ligas amorfas utilizada nesse trabalho foi a de solidificação rápida a partir do estado líquido, por melt spinning. O processamento das fitas foi efetuado em duas etapas, inicialmente foi realizado a fusão da liga por indução magnética, posteriormente, a liga foi submetida a nova refusão para melhorar a homogeneização e, em seguida, produziu-se a fita metálica amorfa, utilizando uma taxa de resfriamento em torno de 10³°C/s. Durante o processamento, a fita obtida apresentou-se amorfa e com uma espessura em torno de 25µm.Now, there is a lot of interest in the development of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials, that present high mechanical resistance combined with good ductility, opening great technological perspectives for the processing these of materials. Due to its versatility, the amorphous alloys have been showing to have properties that can be used in several areas, as in memory of computers, applications in several types of transformers for potency and electronic uses. The technique used to obtain of amorphous alloys in this work, it went to of rapid solidification starting from the liquid state, for melt spinning. The processing of the ribbons of was made in two stages, initially the coalition of the alloy was accomplished by magnetic induction, later on, the alloy was submitted the new remelting to improve the homogenizationand soon after, the amorphous metallic ribbon was produced, used of the high cooling rate

  6. Miniature Inchworm Actuators Fabricated by Use of LIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    Miniature inchworm actuators that would have relatively simple designs have been proposed for applications in which there are requirements for displacements of the order of microns or tens of microns and for the ability to hold their positions when electric power is not applied. The proposed actuators would be members of the class of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), but would be designed and fabricated following an approach that is somewhat unusual for MEMS. Like other MEMS actuators, the proposed inchworm actuators could utilize thermoplastic, bimetallic, shape-memory-alloy, or piezoelectric actuation principles. The figure depicts a piezoelectric inchworm actuator according to the proposal. As in other inchworm actuators, linear motion of an extensible member would be achieved by lengthening and shortening the extensible member in synchronism with alternately clamping and releasing one and then the other end of the member. In this case, the moving member would be the middle one; the member would be piezoelectric and would be shortened by applying a voltage to it. The two outer members would also be piezoelectric; the release of the clamps on the upper or lower end would be achieved by applying a voltage to the electrodes on the upper or lower ends, respectively, of these members. Usually, MEMS actuators cannot be fabricated directly on the side walls of silicon wafers, yet the geometry of this actuator necessitates such fabrication. The solution, according to the proposal, would be to use the microfabrication technique known by the German acronym LIGA - "lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung," which means lithography, electroforming, molding. LIGA involves x-ray lithography of a polymer film followed by selective removal of material to form a three-dimensional pattern from which a mold is made. Among the advantages of LIGA for this purpose are that it is applicable to a broad range of materials, can be used to implement a variety of designs, including

  7. Preliminary design of multi-function LIGA beamline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One design of multi-function LIGA beamline has been reported. In this design, two plane mirrors and a series of filters have been employed. One can choose the spectrum range of X-ray easily according to the exposure requirement by adjusting the grazing angle of mirrors and the thickness of filters. And the spot size in the horizontal direction is up to 120mm, which is large enough for exposing 5 inch silicon slice. The typical exposure time is about 1.2h, 1.8h, 0.5h, corresponding to PMMA thickness of 500 μ m, 200 μ m, 20 t m, respectively.

  8. Liga química magnesia-fosfato

    OpenAIRE

    Hipedinger, Nora Elba

    2007-01-01

    Esta tesis es un estudio científico-tecnológico sobre la aplicación de la liga química magnesia-fosfato a los materiales refractarios de base cordierita. Estos materiales son extensamente usados en aplicaciones de alta temperatura que requieran baja expansión térmica, buenas propiedades termomecánicas y excelente resistencia al choque térmico (por ejemplo: moblaje de hornos, quemadores de gas, soporte de elementos calefactores, partes de turbinas, bujías, soportes de catalizadores, etc.). En ...

  9. Near real-time geocoding of SAR imagery with orbit error removal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    When utilizing knowledge of the spacecraft trajectory for near real-time geocoding of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, the main problem is that predicted satellite orbits have to be used, which may be in error by several kilometres. As part of the development of a Dutch autonomous mobile groun

  10. The effect of administrative boundaries and geocoding error on cancer rates in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel W; Cockburn, Myles G

    2012-04-01

    Geocoding is often used to produce maps of disease rates from the diagnosis addresses of incident cases to assist with disease surveillance, prevention, and control. In this process, diagnosis addresses are converted into latitude/longitude pairs which are then aggregated to produce rates at varying geographic scales such as Census tracts, neighborhoods, cities, counties, and states. The specific techniques used within geocoding systems have an impact on where the output geocode is located and can therefore have an effect on the derivation of disease rates at different geographic aggregations. This paper investigates how county-level cancer rates are affected by the choice of interpolation method when case data are geocoded to the ZIP code level. Four commonly used areal unit interpolation techniques are applied and the output of each is used to compute crude county-level five-year incidence rates of all cancers in California. We found that the rates observed for 44 out of the 58 counties in California vary based on which interpolation method is used, with rates in some counties increasing by nearly 400% between interpolation methods.

  11. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  12. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute’s cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute’s profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  13. LIGA-based microsystem manufacturing:the electrochemistry of through-mold depostion and material properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-01

    The report presented below is to appear in ''Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale'', Patrik Schmuki, Ed. Springer-Verlag, (ca. 2005). The history of the LIGA process, used for fabricating dimensional precise structures for microsystem applications, is briefly reviewed, as are the basic elements of the technology. The principal focus however, is on the unique aspects of the electrochemistry of LIGA through-mask metal deposition and the generation of the fine and uniform microstructures necessary to ensure proper functionality of LIGA components. We draw from both previously published work by external researchers in the field as well as from published and unpublished studies from within Sandia.

  14. Uma contribuição ao estudo do torneamento da liga 625

    OpenAIRE

    Aristides Magri

    2015-01-01

    As indústrias automotivas, aeroespaciais e de energia vêm testemunhando uma maior procura por materiais para fabricação de componentes críticos, tais como ligas à base de titânio e à base de níquel, principalmente devido à alta relação resistência mecânica/peso e à capacidade de manter propriedades mecânicas em temperaturas elevadas e em ambientes corrosivos. Isto gerou a necessidade de se criarem modos economicamente viáveis para fabricar componentes que têm estas ligas por base. Ligas à bas...

  15. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  16. Estudo da ligação de um pilar à fundação com recurso a ligas com memória de forma

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Cláudio Miguel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem como objetivo principal estudar a resposta sísmica de um novo tipo de ligação pilar-fundação caraterizada por ter ligas com memória de forma (LMF) nas suas componentes. O objetivo principal na idealização da mesma foi tentar que o dano surgisse apenas ao nível das LMF e também que os deslocamentos máximos e residuais fossem menores. Nas ligas com memória de forma explorou-se o seu efeito superelástico. De modo a conhecer o funcionamento da nova lig...

  17. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  18. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  19. A single institution experience using the LigaSure vessel sealing system in laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Hao; XING Nian-zeng; ZHANG Jun-hui; NIU Yi-nong; ZHANG Jian-zhong; WANG Jian-wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular control and tissue dissection are crucial steps in successful laparoscopic surgery. Recently, a new commercially available vessel sealing technology, the LigaSure vessel sealing system (Valleylab, Boulder, USA),has been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the benefits of the LigaSure in laparoscopic nephrectomy.Methods From January 2005 to March 2010, 170 laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed with the LigaSure vessel sealing system, including simple and radical nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy. In a retrospective study, the laparoscopic operating time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, duration of postoperative drainage, total amount of postoperative drainage, as well as postoperative hospital stay, were recorded and studied.Results All 170 laparoscopic nephrectomies using LigaSure were accomplished successfully without conversion to open surgery. There was no severe vascular complication or other serious complications. The mean laparoscopic operating time was 124.2 minutes (range, 14-230 minutes); mean blood loss was 148.6 ml (range, 20-540 ml); mean time for postoperative drainage was 3.1 days (range, 1-7 days); mean amount of postoperative drainage was 206.5 ml (range, 27-435 ml) and mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.9 days (range, 3-18 days).Conclusions Laparoscopic nephrectomy using LigaSure appears technically feasible and easy, and produces satisfactory results. The LigaSure provides a safe and fast way to seal vessels and tissue bundles during nephrectomy.

  20. Error propagation models to examine the effects of geocoding quality on spatial analysis of individual-level datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, P A; Hart, T C; Lenzer, K E; Camponovo, M E

    2012-04-01

    The quality of geocoding has received substantial attention in recent years. A synthesis of published studies shows that the positional errors of street geocoding are somewhat unique relative to those of other types of spatial data: (1) the magnitude of error varies strongly across urban-rural gradients; (2) the direction of error is not uniform, but strongly associated with the properties of local street segments; (3) the distribution of errors does not follow a normal distribution, but is highly skewed and characterized by a substantial number of very large error values; and (4) the magnitude of error is spatially autocorrelated and is related to properties of the reference data. This makes it difficult to employ analytic approaches or Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation modeling because these rely on generalized statistical characteristics. The current paper describes an alternative empirical approach to error propagation modeling for geocoded data and illustrates its implementation using three different case-studies of geocoded individual-level datasets. The first case-study consists of determining the land cover categories associated with geocoded addresses using a point-in-raster overlay. The second case-study consists of a local hotspot characterization using kernel density analysis of geocoded addresses. The third case-study consists of a spatial data aggregation using enumeration areas of varying spatial resolution. For each case-study a high quality reference scenario based on address points forms the basis for the analysis, which is then compared to the result of various street geocoding techniques. Results show that the unique nature of the positional error of street geocoding introduces substantial noise in the result of spatial analysis, including a substantial amount of bias for some analysis scenarios. This confirms findings from earlier studies, but expands these to a wider range of analytical techniques.

  1. Integrating Address Geocoding, Land Use Regression, and Spatiotemporal Geostatistical Estimation for Groundwater Tetrachloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, Kyle P.; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques t...

  2. Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L

    2012-03-06

    Geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend.

  3. Automatic geocoding of high-value targets using structural image analysis and GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Uwe; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    Geocoding based merely on navigation data and sensor model is often not possible or precise enough. In these cases an improvement of the preregistration through image-based approaches is a solution. Due to the large amount of data in remote sensing automatic geocoding methods are necessary. For geocoding purposes appropriate tie points, which are present in image and map, have to be detected and matched. The tie points are base of the transformation function. Assigning the tie points is combinatorial problem depending on the number of tie points. This number can be reduced using structural tie points like corners or crossings of prominent extended targets (e.g. harbors, airfields). Additionally the reliability of the tie points is improved. Our approach extracts structural tie points independently in the image and in the vector map by a model-based image analysis. The vector map is provided by a GIS using ATKIS data base. The model parameters are extracted from maps or collateral information of the scenario. The two sets of tie points are automatically matched with a Geometric Hashing algorithm. The algorithm was successfully applied to VIS, IR and SAR data.

  4. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  5. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  6. An aluminum resist substrate for microfabrication by LIGA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James J.; Boehme, Dale R.; Hauck, Cheryl A. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter; Hunter, Luke L.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; McLean, Dorrance E.; Aigeldinger, Georg; Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Hachman, John T.; Losey, Matthew W.; Skala, Dawn M.; Korellis, John S.; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2005-04-01

    Resist substrates used in the LIGA process must provide high initial bond strength between the substrate and resist, little degradation of the bond strength during x-ray exposure, acceptable undercut rates during development, and a surface enabling good electrodeposition of metals. Additionally, they should produce little fluorescence radiation and give small secondary doses in bright regions of the resist at the substrate interface. To develop a new substrate satisfying all these requirements, we have investigated secondary resist doses due to electrons and fluorescence, resist adhesion before exposure, loss of fine features during extended development, and the nucleation and adhesion of electrodeposits for various substrate materials. The result of these studies is a new anodized aluminum substrate and accompanying methods for resist bonding and electrodeposition. We demonstrate successful use of this substrate through all process steps and establish its capabilities via the fabrication of isolated resist features down to 6 {micro}m, feature aspect ratios up to 280 and electroformed nickel structures at heights of 190 to 1400 {micro}m. The minimum mask absorber thickness required for this new substrate ranges from 7 to 15 {micro}m depending on the resist thickness.

  7. Micro cycloid-gear system fabricated by multiexposure LIGA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Toru; Chung, Song-Jo; Hein, Herbert; Akashi, Tomoyuki; Mohr, Juergen

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, a prototype of 2 mm-diameter micro-cycloid gear system fabricated by the multi-exposure LIGA technique is presented. The entire gear system consists of a casing and three vertically stacked disks and gears. Each part is composed of three different levels. The first level, 40 micrometers high, was fabricated by UV-lithography, and the second as well as the third level, 195 micrometers and 250 micrometers high respectively, were processed by aligned deep X-ray lithography (DXL). The alignment error between two DXL- processed layers was measured, and the results have turned out to be within +/- 5 micrometers range. As a result of the height control process by the mechanical surface machining, the deviation of structural height has been maintained within +/- 3 micrometers range for the UV-lithography-processed structures, and +/- 10 micrometers for the DXL-processed structures. Further the tests of gear assembly were implemented with 125 micrometers -diameter glass fiber, by using a die-bonding machine with vacuum gripper under stereo- microscope. Finally the dynamic tests of the gear system were successfully conducted with the mechanical torque input by an electrical motor. A proper rotational speed reduction was observed in the operational input range of 3 to 1500 rpm with the designed gear ratio of 18.

  8. Modeling of secondary radiation damage in LIGA PMMA resist exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Aili

    2003-01-01

    Secondary radiation during LIGA PMMA resist exposure adversely affects feature definition, sidewall taper and overall sidewall offset. Additionally, it can degrade the resist adjacent to the substrate, leading to the loss of free-standing features through undercutting during resist development or through mechanical failure of the degraded material. The source of this radiation includes photoelectrons, Auger electrons, fluorescence photons, etc. Sandia"s Integrated Tiger Series (ITS), a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code, was used to compute dose profiles within 1 to 2 microns of the absorber edge and near the interface of the resist with a metallized substrate. The difficulty of sub-micron resolution requirement was overcome by solving a few local problems having carefully designed micron-scale geometries. The results indicate a 2-μm dose transition region near the absorber edge resulting from PMMA"s photoelectrons. This region leads to sidewall offset and to tapered sidewalls following resist development. The results also show a dose boundary layer of around 1 μm near the substrate interface due to electrons emitted from the substrate metallization layer. The maximum dose at the resist bottom under the absorber can be very high and can lead to feature loss during development. This model was also used to investigate those resist doses resulting from multi-layer substrate.

  9. Balance Competitivo en las Ligas Europeas de Baloncesto y la NBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García - Unanue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ligas deportivas dependen del equilibrio competitivo entre los equipos para ser atractivas para los espectadores, de ahí la aparición del balance competitivo. Por ello, las distintas ligas deportivas han adquirido diferentes formatos que determinarán su competitividad. El objetivo de este artículo es comparar el balance competitivo de la NBA y las principales ligas europeas, teniendo en cuenta la NBA en su conjunto y cada una de sus conferencias de forma independiente. Las variables utilizadas para medir el balance competitivo han sido el índice Hirschman-Herfindal y las ratios C5 y C8. Los resultados muestran un mejor balance competitivo de la NBA en conjunto respecto a las ligas europeas, sin embargo estas diferencias desaparecen al analizar las conferencias de forma independiente. Se concluye que al tener en cuenta cada una de las conferencias de forma independiente, con una estructura más similar a las ligas europeas, se presenta un balance competitivo parecido bajo los indicadores utilizados. Sin embargo, la NBA incluye limitaciones en la competición que siguen favoreciendo la posibilidad de que sea más atractiva para el espectador.

  10. Using an Optimized Chinese Address Matching Method to Develop a Geocoding Service: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the coming era of big data and the rapid development and widespread applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISs, geocoding technology is playing an increasingly important role in bridging the gap between non-spatial data resources and spatial data in various fields. However, Chinese geocoding faces great challenges because of the complexity of the address string format in Chinese, which contains no delimiters between Chinese words, and the poor address management resulting from the existence of multiple address authorities spread among different governmental agencies. This paper presents a geocoding service based on an optimized Chinese address matching method, including address modeling, address standardization and address matching. The address model focuses on the spatial semantics of each address element, and the address standardization process is based on an address tree model. A geocoding service application is implemented in practice using a large quantity of data from Shenzhen Municipality. More than 1,460,000 data records were used to test the geocoding service, and good matching rates were achieved with good adaptability and intelligence.

  11. Improving environmental exposure analysis using cumulative distribution functions and individual geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Jayajit

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessments of environmental exposure and health risks that utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS often make simplifying assumptions when using: (a one or more discrete buffer distances to define the spatial extent of impacted regions, and (b aggregated demographic data at the level of census enumeration units to derive the characteristics of the potentially exposed population. A case-study of school children in Orange County, Florida, is used to demonstrate how these limitations can be overcome by the application of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and individual geocoded locations. Exposure potential for 159,923 school children was determined at the childrens' home residences and at school locations by determining the distance to the nearest gasoline station, stationary air pollution source, and industrial facility listed in the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI. Errors and biases introduced by the use of discrete buffer distances and data aggregation were examined. Results The use of discrete buffers distances in proximity-based exposure analysis introduced substantial bias in terms of determining the potentially exposed population, and the results are strongly dependent on the choice of buffer distance(s. Comparisons of exposure potential between home and school locations indicated that different buffer distances yield different results and contradictory conclusions. The use of a CDF provided a much more meaningful representation and is not based on the a-priori assumption that any particular distance is more relevant than another. The use of individual geocoded locations also provided a more accurate characterization of the exposed population and allowed for more reliable comparisons among sub-groups. In the comparison of children's home residences and school locations, the use of data aggregated at the census block group and tract level introduced variability as well as bias, leading to incorrect conclusions as

  12. A model for reaction-assisted polymer dissolution in LIGA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard S.

    2004-05-01

    A new chemically-oriented mathematical model for the development step of the LIGA process is presented. The key assumption is that the developer can react with the polymeric resist material in order to increase the solubility of the latter, thereby partially overcoming the need to reduce the polymer size. The ease with which this reaction takes place is assumed to be determined by the number of side chain scissions that occur during the x-ray exposure phase of the process. The dynamics of the dissolution process are simulated by solving the reaction-diffusion equations for this three-component, two-phase system, the three species being the unreacted and reacted polymers and the solvent. The mass fluxes are described by the multicomponent diffusion (Stefan-Maxwell) equations, and the chemical potentials are assumed to be given by the Flory-Huggins theory. Sample calculations are used to determine the dependence of the dissolution rate on key system parameters such as the reaction rate constant, polymer size, solid-phase diffusivity, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. A simple photochemistry model is used to relate the reaction rate constant and the polymer size to the absorbed x-ray dose. The resulting formula for the dissolution rate as a function of dose and temperature is ?t to an extensive experimental data base in order to evaluate a set of unknown global parameters. The results suggest that reaction-assisted dissolution is very important at low doses and low temperatures, the solubility of the unreacted polymer being too small for it to be dissolved at an appreciable rate. However, at high doses or at higher temperatures, the solubility is such that the reaction is no longer needed, and dissolution can take place via the conventional route. These results provide an explanation for the observed dependences of both the dissolution rate and its activation energy on the absorbed dose.

  13. A 10-digit geo-coding system for classification of geomorphosites in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Vishwas

    2015-04-01

    India is a country with rich geo-wealth and geoheritage. There are numerous fascinating and exquisite landforms and landscapes in the Indian subcontinent that have immense cultural, socio-economic and scientific value and are significant from the point of view of geotourism and geoeducation. Presently, India has 32 World Heritage Properties, including seven natural properties. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has declared 26 geosites as National Geological Monuments. Although a few attempts have been made in the last ten years to identify and catalog noteworthy geomorphosites in India, till date no attempt has been made to undertake multi-criteria or multi-attribute assessment and classification of the potential geomorphosites. In view of the limitations and difficulties in the ranking and/or scoring system adopted in many earlier studies on geoheritage sites, a simple ten-digit geo-coding system for some potential geomorphosites in India is suggested. The 10-digit coding system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of geomorphosites on the basis of some key scientific value criteria, additional value criteria and management criteria as well as the IUCN geo-theme codes and the code numbers assigned to major geomorphic provinces in a region/country. This coding system could be used to establish a classification and the priority of geomorphosites and could be applied to any area or region in the world. The user-friendly geo-coding system has the potential to classify and sort geomorphosites of different characters, origin and value.

  14. RELIANCE ON GEOCODED MATERNAL RESIDENCE: IMPACT ON A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing population-based case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded res...

  15. Comparison of measurement methods for microsystem components: application to microstructures made by the deep x-ray lithography process (x-ray LIGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pascal; Mäder, Olaf; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2009-08-01

    The LIGA (a German acronym for lithography, electroplating and molding) process using highly parallel x-rays permits the production of a microstructure with still unique characteristics: high aspect ratio, high accuracy, high perpendicularity and lower roughness of the side wall. From a marketing point of view, this qualitative description might suffice to attract users to the technology. Regarding widespread commercialization and standardization of x-ray LIGA products, our goal is to establish a rigorous dimensional metrology for which we need to understand and quantify uncertainty, which is the key to accuracy. We report on our metrological study using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM) equipped with a fibre probe (3D measurements) which will be compared to two versions of lateral top-view measurements (2D/surface measurements): an optical microscope provided with a micrometric table and a CMM with an image processing sensor; these two types of measurement methods being complementary. In fact, microsystem technology requires measurements to be performed with precision and accuracy within the range of 0.1 µm. In this paper, we present an analysis and a discussion of both types of measurement systems. The precision and reproducibility of the CMM (with fibre probe) during a two-year study will be exposed; a calibrated series part is being measured every time the machine is used. In this case, the CMM is used as a comparator. Its accuracy and the calibration of the ball diameter using an etalon (ceramic gage block) will be exposed. Furthermore, by taking into account the results obtained by the measurement system analysis (MSA), we will show the measurement's impact on the process by taking as an example the fabrication of mm gold gears for watch industry; a quantitative description of process reproducibility and of the influence of processing parameters influence will be possible in the future.

  16. Total x-ray power measurements in the Sandia LIGA program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Michael E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ting, Aili (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Total X-ray power measurements using aluminum block calorimetry and other techniques were made at LIGA X-ray scanner synchrotron beamlines located at both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This block calorimetry work was initially performed on the LIGA beamline 3.3.1 of the ALS to provide experimental checks of predictions of the LEX-D (LIGA Exposure- Development) code for LIGA X-ray exposures, version 7.56, the version of the code in use at the time calorimetry was done. These experiments showed that it was necessary to use bend magnet field strengths and electron storage ring energies different from the default values originally in the code in order to obtain good agreement between experiment and theory. The results indicated that agreement between LEX-D predictions and experiment could be as good as 5% only if (1) more accurate values of the ring energies, (2) local values of the magnet field at the beamline source point, and (3) the NIST database for X-ray/materials interactions were used as code inputs. These local magnetic field value and accurate ring energies, together with NIST database, are now defaults in the newest release of LEX-D, version 7.61. Three dimensional simulations of the temperature distributions in the aluminum calorimeter block for a typical ALS power measurement were made with the ABAQUS code and found to be in good agreement with the experimental temperature data. As an application of the block calorimetry technique, the X-ray power exiting the mirror in place at a LIGA scanner located at the APS beamline 10 BM was measured with a calorimeter similar to the one used at the ALS. The overall results at the APS demonstrated the utility of calorimetry in helping to characterize the total X-ray power in LIGA beamlines. In addition to the block calorimetry work at the ALS and APS, a preliminary comparison of the use of heat flux sensors, photodiodes and modified beam calorimeters as total X-ray power

  17. Investigating Early and Late Complications in Conventional and LigaSure Hemorroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The traditional Milligan-Morgan and the Ferguson operations are still the most used for patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids of III and IV degrees. Nowadays LigaSure is used as a new technique to decrease the complications resulting from conventional hemorroidectomy. In this study, patients were investigated on the basis of the following main outcomes: mean operative time, postoperative pain (score and duration, bleeding loss in operation, early (within the first month after surgery and late (after the first month complications in conventional as well as LigaSure hemorroidectomy. Methods: it is an analytical study conducted on 101 patients aged 19–80 years old of both males and females with III and IV-degree hemorrhoids who had been gone to Shahid Sadoughi hospital between 2011 and 2012. Forty-three patients were treated by conventional diathermy and fifty -eight by LigaSure. Patients received analgesic administration for about 24 hours after operations and, after hospital discharge. In fact, analgesia was administered until 5 days (three times a day. All patients were required to record pain from the first postoperative day until the 28th postoperative day on a self-administered NAS scale (0–10. Results: Patients completed a questionnaire face to face one week, one month, six, and twelve months after the operation. The mean operative time, bleeding loss in operation and return to work were significantly shorter in LS group, whereas there were no difference in hospital stay period, anal stenosis, healing time of wound and retention of urinary. A statistically significant difference in pain score was observed three and four days after the operation. Finally, patients with LigaSure haemorrhoidectomy recovered from pain earlier than those with conventional diathermy. Conclusions: although LigaSure proposes additional costs, it is an effective instrument in order to treat hemorrhoids of III and IV degrees.

  18. Exploring the potential of geocoding the impact of disasters: The experience of global and national databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Davis, Rhonda; Gall, Melanie; Wallemacq, Pascaline; Cutter, Susan

    2015-04-01

    As extreme climate events such as precipitation driven flooding, storms and droughts are increasingly devastating, assessing impacts accurately becomes critically important in guiding decisions and investments on disaster risk reduction. Capturing disaster impacts includes not only quantitative information such as the economic and human effects but also the determination of where and when the impacts occurred. Among the most commonly used impact indicators are the number of deaths and the number of people affected or homeless, and the economic damages. Unfortunately, these figures are typically used in their raw form and conclusions are drawn without due consideration to denominators. For example, key parameters such as the population base or the size of the region affected are often not factored in when judging the severity of the event or calculating increases or decreases in an indicator. To increase the meaningfulness and comparability of disaster impacts across time and space, however, it is important to mathematically standardize indicators and utilize common denominators such as number of population exposed, area affected, GDP, and so forth. Geospatial techniques such as geo-referencing and spatial overlays are coming into greater use to facilitate this process. In 2013, EM-DAT, one of the main providers of global disaster impact data, launched an effort to enhance its contents through spatial analyses. The challenge was to develop a sustainable methodology and protocol for a large dataset and to systematically collect and enter geocoded profiles for each event that is registered in EM-DAT. Along with specialists in geography from different institutions EM-DAT launched an effort to geocode each disaster event working backwards in time starting from the most recent. For geo-referencing purposes, EM-DAT requires a standardized dataset of sub-national administrative boundaries. Though a number of such initiatives exist, the Food and Agriculture Organization

  19. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Mumma, Michael T; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-05-01

    To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO) Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses). One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density geocoding than those in areas with >920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR) = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.23, 6.49), as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11). This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  20. LigaSure versus Conventional Suture Ligature for Vaginal Hysterectomy: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd Elzaher, a, b, Ashraf Moawad, a, c and Hanaa Abu-Ria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginal hysterectomy is considered to be the method of choice for removal of the uterus. Of particular concern for the vaginal surgeon is the ability to access, visualize, and legate structures while maintaining adequate hemostasis. Surgical hemostasis can be secured by a variety of methods, including mechanical means (sutures or vessel coagulation (diathermy. Electro-surgical vessel sealing (LigaSure is a new hemostatic system based on the combination of pressure and bipolar electrical energy and is able to seal vessels up to 7 mm in diameter. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of using the LigaSure vessel sealing system for securing the pedicles during vaginal hysterectomy in comparison with the conventional method of securing the pedicles by suture ligation. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynecology departments (Al-Kharj University Hospital- KSA, Enjab Hospital - UAE and Gulf Medical College and Research Centre- UAE. Methods: 80 patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for benign conditions were randomized to either LigaSure group (n=40 or Suture group (n=40. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were the operative time and blood loss while the secondary outcome measures were the hospital stay and intra- and post-operative complications. Results: Patients in the LigaSure group had a significantly reduced operating time (37.1 ± 8.9 min vs. 63.8 ± 10.9 min; P < 0.001, operative blood loss (125.5 ± 33.2 mL vs. 264.6 ± 70.4 mL; P < 0.001, requirement of surgical sutures(1.2 ± 0.4 units vs. 8.2 ± 0.4 units; p < 0.001, pain status (2.0 ± 0.6 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7; P < 0.001, and hospital stay (30.3 ± 2.5 h vs. 45.7 ±10.5 h; P < 0.001 compared to the control group. The overall complication rate in the study was 10 % (8/80, and did not differ between patients of the LigaSure and control group. Conclusion: The use of LigaSure device can reduce operative time. It allows

  1. A Transdermal Drug Delivery System Based on LIGA Technology and Soft Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Marco; Perennes, Frederic; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a transdermal drug delivery system based on LIGA fabricated microparts. It is a portable device combining a magnetically actuated micro gear pump with a microneedle array. The fluidic behaviour of the system is analyzed in order to predict its performance according to the dimension of the microparts and then compared to experimental data. The manufacturing process of both micropump and microneedle array are described.

  2. LigaSure versus Conventional Suture Ligature for Vaginal Hysterectomy: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abd Elzaher, a, b, Ashraf Moawad, a, c and Hanaa Abu-Ria

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal hysterectomy is considered to be the method of choice for removal of the uterus. Of particular concern for the vaginal surgeon is the ability to access, visualize, and legate structures while maintaining adequate hemostasis. Surgical hemostasis can be secured by a variety of methods, including mechanical means (sutures) or vessel coagulation (diathermy). Electro-surgical vessel sealing (LigaSure) is a new hemostatic system based on the combination of pressure and bipolar...

  3. The influence of wafer elasticity on acoustic waves during LIGA development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Aili

    2003-12-01

    During acoustically stimulated LIGA development, a wafer receives sound waves from both sides at a wide variety of incidence angles that vary in time depending on the orientation of the wafer relative to the multiple transducers that are typically actuated in a periodic sequence. It is important to understand the influence of these variables on the transmission of energy through the wafer as well as the induced motion of the wafer itself because these processes impact the induced acoustic streaming of the fluid within features, the mechanism presently thought responsible for enhanced development of LIGA features. In the present work, the impact of wafer elasticity on LIGA development is investigated. Transmission waves, wafer bending waves, and the related concepts such as critical bending frequency, mechanical impedance, coincidence, and resonance, are discussed. Supercritical-frequency incident waves induce supersonic bending waves in the wafer. Incident wave energy is channeled into three components, transmitted, reflected and energy deposited to the wafer, depending on the wafer material, thickness and wave incidence angle. Results show at normal incidence for a 1-mm PMMA wafer, about 47% of the wave energy is deposited in the wafer. The wafer gains almost half of the incident energy, a result that agrees well with the Bankert et a1 measurements. In LIGA development, transmitted waves may sometimes produce strong acoustic motion of the developer on the wafer backside, especially for the so-called coincidence case in which almost all incident wave energy transfers to the backside. Wafer bending waves cause wafer oscillation at high frequency, promoting the development process, but features shaking may weaken their attachments to the substrate. Resonance is not likely for the entire wafer, but may occur in short and wide wafer feature columns, which are least likely to break away from the substrate, perhaps resulting in good agitation of the fluid in adjacent

  4. UV-LIGA Microfabrication of 220 GHz Sheet Beam Amplifier Gratings with SU-8 Photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    transconductance amplifier was built to handle the needs of a large-scale (25 l bath) copper electroforming system presently under construction...UV-LIGA microfabrication of 220 GHz sheet beam amplifier gratings with SU-8 photoresists This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please...burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA

  5. Diamond-like nanocomposite coatings for LIGA-fabricated nickel alloy parts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Scharf, Thomas W.

    2005-03-01

    A commercial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique with planetary substrate rotation was used to apply a thin (200-400 nm thick) conformal diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating (known as a diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN)) on LIGA fabricated Ni-Mn alloy parts. The PECVD technique is known to overcome the drawbacks associated with the line-of-sight nature of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and substrate heating inherent with traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The purpose of the present study is to characterize the coverage, adhesion, and tribological (friction and wear) behavior of DLN coatings applied to planar and sidewall surfaces of small featured LIGA Ni-Mn fabricated parts, e.g. 280 {micro}m thick sidewalls. Friction and wear tests were performed in dry nitrogen, dry air, and air with 50% RH at Hertzian contact pressures ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 GPa. The friction coefficient of bare Ni-Mn alloy was determined to be 0.9. In contrast, low friction coefficients ({approx}0.02 in dry nitrogen and {approx}0.2 in 50% RH air) and minimal amount of wear were exhibited for the DLN coated LIGA Ni-Mn alloy parts and test coupons. This behavior was due to the ability of the coating to transfer to the rubbing counterface providing low interfacial shear at the sliding contact; resultantly, coating one surface was adequate for low friction and wear. In addition, a 30 nm thick titanium bond layer was determined to be necessary for good adhesion of DLN coating to Ni-Mn alloy substrates. Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional SEM with energy dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that the DLN coatings deposited by the PECVD with planetary substrate rotation covered both the planar and sidewall surfaces of LIGA fabricated parts, as well as narrow holes of 300 {micro}m (0.012 inch) diameter.

  6. Road and Street Centerlines, Full geocoded street centerlines, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Delaware County Office of Geographic Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Full geocoded street centerlines'....

  7. The use of LigaSure™ Does not Affect Histologic Margin Assessment in Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Blomberg, John; Segersvärd, Ralf; Rangelova, Elena; Ansorge, Christoph; Verbeke, Caroline

    2014-11-28

    LigaSure™ is considered safe in performing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, no data are available regarding the possible damage of tissues at the resection margins and the impact thereof on histologic margin assessment. This study compares the degree of histologic damage to the resection margins when using LigaSure™ (Group 1) or traditional ligature (Group 2). Both groups included 8 consecutive patients who underwent PD at Karolinska Institute in December 2013 (Group 1) or earlier (Group 2) by the same surgeon (M.D.C.). The quality of tissues at the circumferential margins was compared between both groups by scoring for three different kinds of damage: tissue fragmentation, hemorrhage, and cell damage. The mean score for fragmentation was 1.3 (Group 1) versus 1.7 (Group 2; P=0.1). For hemorrhage the mean score was 0.8 (Group 1) versus 1.5 (Group 2; P=0.04). The mean score for cell damage was 1.4 (Group 1) compared to 1.2 (Group 2; P=0.1). LigaSure™ does not cause tissue damage that could affect histologic margin assessment in PD specimens.

  8. A LigA three-domain region protects hamsters from lethal infection by Leptospira interrogans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Coutinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The leptospiral LigA protein consists of 13 bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big domains and is the only purified recombinant subunit vaccine that has been demonstrated to protect against lethal challenge by a clinical isolate of Leptospira interrogans in the hamster model of leptospirosis. We determined the minimum number and location of LigA domains required for immunoprotection. Immunization with domains 11 and 12 was found to be required but insufficient for protection. Inclusion of a third domain, either 10 or 13, was required for 100% survival after intraperitoneal challenge with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. As in previous studies, survivors had renal colonization; here, we quantitated the leptospiral burden by qPCR to be 1.2×10(3 to 8×10(5 copies of leptospiral DNA per microgram of kidney DNA. Although renal histopathology in survivors revealed tubulointerstitial changes indicating an inflammatory response to the infection, blood chemistry analysis indicated that renal function was normal. These studies define the Big domains of LigA that account for its vaccine efficacy and highlight the need for additional strategies to achieve sterilizing immunity to protect the mammalian host from leptospiral infection and its consequences.

  9. Ensino de anestesiologia durante a graduação por meio de uma liga acadêmica: qual o impacto no aprendizado dos alunos?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Saito Ramalho; Felipe Duarte Silva; Tatiana Barboza Kronemberger; Regina Albanese Pose; Marcelo Luis Abramides Torres; Maria José Carvalho Carmona; José Otávio Costa Auler Jr

    2012-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As ligas acadêmicas vêm se firmando como instrumentos de ensino médico e inserção dos estudantes de medicina na prática das especialidades, inclusive na anestesiologia. Como o papel das ligas no processo de desenvolvimento de competências e aprendizado de seus alunos não é bem conhecido, avaliou-se o aprendizado dos integrantes de uma liga acadêmica de anestesiologia após um ano de participação nas suas atividades. MÉTODO: Os alunos de uma liga acadêmica de anestesi...

  10. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  11. GEOCODING OF TRAUMA IN CHILDREN AS A MODELING OF CITY RISK ASSESSMENT AREAS (GIS BASED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIAN ABSALON

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding of trauma in children as a modeling of city risk assessment areas (GIS based method. The article presents the results of statistical evaluation of fractures in children who were treated in 2009 – 2010 in the Upper Silesian Child Health Center in Katowice, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology and it attempts to calculate the risk of injury. The overall statistical analysis involved all types of fractures and injuries have been divided due to their location pointing to the most common and the rarest ones and the difference in the amount of fractures in each gender. In the section on the method of calculating the risk of injury in children owing to the ability to take many factors (age, sex into account that affect the occurrence of fracture and the type of injury. This ratio allows to accurately calculate the percentage of those risks. Using a mathematical formula allows the calculation of risk for a number of administrative units and an indication of the existence of such risks in a particular administrative unit. This allows for a spatial representation of the phenomenon through a system of geographic information systems (GIS. Moreover, in both cases, either spatial or just a statistical presentation of data, it is possible to observe dynamic changes in risks over the years.

  12. LA INFLUENCIA DE JUGAR LA LIGA DE CAMPEONES EN EL RESULTADO DE LOS EQUIPOS EN LA LIGA ESPAÑOLA DE FÚTBOL. LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA DENSIDAD COMPETITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lago Peñas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    Los objetivos de este trabajo son dos. En primer lugar estudiar los efectos que tiene disputar un partido de la Liga de Campeones sobre el resultado alcanzado por los equipos en la Liga Española en esa misma semana. En segundo lugar, verificar si la probabilidad de ganar frente a perder en la Liga Española es mayor o no para los equipos con experiencia en la Liga de Campeones frente a aquellos otros conjuntos que disputan por primera vez esta competición. La muestra consiste en 184 partidos de la Liga Española de Fútbol jugados por los equipos que se encontraban simultáneamente disputando la primera fase de la Liga de Campeones en las temporadas 2003-2004, 2004-2005 y 2005-2006. Los datos utilizados en la investigación han sido tomados de la página oficial de la Liga de Campeones, de la Liga Española y suministrados por GECA SPORT.

    De acuerdo con los resultados de la estimación de un modelo logit multinomial, disputar un partido de la Liga de Campeones durante la semana de competición no reduce la probabilidad de los equipos de ganar frente a perder en el partido de la Liga Nacional. Incluso tiene un efecto positivo para los equipos debutantes en la competición europea: cuando juegan durante la semana tienen más probabilidades de ganar en la Liga Nacional (p<0,01.

    Palabras clave: resultado, fútbol, Liga de Campeones. logit multinomial, Liga Española

     

    ABSTRACT

    This paper has two goals. First, studying the impact of playing in the Champions League on the results in the Spanish League. Second, analyzing whether being a beginner team in the

  13. LigaSure血管闭合系统在胃肠癌手术中的应用%Clinical study of LigaSure vessel sealing system for surgery in gastroenteric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄树彤; 徐敏; 郑凯; 唐远志; 陈斌

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of LigaSure vessel sealing system for surgery in gastroenteric cancer. Methods From January to September 2009,44 cases of gastroenteric cancer were operated by using LigaSure vessel sealing system,including 13 cases of gastric cancer, 14 cases of colon cancer, 17 cases of rectum cancer. Laparoscopy was employed in 10 cases. Results All the cases were performed successfully. The operation time was 130-250 min, the blood loss was 50-250 ml, and the number of lymph nodes resected was 4-20. None of the cases had serious complications. Conclusion As an optimal hemostatic tool, LigaSure vessel sealing system is safe and feasible for gastroenteric cancer.%目的 探讨LigaSure血管闭合系统在胃肠癌手术中的应用价值.方法 2009年1-9月应用LigaSure血管闭合系统完成胃肠癌手术44例,包括胃癌手术13例,结肠癌手术14例,直肠癌手术17例,其中腹腔镜下结直肠癌手术10例.结果 全组病例手术均获得成功,手术时间130~250min,出血量50~250ml,淋巴结清扫数量4~20枚,无严重并发症发生.结论 LigaSure血管闭合系统止血安全、可靠,值得在胃肠癌手术中推广应用.

  14. Ligas Acadêmicas e formação médica: contribuições e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Rodrigues Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem havido um considerável aumento do número de ligas acadêmicas atuantes nos cursos de graduação em medicina no Brasil. Esse fenômeno, no entanto, não vem sendo acompanhado de adequada reflexão sobre seus determinantes, o papel das ligas dentro das instituições, ou mesmo sua função pedagógica. A partir destas constatações, os autores analisam a precária literatura sobre o tema, descrevem a experiência das ligas acadêmicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Unesp e refletem a respeito do papel destas na formação médica, na tentativa de suprir um pouco dessa lacuna e contribuir para esta importante discussão.

  15. Branquitude e progresso: a Liga Paulista de Higiene Mental e os discursos paulistanos na contemporaneidade

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Novaes Serra; Lia Vainer Schucman

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como a política racial implementada na cidade de São Paulo, no início do século 20, se reatualiza hoje nas ideias e nas representações de progresso e desenvolvimento na metrópole paulistana. Primeiramente, investigamos o arcabouço teórico dos projetos eugenistas elaborados nas primeiras décadas do século 20, pelos psiquiatras da "Liga Paulista de Higiene Mental" (LPHM). Como procedimento de pesquisa, analisamos parte dos documentos da LPHM sobre raça e eugen...

  16. Tecnologias de ligação de espumas metálicas

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, António Paulo Santos da

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Mecânica As espumas metálicas são conhecidas desde os anos 70 mas nos últimos anos foram alvo de desenvolvimentos significativos na fase de produção. Com os novos desenvolvimentos foi possível obter espumas mais resistentes que permitem aplicações estruturais mais nobres. A ligação destas espumas constitui contudo uma limitação significativa a pote...

  17. Melhorias de produto : processo pela utilização de ligas Zamac

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Junior Alves Soares

    2008-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem como objetivo estudar a viabilidade de utilização da liga metálica zamac em uma empresa do setor automobilístico, como alternativa na fabricação de peças em aço carbono. A modalidade de pesquisa utilizada foi a pesquisa-ação. Para subsidiar essa dissertação, foram feitas pesquisas em livros, dissertações, teses, sites da internet e documentos da empresa estudada. Os resultados apresentados foram classificados através dos seguintes fatores fabris e manufatura (máquin...

  18. Dialética do processo de trabalho da liga de hipertensão arterial

    OpenAIRE

    Car,Marcia Regina; Egry,Emiko Yoshikawa

    1996-01-01

    Buscou-se compreender o fenômeno da assistência à saúde desenvolvida na Liga de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da Hipertensão Arterial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP,evidenciando suas contradições através da articulação dos elementos constitutivos deste processo de trabalho,contidos nos depoimentos de seus agentes. As concepções dos agentes sobre este processo de trabalho expressaram uma práxis reiterativa, consagrando e consolidando um dado saber específico que,para além ...

  19. Effects of Process Parameters on Replication Accuracy of Microinjection Molded Cyclic Olefins Copolymers Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Chen, Chun-Sheng; Lee, Ruey-Tsung; Chen, Shia-Chung; Chien, Rean-Der; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Hwang, Jiun-Ren

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of various processing parameters of microinjection molding on the replication accuracy of the micro featured fluidic platform used for DNA/RNA tests are investigated. LIGA-like processes were utilized to prepare a silicon-based SU-8 photoresist, followed by electroforming to make a Ni-Co-based stamp. A cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) was used as the injection molding material. The molding parameters associated with the replication accuracy of micro channel parts were investigated. It was found that for microinjection molded devices, the replication accuracies of the imprint width and depth increase with increasing of mold temperature, melt temperature, injection velocity, and packing pressure.

  20. Mechanical and metallographic characterization of LIGA fabricated nickel and 80%Ni-20%Fe Permalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, T.R.; Buchheit, T.E.; Schmale, D.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bourcier, R.J. [Corning Inc., NY (United States). Photonic Technologies Div.

    1998-04-13

    A table top servohydraulic load frame equipped with a laser displacement measurement system was constructed for the mechanical characterization of LIGA fabricated electroforms. A drop in tensile specimen geometry which includes a pattern to identify gauge length via laser scanning has proven to provide a convenient means to monitor and characterize mechanical property variations arising during processing. In addition to tensile properties, hardness and metallurgical data were obtained for nickel deposit specimens of current density varying between 20 and 80 mA/cm{sup 2} from a sulfamate based bath. Data from 80/20 nickel-iron deposits is also presented for comparison. As expected, substantial mechanical property differences from bulk metal properties are observed as well as a dependence of material strength on current density which is supported by grain size variation. While elastic modulus values of the nickel electrodeposit are near 160 GPa, yield stress values vary by over 60%. A strong orientation in the metal electrodeposits as well as variations in nucleating and growth morphology present a concern for anisotropic and geometry dependent mechanical properties within and between different LIGA components.

  1. Complex microstructure fabrication by integrating silicon anisotropic etching and UV-LIGA technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiangmeng; Chen Di; Huang Chuang; Chen Xiang; Liu Jingquan; Zhu Jun

    2007-01-01

    A fabrication method which integrates silicon anisotropic etching micromachining with UV-LIGA technology to make complex microstructures is presented.This proposod combined process enables the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional(3D)microstmctures,which cannot be fabricated by silicon bulk micromachining or UV-LIGA alone.To demonstrate this combined method.the 100μm thick SU-8 micro gears were fabricated on the silicon convex square structure.which is 100μm×100μm×80μm in dimension.In the subsequent micro hot embossing process,a novel type of plastics polyethylene terephtalate glycol(PETG)Was tried for use.Through optimizing process parameters,PETG shows the potential of being used as plastic replica in micro-electro-mechanical system(MEMS).This fabrication technology provides a new option for the increasing need of functionality,quality and economy of MEMS.

  2. Residential address errors in public health surveillance data: a description and analysis of the impact on geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Jauvin, Christian; Verma, Aman; Bedard, Lucie; Allard, Robert; Schwartzman, Kevin; de Montigny, Luc; Charland, Katia; Buckeridge, David L

    2010-07-01

    The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of the corresponding impact of these errors on geocoding and routine public health practices. The objectives of this study were to examine address errors for a selected reportable disease in a large urban center in Canada and to assess the impact of identified errors on geocoding and the estimated spatial distribution of the disease. We extracted data for all notifications of campylobacteriosis from the Montreal public health department from 1995 to 2008 and used an address verification algorithm to determine the validity of the residential address for each case and to suggest corrections for invalid addresses. We assessed the types of address errors as well as the resulting positional errors, calculating the distance between the original address and the correct address as well as changes in disease density. Address errors and missing addresses were prevalent in the public health records (10% and 5%, respectively) and they influenced the observed distribution of campylobacteriosis in Montreal, with address correction changing case location by a median of 1.1 km. Further examination of the extent of address errors in public health data is essential, as is the investigation of how these errors impact routine public health functions.

  3. Processamento, caracterização microestrutural e avaliação das propriedades mecanicas da liga Al92Fe3Cr2Mn3

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson Henrique Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Ligas de alumínio (Al) contendo dispersão de partículas em escala nanométrica que apresentam valores elevados de resistência mecânica em temperaturas ambientes e em altas temperaturas já são estudadas há algum tempo. Estas ligas são conhecidas por apresentar partículas icosaedrais embebidas numa matriz de Al-α e são chamadas de ligas nanoquasicristalinas, tendo como característica marcante grande estabilidade térmica. O presente trabalho visou avaliar as propriedades mecânicas e a possib...

  4. A gente se liga em voc: reconfiguraes da TV Globo em um cenrio de convergncia miditica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gouveia Moreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os 46 anos da Rede Globo foram comemorados com o lanamento de uma nova assinatura. Em vez do a gente se v por aqui, a emissora passou a usar a gente se liga em voc. O novo slogan volta a ateno para o telespectador. Entender o processo de transio da TV em um cenrio de convergncia e as adaptaes que a TV Globo tem implementado para atender s novas demandas so os principais objetivos deste artigo. Para isso, so abordadas as mudanas que os meios tradicionais esto realizando diante dos novos meios e so mostradas as principais estratgias da Globo nesse ecossistema miditico. Por fim, o artigo constata a instaurao de um novo estatuto da televiso.

  5. PMMA microstructure as KrF excimer-laser LIGA material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chii-Rong; Chou, Bruce C. S.; Chou, Hsiao-Yu; Lin, Frank H. S.; Kuo, Wen-Kai; Luo, Roger G. S.; Chang, Jer-Wei; Wei, Z. J.

    1998-08-01

    PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) has been widely used as x-ray LIGA material for its good features of electrical acid plating of all common metals to industrial applications. Unlike the tough characteristics of polyimide in almost all alkaline and acid solutions, PMMA is easily removed in chemical etchants after electroplating process. For this reason, ablation- etching characteristics of PMMA material for 3D microstructures fabrication using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser were investigated. Moreover, the uses of the laminated dry film were also studied in this work. Experimental results show that PMMA microstructures can produce the near-vertical side- wall profile as the laser fluence up to 2.5 J/cm2. PMMA templates with high aspect ratio of around 25 were demonstrated, and the sequential electroplating processes have realized the metallic microstructures. Moreover, the microstructures fabricated in dry film show the perfect side- wall quality, and no residues of debris were found.

  6. La Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre en Sinaloa. Los restos de un naufragio: 1974-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arturo Sánchez Parra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata sobre algunas de las principales características que adoptó el denominado “periodo gris”, etapa de la vida de la principal organización político militar de tipo urbano del México de los años setenta del siglo XX y la entidad federativa Sinaloa, ubicada en el noroeste del territorio nacional. Esta fase, se distinguió por la pérdida del “dirigente histórico” de la Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre (LC23S, el arribo a la conducción del grupo armado de un liderazgo caracterizado por el militarismo extremo, la búsqueda de la confrontación y la derrota político y militar frente al Estado y sus fuerzas de seguridad. Destacamos en el documento tres rubros a nuestro parecer que delinean una etapa que trascendió los años aquí analizados, a las escisiones internas que operaron al seno del grupo armado, entre quienes abandonaron por diversas circunstancias la lucha revolucionaria y los que decidieron continuarla tanto a nivel nacional como en la entidad sinaloense, b la estrategia política y militar que el Estado mexicano estableció para confrontar a esta y otras insurgencias armadas, c el cariz que adoptó la violencia guerrillera en un ambiente de franco fracaso militar y sobre todo político y d las producciones discursivas que se elaboraron a pesar del ambiente de descalabro privativo en que había caído la organización clandestina. A su vez, este texto aborda las diferentes causas-nacionales y regionales-que contribuyeron a la derrota militar y sobre todo política de la Liga y su proyecto de transformación revolucionaria de la sociedad.

  7. Electromechanically driven microchopper for integration in microspectrometers based on LIGA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Peter; Mohr, Juergen; Saile, Volker

    1999-09-01

    In recent years, microspectrometers made by the LIGA technology for the visible wavelength range have found their way into the market. Opening the wide field of spectral analysis in the infrared range, the concept of a highly transmissive hollow waveguide has been demonstrated successfully. In combination with linear detector arrays, hollow waveguide microspectrometers can be combined into handheld infrared spectrometer systems. The only obstacle to a miniaturized system is the lack of miniaturized light modulators. To solve this problem, a miniaturized light modulator has been developed. It consists of an oscillating stop driven by an electromagnetic actuator. It is made out of permalloy by means of LIGA micromechanics. Its outer dimensions of approx. 3.0 X 3.2 mm2 and a structure height of 280 micrometer allow it to be integrated into the plane of the entrance slit of the microspectrometer of about 20 mm to 30 mm size. The spectrometer has alignment structures to ensure positioning of the oscillating stop close to the entrance slit. This simplifies assembly. The actuator is excited by an hybrid integrated coil fixed by springs snapping into place during assembly. The maximum supply voltage of 5V allows the chopper to be used in low-voltage spectrometer systems, especially in handheld systems. The highest modulation frequency is more than 1 kHz, which is sufficient to work with the lead salt detectors commonly used. In this frequency range, detector noise is greatly attenuated compared to continuous-light operation. The paper contains an outline of the concept of the whole microspectrometer system. Experimental results are discussed to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  8. Corrosão da liga niobio - 1% zirconio e de seus constituintes, niobio e zirconio, em soluções aquosas alcalinas e cloretadas

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Martins Villela Nunes

    1994-01-01

    A liga niobio-1%zirconio vem sendo utilizada como material estrutural de reatores nucleares espaciais, refrigerados a litio liquido. O litio, mesmo tendo reatividade quimica alta causando corrosao e degradacao estrutural em suas reacoes com os materiais de contencao, possui propriedades fisico-quimicas e neutronicas excelentes como fluido trocador de calor. Embora o que interessa seja a resistencia da liga e de seus constituintes a corrosao a seco, estudos a respeito da resistencia a corrosao...

  9. TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO DE PRECIPITAÇÃO - T6 APLICADO EM RODA DE LIGA LEVE DE MOTOCICLETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Orcélio Miranda de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As ligas de alumínio da série A356 (Al-Si-Mg são usadas extensivamente em componentes de manufatura para indústria automotiva e aeroespacial devido a suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas. São utilizadas em muitas aplicações estruturais que requerem uma alta resistência a baixo peso, alta resistência e tenacidade ao impacto, baixo coeficiente de expansão térmica, boa resistência à corrosão e excelente fluidez, como ligas de fundição para produção de rodas de liga leve. Nesse sentido, o objetivo principal deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do tratamento térmico de precipitação – T6 sobre a microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas da liga A356/Al-7Si-0,3Mg. Para tanto, uma roda de motocicleta foi utilizada e o tratamento térmico aplicado na própria indústria de fabricação, conforme padrões estabelecidos. Os resultados alcançados mostram uma microestrutura eutética composta de Si (esferoidizado mais os intermetálicos de Fe, que foram observados entre as ramificações interdendríticas. Ensaios de dureza Rocwell B foram realizados e os valores obtidos correspondem aos padrões estabelecidos.

  10. Liga NiCrSiBC: Microestrutura e Dureza de Revestimentos Processados a Arco e a Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro J. da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de processamento é determinante sobre características de um revestimento. Isso porque o aporte térmico, que depende da técnica e dos parâmetros, tem influência sobre a diluição e a taxa de solidificação. Em ligas com baixa complexidade metalúrgica, o impacto do processamento com técnicas de deposição que impõem maior taxa de resfriamento podem se traduzir em refino da microestrutura. Espera-se que quanto mais refinada a microestrutura maior a resistência mecânica do revestimento. Entretanto, na deposição de ligas de maior complexidade metalúrgica isso nem sempre ocorre, porque a elevada taxa de resfriamento pode suprimir formação/precipitação de fases responsáveis pela resistência. Neste estudo, a influência do processamento sobre microestrutura e dureza de revestimentos da liga Colmonoy-6® foi avaliada. A liga foi processada por plasma com arco transferido (PTA e laser de diodo de alta potência (HPDL sobre chapas de AISI 304 com dois níveis de diluição. Em ambos os casos, revestimentos de boa qualidade e livres defeitos foram obtidos. O aumento do teor de Fe (diluição e as diferentes taxas de resfriamento decorrem do processamento com diferentes parâmetros e técnicas. Em consequência, ocorrem mudanças significativas na microestrutura e na dureza dos revestimentos que estão associadas à distribuição, morfologia e composição química dos carbonetos e, principalmente, dos boretos.

  11. A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE UMA LIGA ACADÊMICA NO ENSINO DE GRADUAÇÃO EM ENFERMAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Sanches Panobianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal, cuyo objetivo fue identificar y evaluar la contribución de una liga de estudiantes de enfermería. Llevado a cabo entre mayo y agosto de 2010, a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado aplicado a estudiantes de graduación en las instalaciones de una institución de educación superior y enviado por correo electrónico, a los graduados, con total de 22 encuestados vinculados a una aleación la prevención y la lucha contra el cáncer. Las respuestas han sido estructuradas en una base de datos en Excel (Windows 2007, y después, el análisis realizado por medio del programa Epi Info, utilizando estadística descriptiva. Cumplido con las normas éticas. Todos los encuestados afirmaron que la Liga ha contribuido para el aprendizaje académico. La Liga demostró ser una enseñanza importante, que contribuye a la formación profesional, para reflexión crítica sobre oncología y promoción de la asistencia humanitaria.

  12. Análise teórico-experimental de ligações mistas em perfis formados a frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bastos Cabral

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, tem-se, como objetivo, determinar o comportamento de ligações mistas viga-pilar em perfis formados a frio, a partir de estudos teórico experimentais da edificação de quatro pavimentos. Os estudos se basearam em análises estruturais e dimensionamentos desta edificação e em análises experimentais de ligações tipo do projeto. O programa experimental foi composto por cinco ensaios, em três diferentes configurações de ligações mistas, que permitiram determinar as suas respectivas curvas momento x rotação e rigidezes.This work had as a goal to determine the behavior of composite beam-column connections in cold-formed steel profiles. Experimental and theoretical studies were developed using a four-story building. The studies were based on the structural analyses and design of this construction and the experimental analyses of the project's typical joints. The experimental program had five tests in three different configurations of composite joints, which allowed setting curves for moment x rotation and rigidity.

  13. Random property allocation: A novel geographic imputation procedure based on a complete geocoded address file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Rose, Nectarios

    2013-09-01

    Allocating an incomplete address to randomly selected property coordinates within a locality, known as random property allocation, has many advantages over other geoimputation techniques. We compared the performance of random property allocation to four other methods under various conditions using a simulation approach. All methods performed well for large spatial units, but random property allocation was the least prone to bias and error under volatile scenarios with small units and low prevalence. Both its coordinate based approach as well as the random process of assignment contribute to its increased accuracy and reduced bias in many scenarios. Hence it is preferable to fixed or areal geoimputation for many epidemiological and surveillance applications.

  14. Photoablation characteristics of novel polyimides synthesized for high-aspect-ratio excimer laser LIGA process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chii-Rong; Hsieh, Yu-Sheng; Hwang, Guang-Yeu; Lee, Yu-Der

    2004-04-01

    The photoablation properties of two soluble polyimides DMDB/6FDA and OT/6FDA with thicknesses of over 300 µm, synthesized by the polycondensation of a hexafluoropropyl group contained in a dianhydride with two kinds of diamines, are investigated using a 248 nm krypton fluoride (KrF) laser. The incorporation of the hexafluoropropyl group into the chemical structure gives these two polyimides higher etching rates than Kapton (a commercial polyimide film which is difficult to dissolve). The etching rates of synthesized polyimides are about 0.1-0.5 µm/pulse over a fluence range of 0.25-2.25 J cm-2. The photothermal mechanism for DMDB/6FDA contributes about 19% of etching depth at a laser fluence of 0.82 J cm-2. Moreover, the number of laser pulses seriously affects the taper angle of microstructures, especially at low fluence. Near-vertical side-wall structures can be built at high fluence (~2 J cm-2). Fresnel patterns with a thickness of 300 µm and a linewidth of 10 µm were fabricated, with an attainable aspect ratio of around 30. After photoablation, the complementary metallic microstructures were also fabricated by a sequential electroplating procedure. Then, those two new polyimides could be dissolved easily in most common solvents (such as THF, DMSO, NMP and DMF). These results indicate that these two soluble polyimides are highly suitable for use in the KrF laser LIGA process.

  15. Ligações insuspeitas entre carnaval e dialogismo / Insuspected links between carnival and dialogism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Wall

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Em lugar de procurar interpretar o carnaval de Bakhtin e suas teorias sobre o dialogismo como se representassem duas correntes independentes em seus escritos, este artigo prop~oe que se vejamos dois conceitos como intimamente ligados um ao outro. Para esta discussão, apresentamos diversas importantes interpretações do carnaval de Bakhtin, segundo aparecem em diversas línguas, e procuramos mostrar os momentos dialógicos ocultos de tais interpretações. Da mesma forma, empregamos teorias da enunciamção para explorar diversas e até aqui insuspeitadas ligações entre carnaval e dialogismo. ABSTRACT: Instead of attempting to interpret Bakhtin's carnival and his theories of dialogism as if they represented two independent strains of thought in his writings, this article proposes to see the two as being intimately linked with one another. For this discussion, we present several major interpretations of Bakhtin's carnival, as they appear in several languages, and we attempt to show the hidden dialogic moments of these same interpretations. Likewise, we use theories ofutterance to explore several hitherto unsuspected links between the carnival and dialogism.

  16. Espectroscopia anelástica em ligas de Nb-16% p. Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Abdallah Nogueira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Átomos de oxigênio, presentes em metais com estrutura cristalina cúbica de corpo centrado, são localizados preferencialmente em sítios octaedrais. Na ausência de uma tensão mecânica externa, estes átomos são distribuídos aleatoriamente. Na presença de oscilações mecânicas, a redistribuição dos átomos nos diferentes sítios deve ocorrer pela interação com esta tensão, levando a perdas na energia elástica. Este trabalho mostra o estudo da interação de átomos de oxigênio presentes em amostras da liga Nb-16% p. Ti, utilizando um pêndulo de torção. Os resultados mostram espectros bastante complexos, que foram decompostos em seus picos constituintes, representando os processos de relaxação devido à reorientação induzida por tensão de átomos e pares de átomos de oxigênio em torno de átomos de nióbio da matriz metálica e átomos de oxigênio em torno de átomos de titânio (interação substitucional-intersticial.

  17. The use of the LigaSure Vessel Sealing System in esophageal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Atilla; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Aydin, Yener; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Tokur, Mahmut; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin

    2007-12-01

    In this clinical study we investigated the use and results of the LigaSure Vessel Sealing Sytem (LVSS) (Valleylab, Boulder, CO) compared with conventional surgery in esophageal cancer resection. The LVSS (Valleylab) is a device with a hemostatic design frequently used in abdominal surgery. Sixty patients (n = 30 in each group) with esophageal cancer from a single center were evaluated to undergo esophagectomy using either the LVSS or conventional clamping methods. The main outcome measures (ie, operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative course) were then compared. In resections performed using the LVSS, operation duration (307 +/- 35 minutes vs 260 +/- 35 minutes; p = 0.000), intraoperative blood loss (average 533 +/- 211 mL vs 390 +/- 256 mL; p = 0.022), and postoperative drainage volumes (abdomen, 70 +/- 86 mL vs 40 +/- 61 mL; p = 0.122; thorax, 690 +/- 646 mL vs 540 +/- 359 mL; p = 0.271) all decreased. The LVSS is easy to use and a reliable method in esophageal cancer surgery. Compared with conventional hemostatic techniques a reduction in intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, and a shortening of operation duration were determined. We believe that the use of the LVSS in esophageal surgery will become even more widespread in the future.

  18. The Use of Exhaustive Micro-Data Firm Databases for Economic Geography: The Issues of Geocoding and Usability in the Case of the Amadeus Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official spatial data dissemination alows for geocoding of such databases using means that are accessible for researchers with minimal programming knowledge. For the specific case of the Amadeus database of the Bureau Van Dijk, I show that its limitations in terms of coverage have to be taken into acount, but do not hinder its use for analysis. Resulting maps show how the data allows to go further than classic databases such as the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics.

  19. The use of exhaustive Micro-Data firm databases for Economic Geography: The issues of geocoding and usability in the case of the Amadeus Database

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official ...

  20. BOREAS Level-3p Landsat TM Imagery: Geocoded and Scaled At-sensor Radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the level-3p Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to supplement the level-3s Landsat TM products. Along with the other remotely sensed images, the Landsat TM images were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Although very similar to the level-3s Landsat TM products, the level-3p images were processed with ground control information, which improved the accuracy of the geographic coordinates provided. Geographically, the level-3p images cover the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). Temporally, the four images cover the period of 20-Aug-1988 to 07-Jun-1994. Except for the 07-Jun-1994 image, which contains seven bands, the other three contain only three bands.

  1. Fine Mapping of the Interaction between C4b-Binding Protein and Outer Membrane Proteins LigA and LigB of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Leandro C D; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Castiblanco Valencia, Mónica M; da Silva, Ludmila B; Barbosa, Angela S; Blom, Anna M; Chang, Yung-Fu; Yung-Fu, Chang; Isaac, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The complement system consists of more than 40 proteins that participate in the inflammatory response and in pathogen killing. Complement inhibitors are necessary to avoid the excessive consumption and activation of this system on host cells. Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. Pathogenic leptospires are able to escape from complement activation by binding to host complement inhibitors Factor H [FH] and C4b-binding protein (C4BP) while non-pathogenic leptospires are rapidly killed in the presence of fresh serum. In this study, we demonstrate that complement control protein domains (CCP) 7 and 8 of C4BP α-chain interact with the outer membrane proteins LcpA, LigA and LigB from the pathogenic leptospire L. interrogans. The interaction between C4BP and LcpA, LigA and LigB is sensitive to ionic strength and inhibited by heparin. We fine mapped the LigA and LigB domains involved in its binding to C4BP and heparin and found that both interactions are mediated through the bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains 7 and 8 (LigA7-8 and LigB7-8) of both LigA and LigB and also through LigB9-10. Therefore, C4BP and heparin may share the same binding sites on Lig proteins.

  2. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  3. MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

  4. Single incision cholecystectomy using a clipless technique with LigaSure in a resource limited environment: The Bahamas experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross O. Downes

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: SILC is a safe and feasible technique for operating with scarless outcomes and reducing perioperative discomfort at the same time. The GelPOINTTM is a safe and feasible platform to be used. The procedure can be accomplished using regular instruments and laparoscope. Curved instruments and a bariatric length laparoscope may make the procedure easier and result in greater time saving. The addition of LigaSure™ decreases the complexity of the operation, decreases operative time and blood loss. The technique is economical in a resource-limited environment.

  5. Ensino de anestesiologia durante a graduação por meio de uma liga acadêmica: qual o impacto no aprendizado dos alunos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Saito Ramalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As ligas acadêmicas vêm se firmando como instrumentos de ensino médico e inserção dos estudantes de medicina na prática das especialidades, inclusive na anestesiologia. Como o papel das ligas no processo de desenvolvimento de competências e aprendizado de seus alunos não é bem conhecido, avaliou-se o aprendizado dos integrantes de uma liga acadêmica de anestesiologia após um ano de participação nas suas atividades. MÉTODO: Os alunos de uma liga acadêmica de anestesiologia foram acompanhados de março a dezembro de 2010 e avaliados por meio de testes cognitivos objetivos de múltipla escolha aplicados antes do início das atividades e após sua conclusão. A frequência nas atividades e o perfil epidemiológico dos alunos foram correlacionados aos resultados dos testes. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 20 acadêmicos do 3º ao 6º ano, com média de idade de 22,8 (21-26 anos. A frequência média nas atividades propostas foi 10,4/13 (80%. A média de acertos no primeiro teste foi 8,1/17 (47,6%, sendo que os alunos do 3º ano apresentam notas menores (p < 0,02 em relação aos demais. No teste pós-liga, a média de acertos foi 11,9/17 (70%, mostrando melhora no desempenho dos alunos (p < 0,05, e não houve diferença entre as notas dos diferentes anos da graduação. Foi encontrada relação forte entre frequência nas atividades e melhora nas notas (r = 0,719; p < 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: Os alunos que participaram da liga apresentaram melhora nos testes de avaliação de conhecimento, sugerindo que a liga é útil instrumento de ensino e promove ganho de aprendizado em anestesiologia. As atividades desenvolvidas nas ligas podem ter papel positivo na formação acadêmica dos graduandos, destacando-se, neste artigo, a anestesiologia

  6. Classical Spin Nematic Transition in LiGa0.95In0.05Cr4O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyńczak, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Manuel, P.; Casati, N.; Hiroi, Z.; Takigawa, M.; Nilsen, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of a combined 7Li -NMR and diffraction study on LiGa0.95In0.05Cr4O8, a member of the LiGa1 -xInxCr4O8 "breathing" pyrochlore family. Via specific heat and NMR measurements, we find that the complex sequence of first-order transitions observed for LiGaCr4O8 is replaced by a single second-order transition at Tf=11 K . Neutron and x-ray diffraction rule out both structural symmetry lowering and magnetic long-range order as the origin of this transition. Instead, reverse Monte Carlo fitting of the magnetic diffuse scattering indicates that the low-temperature phase may be described as a collinear spin nematic state, characterized by a quadrupolar order parameter. This state also shows signs of short-range order between collinear spin arrangements on tetrahedra, revealed by mapping the reverse Monte Carlo spin configurations onto a three-state color model.

  7. Liga de Geriatria e Gerontologia da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro: relato de experiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liciane Langona Montanholi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Liga de Geriatria e Gerontologia da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (LGG/UFTM, Uberaba-MG, fundada em 2003 foi composta por acadêmicos de medicina e enfermagem, que desenvolviam atividades ambulatoriais, científicas e de extensão. Nas atividades ambulatoriais os acadêmicos acompanharam consultas geriátricas e avaliaram física e mentalmente os internos de uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos (ILPI. Como atividades de extensão foram realizadas as campanhas sobre as doenças de Alzheimer e Parkinson. Nas reuniões científicas foram discutidos temas abordando o envelhecimento. Projetos científicos foram desenvolvidos, dentre eles “Ensino sobre idoso e gerontologia: visão do discente de enfermagem no Estado de Minas Gerais” e “Amiloidose cerebral e cardíaca em indivíduos idosos autopsiados”. Além disso, a Liga participou da disciplina optativa “Processos patológicos gerais associados ao envelhecimento”. Portanto, os integrantes da LGG/UFTM por meio das atividades desenvolvidas puderam ampliar seu conhecimento científico-prático na área do envelhecimento, sendo estas experiências coadjuvantes da melhoria tanto da formação acadêmica quanto da assistência ao paciente idoso.

  8. MapAffil: A Bibliographic Tool for Mapping Author Affiliation Strings to Cities and Their Geocodes Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Vetle I

    2015-01-01

    Bibliographic records often contain author affiliations as free-form text strings. Ideally one would be able to automatically identify all affiliations referring to any particular country or city such as Saint Petersburg, Russia. That introduces several major linguistic challenges. For example, Saint Petersburg is ambiguous (it refers to multiple cities worldwide and can be part of a street address) and it has spelling variants (e.g., St. Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburg, and Leningrad, USSR). We have designed an algorithm that attempts to solve these types of problems. Key components of the algorithm include a set of 24,000 extracted city, state, and country names (and their variants plus geocodes) for candidate look-up, and a set of 1.1 million extracted word n-grams, each pointing to a unique country (or a US state) for disambiguation. When applied to a collection of 12.7 million affiliation strings listed in PubMed, ambiguity remained unresolved for only 0.1%. For the 4.2 million mappings to the USA, 97.7% were complete (included a city), 1.8% included a state but not a city, and 0.4% did not include a state. A random sample of 300 manually inspected cases yielded six incompletes, none incorrect, and one unresolved ambiguity. The remaining 293 (97.7%) cases were unambiguously mapped to the correct cities, better than all of the existing tools tested: GoPubMed got 279 (93.0%) and GeoMaker got 274 (91.3%) while MediaMeter CLIFF and Google Maps did worse. In summary, we find that incorrect assignments and unresolved ambiguities are rare (< 1%). The incompleteness rate is about 2%, mostly due to a lack of information, e.g. the affiliation simply says "University of Illinois" which can refer to one of five different campuses. A search interface called MapAffil has been developed at the University of Illinois in which the longitude and latitude of the geographical city-center is displayed when a city is identified. This not only helps improve geographic information

  9. [As the twig is bent, so is the tree inclined: children and the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental's eugenic programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J R

    2000-01-01

    Created in the early 1920s, at a moment when the country's psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution's proposals for intervention among children. The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil's process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children's issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.

  10. EFECTO DE LA GEOMETRÍA DEL MOLDE EN EL ELECTROFORMADO DE MICROPIEZAS POR UV-LIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. GAVIRIA VILLA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-LIGA es una técnica versátil que permite la fabricación de piezas metálicas con alta relación de aspecto (alto/ancho mediante la combinación del procesamiento fotolitográfico de un polímero y la electroformación de un metal al interior de las cavidades grabadas en el polímero. Esta técnica de bajo costo es empleada en una gran variedad de áreas que comprenden la microfluídica, la óptica, la instrumentación, el moldeado de plásticos y las telecomunicaciones, entre otras. Para aproximar a Colombia a estas tecnologías modernas de procesamiento de materiales, el Grupo de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales ha iniciado un proceso de apropiación de técnicas de microfabricación, específicamente, este artículo presenta los resultados de la implementación de la técnica UV-LIGA para la fabricación de micropiezas de Níquel y examina los efectos de la geometría del molde en la velocidad de crecimiento e integridad de los depósitos obtenidos, parámetros que sonimportantes para conseguir la fabricación de piezas micrométricas complejas que den origen a dispositivos con aplicaciones comerciales.

  11. CUALIDADES FISIOLÓGICAS Y BIOMECÁNICAS DEL JUGADOR JOVEN DE LIGA EBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaquera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las características morfofuncionales y de mecánica en el salto en jugadores jóvenes de Liga EBA. Lo que permitirá adecuar métodos y medios de entrenamiento para optimizar su rendimiento. En 10 jugadores de 19.3±0.7 años se determinó tanto en laboratorio como en campo, el potencial aeróbico, anaeróbico, composición corporal y características neuromusculares en la mecánica de los saltos. Con 86.8±2.6 Kg de peso corporal y 197.1±2.9 cm de talla, presentaron un porcentaje graso de 8.2±0.3%, y 50.3±0.5% muscular. En ergoespirometría alcanzaron un VO2máx de 61.2±1.3 ml.kg-1.min-1; similar al obtenido en el Course Navette (60.04±1.2 ml.kg-1.min-1 y diferente en el test de Cooper (56.9±1.7 ml.kg-1.min-1 En la bateria de saltos sobre plataforma de contacto los resultados fueron: (Abalakov=41.5±1.4 cm, SJ=32.1±1.4 cm, CMJ=35±1.2 cm, RJ30=42.4±0.8 saltos con una potencia media de 36.9±2.2 kg/w, y en el test de Wingate realizaron una potencia media absoluta de 594.6±20.2 W (6.85 w/kg, una potencia pico de 693.4±24.6 W (7.98 w/kg, y un índice de fatiga de -28.7. La valoración de estas características ha de ser un instrumento para prescribir entrenamientos más individualizados, con el objeto de obtener un mayor rendimiento.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Baloncesto, Fisiología, Cualidad Aeróbica, Cualidad Anaeróbica; Composición corporal, VO2máx, Wingate.

    ABSTRACT

    The objective of this study is identify the functional characteristics and mechanics in the jump of young basketball players of EBA League. The findings of the study will allow adaptation of methods and means of training to reach high performance levels. In

  12. Accuracy improvement of geometric correction for CHRIS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-zhong; PANG Yong; GUO Zhi-feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a new type of multi-angle remotely sensed data---CHRIS (the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), by using rational function models (RFM) and rigorous sensor models (RSM). For ortho-rectifying an image set, a rigorous sensor model-Toutin's model was employed and a set of reported parameters including across track angle, along track angle, IFOV, altitude, period, eccentricity and orbit inclination were input, then, the orbit calculation was started and the track information was given to the raw data. The images were ortho-rectified with geocoded ASTER images and digital elevation (DEM) data. Results showed that with 16 ground control points (GCPs), the correction accuracy decreased with view zenith angle, and the RMSE value increased to be over one pixel at 36 degree off-nadir. When the GCPs were approximately chosen as in Toutin's model, a RFM with three coefficients produced the same accuracy trend versus view zenith angle while the RMSEs for all angles were improved and within about one pixel.

  13. Thermal Damage on Mesenteric Vascular Tissues and Hemostatic Effects of LigaSure, Ultrasound Knife and Bipolar Electrocoagulation in Adult Goats:an Experimental Study%LigaSure、超声刀及双极电凝对山羊肠系膜血管热损伤及止血效果的实验研究﹡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 邢慧敏; 苗蕊; 高艳霞; 杨波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the thermal damage on mesenteric vascular tissues and hemostatic effects of LigaSure, ultrasound knife and bipolar electrocoagulation in adult goats for correctly choosing electeosurgical equipment in laparoscopic surgery. Methods Different mesenteric vessels ( diameters ranged from 1.03 mm to 5.44 mm) of goats were given electrocoagulations with three electeosurgical instruments (60 times in each group), and differences of the thermal damage width in 180 cases of vascular tissues were detected.The success rates of electric coagulation of vascular occlusion at one time were compared. Results The thermal damage width with LigaSure (3.30 ±0.71 mm) was less than the bipolar electrocoagulation (3.99 ±0.66 mm), but greater than the ultrasound knife (2.05 ±0.81 mm), with significant differences among them (F=109.318, P=0.000).For diameter≤3 mm vascular tissues, the success rates were higher with LigaSure [100%(32/32)] and ultrasound knife [93.8%(30/32)] than bipolar electrocoagulation [68.8%(22/32);P=0.001 and 0.010), but there was no difference between the LigaSure and the ultrasound knife (P=0.492).For diameter >3 mm vascular tissues, the success rate was the highest with LigaSure [100% (28/28)] than ultrasound knife [75.0% (21/28), P=0.010] and bipolar electrocoagulation [71.4% (20/28), P =0.004].There was no difference between ultrasound knife and bipolar electrocoagulation (P=0.763). Conclusions Among bipolar electrocoagulation, LigaSure and ultrasound knife, the thermal damage width is the largest with bipolar electrocoagulation and the least with ultrasound knife.LigaSure vessel sealing system is more reliable than ultrasound knife and bipolar electrocoagulation in sealing vessels, especially for the diameter >3 mm vascular tissues.Ultrasound knife can effectively seal the vessels less than 3 mm in diameter.%目的:探讨LigaSure、超声刀及双极电凝对山羊肠系膜血管组织的热损伤程度及止血效果,指导腹腔镜

  14. Estudo das propriedades magnetostrictivas da liga (Fe0,80Al0,20)97B3 obtida por solidificação direcional

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner de Oliveira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram obtidas barras da liga (Fe0,80Al0,20)97B3 por solidificação direcional (SD), nos diâmetros de 3 e 4 mm, com o objetivo de melhorar a magnetostricção desse material através da introdução de textura. As etapas de produção das barras envolveram a fabricação de lingotes da liga por fusão a arco L1, L2 e L6, seguida de usinagem (U) ou forjamento rotativo (F) a quente. O maior comprimento de barra obtido foi de 50 mm. Através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise de ...

  15. Corrosão de liga 800GN em ambiente do circuito secundário da Central Nuclear de Angra 2

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Abud Mansur

    2015-01-01

    A liga 800GN (grau nuclear) é um material utilizado na fabricação de geradores de vapor para reatores de água pressurizada (PWR) de usinas nucleares devido à sua elevada resistência à corrosão. A resistência à corrosão da liga 800GN é devida ao caráter protetor da película de óxido formada na superfície do tubo em contato com a água pressurizada à alta temperatura. No entanto, a corrosão tem sido a principal causa de falhas nos tubos dos geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares. Os problemas ge...

  16. Application of high frequency bipolar electrocoagulation LigaSureTM in appendix vermiformis of rabbits with or without acute inflammatory process Aplicação do eletrocoagulador bipolar de alta frequência LigaSureTM no apêndice vermiforme na vigência ou não de processo inflamatório agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the use of LigaSureTM in appendectomy, with or without acute inflammatory process, and to compare with simple ligature and conventional therapy. METHODS: A total of 30 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus randomly allocated in two groups, group A and B, of 15 animals each were used. The group A without acute appendicitis and the group B with acute appendicitis were submitted to appendectomy. After, the groups were subdivided into three groups, each group containing five rabbits submitted to simple ligature, conventional therapy and application of LigaSureTM. We assessed macroscopic and microscopy parameters of appendiceal stump and operative wound. RESULTS: The group with acute appendicitis that LigaSureTM was applied had fibrosis in 100% of animals, as well as in the other operative techniques used. It suggested that application of LigaSureTM is efficient as other techniques used in healing of appendiceal stump. CONCLUSIONS: The application of LigaSureTM induces the formation of fibrosis in the appendiceal stump. The technique proved efficacy to induce enough fibrous tissue to obstruct leakage of enteric content.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da utilização do LigaSureTM na apendicectomia, com ou sem a presença de processo inflamatório agudo, comparando com ligadura simples ou técnica tradicional. MÉTODOS: Um total de 30 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foi alocado em dois grupos, grupos A e B, cada um composto por 15 animais. O grupo A não apresentava apendicite aguda e o grupo B com apendicite aguda, sendo os animais submetidos à apendicitectomia. Cada grupo foi divido em três subgrupos, cada um com cinco animais onde foram então submetidos à ligadura simples, técnica tradicional ou utilização do LigaSureTM. Foram avaliados parâmetros macroscópicos assim como microscópicos do coto apendicular assim como da ferida operatória. RESULTADOS: No grupo que apresentava apendicite aguda onde foi utilizado o

  17. 双极电凝、LigaSure 及超声刀对人子宫旁血管组织热损伤的实验研究%Experimental Study on Thermal Effects of Human Uterine Vascular Tissues by Bipolar Electrocoagulation, LigaSure and ;Ultrasound Knife

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 邢慧敏; 刘艳; 杨波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the thermal damage of uterine vascular tissues by bipolar electrocoagulation , LigaSure and ultrasound knife in total laparoscopic hysterectomy ( TLH ) , and to guide the selection of electeosurgery equipments in TLH . Methods TLH was carried out in patients with myoma of uterus , adenomyosis and dysfunctional uterine bleeding .A total of 90 uterine vascular tissues were studied , including 30 tissues receiving bipolar electrocoagulation , 30 tissues receiving LigaSure electrocoagulation and 30 tissues receiving ultrasound knife dessection .The differences of the thermal damage width of uterine vascular tissues were detected. Results The thermal damage width with bipolar electrocoagulation [(4.583 ±0.538) mm] was significantly greater than the LigaSure electrocoagulation [(4.207 ±0.525) mm, q=3.654, P<0.05] and the ultrasound knife [(3.506 ± 0.623) mm, q=10.465, P<0.05].The thermal damage width with the LigaSure electrocoagulation was significantly greater than the ultrasound knife (q=6.812, P<0.05). Conclusions Bipolar electrocoagulation has the greatest thermal damage width , followed by LigaSure electrocoagulation and ultrasound knife .It is necessary to choose laparoscopic electrosurgical instruments reasonably to avoid side-injury during performance of uterine vessels in TLH .%目的:探讨腹腔镜下全子宫切除术( total laparoscopic hysterectomy , TLH)中双极电凝、LigaSure及超声刀对人子宫旁血管组织的热损伤程度,指导TLH术中合理选择电外科器械。方法对拟行TLH患者截取分别以双极电凝、LigaSure及超声刀处理的子宫旁血管组织各30块,共计90块,显微镜下测量电凝部位热损伤宽度。结果3种电外科器械对子宫旁血管组织热损伤程度不同,热损伤宽度双极电凝组(4.583±0.538)mm,明显大于LigaSure 组(4.207±0.525)mm(q=3.654,P<0.05)和超声刀组(3.506±0.623)mm(q=10.465,P<0.05

  18. La incertidumbre de los resultados en las ligas española, inglesa e italiana (2008/09 mediante el rating ELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Garrido, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En numerosas ocasiones se discute si una determinada liga es la mejor de Europa o si es otra, pero muchas veces ese concepto de “mejor” queda indefinido y se basa en elementos subjetivos o apreciaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar las ligas, española, inglesa e italiana, utilizando el rating ELO para poder determinar cual de las ligas es más homogénea en términos de equilibrio entre los equipos.El interés de una liga depende en gran parte de que exista incertidumbre en el resultado, es decir, lo que viene a denominarse como balance competitivo entre los equipos que la forman, ya que si no es así, la competición pierde interés en la medida en que el resultado es demasiado prfevisible, es decir, que los “buenos” equipos siempre vencen a los restantes, con lo que se perjudica al espectáculo y por tanto, las ganancias que reportan los ingresos, especialmente los televisivos.ABSTRACT It is often discussed whether a particular football league (soccer in America is the best league. However, the term 'best' is often indefinite and based on subjective elements. The aim of this study is to compare the Spanish, English and Italian leagues by using the ELO rating system to determine which league is more homogeneous in terms of balance between the teams. The level of interest in a league largely depends on the uncertainty of outcome or the competitive balance between the teams. If there is a competitive imbalance between the teams then the competition loses interest because the expected results coincide with the real results, namely the 'top' teams always win against the others. This can damage the spectacle, and therefore the earnings produced – especially in the case of television.

  19. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemi Farrokh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual

  20. Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yan, Wuzhao; Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhen, Zipeng; Xie, Jin; Pan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In conventional photostimulable storage phosphors, the optical information written by x-ray or ultraviolet irradiation is usually read out as a visible photostimulated luminescence (PSL) signal under the stimulation of a low-energy light with appropriate wavelength. Unlike the transient PSL, here we report a new optical read-out form, photostimulated persistent luminescence (PSPL) in the near-infrared (NIR), from a Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8 NIR persistent phosphor exhibiting a super-long NIR persistent luminescence of more than 1,000 h. An intense PSPL signal peaking at 716 nm can be repeatedly obtained in a period of more than 1,000 h when an ultraviolet-light (250–360 nm) pre-irradiated LiGa5O8:Cr3+ phosphor is repeatedly stimulated with a visible light or a NIR light. The LiGa5O8:Cr3+ phosphor has promising applications in optical information storage, night-vision surveillance, and in vivo bio-imaging. PMID:23532003

  1. Toxicidade e capacidade de ligação de proteínas Cry1 a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Sebastião

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade e a capacidade de ligação das proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac e Cry1Ca, de Bacillus thuringiensis, a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera. Realizou-se análise de ligação das proteínas ativadas às vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino médio deH. armigera, além de ensaios de competição heteróloga para avaliar sua capacidade de ligação. Cry1Ac destacou-se como a proteína mais tóxica, seguida por Cry1Ab e Cry1Aa. A proteína Cry1Ca não foi tóxica às lagartas e, portanto, não foi possível determinar os seus parâmetros de toxicidade CL50 e CL90. As proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac são capazes de se ligar a um mesmo receptor nas membranas intestinais, o que aumenta o risco do desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada. Portanto, a utilização conjunta dessas proteínas deve ser evitada.

  2. Resistência de união entre liga de níquel-cromo e cimentos resinosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANÇA Rodrigo de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi a determinação da retentividade, por ensaio de tração, entre uma liga de níquel-cromo e cimentos resinosos (Comspan, Panavia Ex e All-Bond C & B, com quatro tratamentos superficiais (liso, microjateado, ataque eletrolítico e silicoater e armazenagem por 3 e 30 dias em solução de NaCl a 0,9%, a 37° C e termociclagem intercalada na segunda (a 5 e 55° C, por 1 minuto em cada banho, perfazendo 600 ciclos. Os corpos de prova eram discos, providos de alça fixadora entre si dois a dois. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: superfícies lisas conduzem a baixíssimas retentividades e tratadas com silicoater a altíssimos valores, com qualquer cimento e condição de armazenagem; Panavia Ex com superfícies microjateadas também conduz a altas retentividades; a maior retentividade foi obtida pela combinação silicoater/All-Bond C&B.

  3. La liga contra la ignorancia: burguesía y educación en la Valencia de 1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. LÁZARO LORENTE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: «Instruid y moralizad al pueblo, y no temáis ni la explosión violenta de las pasiones populares ni el triunfo del despotismo; instruid y moralizad al pueblo, y no temáis poner en sus manos el hierro y el fuego, porque él os devolverá el primero convertido en útiles instrumentos del campo y del taller y en poderosas máquinas, y hará del segundo la fuerza que debe ponerlas en movimiento». Estos consejos de Cirilo Amorós cerraban el primer discurso de la noche. Era el día 22 de julio de 1880. En el pabellón municipal de la Feria de Julio, se estaba inaugurando de forma oficial la Liga contra la Ignorancia. La culminación de un proceso iniciado —ese mismo año— meses atrás.

  4. An Integrated Microfabricated Chip with Double Functions as an Ion Source and Air Pump Based on LIGA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injection and ionization of volatile organic compounds (VOA by an integrated chip is experimentally analyzed in this paper. The integrated chip consists of a needle-to-cylinder electrode mounting on the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA substrate. The needle-to-cylinder electrode is designed and fabricated by Lithographie, Galvanoformung and Abformung (LIGA technology. In this paper, the needle is connected to a negative power supply of −5 kV and used as the cathode; the cylinder electrodes are composed of two arrays of cylinders and serve as the anode. The ionic wind is produced based on corona and glow discharges of needle-to-cylinder electrodes. The experimental setup is designed to observe the properties of the needle-to-cylinder discharge and prove its functions as an ion source and air pump. In summary, the main results are as follows: (1 the ionic wind velocity produced by the chip is about 0.79 m/s at an applied voltage of −3300 V; (2 acetic acid and ammonia water can be injected through the chip, which is proved by pH test paper; and (3 the current measured by a Faraday cup is about 10 pA for acetic acid and ammonia with an applied voltage of −3185 V. The integrated chip is promising for portable analytical instruments, such as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS, and mass spectrometry (MS.

  5. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  6. Rethinking Empathic Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Meadors, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a methodological examination of the implicit empathic accuracy measure introduced by Zaki, Ochsner, and Bolger (2008). Empathic accuracy (EA) is defined as the ability to understand another person's thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1993). Because this definition is similar to definitions of cognitive empathy (e.g., Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and because affective empathy does not appear to be related to empathic accuracy (Zaki et al., 2008), the Basic Empathy Scale--which measures...

  7. Welding shape memory alloys with NdYAG lasers Soldadura de ligas de memória de forma com laser Nd-YAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quintino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of emerging joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA has become of great importance, as their functional properties namely shape memory effect (SME and superelasticity (SE present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications. Welding of SMAs is a challenge due to the risk of reduced mechanical performance after laser processing. The wider application of these alloys in various sectors as aerospace, medical or electronic industry is hindered by the limitations in its processing. The need to weld SMAs to other materials is pressing for applications in the above referred sectors. In dissimilar joints the need to understand materials behavior is even more challenging since base materials have different physical properties leading to different heat flow, convection processes and residual stress distribution. The chemical composition across the weld pool varies and intermetallic compounds are formed. Research detailing the effects of laser processing on NiTi is essential to overcome many of these challenges. The objectives of the current study are to analyze the effects of laser welding in the weld shape of both similar and dissimilar joints of NiTi to stainless steel and titanium alloys.A procura de técnicas de ligação para ligas de memória de forma tem-se revetido de importância crescente, devido ao desenvolvimento de aplicações deste material com particulares propriedades de memória de forma e superelasticidade. A soldadura de ligas de memória de forma é um desafio devido ao risco de emporbrecimento das propriedades mecânicas depois do processamento laser. A aplicação alargarda destas ligas em vários sectores como o aeroespacial, medico ou electrónico é prejudicado pelas limitações de processamento. A necessidade de soldar ligas de memória de forma a outros materiais é premente para estes sectores. Em juntas dissimilares, o entendimento do comportamento dos materaias é um desafio ainda maior uma vez que

  8. Vagus-Nerv-Stimulation: Konsensuskonferenz des erweiterten Vorstandes des Österreichischen Sektion der Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoli B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Vagus-Nerv-Stimulation (VNS wurde 1997 von der FDA als Zusatztherapie zur Anfallsreduktion bei Erwachsenen und Adoleszenten über 12 Jahre mit medikamentös-refraktären partiellen Anfällen zugelassen. Aufgrund der Verbreitung der Methode hielt es die Österreichische Sektion der Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie für sinnvoll, einen Konsensus betreffend der Anwendung der VNS zu erarbeiten, um einerseits die Verbreitung der Methode zu fördern und andererseits eine unreflektierte Anwendung zu vermeiden. Es wurden folgende Schlüsse gezogen: 1 Die VNS stellt bei Patienten mit fokalen oder generalisierten Epilepsien, die gegenüber Antiepileptika refraktär sind und bei denen eine resektive Operationsmöglichkeit nicht gegeben ist (mit Ausnahme der ketogenen Diät die einzige therapeutische Option mit gesicherter Effizienz dar. 2 Die Responderraten liegen nach 3 Monaten bei 23 %. Offene Nachuntersuchungsstudien weisen nach 2 Jahren Beobachtungszeit einen Anstieg der Responderrate auf ca. 40 % nach. Anfallsfreiheit wird nur selten erreicht. 3 Generell wird die Implantation des VNS-Systems gut vertragen. Schwerwiegende Nebeneffekte sind selten. 4 Bei Kindern liegen bislang nur offene unkontrollierte und vorwiegend retrospektive Studien mit kleinen Fallzahlen vor. Bisherige Erfahrungen weisen darauf hin, daß die VNS bei symptomatischen, kryptogenen, fokalen und generalisierten schwer behandelbaren Epilepsien im Kindesalter auch unter 12 Jahren als Therapieoption in Erwägung zu ziehen ist. Die Verträglichkeit ist gut und mit jener bei Erwachsenen vergleichbar. 5 Eine Reduktion der ursprünglichen AED-Dosis ist vielfach möglich. 6 Hinsichtlich der Steigerung/Änderung der Stimulationsparameter bestehen derzeit keine gesicherten Daten für eine einheitliche Vorgangsweise. 7 Ökonomische Studien zeigten, daß nach VNS eine Kostenreduktion der direkten epilepsiebezogenen Kosten erfolgt. Diese ist vorwiegend durch eine Reduktion der station

  9. Retrospective comparison of Traditional vs. LigaSure impact dissection during pancreatoduodenectomy: how to save money by using an expensive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Giuseppe; Pasculli, Alessandro; D'Ambrosio, Erasmina; Gurrado, Angela; Lissidini, Germana; Testini, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is an exceptional procedure that requires an extensive dissection of the supramesocolic region extended to the first jejunal limb. Lymphadenectomy, required for cancer, increases the dissection surface. The extensive preparation of the area is traditionally conducted with bipolar ormonopolar instruments, while clips, ligatures, and sutures are used for haemostasis. LigaSure™ vessel sealing(LSVS; Valleylab, Boulder, CO) is a technology that obtains vessel closure by using the body's own collagen and elastin to create a permanent fusion zone. This is obtained by a combination of forceps pressure and radio frequency. This effect has been improved by the introduction of the Force Triad™ (Valleylab, Boulder,CO) energy platform, controlled by TissueFect™ (Valleylab, Boulder, CO) sensing technology. With this device, the surgeon is able to fuse vessels up to 7 mm, lymphatics, tissue bundles, and pulmonary vasculature in a fast-seal cycle of almost 4 seconds. In our daily practice of open surgery we observe a rapid improvement of abdominal drainage output with a drastic reduction of protein loss. Its practical significance is, in our opinion, that we obtain a rapid recovery of normal serum protein levels with a low number of blood/plasmasac transfusions and a real improvement of anastomosis healing. Moreover, the efficacy and the speed of work of the device allow us to reduce the operating time significantly but safely. We performed a retrospective analysis of the data of 20 pancreatic resections conducted both with traditional dissection and with the Liga-Sure Impact device with Force Triad platform in order to verify whether observed data were real. Our clinical results show that the use of the LigaSure Impact device with Force Triad energy platform is really useful in open surgery to save operating time, number of postoperative days, and hemoderivate administration.

  10. Propriedades estruturais, eletrônicas e termodinâmicas dos nitretos do grupo-III e de suas ligas

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram efetuados estudos importantes e pioneiros sobre as propriedades estruturais, eletrônicas e termodinâmicas dos nitretos e de suas ligas, através de dois métodos de primeiros princípios distintos, o FLAPW (\\"Full-potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave\\") e o pseudopotencial combinado com a aproximação quasequímica generalizada. Na primeira parte, utilizando o método FLAPW, calculamos as estruturas de bandas para os nitretos cúbicos do grupo-IH, BN, AIN, GaN e InN. Foram obt...

  11. "Estudos do desenvolvimento e caracterização das ligas Cu-Ni-Pt e Cu-Ni-Sn para fins eletro-eletrônicos"

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Elias da Silva

    2006-01-01

    O Cu e suas ligas têm diferentes aplicações na sociedade moderna devido as excelentes propriedades elétricas, condutividade térmica, resistência à corrosão dentre outras propriedades. Estas aplicações podem ser em válvulas, tubulações, panelas para absorção de energia solar, radiadores para automóveis, condutores de corrente e eletrônico, elementos de termostatos e partes estruturais de reatores nucleares, como, por exemplo, bobinas para campo toroidal para um reator de fusão nuclear. Dentre ...

  12. Dialética do processo de trabalho da liga de hipertensão arterial Dialetic to the labour process in the hypertension league

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Regina Car; Emiko Yoshikawa Egry

    1996-01-01

    Buscou-se compreender o fenômeno da assistência à saúde desenvolvida na Liga de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da Hipertensão Arterial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP,evidenciando suas contradições através da articulação dos elementos constitutivos deste processo de trabalho,contidos nos depoimentos de seus agentes. As concepções dos agentes sobre este processo de trabalho expressaram uma práxis reiterativa, consagrando e consolidando um dado saber específico que,para além ...

  13. Avaliação da geometria de ferramenta e parâmetros do processo FSW na soldagem da liga de alumínio AA 5052

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A soldagem de ligas de alumínio sem degradação excessiva das propriedades originais do metal base apresenta-se como um obstáculo a ser superado pelas indústrias em seus processos de fabricação, uma vez que o alumínio tem sido usado cada vez de forma mais intensiva. Neste sentido, o processo de soldagem denominado Friction Stir Welding (FSW) tem recebido atenção por suas potencialidades onde o aporte de calor deve ser minimizado ou quando metais dissimilares devem ser soldados. Neste processo,...

  14. Resistência ao cisalhamento entre ligas metálicas e materiais compostos para revestimento estético: cerômero e polímero de vidro

    OpenAIRE

    Itinoche,Marcos Koiti; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Bottino,Marco Antonio; Neisser, Maximiliano Piero; Oyafuso,Denise Kanashiro

    2010-01-01

    O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento entre ligas metálicas (Au, NiCr e CoCr) e materiais estéticos indiretos (Artglass e Targis). Para tanto, utilizaram-se vinte estruturas metálicas de cada tipo de liga, cuja superfície a ser aplicada os materiais estéticos, receberam jateamento com óxido de alumínio de granulação de 250mm, antes da aplicação do sistema adesivo do corresp...

  15. A re-ligação: o encontro das religiões e o cristianismo na Teologia Teoantropocósmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Agostinho Nogueira Baptista

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vive-se uma demanda por integração, por solidariedade. As religiões e o cristianismo, em especial, podem respondem a esse desafio? A visão de re-ligação de Leonardo Boff, à luz do paradigma ecológico, abre novas perspectivas para as religiões, especialmente para a experiência cristã e seu papel no contexto atual. Objetiva-se aqui refletir sobre o significado do encontro das religiões ante os desafios oferecidos pela realidade ecológica, propiciando uma visão teológica teoantropocósmica.Palavras-chave: Re-ligação; Religião; Cristianismo; Paradigma ecológico; Teologia Teoantropocósmica; Diálogo.ABSTRACTNowadays there is a demand for integration and solidarity. Can religions and Christianity, in particular, meet this challenge? Leonardo Boff’s vision of re-connection, in the light of the ecological paradigm, opens new perspectives to religions, mainly to the Christian esperience and its role in the present scope. This article iams at reflecting upon the meaning of encounter of religions in face of challenges presented by the ecological reality, offering a theoanthropocosmic theological view.Key words: Re-connection, Religion, Christianity, Ecological paradigm, Theoanthropocosmic Theology and Dialogue.

  16. Design and simulation of non-resonant 1-DOF drive mode and anchored 2-DOF sense mode gyroscope for implementation using UV-LIGA process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Payal; Gopal, Ram; Butt, M. A.; Khonina, Svetlana N.; Skidanov, Roman V.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design and simulation of a 3-DOF (degree-of-freedom) MEMS gyroscope structure with 1-DOF drive mode and anchored 2-DOF sense mode, based on UV-LIGA technology. The 3-DOF system has the drive resonance located in the flat zone between the two sense resonances. It is an inherently robust structure and offers a high sense frequency band width and high gain without much scaling down the mass on which the sensing comb fingers are attached and it is also immune to process imperfections and environmental conditions. The design is optimized to be compatible with the UV-LIGA process, having 9 μm thick nickel as structural layer. The electrostatic gap between the drive comb fingers is 4 μm and sense comb fingers gap are 4 μm/12 μm. The damping effect is considered by assuming the flexures and the proof mass suspended about 6 μm over the substrate. Accordingly, mask is designed in L-Edit software.

  17. PERFIL DE RENDIMIENTO TÉCNICO DEL EQUIPO TETRACAMPEÓN DE LA LIGA SUPERIOR DE BALONCESTO DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Sánchez Ureña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar y contrastar el perfil de rendimiento técnico del equipo tetracampeón de la Liga Superior de Baloncesto de Costa Rica. Se registró 142 juegos a lo largo de las temporadas 2007, 2008 y 2009. Los indicadores de rendimiento escogido fueron: lanzamientos de dos y tres puntos (convertidos, fallados, porcentaje de efectividad, lanzamientos de tiro libre (convertidos, fallados, porcentaje de efectividad, puntos, rebotes defensivos y ofensivos, faltas, pérdidas de balón, asistencias y robos de balón. La descripción de la información se basó en valores de frecuencia absoluta y relativa. El contraste de datos por temporada y periodo de juego se hizo con base en las técnicas no paramétricas U-test, test de Friedman y el Chi 2. En todos los casos se utilizó el SPSS versión 15.0 con un nivel de significancia de p ≤ 0,05. Los resultados mostraron un mejor perfil de rendimiento técnico en la temporada 2008, caracterizándose por mejores porcentajes en tiros de 2, tiros libres, menor número de pérdidas de balón y mayor cantidad de robos del balón y asistencias. En relación con el periodo de juego, el equipo mostró un mejor perfil de rendimiento técnico durante los segundos tiempos del partido. En general, el porcentaje de efectividad de tiros de 2 y tiros libres estuvo arriba del 60 % en ambos periodos de juego, mientras que el porcentaje de tiros de 3 osciló entre el 26.4 % y el 29.2 %. En conclusión, el equipo mostró un perfil de rendimiento técnico similar al reportado en la literatura y deja clara evidencia de la importancia que tiene el registro y seguimiento de los indicadores de rendimiento técnico en el baloncesto.

  18. Soldagem por ponto no estado sólido de ligas leves Solid state spot welding of lightweight alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Contri Campanelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A recente preocupação quanto às mudanças climáticas vem impulsionando pesquisas em eficiência energética dos meios de transportes no sentido de reduzir a emissão de gases. Uma das principais soluções consiste na redução do peso estrutural através da aplicação de novos materiais, como as ligas leves de alumínio e magnésio. Entretanto, novos usos ficam muitas vezes limitados pela dificuldade de união desses materiais. A técnica de soldagem por fricção e mistura (FSW é um processo de união no estado sólido que surge como uma alternativa viável para substituir ou complementar as tecnologias de união consagradas. Como uma junta contínua não é sempre a requisitada, duas tecnologias de união por ponto derivadas do FSW estão em desenvolvimento: soldagem por fricção e mistura por ponto (FSSW e soldagem por fricção por ponto (FSpW. Além de fornecerem juntas de elevada resistência e praticamente isentas de defeitos, estas técnicas apresentam alta eficiência energética, curto ciclo de soldagem, facilidade de automação e compatibilidade com o meio-ambiente, fazendo frente às técnicas convencionais de união por ponto, como a soldagem por resistência por ponto (RSW e a rebitagem.The recent concern about climate change has stimulated research into transport energy efficiency in order to reduce the emission of gases. One of the main solutions is to reduce the structural weight through the application of new materials, such as aluminum and magnesium lightweight alloys. However, new applications are often limited by the difficulty of joining these materials. Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid state joining technique that emerges as a viable alternative to replace or complement the established joining technologies. As a continuous weld is not always requested, two spot welding technologies derived from FSW are under development: Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW and Friction Spot Welding (FSpW. Besides providing

  19. Accuracy of Sphygmomanometers

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Okay

    2014-01-01

    One of the factors affecting the accuracy of readings of blood pressure is the equipment used. Defects or inaccuracy of aneroid sphygmomanometers may be source of error in blood pressure measurement. We inspected 100 sphygmomanometers for physical defects and assessed their accuracy against a standard mercury manometer at four different pressure points. 46 of the 100 sphygmomanometers were determined to be intolerant (deviation from the mercury manometer by greater than±3 mm Hg at two or more...

  20. Avaliação da Capacidade de Decisão em Psiquiatria de Ligação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Lopes Vicente

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Entre as funções do psiquiatra de ligação, encontra-se a avaliação da capacidade de decidir. Esta envolve a capacidade de fazer escolhas de forma autónoma e surge de forma relevante na prática clínica diária como pré-condição ao consentimento informado. Objetivos: Os autores pretendem rever o pro- cesso subjacente à avaliação da capacidade de decisão, assim como outra informação relevante publicada a este respeito. Métodos: Revisão não sistemática da literatura através da pesquisa eletrónica nos motores de busca Medline/Pubmed. Resultados: A capacidade de decidir apenas pode ser avaliada relativamente a uma decisão em particular, sendo que o seu resultado não é necessariamente estável ao longo do tempo. Da mesma forma, não existe nenhum diagnóstico que permita concluir, por si só, pela incapacidade para decidir ou que possibilite prescindir da sua avaliação. Depende de vários fatores: conteúdo, forma do pensa- mento e funções cognitivas. Pode igualmente ser influenciada pelo nível de instrução do indivíduo,  traços  da  personalidade,  estados emocionais/mecanismos de coping ou fatores circunstanciais. Qualquer  médico  deverá  estar  habilitado para  a  realização  desta  avaliação.  O  psiquiatra  de  ligação  deve  ser  envolvido  perante  a  suspeita  de  doença  mental  capaz de  prejudicar  a  capacidade  de  consentir ou  perante  a  necessidade  de  validar  uma avaliação já realizada. Appelbaum e Grisso propuseram  uma  avaliação  sistematizada segundo os seguintes critérios: a comunicação da escolha, b compreensão, c apreciação  e  d  processo  de  decisão  racional/ raciocínio.  Numa  tentativa  de  minimizar diferenças entre avaliadores, foram desenvolvidos vários instrumentos de avaliação, entre os quais se destaca a MacArthur Competence  Assessment  Tool.  Particularmente nos doentes com d

  1. Evaluating Measurement Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. Although multiple measurements are the focus of current theory, single measurements are the ones most commonly used. This book answers fundamental questions not addressed by present theory, such as how to discover the complete uncertainty of a measurement result. In developing a general theory of processing experimental data, this book, for the first time, presents the postulates of the theory of measurements. It introduces several new terms and definitions about the relationship between the accuracy of measuring instruments and measurements utilizing these instruments. It also offers well-grounded and practical methods for combining the components of measurement inaccuracy. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction in place of the traditional ones, this work encompasses the ful...

  2. Restaurações com amálgama: análise rugosimétrica utilizando-se cinco tipos de ligas e quatro técnicas de polimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CENTOLA André Luiz Baracchini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram o efeito de quatro diferentes técnicas de polimento de restaurações de amálgama feitas em laboratório com duas ligas convencionais e três ligas com alto teor de cobre, sendo o polimento realizado no tempo de 168 horas após a condensação. A utilização de brocas multilaminadas para o acabamento superficial dos corpos-de-prova exibiu níveis de rugosidade semelhante aos corpos-de-prova não polidos. No tocante às ligas utilizadas, a liga DFL mostrou os mais altos valores de rugosidade superficial, enquanto a liga GS 80 exibiu os melhores valores. A trituração foi efetuada segundo a indicação dos fabricantes e o amálgama foi condensado em uma matriz de aço fabricada especialmente para a pesquisa. A matriz tinha uma cavidade de 4,0 mm de diâmetro com 2,0 mm de profundidade. Cinco minutos após a condensação, foi feita a escultura com uma lâmina de aço e em seguida a brunidura. Depois de 25 minutos, o corpo-de-prova de amálgama era retirado utilizando-se um parafuso da própria matriz. Então, 168 h após a condensação, os corpos-de-prova eram polidos e submetidos aos testes de rugosimetria.

  3. The Truth about Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buekens, F.A.I.; Truyen, Frederick; Martini, Carlo; Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    When we evaluate the outcomes of investigative actions as justified or unjustified, good or bad, rational or irrational, we make, in a broad sense of the term, evaluative judgements about them. We look at operational accuracy as a desirable and evaluable quality of the outcomes and explore how the c

  4. Solidificação rápida e avaliação de estabilidade de fases de ligas Ti-Si-B

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Cristiane Gandolpho Candioto

    2009-01-01

    Materiais com fases intermetálicas têm sido avaliados para aplicações estruturais em altas temperaturas devido à baixa massa específica e interessantes propriedades de resistência mecânica e resistência à oxidação de vários compostos. As ligas de Ti são reconhecidas pela sua excelente combinação de alta-resistência, baixa massa específica e alta resistência à corrosão. Tendo em vista a importância de estudos em temperaturas na faixa de 700 a 1000 oC para futuras aplicações, avaliou-se neste t...

  5. Obtenção e caracterização mecanico-metalurgica da liga Al-4,5 wt% Cu no estado reofundido

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio Jose Zoqui

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção de estruturas reofirndidas da liga Al-4,5wt%Cu, sua caracterização macro e microestrutural, bem como de suas propriedades mecânicas por ensaios de tração e análise de superficies de fratura; e sua comparação com estruturas fundidas. Reofundidos com diferentes tamanhos de grãos e glóbulos foram produzidospor método de tratamento isotérmico à temperaturasuperior à solidus a partir de estruturas fundidas com diferentes tamanhos de grãos e de ...

  6. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e o HIV/AIDS: enfermagem discutindo essas ligações perigosas para as mulheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara de Moraes Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo principal discutir as ligações perigosas entre as DSTs e o HIV/AIDS pelo prisma do gênero e da sexualidade. Apresenta a feminização da AIDS no Brasil como produto das relações sociais, econômicas, políticas e culturais. Pesquisa descritiva exploratória de natureza qualitativa. Focaliza mulheres com HIV/AIDS que se contaminaram através de relações sexuais com parceiros fixos e únicos. Conclui que o cuidado de enfermagem, no contexto do processo saúde-doença, constitui-se em uma das principais oportunidades para a (o enfermeira (o trabalhar o diagnóstico precoce, o tratamento e a prevenção das DSTs e da AIDS.

  7. A 90 años de la fundación de la Liga Feminista Costarricense: los derechos políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Solano Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available : Repaso de los derechos políticos de las mujeres con motivo del 90 aniversario de la fundación de la Liga Feminista Costarricense el 12 de octubre de 1923 en el Colegio Superior de Señoritas. El artículo ofrece un breve recorrido histórico de la participación de mujeres en hechos sociales y políticos relacionados con procesos electorales y la demanda del derecho el sufragio para las mujeres durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX y hasta 1925 en Costa Rica. Destaca algunas acciones de dos sufragistas descollantes durante los años 1912 a 1925, Ángela Acuña y Sara Casal.

  8. A New Self-assembly Metal CMG Discriminator by Multi-exposure LiGA Like Process and Sacrificial Layer Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The counter-meshing gears (CMG) discriminator is amechanically ceded lock, which is used to prevent the occurrenceof High Censequence Events. Tnis paper advanced a new kind of self- asesembly metal CMG discriminator based on multi-exposure LiGA like process and sacrificial layer process. The new CMG discriminator has the followingcharacters except low cost: 1) it has only diserimination teeth sectins; 2) the thickness of each gear layer exceedsone hundred micrometers; 3) it is axially driven by a separate electronic magnetic micromotor direetly; 4) its CMG is made of metal and is batch fabricated in theassembled state; 5) it is prevented from rotating in the opposite direction by pawl/ratchet wheel mechanism; 6) it has simpler structure. This device has better strength and reliability in abnormal environment comppared to the existing surface micro machining (SMM) discriminator.

  9. Emprego de ligas de cobre como detector eletroquímico de aminoácidos em cromatografo de íons

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Costa Bassetto

    2014-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta os desenvolvimentos realizados para a aplicação de ligas de cobre como detector de aminoácidos em cromatografia de íons. O trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento desde estudos eletroquímicos fundamentais, onde a propriedade de metais como ouro, atual padrão para a técnica, e cobre são investigados frente aos aminoácidos. Neste passo a técnica de voltametria cíclica foi escolhida, pois permitiu explorar os vários fenômenos que ocorrem nos processos de óxido redução das...

  10. Resistência à corrosão de ligas Ni-Cr-Mo em meios fluoretados para aplicações odontológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, José Wilson De Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Um grande número de ligas metálicas é usado na Odontologia para fabricação de próteses fixas e removíveis. Na cavidade oral essas estruturas estão expostas a um meio quimicamente adverso, com a saliva sendo o agente mais corrosivo, devido à alta concentração de íons cloreto que são causadores de corrosão localizada. Além disso, soluções contendo íons fluoreto também são frequentemente utilizadas em agentes profiláticos nos tratamentos dentários para prevenir a formação de placas dentárias e o...

  11. A case study of the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season with daily geocoded Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Ruchit; Yuan, Qingyu; Freifeld, Clark C; Santillana, Mauricio; Nojima, Aaron; Chunara, Rumi; Brownstein, John S

    2014-10-20

    Twitter has shown some usefulness in predicting influenza cases on a weekly basis in multiple countries and on different geographic scales. Recently, Broniatowski and colleagues suggested Twitter's relevance at the city-level for New York City. Here, we look to dive deeper into the case of New York City by analyzing daily Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives. Also, through manual coding of all tweets, we look to gain qualitative insights that can help direct future automated searches. The intent of the study was first to validate the temporal predictive strength of daily Twitter data for influenza-like illness emergency department (ILI-ED) visits during the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season against other available and established datasets (Google search query, or GSQ), and second, to examine the spatial distribution and the spread of geocoded tweets as proxies for potential cases. From the Twitter Streaming API, 2972 tweets were collected in the New York City region matching the keywords "flu", "influenza", "gripe", and "high fever". The tweets were categorized according to the scheme developed by Lamb et al. A new fourth category was added as an evaluator guess for the probability of the subject(s) being sick to account for strength of confidence in the validity of the statement. Temporal correlations were made for tweets against daily ILI-ED visits and daily GSQ volume. The best models were used for linear regression for forecasting ILI visits. A weighted, retrospective Poisson model with SaTScan software (n=1484), and vector map were used for spatiotemporal analysis. Infection-related tweets (R=.763) correlated better than GSQ time series (R=.683) for the same keywords and had a lower mean average percent error (8.4 vs 11.8) for ILI-ED visit prediction in January, the most volatile month of flu. SaTScan identified primary outbreak cluster of high-probability infection tweets with a 2.74 relative risk ratio compared to medium

  12. Microhardness of Ni-Cr alloys under different casting conditions Microdureza de ligas de Ni-Cr fundidas sob diferentes condições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto de Oliveira Bauer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the microhardness of Ni-Cr alloys used in fixed prosthodontics after casting under different conditions. The casting conditions were: (1-flame/air torch flame made of a gas/oxygen mixture and centrifugal casting machine in a non-controlled casting environment; (2-induction/argon electromagnetic induction in an environment controlled with argon; (3-induction/vacuum electromagnetic induction in a vacuum environment; (4-induction/air electromagnetic induction in a non-controlled casting environment. The 3 alloys used were Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti, Ni-Cr-Mo-Be, and Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb. Four castings with 5 cylindrical, 15 mm-long specimens (diameter: 1.6 mm in each casting ring were prepared. After casting, the specimens were embedded in resin and polished for Vickers microhardness (VH measurements in a Shimadzu HMV-2 (1,000 g for 10 s. A total of 5 indentations were done for each ring, one in each specimen. The data was subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (alpha = 0.05. The VH values of Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti (422 ± 7.8 were statistically higher (p 0.05 and lower than the values obtained in the conditions induction/air and flame/air torch (p 0.05. The microhardness of the alloys is influenced by their composition and casting method. The hardness of the Ni-Cr alloys was higher when they were cast with the induction/air and flame/air torch methods.Este estudo avaliou a microdureza de ligas de Ni-Cr usadas em prótese fixa fundidas sob diferentes condições. As condições de fundição foram: (1-maçarico chama composta por uma mistura de gás/oxigênio e centrífuga sem o controle do ambiente de fundição; (2-indução/argônio indução eletromagnética com o ambiente controlado com argônio; (3-indução/vácuo indução eletromagnética com o ambiente sob vácuo; (4-indução/ar indução eletromagnética sem o controle da atmosfera. Foram utilizadas três ligas: Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti, Ni-Cr-Mo-Be e Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb. Foram realizadas 4

  13. Reconceptualizing metacomprehension calibration accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Rylan Graham

    2012-01-01

    Accurate judgment of text comprehension is compulsory for learners to effectively self-regulate learning from text. Unfortunately, until relatively recently the literature on text comprehension judgment, termed metacomprehension, has shown learners to be inaccurate in their judgments. Over the last decade researchers have discovered that when learners use delayed summaries of text to make judgments metacomprehension accuracy increases. In contrast, when learners use individual differences (e....

  14. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  15. Efficient Error-Correcting Geocoding

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Christian; Knopp, Sebastian; Luxen, Dennis; Sanders, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of resolving a perhaps misspelled address of a location into geographic coordinates of latitude and longitude. Our data structure solves this problem within a few milliseconds even for misspelled and fragmentary queries. Compared to major geographic search engines such as Google or Bing we achieve results of significantly better quality.

  16. Testing Accuracy and Repeatability of UAV Blocks Oriented with GNSS-Supported Aerial Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Benassi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available UAV Photogrammetry today already enjoys a largely automated and efficient data processing pipeline. However, the goal of dispensing with Ground Control Points looks closer, as dual-frequency GNSS receivers are put on board. This paper reports on the accuracy in object space obtained by GNSS-supported orientation of four photogrammetric blocks, acquired by a senseFly eBee RTK and all flown according to the same flight plan at 80 m above ground over a test field. Differential corrections were sent to the eBee from a nearby ground station. Block orientation has been performed with three software packages: PhotoScan, Pix4D and MicMac. The influence on the checkpoint errors of the precision given to the projection centers has been studied: in most cases, values in Z are critical. Without GCP, the RTK solution consistently achieves a RMSE of about 2–3 cm on the horizontal coordinates of checkpoints. In elevation, the RMSE varies from flight to flight, from 2 to 10 cm. Using at least one GCP, with all packages and all test flights, the geocoding accuracy of GNSS-supported orientation is almost as good as that of a traditional GCP orientation in XY and only slightly worse in Z.

  17. Restauração metalocerâmica: um estudo comparativo da compatibilidade térmica de ligas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLLO João Manuel Domingos de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações tecnológicas em que é necessário haver compatibilidade entre um material cerâmico e um material metálico é a confecção de restaurações odontológicas do tipo metalocerâmica. Neste caso, uma porcelana é fundida sobre um substrato metálico para obtenção da prótese de um dente. O requisito fundamental para o sucesso da união metalocerâmica é a adequação dos coeficientes de expansão térmica de cada um dos materiais, de forma a se obter um estado de tensão de compressão adequado na camada cerâmica. Este trabalho propôs-se a levantar as curvas de expansão térmica de ligas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas, através da técnica de dilatometria e verificar a possível compatibilidade térmica dos pares metal/cerâmica. Simulando a entrada de um novo produto no mercado, desenvolveu-se uma liga Ni-Cr experimental denominada SR, que foi comparada a uma liga comercial de Ni-Cr bastante utilizada em restaurações metalocerâmicas. A partir da análise das curvas de expansão térmica, foi possível verificar a compatibilidade dos pares metal/cerâmica quanto à dilatação térmica, segundo os conceitos preconizados por YAMAMOTO7 (1985. Sob este aspecto, a liga experimental apresentou valores que a incluem como mais uma opção na família de ligas Ni-Cr para utilização em restaurações metalocerâmicas. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o equipamento e a metodologia utilizados são adequados para análise comparativa da compatibilidade térmica entre ligas metálicas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas.

  18. Territoriality as a factor associated with home advantage. A comparative study by regions in professional Spanish football and futsal leagues La territorialidad como factor asociado a la ventaja de jugar en casa. Un estudio comparativo por regiones en la liga de fútbol y en la liga de fútbol sala de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sampedro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this research was to study home advantage in the professional Spanish football and futsal leagues in a general way, and to make a regional analysis to identify geographical variations and whether they can be interpreted in terms of territoriality as a factor associated with home advantage. Last fifteen seasons were examined, after the introduction of the current system of three points for a win in 1995-96. Home advantage found in the two leagues under study was close to the worldwide figure in football. Individual analysis after controlling team ability showed no significant differences between any of the teams. The analysis of specific regions from elsewhere in the country only showed significant differences that can be interpreted in terms of territoriality in Catalonia within futsal league. Catalan teams also presented the highest values for home advantage in the football league. This suggests considering Catalonia for future work as a region likely to be studied individually in terms of territoriality.
    Key Words:Home advantage, territoriality, regions, football, futsal

    El propósito de la investigación fue estudiar la ventaja de jugar en casa en la Liga de Fútbol Profesional y en la Liga Nacional de Fútbol Sala de España de modo general, y realizar un análisis por regiones para determinar qué variaciones geográficas se dan y si éstas pueden ser interpretadas en términos de la territorialidad como factor asociado a la ventaja de jugar en casa. Se estudiaron las últimas quince temporadas disputadas desde la implantación del sistema actual de tres puntos por victoria en la temporada 1995-96. Se encontró ventaja de jugar en casa en las dos ligas, con valores próximos a la media mundial del fútbol. El análisis individual tras ajustar el nivel de los equipos no mostró diferencias significativas entre los diferentes conjuntos. El análisis comparativo por

  19. A liga republicana das mulheres portuguesas e a enfermagem no século xx: leituras na imprensa feminista La “Liga Republicana das Mulheres Portuguesas” y la enfermería in el siglo XX: lecturas en los periódicos feministas The “Liga Republicana das Mulheres Portuguesas” and nursing profession in the XXth century: readings in the feminist press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Barros Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As representações que a sociedade associa à profissão de enfermagem e à enfermeira, muitas vezes contraditórias, persistem no imaginário individual e coletivo e pouco têm a ver com a evolução verificada no âmbito do exercício profissional, do ensino e da academia. As imagens associadas à enfermeira e à enfermagem inscrevem-se na memória dum passado mais ou menos longínquo e poderão ter uma justificação histórica, social e cultural. Desvendar do modo como as representações sociais associadas à enfermeira e à enfermagem se constituíram no passado poderá permitir-nos recriar, no presente, o percurso da nossa identidade profissional e compreender como, enquanto grupo social, produzimos, consumimos, divulgamos e assumimos imagens que definem essa própria identidade. Propomo-nos neste artigo dar a conhecer como a Liga Republicana das Mulheres Portuguesas (LRMP, no início do século XX, criou uma imagem positiva da enfermagem, desenvolvendo um discurso elogioso da profissão captando o interesse das mulheres para uma “profissão digna” que lhes possibilitaria a independência económica em caso de abandono ou viuvez. Utilizaremos um conjunto de artigos publicados na imprensa oficial da Liga: A Mulher e A Criança e A Madrugada dado que a imprensa foi uma importante forma de divulgação e doutrinação das ideias feministas.Las representaciones que la sociedad asocia con la profesión de enfermería y a la enfermera, a menudo contradictorias, persisten en el imaginario individual y colectivo y tienen poco que ver con la evolución en el campo profesional, la educación y la academia. Las imágenes asociadas con la enfermera y la enfermería están registradas en la memoria de un pasado más o menos lejano y pueden tener una justificación histórica, cultural y social. Descubrir cómo las representaciones asociadas con la enfermería y la enfermera se constituyeron nos permitirá recrear el curso de nuestra identidad

  20. Influência do teor de Mo na microestrutura de ligas Fe-9Cr-xMo Effect of the content of molybdenum in the microstructure of Fe-9Cr-xMo alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Freitas Guimarães

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aços Cr-Mo são usados na indústria do petróleo em aplicações com óleos crus ricos em compostos sulfurosos. Aços comerciais como 2.5Cr1Mo ou 9Cr1Mo têm se mostrado ineficientes em consequência de altos índices de corrosão naftênica. Uma estratégia para resolver este problema é o aumento do teor de molibdênio destes aços. Neste trabalho foi estudado o efeito do aumento do teor de molibdênio na microestrutura de ligas Fe-9Cr-xMo, solubilizadas e soldadas. Foram levantados os diagramas de fases com auxílio de um programa comercial para verificar as possíveis fases a serem formadas e identificar os problemas de soldagem. A microestrutura das ligas solubilizadas foi analisada por microscopia óptica e EBSD, além da medição da dureza. Foram realizadas soldagens autógenas para verificar o efeito do aporte térmico na microestrutura e na dureza das ligas. O aumento do teor de molibdênio resultou no aumento da dureza das ligas. A análise microestrutural das ligas soldadas apresentou uma particularidade para a liga com menor teor de molibdênio, a presença de martensita. Já as ligas com maior teor de molibdênio apresentaram uma microestrutura completamente ferrítica. A formação de martensita pode ser um problema na solda da liga com menor teor de molibdênio, uma vez que a mesma pode causar perdas nas propriedades mecânicas comprometendo sua aplicação.Cr-Mo steels are used in the petroleum industry in applications with crude oils rich in sulfur compounds. 2.5Cr1Mo or 9Cr1Mo do not resist to operating conditions when in contact with crude oils. The increasing of molybdenum content can improve the corrosion resistance of these alloys. This paper studied the effect of increased concentration of molybdenum in the microstructure of Fe-9Cr-xMo alloys, annealed and welded. Phase diagrams were built with the aid of commercial program to check the possible phases to be formed and to identify the problems of welding. Analyses were

  1. Forças de Corte Geradas por Torneamento um Estudo de Caso das Ligas Cu-Al-Be e Cu-Al-Be-Nb-Ni Passíveis do Efeito Memória de Forma

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As ligas com memória de forma, mais especificamente as constituídas de CuAlBe, têm desempenhado um papel importante na fabricação de componentes eletromecânicos, sobretudo quando trabalhados a partir de solicitações térmicas e/ou tensões aplicadas. A princípio, neste presente trabalho de pesquisa, foram obtidas, por fundição a gás, amostras das ligas Cu-11,8%Al-0,60%Be; Cu-11,8%Al-0,55%Be; Cu-11,8%Al-0,55%Be-0,50%Nb-0,27%Ni (% em peso). Sequencialmente, temperou-se a metade delas, com o intui...

  2. Towards Understanding Spontaneous Speech Word Accuracy vs. Concept Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, M; Gallwitz, F; Goerz, G; Hanrieder, G; Niemann, H

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe an approach to automatic evaluation of both the speech recognition and understanding capabilities of a spoken dialogue system for train time table information. We use word accuracy for recognition and concept accuracy for understanding performance judgement. Both measures are calculated by comparing these modules' output with a correct reference answer. We report evaluation results for a spontaneous speech corpus with about 10000 utterances. We observed a nearly linear relationship between word accuracy and concept accuracy.

  3. LIGA Technology and Its Application in Miniature Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Array%LIGA技术及其在四级质谱计阵列微型化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁军平; 周抗寒; 黄刚; 凌波; 刘学博

    2004-01-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer array (QMSA) is the most important embranchment in the miniaturization of the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). Making miniature mass filter is one of the key technology in the manufacture of QMSA. In this paper, the method of LIGA technology and its application in making mass spectrometer are introduced. This resolve radically the question how to making a miniature QMS in volume, weight, power and cost.

  4. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant.

  5. Relação entre toxicidade de proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a receptores intestinais de lepidópteros-praga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cristina Marucci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de novas proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino de lagartas neonatas de Spodoptera frugiperda, Anticarsia gemmatalise Heliothis virescens. Proteínas expressas pelos genes vip3Aa42 e vip3Aa43 mostraram-se tóxicas a S. frugiperda (CL50 de 78,2 e 113 ng cm-2, respectivamente e A. gemmatalis(CL50 de 239,2 e 57,5 ng cm-2, respectivamente, e pouco tóxicas a H. virescens (CL50>5.000 ng cm-2. Os ensaios de ligação às VMMA mostraram que as proteínas unem-se de forma efetiva aos receptores nas vesículas das espécies avaliadas, mas essa capacidade de ligação somente é efetiva na ativação da toxicidade para as populações avaliadas de S. frugiperdae A. gemmatalis.

  6. The value of spleen subpedicle two steps severance with LigaSure in laparoscopic splenectomy%二级脾蒂结扎速两步离断法在腹腔镜脾切除术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广义; 刘亚辉; 吕国悦; 刘凯; 张威; 李楠; 谭毓铨

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨腹腔镜脾切除术采用结扎速血管闭合系统(LigaSure)二级脾蒂两步离断法处理脾蒂及联合应用超声刀离断脾周韧带的安全性、有效性及经济性.方法 总结分析32例腹腔镜脾切除术应用LigaSure二级脾蒂两步离断法及联合超声刀离断脾周韧带的体会及治疗效果.其中男性4例,女性28例;年龄16~64岁,中位年龄36岁.脾脏长径11~23 cm,平均长径17 cm;特发性血小板减少性紫癜19例、遗传性球形红细胞增多症6例(其中同一家系5例)、溶血性贫血3例、脾外伤血肿感染2例、Evan综合征1例、白血病1例.术中采用LigaSure及超声刀相结合离断脾周韧带,当脾蒂处于充分游离的状态时,采取二级脾蒂LigaSure两步离断法切断脾蒂.第一步在胰尾侧用LigaSure先闭合脾蒂但不切断,第二步于脾侧用LigaSure闭合脾蒂并切断.结果 32例手术均获成功,其中4例家族性遗传性球形红细胞增多症患者同时联合腹腔镜胆囊切除术,无中转手术,平均手术时间70 min(55~130 min),术中平均出血200 ml(50~600 ml),无腹腔出血、无内脏损伤、无胰漏及腹腔感染等并发症,全部治愈出院,平均术后住院6 d.手术免除应用Endo-GIA,平均每例节省手术费用8050元(920~6900元).结论 腹腔镜脾切除术中应用LigaSure二级脾蒂两步离断法处理脾蒂及联合超声刀离断脾周韧带安全可靠,手术时间明显缩短,出血少,且可降低医疗费用,实现了低成本微创外科.%Objective To evaluate the safety and utility of the Methods of spleen subpedicle two steps severance with LigaSure Vessel Sealing System combined with ultrasound scalpel to resect perisplenic ligaments during laparoscopic splenectomy. Methods The Methods and the curative effect of 32 patients with laparoscopic splenectomy performed by the way as mentioned above were summarized and analyzed. 4 males,28 females,median 36 years(range 16-64 years). Mean

  7. Avaliação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel 625 Depositados pelo Processo Eletroescória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Simões Sandes

    Full Text Available Resumo A aplicação de revestimentos de ligas de níquel é comumente realizada na indústria de petróleo e gás para aumento da vida de equipamentos em ambientes agressivos, dado que este procedimento melhora a resistência à corrosão, sem um aumento significativo do custo de produção quando comparado com equipamentos maciços fabricados com outras ligas. Normalmente, as juntas são soldadas pelos processos de eletrodos revestidos, MIG/MAG ou TIG. Neste aspecto, o processo eletroescória realiza deposições com elevada energia de soldagem e baixa diluição, podendo ser uma opção interessante, uma vez que proporciona uma elevada produtividade, permitindo a soldagem com aplicação de apenas uma camada. O presente trabalho avalia propriedades mecânicas, microestruturais e de corrosão de revestimentos de liga de níquel 625 depositada em aço carbono ASTM A516 Grau 70 pelo processo eletroescória, tanto na condição como soldado quanto tratado termicamente. A deposição foi realizada com uma e duas camadas sobre chapas de dimensão 50x400x400 mm, na posição plana e energia de soldagem média de 11,7 kJ/mm. Após a soldagem realizou-se tratamento térmico a 620°C por 10 horas, sendo esta condição comparada ao estado de como soldado. Os ensaios de dobramento não indicaram evidências de defeitos. A avaliação microestrutural realizada por microscopia ótica (MO, eletrônica de varredura (MEV e eletrônica de transmissão (MET mostrou uma microestrutura austenítica para o depósito com pequena fração volumétrica de fases secundárias e o tratamento térmico de alívio de tensões não promoveu mudanças significativas nas propriedades. Na região de grãos grosseiros da zona termicamente afetada (RGGZTA foi observada a ocorrência de ferrita pró-eutetóide, perlita e bainita para o depósito com 1 camada e basicamente ferrita e perlita refinadas para o deposito com 2 passes devido às baixas taxas de resfriamento

  8. Automatic Geocoding of SAR Image Using SRTM DEM and Landsat TM Image%基于SRTM DEM和Landsat TM数据的SAR图像自动地理编码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕平; 凌飞龙; 吴波

    2013-01-01

    The special slant-range imaging mode of Radar image makes it difficult to use traditional correction method to geocode it.Commonly we simulate a radar image using DEM and SAR geometry information to geocode a real SAR image.In the application of regional cartographic imaging,when we encounter flat areas,the features of simulated SAR image are not so obvious,making its failure to match the real SAR image and failure of automatic correction of a wide range of SAR image.In this paper,we analyzed and discussed the principle and process of the image simulation and image matching.By achieving the automatic determination of the offset between radar image and simulated SAR image matching the signal-noise ratio requirements or not,we can automatically determine whether or not to use the TM image which contain thematic information of feature,instead of the simulated SAR image for matching with the real radar image.The method achieves automatic geocoding of mass SAR image as the same time.%合成孔径雷达(SAR)图像特殊的斜距成像方式使得利用传统的校正方法很难校正雷达图像.常用的方法是利用DEM和SAR成像几何信息模拟的SAR图像对真实SAR图像进行校正.在区域制图中,平坦地区由于没有地形起伏特征,使得模拟SAR图像特征不明显,无法建立与真实SAR图像的配准关系.本文在研究大范围SAR图像自动化地理编码的过程中,分析讨论了图像模拟和图像匹配的原理和过程,实现了自动判断模拟SAR图像与真实SAR图像的匹配偏移量是否达到信噪比要求,从而自动判断是否使用具有地物专题信息的TM图像代替模拟SAR图像和真实SAR图像进行匹配,实现了海量SAR图像地理编码的自动化.

  9. Herança e ligação em locos de isoenzimas em Genipa americana L. Inheritance and linkage in isozymes loci of Genipa americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno SEBBENN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A herança e a ligação foram estudadasem quatro locos polimórficos (6pghd-1, Pgi-2,Mdh-1 e Mdh-2 de três sistemas isoenzimáticos deGenipa americana, analisados por eletroforesehorizontal em gel de amido, usando tecidoscoletados de quinze progênies de polinização aberta,procedentes de Moji-Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo.Esses locos segregaram de dois a três alelos.A segregação nesses locos foi homogênea entreárvores. Contudo, existem desvios significativos dasegregação esperada 1:1 para algumas árvores emalguns locos. Desvios significativos da razão desegregação esperada 1:1 foram detectados noslocos Mdh-2 e 6pgdh-1. Não foram detectadasevidências de ligação entre nenhum dos pares delocos avaliados em G. americana e esses podemser utilizados sem restrição para estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética depopulações da espécie.Inheritance and linkage for fourpolymorphic loci (6pghd-1, Pgi-2, Mdh-1 andMdh-2 from three enzyme systems in Genipaamericana were analyzed by horizontal starch gelelectrophoresis using tissues collected from fiftyopen-pollinated families in Moji-Guaçu, São PauloState. These allozyme loci have segregated fromtwo to four alleles per polymorphic locus. Genesegregation on those loci was homogeneous amongtrees. However, there were significant deviationsfrom the expected segregation ratios on some lociand some individual trees. In addition, Mdh-2 and6pgdh-1 loci have shown significant deviationsfrom the 1:1 expected segregation ratio. Linkagedisequilibrium evidences were not detected betweenany two pairs of loci from G. americana and thosecan be used with no restriction to study the matingsystem, genetic diversity, and genetic structure onthe species.

  10. A deficiência mental na concepção da liga brasileira de higiene mental Mental disability in the conception of brazilian league of mental hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Luckesi de Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é investigar a concepção e as propostas de atendimento escolar destinado aos deficientes mentais segundo o ideário higienista e eugenista difundido pela Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental (LBHM. Para tanto, utilizamos como fonte primária de estudo os Arquivos Brasileiros de Higiene Mental (ABHM, periódico publicado entre 1925 e 1947. Verificamos que a LBHM expressa diferentes opiniões quanto à concepção e às medidas de intervenção propostas para os deficientes mentais. De um lado, propõe a higienização da população, a ser alcançada com a formação de hábitos sadios através da educação escolar e especificamente da educação higiênica, com a possível adaptação do deficiente ao meio social. De outro, defende uma posição eugênica radical, que apregoa a purificação da raça, a esterilização e exclusão dos ditos degenerados (leprosos, loucos, idiotas, epilépticos, cancerosos, nefrolíticos, tuberculosos, prostitutas, vagabundos e deficientes mentais.The aim of this study is to investigate the conception and proposals of schooling for individuals with mental disability according to the hygienic and eugenic ideology divulged by the Brazilian League for Mental Hygiene (Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental, LBHM. To this end, we used as a primary source the Brazilian Archives of Mental Hygiene (Arquivos Brasileiros de Higiene Mental, ABHM, a newspaper published from 1925 to 1947. We concluded that there were various opinions in the LBHM about the conception and proposed intervention methods for individuals with mental disability. On one side, there were proposals of population cleansing to be achieved through healthy habits taught in schools, mainly hygienic education, with possible adaptation of the disabled individual to society. On the other hand, there was an extreme eugenic proposal that emphasized race purification, sterilization and exclusion of so-called degenerate individuals (lepers

  11. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  12. Dialética do processo de trabalho da liga de hipertensão arterial Dialetic to the labour process in the hypertension league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Car

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se compreender o fenômeno da assistência à saúde desenvolvida na Liga de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da Hipertensão Arterial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP,evidenciando suas contradições através da articulação dos elementos constitutivos deste processo de trabalho,contidos nos depoimentos de seus agentes. As concepções dos agentes sobre este processo de trabalho expressaram uma práxis reiterativa, consagrando e consolidando um dado saber específico que,para além de ser Meio da ação interventiva sobre o Objeto,configura-se num saber ideológico dominante na área de saúde.This study deals with the health assistance phenomena as it occurs in a hypertension league. The purpose of this research is to aprehend the contradictions, both internal and external, to the League labour process phenomena and, doing so, to enable the quest of alternative solutions to the quality assistance of transformation. The investigation reveals that the health workers conceptions about their labour process express a reiterative, non-creative and non-reflexive praxis. This way, it configures itself as a dominant and ideological one, beyond the fact of being an instrumental knowledge of intervention over the Object.

  13. The influence of screw type, alloy and cylinder position on the marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding Influência do tipo de parafuso, liga e da posição do cilindro na adaptação marginal das infra-estruturas sob implantes antes e após a soldagem a laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castilio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. METHODS: After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected prosthetic components. Five specimens were one-piece cast in titanium and five in cobalt-chromium alloy. On each specimen, tests were conducted with hexagonal titanium and slotted gold screws separately, performing a total of thirty tested screws. Measurements at the interfaces were performed using an optical microscope with 5mm accuracy. After sectioning, specimens were laser welded and new measurements were obtained. Data were submitted to a four-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (alpha=0.05. RESULTS: Slotted and hexagonal screws did not present significant differences regarding to the fit of cylinders cast in titanium, either in one-piece casting framework or after laser welding. When slotted and hexagonal screws were tested on the cobalt-chromium specimens, statistically significant differences were found for the one-piece casting condition, with the slotted screws presenting better fit (24.13µm than the hexagonal screws (27.93 µm. Besides, no statistically significant differences were found after laser welding. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The use of different metal alloys do exert influence on the marginal fit, 2 The slotted and hexagonal screws play the exclusive role of fixing the prosthesis, and did not improve the fit of cylinders, and 3 cylinder position did not affect marginal fit values.A desadaptação na interface abutment-cilindro protético pode causar perda da pré-carga, levando ao afrouxamento ou fratura dos parafusos de ouro e tit

  14. Determining Geometric Accuracy in Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong; Chi; Kit; A; Geddam

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical components machined to high levels of ac cu racy are vital to achieve various functional requirements in engineering product s. In particular, the geometric accuracy of turned components play an important role in determining the form, fit and function of mechanical assembly requiremen ts. The geometric accuracy requirements of turned components are usually specifi ed in terms of roundness, straightness, cylindricity and concentricity. In pract ice, the accuracy specifications achievable are infl...

  15. Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Ding

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram.

  16. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  17. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically diff...... classification accuracy obscures the aim of MGR: to select labels indistinguishable from those a person would choose....

  18. Avaliação da fundibilidade de uma liga de cobalto-cromo Castability evaluation of a cobalt-chromium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana da Fonte Porto CARREIRO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propusemo-nos a avaliar a fundibilidade de uma liga de cobalto-cromo (VERA-PDI em função da utilização de três revestimentos: Knebel (aglutinado por sílica, Termocast e Wirovest (aglutinados por fosfato e duas temperaturas de aquecimento para o molde (900°C e 950°C. Para a execução do teste foi utilizado o método descrito por HINMAN et al.9 (1985. O método de fundição foi o de cera perdida sob chama de gás-oxigênio. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análise estatística e demonstraram não haver diferença estatisticamente significante para os revestimentos Knebel e Wirovest, e diferença estatisticamente significante ao nível de 0,1% para o revestimento Termocast quando da variação da temperatura de aquecimento do molde. Quando analisamos os revestimentos sob temperatura do molde de 900°C verificamos diferença estatisticamente significante entre Knebel e Termocast e Knebel e Wirovest ao nível de 0,1%, e diferença entre Termocast e Wirovest ao nível de 5%. Para a temperatura de 950°C houve diferença estatisticamente significante ao nível de 0,1% entre todos os revestimentos. Dentro dos parâmetros utilizados neste estudo pudemos concluir que, para a liga VERA-PDI, a utilização do revestimento Knebel e temperatura de aquecimento do molde de 950°C proporcionaram melhores resultados quanto à fundibilidade.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the castability of a cobalt-chromium alloy (Vera-PDI using three investments: Knebel (agglutinated by silica, Termocast and Wirovest (both agglutinated by phosphate at two molding temperatures (900°C and 950°C; using HINMAN et al.9 (1985; methodology. The casting method of using a wax and gas-oxygen flame was used. There was no significant statistical difference between the Knebel and Wirovest investments; however, there was a statistically significant difference for Termocast investment (P < 0.1 at the different temperatures. When analyzing the

  19. ¿Tienen los árbitros de fútbol influencia en los resultados de la liga española?

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    Sala Garrido, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo analiza los resultados de las temporadas 2002-03 a 2007-08 de la Liga Española de Primera División con el fin de determinar la influencia de los árbitros en los mismos, tanto desde el punto de vista del tiempo extra que añaden, como de las sanciones disciplinarias (faltas y tarjetas a los equipos. Se estudia también la influencia que sobre las decisiones del árbitro puede tener la afición del equipo local. Se concluye que no puede afirmarse que la exista influencia arbitral de forma generalizada, aunque algunos árbitros en concreto sí parecen influir en los resultados. El análisis permite también confirmar algo ya sabido, el escaso valor del tiempo extra para cambiar el resultado de un partido.ABSTRACT This paper analyses the results of the 2002-03 to 2007-08 seasons of the First Division Spanish Football League with the aim of determining the influence of referees in them, both from the point of view of the extra time they allow, as well as the disciplinary sanctions (fouls and cards given to the teams. The influence that the supporters of the local team may have over the referee’s decisions is also studied. The conclusion is that it is not possible to confirm the existence of referee influence in a general sense, although some specific referees do seem to have an influence on the results. This analysis also confirms something already known, which is the minimal value of extra time in changing the results of a match.

  20. Estudos da preparação de superfície da liga AA6063T5 e do desenvolvimento de revestimentos híbridos orgânico-inorgânicos a base de siloxano-PMMA para aplicação anticorrosiva

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Dilton Gonçalves [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho está basicamente dividido em duas partes. A primeira está relacionada à limpeza da superfície da liga de alumínio AA6063T5 e sua influência na proteção contra a corrosão. A segunda parte se refere à preparação de revestimentos híbridos orgânicoinorgânico pelo processo sol-gel e deposição sobre a superfície da liga de alumínio por dipcoating. Três amostras de liga AA6063T5 foram investigadas: como recebida, debastada e polida mecanicamente e tratada quimicamente. O tratamento mec...

  1. Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Zakarauskas, Pierre; Dixon, Matt; Ellamil, Melissa; Thompson, Evan; Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1–15,000 hrs experience). Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a ‘body-scanning’ meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold) as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices. PMID:23049790

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DA ESCÓRIA Fe-Cr BAIXO CARBONO E RECUPERAÇÃO DA LIGA METÁLICA POR MESA CONCENTRADORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria dos Santos Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A escória Fe-Cr baixo carbono, é um dos principais resíduos advindos do processo metalúrgico para obtenção de liga de Fe-Cr. Este resíduo não possui aplicação e encontra-se acumulado em pátios, conforme regulamentação de órgãos ambientais. Este trabalho teve por finalidade caracterizar, sob os aspectos químicos e físicos, a escória Fe-Cr baixo carbono, pertencente à Companhia de Ferro e Ligas da Bahia S/A, FERBASA. Também foram realizados ensaios de concentração gravítica com a finalidade de remover a liga de Fe-Cr ainda residual na escória. As amostras da escória, após as etapas de preparação, foram submetidas aos ensaios de classificação granulométrica, FRX, lupa binocular e MEV-EDS. A análise dos resultados obtidos por lupa binocular indicou a existência, na escória, de grãos de quartzo, fragmento de rocha/minério e de fases metálicas e vítreas. As análises químicas revelaram teores de 30% de CaO, 15% de MgO e 12% de Cr2O3, com partículas metálicas contendo os elementos Fe e Cr associados. As investigações realizadas em mesas concentradoras possibilitaram a obtenção de um concentrado com aproximadamente 25% de Cr, sugerindo a reutilização do mesmo no processo siderúrgico de obtenção da liga de Fe-Cr.

  3. Análisis de los goles conseguidos en 13 temporadas (2000/01-2012/13 correspondientes a la Primera División de la Liga Española de Fútbol Profesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Flores

    2016-06-01

    Conclusiones: La superioridad de los equipos más potentes parece clara, quizás excesiva, respecto al resto de equipos que participan en la principal liga española de fútbol. También se ha incrementado la probabilidad de que se consiga un número elevado de goles (> 5 goles en un partido. Esto provoca que la distribución del número de goles por partido sea del tipo binomial negativa.

  4. Metodologias para modelagem e análise da fadiga em ligações rebitadas com aplicação em pontes metálicas ferroviárias.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritermayer Monteiro Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    O processo de fadiga em pontes metálicas ferroviárias é um relevante problema de infraestrutura, largamente reconhecido como uma questão de segurança estrutural que precisa ser melhor compreendida. Apesar dos recentes avanços no campo da modelagem computacional, a aplicação de abordagens modernas para avaliação do comportamento à fadiga de ligações rebitadas típicas de pontes ainda é pouco explorada e impõe desafios. Nesse contexto, esta tese visa implementar metodologias de análise global-lo...

  5. Influence of stiffness in bolted connections in wooden plane structure of truss type Influência da rigidez de ligações parafusadas em estruturas planas de madeira do tipo treliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Christoforo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trusses are structural systems commonly used in projects, being employed mainly in roof structures, present in most rural buildings. The design of trusses, as well as other structural systems, requires the determination of displacements, strains and stresses. However, the project is developed from an ideal model of calculation, considering free rotation between the elements of a connection. This paper presents a computer program for the analysis of bidimensional wooden trusses with connections formed with two screws per node. The formulation is based on the flexibility method, taking into account the influence of the effect of semi-rigid connections formed by two screws. An example of a structure is presented and analyzed by the program developed here, highlighting the importance of behavior analysis on semi-rigid connections.Treliças são sistemas estruturais comumente utilizados em projetos, empregadas principalmente em estruturas de cobertura, presentes na maioria das construções rurais. O dimensionamento de treliças, assim como o de outros sistemas estruturais, requer a determinação dos deslocamentos, esforços, tensões e deformações atuantes em seus elementos constituintes. O cálculo é desenvolvido com base em um modelo ideal, considerando-se o giro livre entre os elementos componentes de uma ligação. Este trabalho objetiva apresentar um programa computacional destinado à análise de treliças planas de madeira com ligações formadas com dois parafusos por nó. A formulação é fundamentada no Método da Flexibilidade, levando-se em consideração a influência do efeito semirrígido das ligações formadas por dois parafusos. Um exemplo de estrutura auxiliar de cobertura é apresentado e analisado pelo programa desenvolvido, evidenciando-se a importância da análise do comportamento semirrígido sobre as ligações.

  6. Revestimientos a base de sílica e ácido fosfônico para proteção anticorrosiva da liga de alumínio AA2024-T3

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Dalmoro

    2013-01-01

    A liga de alumínio AA2024-T3, extensivamente empregada na indústria aeronáutica, devido as microestruturas heterogêneas intencionalmente desenvolvidas para otimizar as propriedades mecânicas é susceptível a corrosão localizada. Com o intuito de prevenir a corrosão vários tratamentos de superfície têm sido investigados para substituir o tratamento de cromatização, e os filmes a base de sílica podem ser considerados como uma alternativa promissora. O objetivo deste trabalho é a obtenção, desenv...

  7. Recobrimento da liga Ti-6Al-4V com hidroxiapatita pelo método sol-gel e sua aplicação a hastes femorais não-cimentadas Coating of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with hydroxyapatite by using sol-gel method and its application to non-cemented femoral stem

    OpenAIRE

    Avés,E. P.; Galván, J. C.; I.R. Lima; Granjeiro, J.M.; Bastos, I. N.; Soares, G. D.

    2008-01-01

    O recobrimento de ligas metálicas com cerâmicas bioativas visa acelerar a formação óssea ao redor do implante, contribuindo para a sua estabilização. Neste trabalho estudou-se a fase cerâmica de hidroxiapatita depositada pelo processo sol-gel em chapas da liga metálica Ti-6Al-4V. A camada de recobrimento foi caracterizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, por difração de raios X e sua adesão ao substrato foi avaliada pelo teste de cisalhamento O teste de citocompatibilidade mostrou que...

  8. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    0 1 4 3 NDARDS THE NATIONAL February 1982 Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control RESEARCH PROG RAM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime...SUBTITLE Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...examples are contained in Appendix C. Included, are examples of how “A/C” process - analysis leads to design improvement and how a change in sequence can

  10. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  11. Herança e desequilíbrio de ligação em sete locos isoenzimáticos de Cecropia pachystachya. Inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in sevem isozymes loci of Cecropia pachystachya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Arruda RIBAS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,G6PDH, IDH, PGI, PGM e SKDH, codificandosete locos polimórficos (Acp-3, G6pdh-1, Idh-1,Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2 e Skdh-1, foram investigadospara a herança e desequilíbrio de ligação emCecropia pachystachya Trec. A herança mendelianafoi confirmada para todos os locos avaliados.Desvios significativos da razão de segregaçãoesperada 1:1 foram detectados apenas em umaprogênies de árvore heterozigótica. O desequilíbriode ligação foi examinado para 21 pares de locosisoenzimáticos, não sendo detectados desequilíbriosentre nenhum deles e, assim, estes podem serutilizados em subseqüentes estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética deC. pachystachya.

  12. Herança genética e desequilíbrio de ligação em locos de isoenzimas em Esenbeckia leiocarpa. Genetic inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in isozymes loci of Esenbeckia leiocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sícole SEOANE

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Oito sistemas enzimáticos (EST, IDH, PGM, PGI, MDH, PER, 6PGDH e SKDH codificando nove locos foram investigados em Esenbeckia leiocarpa. Quatro sistemas isoenzimáticos foram monomórficos (IDH, PGM, 6PGDH e SKDH e quatro polimórficos (EST, PGI, MDH e PER. A herança mendeliana foi confirmada para quatro locos, pelo teste de ajuste dos padrões de segregação observados em relação à razão de segregação esperada 1:1, em progênies de árvores heterozigotas. O desequilíbrio de ligação foi examinado para dez pares de locos. Apenas um simples par de locos parece estar em desequilíbrio de ligação, Est-1:Prx-1.Eight enzymes systems (EST, IDH, PGM, PGI, MDH, PER, 6PGDH and SKDH coding for nine loci were investigate in Esenbeckia leiocarpa. Four allozyme systems were monomorphic (IDH, PGM, 6PGDH and SKDH and four polymorphic (EST, PGI, MDH and PER. Mendelian inheritance was confirmed for four loci by testing the fit of band-pattern to 1:1 expected segregation ratio in progeny from heterozygous trees. Linkage disequilibrium was examined for ten pair of allozymes loci. A simple pair of loci appears to be in linkage disequilibrium, Est-1:Prx-1.

  13. Planejamento experimental no estudo eletroquímico de camadas de óxido de nióbio em liga de alumínio 3003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tussolini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cromagem é uma opção que a indústria de metal mecânica tem encontrado para aumentar a resistência à corrosão de peças metálicas, porém esse revestimento apresenta a desvantagem de ser tóxico ao ser humano e ao meio ambiente. Para se alcançar um novo tratamento de superfície, pode-se aplicar planejamento experimental, a fim de otimizar os experimentos, principalmente quando há diversas variáveis para se chegar ao processo ou produto final. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é utilizar planejamento experimental para se obter um revestimento cerâmico à base de óxido de nióbio para ligas de alumínio 3003 e compará-lo ao revestimento de Cr (III, no mesmo substrato metálico. As técnicas empregadas foram polarização potenciodinâmica anódica, espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e mapeamento por espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. Utilizou-se um planejamento experimental 2³, no qual as variáveis foram velocidade de imersão, tempo de repouso após imersão e emersão na solução sol-gel à base de óxido de nióbio (razões molares n/n ácido cítrico/etilenoglicol 1:4, ácido e o complexo amoniacal de nióbio 10:1. Registrou-se uma tendência nas superfícies de respostas estudadas, sugerindo que em 5 min de imersão e emersão e na velocidade de 18 cm/min, o filme gerado apresenta uma maior resistência à corrosão. Os resultados de impedância eletroquímica e polarização potenciodinâmica anódica mostraram que o filme de óxido de nióbio apresenta maior resistência à corrosão que o revestimento utilizado industrialmente. Sendo assim, esse novo tratamento de superfície torna-se uma opção de substituição do revestimento a base de Cr (III.

  14. A meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of LigaSure Small Jaw versus clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Namei; Yang, Xuemei; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: LigaSure (LS) Small Jaw is a surgical hemostasis equipment that is newly introduced in thyroid surgery. The objective of this study is to assess the short-term efficacy and safety outcomes of LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy. Methods: A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases (until June 12, 2016) that reported the comparisons between LS Small Jaw and other techniques in thyroidectomy. Quality assessments were performed according to The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool and a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs, respectively. All statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.3. Results: Finally, 7 studies with 813 patients were included into the meta-analysis, and all included studies were comparable with moderate-to-high quality. There was significant reduced operative time in LS Small Jaw, compared with clamp-and-tie (mean difference [MD] = −17.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −22.20 to 12.77, P < 0.00001) or Harmonic Focus Scalpel (MD = −2.29, 95% CI: −3.19 to 1.39, P < 0.00001). Besides, other perioperative outcomes including intraoperative blood loss and postoperative blood loss favored LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie. In terms of complications, less-temporary hypocalcemia rate was observed in LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27–0.90, P = 0.02), although no significant difference was detected compared with Harmonic Focus Scalpel (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.14–1.56, P = 0.22). Other complications such as length of hospital stay, permanent hypocalcemia, temporary or permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and hematomas were not significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, LS Small Jaw is more favorable than clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy. PMID:28296728

  15. Efficacy of a half-grip technique using a fine tip LigaSure™, Dolphin Tip Sealer/Divider, on liver dissection in swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yoichi; Yoshida, Seiya; Saito, Ryota; Iwase, Ryota; Haruki, Koichiro; Okui, Norimitsu; Shimada, Jun-ichi; Kitamura, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Michinori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-20

    Recently, a lot of energy devices in the surgical field, especially in the liver surgery, have been developed, and a fine tip LigaSure™, Dolphin Tip Sealer/Divider (DT-SD) also has been used frequently to dissect liver parenchyma as well as ultrasonically activated device (USAD). However, the utility of this instrument for liver dissection (LD) is still unknown. Moreover, to reduce bleeding during LD, a half-grip technique (HGT) was contrived. We herein report an experimental study in swine model to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of HGT using DT-SD for LD. The swine model experiment was carried out under general anesthesia by veterinarians. LD was performed repeatedly by DT-SD with the HGT (Group A, n = 6), or the conventional clamp-crush technique (CCT) (Group B, n = 6), and by variable mode USAD (Group C, n = 6). The dissection length and depth (cm) as well as bleeding volume (g) were measured carefully, and the dissection area (cm(2)) and speed (cm(2)/min) were calculated precisely. Histological examinations of the dissection surfaces were also executed. Mann-Whitney's U test was used for Statistical analyses with variance at a significance level of 0.05. Among the three groups, the three averages of dissection lengths were unexpectedly equalized to 8.3 cm. The dissection area (cm(2)) was 9.9 ± 5.1 in Group A, 9.8 ± 4.7 in Group B, and 9.9 ± 4.5 in Group C. The mean blood loss during LD was 10.6 ± 14.8 g in Group A, 41.4 ± 39.2 g in Group B, and 34.3 ± 39.2 g in Group C. For Group A, the bleeding rate was the least, 0.9 ± 1.0 g/cm(2), and the average depth of coagulation was the thickest, 1.47 ± 0.29 mm, among the three groups (p dissection speed in Group A (1.3 ± 0.3 cm(2)/min) was slower, than that in Group C (p < 0.05). This report indicates firstly that the HGT using DT-SD bring the least blood loss when compared with CCT or USAD. Although the HGT is feasible and useful for LD, to popularize the HGT, further clinical studies will be

  16. Brasagem da zircônia metalizada com titânio à liga Ti-6Al-4V Brazing of metalized zirconia with titanium to Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pimenta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zircônia tetragonal estabilizada com ítria foi mecanicamente metalizada com titânio e a condição de molhamento avaliada com as ligas convencionais Ag-28Cu e Au-18Ni. Estas dissolveram o revestimento de titânio para uma completa distribuição deste metal ativo na superfície cerâmica, gerando uma liga ativa in situ e possibilitando adequadas ligações químicas ao metal base na temperatura de união. Os melhores resultados de molhamento foram selecionados para brasagem indireta em forno de alto-vácuo nas juntas ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V. Testes de detecção de vazamento de gás hélio foram realizados na interface de união das juntas; amostras removidas na seção transversal de juntas estanques foram examinadas por técnicas de análise microestrutural. Formou-se uma camada escura adjacente à cerâmica metalizada, responsável pelo molhamento ocasionado pela liga Ag-28Cu. Entretanto, o uso da liga Au-18Ni resultou em precipitação de intermetálicos e microtrincamento interfacial. Perfis de microdureza através da interface resultante até onde a zircônia mostrou típico escurecimento não indicaram alternância significativa entre medições consecutivas; os resultados dos ensaios de resistência mecânica à flexão-3p foram considerados satisfatórios.Yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal was mechanically metallized with titanium and the wetting behavior on the ceramic surface was analyzed using the conventional fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni. These alloys had dissolved the active metal coating, which acts to zirconia reduction on its surface and promoting suitable chemical bonding to the metallic member. Better wetting results were selected for indirect brazing in a high-vacuum furnace for ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V simple butt joints. Helium gas leak detection was made at the joints interface; samples were removed from the tight joints cross-section and examined by microstructural analysis techniques and EDX analysis. There was formation of a dark

  17. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...... represented a useful tool for learning; 90% felt that virtual dermatopathology is useful tool for teaching dermatopathology. Conclusion No significant difference was observed in diagnostic accuracy using virtual dermatopathology compared to photomicrographs. Most participants felt virtual dermatopathology...

  18. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  19. CADASTRAL DATABASE POSITIONAL ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hashim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  20. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.

  1. Psychology Textbooks: Examining Their Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Faye B.; Ham, K. Whitfield, II

    2008-01-01

    Sales figures and recollections of psychologists indicate textbooks play a central role in psychology students' education, yet instructors typically must select texts under time pressure and with incomplete information. Although selection aids are available, none adequately address the accuracy of texts. We describe a technique for sampling…

  2. Astronomic Position Accuracy Capability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    portion of F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. The three points were called THEODORE ECC , TRACY, and JIM and consisted of metal tribrachs plastered to cinder...sets were computed as a deviation from the standard. Accuracy figures were determined from these residuals. Homo - geneity of variances was tested using

  3. High accuracy flexural hinge development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.; Ortiz de Zárate, I.; Migliorero, G.

    2005-07-01

    This document provides a synthesis of the technical results obtained in the frame of the HAFHA (High Accuracy Flexural Hinge Assembly) development performed by SENER (in charge of design, development, manufacturing and testing at component and mechanism levels) with EADS Astrium as subcontractor (in charge of doing an inventory of candidate applications among existing and emerging projects, establishing the requirements and perform system level testing) under ESA contract. The purpose of this project has been to develop a competitive technology for a flexural pivot, usuable in highly accurate and dynamic pointing/scanning mechanisms. Compared with other solutions (e.g. magnetic or ball bearing technologies) flexural hinges are the appropriate technology for guiding with accuracy a mobile payload over a limited angular ranges around one rotation axes.

  4. Interview accuracy in partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besocke, Ana Gabriela; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Garcia, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    The statistical concept of accuracy has never been applied to verify the history data collected on seizure disorders by open format interview. We compared patients'/witnesses' descriptions of epileptic seizures with videotaped seizure characteristics and analyzed the accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), false-positive rate (FPR), and false-negative rate (FNR) of various components of the semiology in patients with partial epilepsy. Language disturbances, complex automatisms, and autonomic signs have high ACC and intermediate FNRs. This means that these manifestations are most obvious to the witness/patient and, therefore, are memorized easily. Dystonic posturing and upper limb automatisms have the highest FNRs, leading to low ACC. These are very subtle signs, not vigorous enough to be paid attention to, but their predictive value in partial epilepsy syndromes is relatively high. We believe these signs need to be directly sought in the interview, because often the patient/witness pays limited attention to them.

  5. Analysing Interplanetary Probe Guidance Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a guidance accuracy analysis and estimates delta-v budget required to provide the trajectory correction maneuvers for direct interplanetary flights (without midcourse gravity assists. The analysis takes into consideration the orbital hyperbolic injection errors (depend on a selected launch vehicle and ascent trajectory and the uncertainties of midcourse correction maneuvers.The calculation algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s matrix methods (the matrizant of keplerian motion. Danby’s method establishes a link between the errors of the spacecraft state vectors at different flight times using the reference keplerian orbit matrizant. Utilizing the nominal trajectory parameters and the covariance matrix of launch vehicle injection errors the random perturbed orbits are generated and required velocity corrections are calculated. The next step is to simulate midcourse maneuver performance uncertainty using the midcourse maneuver covariance matrix. The obtained trajectory correction impulses and spacecraft position errors are statistically processed to compute required delta-v budget and dispersions ellipse parameters for different prediction intervals.As an example, a guidance accuracy analysis has been conducted for a 2022 mission to Mars and a Venus mission in 2026. The paper considers one and two midcourse correction options, as well as utilization of two different launch vehicles.The presented algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s methods provides preliminary evaluation for midcourse corrections delta-v budget and spacecraft position error. The only data required for this guidance accuracy analysis are a reference keplerian trajectory and a covariance matrix of the injection errors. Danby’s matrix method allows us to take into account also the other factors affecting the trajectory thereby increasing the accuracy of analysis.

  6. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  7. Relação entre toxicidade de proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a receptores intestinais de lepidópteros-praga

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Cristina Marucci; Camila Soares Figueiredo; Renata Izabel Dozzi Tezza; Eliane Cristina da Cunha Alves; Manoel Victor Franco Lemos; Janete Apparecida Desidério

    2015-01-01

    Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de novas proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA) do intestino de lagartas neonatas de Spodoptera frugiperda, Anticarsia gemmatalise Heliothis virescens. Proteínas expressas pelos genes vip3Aa42 e vip3Aa43 mostraram-se tóxicas a S. frugiperda (CL50 de 78,2 e 113 ng cm-2, respectivamente) e A. gemmatalis(CL50 de 239,2 e 57,5 ng cm-2, respectivamente), e pouco tóxicas a H. vire...

  8. Comportamento crítico dinâmico de algoritmo de Wolff no Modelo de Ising com correlação de sítios e ligações.

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto de Araujo Campos

    1998-01-01

    Estudamos o comportamento dinâmico do algoritmo de Wolff no modelo de Ising diluído com correlação de sítios e ligações (modelo SBC). Nosso objetivo principal foi estudar a performance deste algoritmo em um sistema onde além da desordem à presença de impurezas não magnéticas, houvesse mais um parâmetro presente, a correlação espacial. Além disto foi possível obter o diagrama de fases para o modelo, o qual possibilita entendermos um pouco o efeito da desordem e da correlação no sistema.Verific...

  9. Resistencia a tração de agentes cimentantes usados na fixação de ligas de paladio-prata e niquel-cromo a dentina

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: o propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência à tração da união de dois tipos de ligas metálicas (Litecast B e Pors-on 4) fixadas em dentina humana tratada sob três condições (condicionada por 1O segundos com ácido fosfórico 35%, ácido poliacrílico 25% e não condicionada). Os cimentos foram 1- de fosfato de zinco, 2- ionômero d vidro e, 3- cimento resinoso. Noventa molares humanos foram inseridos em resina acrílica e desgastados com lixas d'água de granulação nOs 120, 320 e 600 a...

  10. Soldagem por atrito com pino não consumível de chapas finas do aço 1020 e da liga de alumínio 6063-T5

    OpenAIRE

    Edwar Andres Torres López

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho foram realizadas juntas soldadas dissimilares de aço carbono AISI SAE 1020 e a liga de alumínio AA6063-T5, com 2 mm de espessura, empregando o processo de soldagem por atrito com pino não consumível (SAPNC). As juntas soldadas a topo foram realizadas empregando ferramenta de WC-14Co, com diâmetro de ombro e pino de 25,0 e 5,7 mm, respectivamente, e comprimento de pino de 1,35 mm. Foram empregadas velocidades de rotação e avanço de 300 RPM e 150 mm.min-1, respectivamente...

  11. Caracterização da liga comercial de alumínio 3003 produzida por fundição contínua de chapas (twin roll caster: microestrutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Paula Martins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho caracterizou a microestrutura da liga comercial de alumínio 3003, produzida em escala industrial pelo processo de fundição contínua de chapas. Microscopia óptica com luz polarizada e campo escuro, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e ensaios de dureza Brinell foram utilizados. Os teores de manganês em solução sólida foram avaliados por medidas de resistividade elétrica. A análise química, ao longo da espessura da chapa é homogênea, ou seja, revela ausência de macro-segregação. A microestrutura da liga caracteriza-se pela presença de grãos com estrutura dendrítica, partículas primárias da fase Al6(Mn,Fe localizadas, preferencialmente, nos contornos de grão e a fração volumétrica de precipitados varia ao longo da espessura.The present work characterized the microstructure of a commercial 3003 aluminum alloy produced on an industrial scale by a twin roll caster process. Optical microscopy using polarized light and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, and Brinell hardness tests were carried out. The manganese content in solid solution was evaluated by electric resistivity measurements. The chemical composition across sheet thickness is homogeneous, in other words, there is no macro-segregation. A microstructural examination showed the presence of: grains with a dendritic structure, primary phase particles Al6(Mn,Fe in the grain boundaries, and variable volumetric fractions of the precipitated along the thickness.

  12. A Review of Sodar Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Stuart; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    be large. On a uniform terrain site, differences between a SODAR and a mastmounted cup anemometer will arise due to turbulent fluctuations and wind components being measured in different spaces, as well as to variable background noise. We develop theories for turbulence-related random fluctuations due......What accuracy and reliability can today be expected from SODAR wind measurements? Is there traceable evidence for performance? Environmental factors, turbulent fluctuations and non-uniform terrain all affect the wind speed uncertainty. So site-to-site variations for SODAR-mast comparisons can...

  13. Improving accuracy of holes honing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan М. Buykli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in precision engineering industry tolerances for linear dimensions and tolerances on shape of surfaces of processing parts are steadily tightened These requirements are especially relevant in processing of holes. Aim of the research is to improve accuracy and to enhance the technological capabilities of holes honing process and, particularly, of blind holes honing. Based on formal logic the analysis of formation of processing errors is executed on the basis of consideration of schemes of irregularity of dimensional wear and tear along the length of the cutting elements. With this, the possibilities of compensating this irregularities and, accordingly, of control of accuracy of processing applied to the honing of both throughout and blind holes are specified. At the same time, a new method of honing is developed, it is protected by the patent of Ukraine for invention. The method can be implemented both on an existing machine tools at insignificant modernization of its system of processing cycle control and on newly designed ones.

  14. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.

  15. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  16. Prevalência do hiperaldosteronismo primário em uma liga de hipertensão arterial sistêmica Prevalencia del hiperaldosteronismo primario en una liga de hipertensión arterial sistémica Prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism in a systemic arterial hypertension league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jacqueline Silva Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Até recentemente, o hiperaldosteronismo primário era considerado uma causa rara de hipertensão secundária. Porém, ao longo dos últimos anos, muitos estudos têm sugerido que essa doença pode afetar até 20% dos hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência do hiperaldosteronismo primário em pacientes hipertensos em tratamento na liga de hipertensão de um hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas dosagens de aldosterona sérica e atividade plasmática da renina em 105 pacientes, em vigência do tratamento anti-hipertensivo usual, excetuando-se aqueles em uso de beta-bloqueadores e espironolactona, em jejum e após repouso na posição deitada por 20 minutos. Aqueles com relação aldosterona/atividade plasmática da renina maior que 25 foram submetidos ao teste de supressão com sobrecarga salina endovenosa e, após a confirmação da autonomia da secreção de aldosterona, foi realizada tomografia computadorizada das adrenais. Os resultados são apresentados como porcentagens, médias e desvios-padrão. RESULTADOS: Dos 105 pacientes, 6,54% eram hipertensos refratários. Nove apresentaram relação aldosterona/atividade plasmática da renina > 25 (8,5% do total. Destes, oito foram submetidos ao teste de supressão e um (hipertenso refratário teve o diagnóstico confirmado de hiperaldosteronismo primário (0,96% do total. Foi realizada tomografia computadorizada de adrenais, sendo considerada normal. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do hiperaldosteronismo primário na amostra estudada foi de 0,96% do total. No entanto, quando avaliados apenas os portadores de hipertensão refratária, a prevalência foi de 14,3%.FUNDAMENTO: Hasta recientemente, se consideraba el hiperaldosteronismo primario como una causa rara de hipertensión secundaria. Sin embargo, a lo largo de los últimos años, muchos estudios han sugerido que esa enfermedad puede afectar hasta el 20% de los hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia del

  17. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  18. Geocoding LCSH in the Biodiversity Heritage Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Crozier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Reusing metadata generated through years of cataloging practice is a natural and pragmatic way of leveraging an institution's investment in describing its resources. Using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH, the Biodiversity Heritage Library generates new interfaces for browsing and navigating books in a digital library. LCSH are grouped into tag clouds and plotted on interactive maps using methods available within the Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API. Code examples are included, and issues related to these interfaces and the underlying LCSH data are examined.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the care dependency scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Tiesinga, LJ; Plantinga, L; Dassen, TWN; Veltman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports an investigation of the diagnostic accuracy of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS). Background. Assessment tools can be described in terms of diagnostic accuracy, or the ability to correctly classify subjects into clinically relevant subgroups. Diagnostic accuracy can be determin

  20. Alteração dimensional de amálgama de prata e liga à base de gálio Dimensional alteration of silver amalgam and gallium-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Yagüe BALLESTER

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As ligas de gálio surgiram como alternativa à problemática da toxicidade do mercúrio. Apresentam propriedades semelhantes às do amálgama, mas as pesquisas apontam duas características desfavoráveis: corrosão excessiva e grande magnitude de expansão de presa, podendo causar fraturas e rachaduras nas estruturas dentais. O objetivo foi avaliar in vitro a alteração dimensional durante 7 dias de uma liga de gálio (Galloy, SDI, Austrália, comparativamente com uma liga de amálgama contendo zinco (F-400, SDI, Austrália, em função do contato e/ou contaminação com solução salina (NaCl 0,9% nos estágios iniciais da cristalização. As condições experimentais de armazenagem foram em: ambiente seco; armazenagem em solução salina e contaminação com solução salina durante a condensação. Para o amálgama, foi ainda estudada a condição de contaminação introduzida na cápsula durante a trituração e para a liga de gálio, a proteção com resina fluida durante as primeiras 24 h ou durante todo o experimento. Os corpos-de-prova foram mantidos à temperatura de 37ºC ± 1ºC e suas dimensões monitoradas a cada 24 h, durante sete dias. O contato da liga de gálio com a solução salina durante a condensação ou nas primeiras horas após a condensação desencadeou uma expansão significantemente maior que as outras condições experimentais ao fim dos 7 dias. A aplicação de uma resina fluida para proteger a superfície dos cilindros foi capaz de evitar o aumento da expansão provocado pela umidade superficial. O amálgama não apresentou alterações significantes em nenhuma das condições experimentais, exceto quando contaminado durante a trituração.Gallium-based dental alloys were created with the aim of solving the problem of toxicity of mercury. The material shows mechanical properties similar to those of dental amalgam, but researches point out two unfavorable characteristics: great corrosion and excessive post

  1. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  2. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  3. Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Trend Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  4. Boccia: Factor de integración social y su significado en mujeres y hombres adscritos a la liga de parálisis cerebral de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Alvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El Boccia es un deporte que debido a sus características técnicas y metodológicas y a que es mixto, de precisión y estrategia, permite la participación de individuos con diversos tipos de limitaciones físicas, permitiendo de esta forma la integración social de los mismos, en un contexto de equidad, por lo cual ha tenido una gran acogida a nivel mundial siendo catalogado como el deporte bandera de la Asociación Internacional de Deportes y Recreación para personas con Parálisis Cerebral (CP-ISRA. Objetivo. Explorar los posibles significados que para mujeres y hombres en situación de discapacidad, tiene la práctica del Boccia como factor de integración social. Método. Esta investigación optó por el enfoque Cualitativo etnográfico, a través de las narrativas y experiencias de los protagonistas en este caso mujeres y hombres que hacen parte de la liga de Parálisis Cerebral de Bogotá- Boccia. Para estos efectos se utilizaron instrumentos como las entrevistas semiestructuradas, grupos focales y narrativas visuales. Resultados. El documento presenta un análisis de la percepción y los alcances de la práctica de un deporte como el Boccia en la integración social de los individuos desde las categorías de los conceptos de solidaridad, autonomía, reconocimiento de la diversidad, participación, universalidad, equidad, corresponsabilidad, efectividad, poder, libertad e identidad. Conclusión. Se concluye que los significados otorgados al Boccia como factor de integración social, por parte de los participantes en la Liga, en general se enmarcan de manera positiva en las categorías conceptuales propuestas para su análisis. Sin embargo, existe aún un alto desconocimiento de la discapacidad y de aceptación de las diferencias que se convierte en un factor limitante para una adecuada integración social.

  5. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  6. Optimal Calibration Accuracy for Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Calibration errors in the response function of a gravitational wave detector degrade its ability to detect and then to measure the properties of any detected signals. This paper derives the needed levels of calibration accuracy for each of these data-analysis tasks. The levels derived here are optimal in the sense that lower accuracy would result in missed detections and/or a loss of measurement precision, while higher accuracy would be made irrelevant by the intrinsic noise level of the detector. Calibration errors affect the data-analysis process in much the same way as errors in theoretical waveform templates. The optimal level of calibration accuracy is expressed therefore as a joint limit on modeling and calibration errors: increased accuracy in one reduces the accuracy requirement in the other.

  7. Accuracy property of certain hyperbolic difference schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.L.; Madsen, M.M.

    1976-12-01

    An accuracy property called the CFL1 property is shared by several successful difference schemes. It appears to be a property at least as important as the property of higher-order accuracy for hyperbolic difference schemes when weak solutions (e.g., shocks) are sought. Investigation of this property leads to suggestions of ways to improve the accuracy in such wavecodes as WONDY, CHARTD, and THREEDY. 10 figures.

  8. Uma observação sobre o lugar da teoria da ligação e do critério temático dentro do programa minimalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA Marcelo Barra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresento evidências que levam à conclusão de que o lugar da Teoria da Ligação (TL no Programa Minimalista (Chomsky 1993; 1995 é depois de FL (Forma Lógica. Mostro que derivações conduzindo a estruturas que contêm violações dos princípios da TL convergem em FL, já que derivações alternativas menos econômicas que respeitam tais princípios também são agramaticais. Sendo irrelevante para a noção de convergência, a TL tem de se aplicar depois de FL. Um raciocínio semelhante revela que o Critério Temático tem o estatuto de um condição de interface se aplicando em FL, uma vez que derivações menos econômicas são permitidas pelo sistema computacional para evitar violações relacionadas a ele.

  9. Sujeitos do crime e da notícia: casos PCC e Liga da Justiça e as apropriações da arena midiática contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Daemon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propomos investigar os gestos de apropriação da arena midiática por sujeitos criminosos como emergência do fenômeno de midiatização da sociedade contemporânea. Mais do que autores de trajetórias delinquentes, estes se engajam na produção de relatos sobre si numa campanha midiatizada, cujo objetivo principal é a disputa pelo controle das construções simbólicas a seu respeito. Ao se deslocarem do lugar de receptores de conteúdos informativos, rompem a fronteira da audiência e tornam-se produtores de relatos midiáticos como instrumento de disputa por espaços de produção e transmissão dos relatos midiáticos. Para tanto, elegemos dois eventos emblemáticos – o sequestro do jornalista Guilherme Portanova pelo PCC e a publicação dos vídeos com “entrevistas-defesa” pelo chefe da milícia carioca Liga da Justiça –, para iniciarmos a reflexão a respeito dos efeitos da midiatização também sobre sujeitos

  10. Improving Accuracy in a Clinical Judgmental Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Erich L.; Jackson, Douglas N.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to identify kinds of information leading to increased accuracy of clinical judgments. Results confirm the feasibility of increasing accuracy in meaningful clinical judgment tasks through practice and of studying clinical judgment by using construct-oriented personality scales to which targets bear a substantive…

  11. Accuracy of Parent Identification of Stuttering Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…

  12. Accuracy of Parent Identification of Stuttering Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…

  13. Quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Rutjes, A.W.; Windt - Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Reitsma, J.B.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, de H.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of reporting in diagnostic accuracy articles published in 2000 in journals with impact factor of at least 4 by using items of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement published later in 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English-language articles on pri

  14. Quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Rutjes, A.W.; Windt - Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Reitsma, J.B.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, de H.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of reporting in diagnostic accuracy articles published in 2000 in journals with impact factor of at least 4 by using items of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement published later in 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English-language articles on pri

  15. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.

  16. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  17. Pesquisa de marcadores para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína C de ligação à miosina em familiares de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica Research of markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and myosin binding protein C in relatives of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Tirone

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os marcadores moleculares para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína-C de ligação à miosina em familiares de portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 12 famílias que realizaram anamnese, exame físico, eletrocardiograma, ecocardiograma e coleta de sangue para o estudo genético através da reação em cadeia da polimerasse. RESULTADOS: Dos 227 familiares 25% eram acometidos, sendo 51% do sexo masculino com idade média de 35±19 (2 a 95 anos. A análise genética mostrou ligação com o gene da b-miosina cardíaca em uma família e, em outra, ligação com o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina. Em cinco famílias foram excluídas ligações com os dois genes; em duas, a ligação com o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina, porém para o gene da b-miosina os resultados foram inconclusivos; em duas famílias os resultados foram inconclusivos para os dois genes e em uma foi excluída ligação para o gene da b-miosina mas ficou inconclusivo para o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso meio, talvez predominem outros genes que não aqueles descritos na literatura, ou que existam outras diferenças genéticas relacionadas com a origem de nossa população e/ou fatores ambientais.OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and the myosin binding protein C in relatives of carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Twelve families who had anamnesis, physical exam, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood collection for the genetic study through the chain reaction of polymerase. RESULTS: From the 227 relatives, 25% were ill-taken, with 51% men, with an average age of 35±19 (2 to 95 years old. The genetic analysis showed a connection with the gene of the cardiac b-myosin in a family and, in another, a connection with the gene of the myosin-binding protein C. In five

  18. Caracterização microestrutural e propriedades mecânicas da liga de alumínio 2198-T851 em configuração tailored blank soldada por FSW - Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moroz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos setores industriais relacionados à aeronáutica e automobilística, tem-se buscado o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de ligas metálicas leves com o intuito da redução de massa dos produtos e consequente redução do consumo de combustível. Por suas dimensões e requisitos estruturais, componentes e seções de aviões e automóveis são produzidos através da união por processos de soldagem por fusão. Entretanto, processos de soldagem no estado sólido são preferíveis por evitar defeitos decorrentes da fusão, e têm sido objeto de estudo nas últimas duas décadas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização de uma solda por FSW - Friction Stir Welding em junta de topo, da Liga de Alumínio 2198-T851 com espessuras diferentes (configuração "Tailored Blanks". A metodologia utilizada na caracterização envolveu a determinação das propriedades mecânicas das juntas soldadas, compreendendo ensaios de tração e determinação de perfil de microdureza na seção transversal; e buscou-se compreender a relação entre as alterações microestruturais promovidas pelo processo de soldagem e as propriedades resultantes. Concluiu-se que, devido aos fenômenos metalúrgicos decorrentes do processo de soldagem utilizado, alterações microestruturais tais como refino de grão, encruamento e dissolução/formação de fases precipitadas permitiram a obtenção de uma solda cujas propriedades mecânicas de tração (salvo alongamento igualaram-se a ou excederam aquelas do metal base, evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização dos parâmetros de soldagem por FSW utilizados neste trabalho.In both aeronautic and automobile related industries, development and application of light-weighted metallic alloys have been pursued with the intention of reducing product weight and consequent fuel consumption. Due to their dimension and structural requirements, components and sections from airplanes and automobiles are produced through fusion

  19. Herança e ligação em locos isoenzimáticos de Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil. Inheritance and linkage in isozyme loci of Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João del GIUDICE-NETO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o estudo davariação isoenzimática em Caesalpinia echinata L.(pau-brasil. Onze sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,DIA, EST, G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX,SKDH e 6PGDH codificando dezoito locos (Acp-1,Est-3, Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1,Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3,Prx-4, Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 e 6pgdh-2 foraminvestigados. Entre esses locos, Pgi-1 e Got-1foram detectados como monomórficos. Três locos(Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 e 6pgdh-1 não tiveram suaherança analisada devido à ausência de progênies deárvores heterozigotas na amostra. A herançamendeliana simples foi confirmada para dez locos(Acp-1, Dia-1, Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1,Prx-3, Skdh-1 e 6pgdh-2. Três locos (Pgi-2, Prx-2e Prx-4 apresentaram desvios altamentesignificativos (P < 0,01 para a hipótese desegregação regular 1:1. As relações dedesequilíbrios de ligações foram avaliadas em 120pares de locos isoenzimáticos. Seis pares de locosapresentaram ligação: Mdh-3:Dia-1, Mdh-3:Prx-3,6pgdh-1:Pgi-2, 6pgdh-1:Prx-1, 6pgdh-2:Prx-3 ePgi-2:Prx-4.This article presents a study of isozymevariation in Caesalpinia echinata L. (brazilwood.Eleven isozyme systems (ACP, DIA, EST,G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX, SKDH and6PGDH codifying eighteen loci (Acp-1, Est-3,Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2,Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-4,Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 and 6pgdh-2 were investigated.Among these loci, Pgi-1 and Got-1 weremonomorphic. Three loci (Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 and6pgdh-1 were not evaluated for inheritance duethe lack of families from heterozygous mothertrees in the sampling. Mendelian inheritance wasconfirmed for ten allozyme loci (Acp-1, Dia-1,Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1, Prx-3, Skdh-1,and 6pgdh-2. Three loci (Pgi-2, Prx-2 and Prx-4showed significant deviations (P < 0.01 from expectedsegregation 1:1 hypothesis. Linkage relationshipswere examined for 120 pairs of allozyme loci.Six pairs of loci showed linked: Mdh-3:Dia-1,Mdh-3:Prx-3, 6

  20. Social Security Administration Data for Enumeration Accuracy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...

  1. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2008-12-16

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic or the bivariate model for the data analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy studies and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research.

  2. The accuracy of general practitioner workforce projections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuningen, M. van; Batenburg, R.S.; Velden, L.F.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health workforce projections are important instruments to prevent imbalances in the health workforce. For both the tenability and further development of these projections, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of workforce projections. In the Netherlands, health workforce projections

  3. Strategies to Increase Accuracy in Text Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Blommesteijn (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractText classification via supervised learning involves various steps from processing raw data, features extraction to training and validating classifiers. Within these steps implementation decisions are critical to the resulting classifier accuracy. This paper contains a report of the

  4. Accuracy and Efficiency of Raytracing Photoionisation Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Three non-equilibrium photoionisation algorithms for hydrodynamical grid-based simulation codes are compared in terms of accuracy, timestepping criteria, and parallel scaling. Explicit methods with first order time accuracy for photon conservation must use very restrictive timestep criteria to accurately track R-type ionisation fronts. A second order accurate algorithm is described which, although it requires more work per step, allows much longer timesteps and is consequently more efficient. Implicit methods allow ionisation fronts to cross many grid cells per timestep while maintaining photon conservation accuracy. It is shown, however, that errors are much larger for multi-frequency radiation then for monochromatic radiation with the implicit algorithm used here, and large errors accrue when an ionisation front crosses many optical depths in a single step. The accuracy and convergence rates of the different algorithms are tested with a large number of timestepping criteria to identify the best criterion fo...

  5. Strategies to Increase Accuracy in Text Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommesteijn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Text classification via supervised learning involves various steps from processing raw data, features extraction to training and validating classifiers. Within these steps implementation decisions are critical to the resulting classifier accuracy. This paper contains a report of the study performed

  6. Why cannot modest teams win the league? The influence of the match schedule on the profile of the winnings teams ¿Por qué no pueden ganar la liga los equipos modestos? La influencia del formato de competición, sobre el perfil de los equipos ganadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of performance and chance on the results obtained by teams in football official competitions with different formats of competition. The research is based in data from 190 matches of the 2006/2007 Spanish Football League, 64 matches of the 2006 World Cup Germany and 125 matches of the 2005/20006 European Champions League. Performance is measured as the difference between shots attempted and shots received by a team in each game. Results from linear regression analysis show that in competitions with a league system, (Spanish Football League, first round of the 2006 World Cup Germany and first round of the 2005/20006 European Champions League performance is a statistically significant variable for explaining the results obtained by teams. In competitions with a Knock-Out system (second round of the 2006 World Cup Germany and second round of the 2005/20006 European Champions League there is not statistically significant differences in the performance obtained by winners and losers. I find that chance is a relevant variable for explaining the results of teams in competitions with a Knock-Out system.
    Key words:Schedukle of competition, peformance, chance, football

     

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar cuál es el efecto del rendimiento y la suerte sobre el resultado alcanzado por los equipos en competiciones oficiales de fútbol con diferentes formatos de competición. La muestra consiste en  los 190 partidos disputados en la primera vuelta de la Liga Española de Fútbol de la temporada 2006-2007, los 64 partidos disputados en el Campeonato Mundia1 de Fútbol de Alemania 2006 y los 125 partidos de la Liga de Campeones de la temporada 2005-2006. Mediante una estimación basada en el análisis de regresión lineal y en la comparaci

  7. Accuracy and Efficiency of Raytracing Photoionisation Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Three non-equilibrium photoionisation algorithms for hydrodynamical grid-based simulation codes are compared in terms of accuracy, timestepping criteria, and parallel scaling. Explicit methods with first-order time accuracy for photon conservation must use very restrictive timestep criteria to accurately track R-type ionisation fronts. A second-order accurate algorithm is described which, although it requires more work per step, allows much longer timesteps and is consequently more efficient....

  8. Moyamoya disease: diagnostic accuracy of MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan); Suzuki, [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan); Matsushima, Y. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    MRI may be employed to investigate moyamoya disease, since it provides vascular information without use of contrast medium. We reported the usefulness and limitations of MR angiography (MRA) in moyamoya disease. To our knowledge, no report has appeared dealing with the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in a large number of cases of moyamoya disease, although MRI is used more commonly than MRA. We therefore undertook to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  9. Estudo de Procedimentos de Soldagem MIG/MAG para Aplicação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel Inconel 625 em Aço Estrutural ASTM A387 Gr.11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Escóssio Cavalcante

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente trabalho objetiva o estudo de técnicas de soldagem aplicadas a reparo de componentes fabricados em aço ASTM A387 Gr.11, largamente utilizado em aplicações da indústria do petróleo e gás. Devido ao regime de trabalho e necessidade de utilização de materiais com boa resistência mecânica e à corrosão, utilizou-se como metal de adição a liga UNS N06625 (Inconel 625. O processo de soldagem utilizado foi o MIG/MAG e a técnica de soldagem aplicada foi a dupla camada. A metodologia do presente trabalho foi dividida em etapas, sendo a primeira a realização de ensaios exploratórios para definir a relevância dos fatores de controle estudados. A segunda etapa consistiu na aplicação do critério de dureza e de microestrutura para definir as melhores relações de energia para aplicação da técnica da dupla camada. A técnica da dupla camada se mostrou eficaz na melhora das propriedades da microestrutura da ZAC-GG dos revestimentos, verificou-se intenso refinamento de grão. Houve também redução nas medidas de dureza e microdureza. Para ambos os gases de proteção utilizados (Ar+25%He e Ar+4%CO2 foi possível obter relações de energia com afastamentos positivos. Em todas essas relações a energia da segunda camada foi maior que a energia da primeira camada.

  10. Caracterização microestrutural e comportamento mecânico das ligas de alumínio AA2139 T3 e T8 soldadas por fricção rotativa com mistura Microstructural characterization and mechanical behavior of an AA2139 T3 and T8 aluminum alloy joined by friction stir welding (FSW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Toledo Saccon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou analisar a caracterização microestrutural e o comportamento mecânico das ligas de alumínio AA2139 T3 e T8 quando são soldadas pelo processo Soldagem por Fricção Rotativa com Mistura, o qual é realizado na fase sólida. A análise microestrutural foi realizada utilizando microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, e o comportamento mecânico foi avaliado através de medidas de microdureza e ensaio de tração convencional complementado pelo sistema ARAMIS. As ligas foram soldadas nos mesmos parâmetros de soldagem e com a mesma ferramenta, a fim de avaliar a qualidade da junta soldada para as duas condições de tratamento térmico, T3 e T8. Os resultados obtidos mostraram soldas resistentes para ambos os tratamentos térmicos, porém com melhores propriedades mecânicas para a liga AA2139 T3.This work aimed to study the microstructural characterization and mechanical behavior of AA2139 T3 and T8 aluminum alloys joined by FSW - Friction Stir Welding. The microstructural analysis has been done using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical analysis were evaluate through microhardness testing and conventional tensile test using the ARAMIS system . Each alloy were welded using the same welding parameters and the same tool in order to evaluate the joint quality for both heat treatment used for this work, T3 and T8. The result showed sounds joints for both heat treatments, although with better mechanical properties for the alloy AA2139 T3.

  11. Os inimigos da nação: a Liga Brasileira pelos Aliados e os discursos sobre o “perigo alemão” durante a grande guerra (1915-1919 = The national enemies: the Brazilian League for the Allies and the ideas about the “germany danger’ in the great war (1915-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires, Livia Claro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar os discursos da Liga Brasileira pelos Aliados sobre o “perigo alemão”, e, dessa forma, entender as ideias e construções da associação acerca da identidade nacional brasileira. A Liga pelos Aliados foi fundada em 1915, tendo à frente importantes nomes da cena intelectual carioca e nacional, como José Veríssimo, Graça Aranha e Rui Barbosa. Atuou ao longo dos anos de guerra como um polo de propaganda dos países da Entente em solo brasileiro, divulgando textos na imprensa fluminense e promovendo eventos beneficentes na capital federal. No entanto, seus discursos guardam mais do que a promoção da “causa aliada”: exprimem uma preocupação com a definição da identidade nacional. Tais ideias tornam-se evidentes quando a entidade edificou uma fala pungente contra os imigrantes de origem germânica residentes no Brasil, estendendo aos seus núcleos não apenas a antipatia dirigida ao Império Alemão, como a desconfiança quanto à sua participação num plano de fragmentação e dominação do território brasileiro. A partir da construção do “outro”, da figura a ser excluída do seio da comunidade, a Liga Brasileira pelos Aliados expôs o que acreditava serem os aspectos de compatibilidade e reconhecimento, do que definia o brasileiro nas primeiras décadas do século XX

  12. Pesquisa de marcadores para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína C de ligação à miosina em familiares de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica

    OpenAIRE

    Tirone,Adriana Paula; Arteaga,Edmundo; Pereira, Alexandre da Costa; Krieger, José Eduardo; Buck,Paula de Cássia; IANNI, Barbara Maria; Mady,Charles

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar os marcadores moleculares para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína-C de ligação à miosina em familiares de portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 12 famílias que realizaram anamnese, exame físico, eletrocardiograma, ecocardiograma e coleta de sangue para o estudo genético através da reação em cadeia da polimerasse. RESULTADOS: Dos 227 familiares 25% eram acometidos, sendo 51% do sexo masculino com idade média de 35±19...

  13. El perfil antropom?trico y las capacidades f?sicas b?sicas de los futbolistas de la categor?a sub ? 12 de Liga Deportiva Universitaria de Quito (L.D.U.Q) determina la posici?n de juego

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Guevara, Mar?a Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado con 28 jugadores de f?tbol de la categor?a sub - 12 de Liga Deportiva Universitaria de Quito (L.D.U.Q) en su participaci?n en el campeonato realizado por la Asociaci?n de F?tbol No Amateur de Pichincha (AFNA) en el a?o 2012. Las variables estudiadas incluyeron edad, etnia, regi?n de procedencia, posici?n de juego, antropometr?a y capacidades f?sicas b?sicas. Para el perfil antropom?trico se midieron 6 pliegue cut?neos (tr?ceps, subescapular, suprai...

  14. Avaliação da geometria de ferramenta e parâmetros do processo FSW na soldagem da liga de alumínio AA 5052 Process parameters and tool geometry evaluation in the FSW of AA 5052 aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A soldagem de ligas de alumínio sem degradação excessiva das propriedades originais do metal base apresenta-se como um obstáculo a ser superado pelas indústrias em seus processos de fabricação, uma vez que o alumínio tem sido usado cada vez de forma mais intensiva. Neste sentido, o processo de soldagem denominado Friction Stir Welding (FSW) tem recebido atenção por suas potencialidades onde o aporte de calor deve ser minimizado ou quando metais dissimilares devem ser soldados. Neste processo,...

  15. Improvements in accuracy of dense OPC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallingal, Chidam; Oberschmidt, James; Viswanathan, Ramya; Abdo, Amr; Park, OSeo

    2008-10-01

    Performing model-based optical proximity correction (MBOPC) on layouts has become an integral part of patterning advanced integrated circuits. Earlier technologies used sparse OPC, the run times of which explode when the density of layouts increases. With the move to 45 nm technology node, this increase in run time has resulted in a shift to dense simulation OPC, which is pixel-based. The dense approach becomes more efficient at 45nm technology node and beyond. New OPC model forms can be used with the dense simulation OPC engine, providing the greater accuracy required by smaller technology nodes. Parameters in the optical model have to be optimized to achieve the required accuracy. Dense OPC uses a resist model with a different set of parameters than sparse OPC. The default search ranges used in the optimization of these resist parameters do not always result in the best accuracy. However, it is possible to improve the accuracy of the resist models by understanding the restrictions placed on the search ranges of the physical parameters during optimization. This paper will present results showing the correlation between accuracy of the models and some of these optical and resist parameters. The results will show that better optimization can improve the model fitness of features in both the calibration and verification set.

  16. High Accuracy Imaging Polarimetry with NICMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Batcheldor, D; Hines, D C; Schmidt, G D; Axon, D J; Robinson, A; Sparks, W; Tadhunter, C

    2008-01-01

    The ability of NICMOS to perform high accuracy polarimetry is currently hampered by an uncalibrated residual instrumental polarization at a level of 1.2-1.5%. To better quantify and characterize this residual we obtained observations of three polarimetric standard stars at three separate space-craft roll angles. Combined with archival data, these observations were used to characterize the residual instrumental polarization to enable NICMOS to reach its full polarimetric potential. Using these data, we calculate values of the parallel transmission coefficients that reproduce the ground-based results for the polarimetric standards. The uncertainties associated with the parallel transmission coefficients, a result of the photometric repeatability of the observations, dominate the accuracy of p and theta. However, the new coefficients now enable imaging polarimetry of targets with p~1.0% at an accuracy of +/-0.6% and +/-15 degrees.

  17. Why do delayed summaries improve metacomprehension accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary C M; Thiede, Keith W

    2008-05-01

    We showed that metacomprehension accuracy improved when participants (N=87 college students) wrote summaries of texts prior to judging their comprehension; however, accuracy only improved when summaries were written after a delay, not when written immediately after reading. We evaluated two hypotheses proposed to account for this delayed-summarization effect (the accessibility hypothesis and the situation model hypothesis). The data suggest that participants based metacomprehension judgments more on the gist of texts when they generated summaries after a delay; whereas, they based judgments more on details when they generated summaries immediately after reading. Focusing on information relevant to the situation model of a text (the gist of a text) produced higher levels of metacomprehension accuracy, which is consistent with situation model hypothesis.

  18. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive exposition of the theory of measurement accuracy and provides solutions that fill significant and long-standing gaps in the classical theory. It eliminates the shortcomings of the classical theory by including methods for estimating accuracy of single measurements, the most common type of measurement. The book also develops methods of reduction and enumeration for indirect measurements, which do not require Taylor series and produce a precise solution to this problem. It produces grounded methods and recommendations for summation of errors. The monograph also analyzes and critiques two foundation metrological documents, the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) and the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and discusses directions for their revision. This new edition adds a step-by-step guide on how to evaluate measurement accuracy and recommendations on how to calculate systematic error of multiple measurements. There is also an e...

  19. Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Côté, Stéphane; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-11-01

    Recent research suggests that lower-class individuals favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment. We extended this work by testing the hypothesis that, as a result, individuals of a lower social class are more empathically accurate in judging the emotions of other people. In three studies, lower-class individuals (compared with upper-class individuals) received higher scores on a test of empathic accuracy (Study 1), judged the emotions of an interaction partner more accurately (Study 2), and made more accurate inferences about emotion from static images of muscle movements in the eyes (Study 3). Moreover, the association between social class and empathic accuracy was explained by the tendency for lower-class individuals to explain social events in terms of features of the external environment. The implications of class-based patterns in empathic accuracy for well-being and relationship outcomes are discussed.

  20. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention.

  1. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  2. Field Accuracy Test of Rpas Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P.; Coakley, R.

    2013-08-01

    Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This finding has shown

  3. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...

  4. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  5. The concept of spectral accuracy for MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongdong; Gu, Ming

    2010-09-01

    Though MS has always appeared to be quite different from spectroscopy to analytical chemists who are familiar with both, a careful examination from historical and theoretical perspectives reveals a striking similarity between the two. With the introduction of spectral accuracy, a companion concept to the better known mass accuracy, new capabilities previously thought unfeasible can now be enabled for MS. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  6. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF KINECT DEPTH DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoshelham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the geometric quality of depth data obtained by the Kinect sensor. Based on the mathematical model of depth measurement by the sensor a theoretical error analysis is presented, which provides an insight into the factors influencing the accuracy of the data. Experimental results show that the random error of depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor, and ranges from a few millimetres up to about 4 cm at the maximum range of the sensor. The accuracy of the data is also found to be influenced by the low resolution of the depth measurements.

  7. Revolutionizing radiographic diagnostic accuracy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective diagnostic accuracy has in some way been the missing link between periodontal diagnosis and treatment. Most of the clinicians rely on the conventional two-dimensional (2D radiographs. But being a 2D image, it has its own limitations. 2D images at times can give an incomplete picture about the severity or type of disease and can further affect the treatment plan. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has a better potential for detecting periodontal bone defects with accuracy. The purpose here is to describe how CBCT imaging is beneficial in accurate diagnosis and will lead to a precise treatment plan.

  8. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  9. Accuracy in analyses of biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchandise, H.

    1987-04-01

    The work of the Community Bureau of Reference is outlined, special emphasis being laid on the problem of accuracy. Examples are described for trace elements in milk, Pb and Cd in blood, Ca in serum, cortisol in serum, and aflatoxin in milk.

  10. Accuracy assessment of an industrial actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Genta, Gianfranco; Barbato, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    A commercial linear actuator equipped with a 0.1 μm resolution encoder was used as a contact displacement sensor with adjustable force. The accuracy of the position reading of the actuator was evaluated from experimental data taking into account the uncertainty contributions. The tests consisted ...

  11. Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…

  12. Accuracy Of Stereometry In Assessing Orthognathic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Geoffrey E.; Bays, R. A.

    1983-07-01

    An X-ray stereometric technique has been developed for the determination of 3-dimensional coordinates of spherical metallic markers previously implanted in monkey skulls. The accuracy of the technique is better than 0.5mm. and uses readily available demountable X-ray equipment. The technique is used to study the effects and stability of experimental orthognathic surgery.

  13. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  14. On the Accuracy of Galileo's Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    Galileo Galilei had sufficient skill as an observer and instrument builder to be able to measure the positions and apparent sizes of objects seen through his telescopes to an accuracy of 2" or better. However, Galileo had no knowledge of wave optics, so when he was measuring stellar apparent sizes he was producing very accurate measurements of diffraction artifacts and not physical bodies.

  15. Accuracy assessment with complex sampling designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2010-01-01

    A reliable accuracy assessment of remotely sensed geospatial data requires a sufficiently large probability sample of expensive reference data. Complex sampling designs reduce cost or increase precision, especially with regional, continental and global projects. The General Restriction (GR) Estimator and the Recursive Restriction (RR) Estimator separate a complex...

  16. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  17. High accuracy FIONA-AFM hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, D N; Quammen, C; Wang, H; Kisker, C; Superfine, R; Taylor, R; Erie, D A; Tessmer, I

    2011-04-01

    Multi-protein complexes are ubiquitous and play essential roles in many biological mechanisms. Single molecule imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful methods for characterizing the structural properties of multi-protein and multi-protein-DNA complexes. However, a significant limitation to these techniques is the ability to distinguish different proteins from one another. Here, we combine high resolution fluorescence microscopy and AFM (FIONA-AFM) to allow the identification of different proteins in such complexes. Using quantum dots as fiducial markers in addition to fluorescently labeled proteins, we are able to align fluorescence and AFM information to ≥8nm accuracy. This accuracy is sufficient to identify individual fluorescently labeled proteins in most multi-protein complexes. We investigate the limitations of localization precision and accuracy in fluorescence and AFM images separately and their effects on the overall registration accuracy of FIONA-AFM hybrid images. This combination of the two orthogonal techniques (FIONA and AFM) opens a wide spectrum of possible applications to the study of protein interactions, because AFM can yield high resolution (5-10nm) information about the conformational properties of multi-protein complexes and the fluorescence can indicate spatial relationships of the proteins in the complexes.

  18. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  19. Vowel Space Characteristics and Vowel Identification Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Amy T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between vowel production characteristics and intelligibility. Method: Acoustic characteristics of 10 vowels produced by 45 men and 48 women from the J. M. Hillenbrand, L. A. Getty, M. J. Clark, and K. Wheeler (1995) study were examined and compared with identification accuracy. Global (mean f0, F1, and F2;…

  20. ACCURACY AND FLUENCY IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ⅰ. Introduction In English language teaching, at whatever level, teachers feel it very important to focus on accuracy and fluency in a pedagogic way. It is now widely accepted that neither of them should be focused on alone all the way through the teaching process. From our teaching experience, we can see that to some extent this is true.

  1. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  2. The Accuracy of Three Developmental Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Byrne, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of 3 developmental screening tests administered to 89 young children was compared. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test was more accurate than the Academic Scale of the Developmental Profile-II and the Denver-II, identifying correctly 72% of children with difficulties and 76% of children without diagnoses. (Author/JDD)

  3. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  4. Seasonal Effects on GPS PPP Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Aziz; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is now routinely used in many geophysical applications. Static positioning and 24 h data are requested for high precision results however real life situations do not always let us collect 24 h data. Thus repeated GPS surveys of 8-10 h observation sessions are still used by some research groups. Positioning solutions from shorter data spans are subject to various systematic influences, and the positioning quality as well as the estimated velocity is degraded. Researchers pay attention to the accuracy of GPS positions and of the estimated velocities derived from short observation sessions. Recently some research groups turned their attention to the study of seasonal effects (i.e. meteorological seasons) on GPS solutions. Up to now usually regional studies have been reported. In this study, we adopt a global approach and study the various seasonal effects (including the effect of the annual signal) on GPS solutions produced from short observation sessions. We use the PPP module of the NASA/JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software and globally distributed GPS stations' data of the International GNSS Service. Accuracy studies previously performed with 10-30 consecutive days of continuous data. Here, data from each month of a year, incorporating two years in succession, is used in the analysis. Our major conclusion is that a reformulation for the GPS positioning accuracy is necessary when taking into account the seasonal effects, and typical one term accuracy formulation is expanded to a two-term one.

  5. Accuracy assessment of an industrial actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Genta, Gianfranco; Barbato, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    of length measurements of grade 0 steel gauge blocks. Measurements with different values of contact force were performed to assess its influence. A statistical analysis of the experimental data was performed to support the accuracy assessment. Systematic effects were identified and corrected. An expanded...

  6. Influencia de la lateralidad dominante de la jugadora en puesto específico de base en el juego de ataque en Liga Femenina 2 [Laterality dominance of female point guard influences in the offensive patterns in LF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García Rubio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La lateralidad de la jugadora con el rol de base puede ser sólo una característica individual, o bien un factor influyente en el juego de su equipo, y por tanto, una herramienta a considerar por  parte del equipo rival. El trabajo de investigación se centra en la necesidad de reflejar si la lateralidad de una jugadora con rol de base en baloncesto, al iniciar la acción de juego (bote o pase influye de manera determinante en la toma de decisiones. El contexto de trabajo utilizado es la segunda categoría de baloncesto femenino nacional, Liga Femenina 2. En la observación han participado varios equipos de dicha categoría, con total de 10 partidos analizados y un total de 170 situaciones de juego analizadas (N=170. Para establecer las relaciones entre las variables se utilizó el Coeficiente de Contingencia. Los resultados muestran una relación estadísticamente significativa de la lateralidad de la base y el lado del campo en el que se empieza a jugar (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pPalabras clave: Baloncesto, Lateralidad, Base, Análisis de juego.   AbstractLaterality of the point-guard can be an individual characteristic, or in the other hand, an important factor in the offensive patterns of the team. In this way, it will be a useful information for the other team.  This research has focused in the laterality of the point guard, and it influences in the decision making. The League studied was the second female Spanish basketball league, LF2. 10 matches were observed and 170 game situations analyzed (N=170. Crosstabs Command and the Contingency Coefficient were used to establish the relationship between variables. The results shows a significant relationship between the laterality of the point guard and the side of the field where the attack begin (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pKey words:  Basketball, laterality, point guard, game analysis.

  7. Influencia de la lateralidad dominante de la jugadora en puesto específico de base en el juego de ataque en Liga Femenina 2 [Laterality dominance of female point guard influences in the offensive patterns in LF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Manzano Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La lateralidad de la jugadora con el rol de base puede ser sólo una característica individual, o bien un factor influyente en el juego de su equipo, y por tanto, una herramienta a considerar por  parte del equipo rival. El trabajo de investigación se centra en la necesidad de reflejar si la lateralidad de una jugadora con rol de base en baloncesto, al iniciar la acción de juego (bote o pase influye de manera determinante en la toma de decisiones. El contexto de trabajo utilizado es la segunda categoría de baloncesto femenino nacional, Liga Femenina 2. En la observación han participado varios equipos de dicha categoría, con total de 10 partidos analizados y un total de 170 situaciones de juego analizadas (N=170. Para establecer las relaciones entre las variables se utilizó el Coeficiente de Contingencia. Los resultados muestran una relación estadísticamente significativa de la lateralidad de la base y el lado del campo en el que se empieza a jugar (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pPalabras clave: Baloncesto, Lateralidad, Base, Análisis de juego.   AbstractLaterality of the point-guard can be an individual characteristic, or in the other hand, an important factor in the offensive patterns of the team. In this way, it will be a useful information for the other team.  This research has focused in the laterality of the point guard, and it influences in the decision making. The League studied was the second female Spanish basketball league, LF2. 10 matches were observed and 170 game situations analyzed (N=170. Crosstabs Command and the Contingency Coefficient were used to establish the relationship between variables. The results shows a significant relationship between the laterality of the point guard and the side of the field where the attack begin (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pKey words:  Basketball, laterality, point guard, game analysis.

  8. Estudo da liga alumínio-zinco como filtração alternativa em aparelhos de raios X odontológicos Study of the aluminum-zinc alloy as an alternative means of filtration in dental X-ray devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fátima Silva HAITER

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da filtração alternativa da liga alumínio-zinco em aparelhos de raios X odontológicos, em relação ao espectro de energia dos feixes de raios X, a taxa de kerma no ar, o índice de contraste nas radiografias obtidas e a qualidade das imagens radiográficas. Este estudo foi realizado comparando-se o filtro convencional de alumínio com várias espessuras do filtro de liga alumínio-zinco, em diferentes porcentagens do elemento zinco na liga (2%, 3%, 4% e 5%. Foi utilizado um aparelho de raios X odontológico convencional, operando com 60 kVp e 70 kVp, e filmes radiográficos dos grupos D e E de sensibilidade. Foram realizadas radiografias de um "phantom" e de uma escala de densidade de alumínio. Os resultados mostraram que o uso dos filtros de liga Al-Zn resultou em um não-endurecimento dos feixes. A taxa de kerma no ar diminuiu em até 18,53%, sem alteração no contraste das radiografias e a qualidade das imagens teve uma boa aceitação pelos examinadores. A análise dos resultados nos levou a concluir que o filtro de liga Al-Zn 2%, com 1,99 mm de espessura, tensão de 60 kVp, quando usado com filme D, foi o que obteve melhor desempenho, reduzindo a taxa de kerma no ar sem variar o índice de contraste das radiografias, mantendo a qualidade da imagem aceitável para diagnóstico, sem contudo aumentar o tempo de exposição.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alternative filtration with the aluminum-zinc alloy in dental X-ray devices, regarding the energy spectrum, dose, contrast and image quality. This study was carried out comparing the conventional aluminum filter with aluminum-zinc alloy filters of various thicknesses and with different percentages of zinc in the alloy (2, 3, 4 and 5%. A conventional X-ray device operating with 60 and 70 kVp as well as D- and E-speed films were utilized in order to obtain images of a phantom and an aluminum step wedge. The utilization

  9. Seleção dos parâmetros através dos custos de soldagem para aplicação de revestimento com ligas de níquel depositadas pelo processo MIG/MAG Using the welding costs to select welding parameters for Weld Overlay with nickel alloy through the GMAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Paulino Pessoa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram calculados e comparados os custos de soldagem associados a cada um dos ensaios realizados, como forma de determinar parâmetros operacionais adequados e economicamente viáveis para soldagem com o processo MIG/MAG com transferência metálica por curto-circuito, visando uma correta deposição de revestimentos com ligas de níquel sobre um substrato de aço C-Mn. O número de ensaios a serem realizados, foi determinado pelo uso do método Taguchi que dividiu os ensaios em duas matrizes L9, resultando num total de 18 ensaios. Na comparação dos gastos despendidos em cada um dos ensaios foi utilizado o custo direto total da soldagem de um revestimento com 55 mm de largura e 190 mm de comprimento, utilizando uma sobreposição de 50%. Com base nos resultados dos ensaios foram pré-selecionados quatro ensaios (R7, R11, R12 e RC4, dentre os quais o ensaio R11 apresentou o menor custo. Mas vale ressaltar que nos quatro ensaios pré-selecionados o material de adição utilizado foi a liga 625, pois esta liga apresentar um custo do arame-eletrodo muito inferior as demais ligas (C-276 e 686. Assim a escolha do material de adição para aplicação do revestimento ficou restrita somente a liga 625.In this work were calculated and compared the welding costs for each of the tests performed to determine operational parameters and economically feasible for welding with GMAW process in a short circuiting transfer mode, aiming at a correct weld overlay with nickel alloy on a substrate of C-Mn steel. The number of tests to be performed was determined by using the Taguchi method that divided the tests into two L9 orthogonal arrays resulting in a total of 18 experiments. To compare the costs incurred in each of the tests we used the total direct cost of welding a layer with dimensions of 55 x 190 mm, using an overlap of 50%. Based on the results of the tests were pre-selected four tests (R7, R11, R12 and RC4, among which the test R11 has the

  10. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients' respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion management techniques affected by system latencies used in radiotherapy.

  11. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  12. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  13. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction, transformation, and enumeration, this work encompasses the full range of measurement data processing. It includes many examples that illustrate the application of general theory to typical problems encountered in measurement practice. As a result, the book serves as an inclusive reference work for data processing of all types of measurements: single and multiple, combined and simultaneous, direct (both linear and nonlinear), and indirect (both dependent and independent). It is a working tool for experimental scientists and engineers of all disciplines who work with instrumentation. It is also a good resource for natural science and engineering students and for technicians performing measurements in industry. A key feature of the book is...

  14. Improving the accuracy of dynamic mass calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr F. Dashchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of goods transporting, cargo accounting plays an important role in today's global and complex environment. Weight is the most reliable indicator of the materials control. Unlike many other variables that can be measured indirectly, the weight can be measured directly and accurately. Using strain-gauge transducers, weight value can be obtained within a few milliseconds; such values correspond to the momentary load, which acts on the sensor. Determination of the weight of moving transport is only possible by appropriate processing of the sensor signal. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for weighing freight rolling stock, which increases the accuracy of the measurement of dynamic mass, in particular wagon that moves. Apart from time-series methods, preliminary filtration for improving the accuracy of calculation is used. The results of the simulation are presented.

  15. Accuracy of forecasts in strategic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R; Barnes, Alan

    2014-07-29

    The accuracy of 1,514 strategic intelligence forecasts abstracted from intelligence reports was assessed. The results show that both discrimination and calibration of forecasts was very good. Discrimination was better for senior (versus junior) analysts and for easier (versus harder) forecasts. Miscalibration was mainly due to underconfidence such that analysts assigned more uncertainty than needed given their high level of discrimination. Underconfidence was more pronounced for harder (versus easier) forecasts and for forecasts deemed more (versus less) important for policy decision making. Despite the observed underconfidence, there was a paucity of forecasts in the least informative 0.4-0.6 probability range. Recalibrating the forecasts substantially reduced underconfidence. The findings offer cause for tempered optimism about the accuracy of strategic intelligence forecasts and indicate that intelligence producers aim to promote informativeness while avoiding overstatement.

  16. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...

  17. Expected Classification Accuracy using the Latent Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanmin Guo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rudner (2001, 2005 proposed a method for evaluating classification accuracy in tests based on item response theory (IRT. In this paper, a latent distribution method is developed. For comparison, both methods are applied to a set of real data from a state test. While the latent distribution method relaxes several of the assumptions needed to apply Rudner's method, both approaches yield extremely comparable results. A simplified approach for applying Rudner's method and a short SPSS routine are presented.

  18. On the accuracy of language trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pompei

    Full Text Available Historical linguistics aims at inferring the most likely language phylogenetic tree starting from information concerning the evolutionary relatedness of languages. The available information are typically lists of homologous (lexical, phonological, syntactic features or characters for many different languages: a set of parallel corpora whose compilation represents a paramount achievement in linguistics. From this perspective the reconstruction of language trees is an example of inverse problems: starting from present, incomplete and often noisy, information, one aims at inferring the most likely past evolutionary history. A fundamental issue in inverse problems is the evaluation of the inference made. A standard way of dealing with this question is to generate data with artificial models in order to have full access to the evolutionary process one is going to infer. This procedure presents an intrinsic limitation: when dealing with real data sets, one typically does not know which model of evolution is the most suitable for them. A possible way out is to compare algorithmic inference with expert classifications. This is the point of view we take here by conducting a thorough survey of the accuracy of reconstruction methods as compared with the Ethnologue expert classifications. We focus in particular on state-of-the-art distance-based methods for phylogeny reconstruction using worldwide linguistic databases. In order to assess the accuracy of the inferred trees we introduce and characterize two generalizations of standard definitions of distances between trees. Based on these scores we quantify the relative performances of the distance-based algorithms considered. Further we quantify how the completeness and the coverage of the available databases affect the accuracy of the reconstruction. Finally we draw some conclusions about where the accuracy of the reconstructions in historical linguistics stands and about the leading directions to improve

  19. The dimensional accuracy of the sintered billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Чингиз Ариф оглы Алиев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of assessing the impact of the behaviour stability of the components included in the compositions and process parameters of their production, on the dimensional accuracy of workpieces. It was found that by increasing the amount of oxide in the composition is greater compaction of the sintered billet in the process of heat treatment. This also increases the density of all components of the composition

  20. Accuracy of radiocarbon analyses at ANTARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accuracy in Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) measurements, as distinct from precision, requires the application of a number of corrections. Most of these are well known except in extreme circumstances and AMS can deliver radiocarbon results which are both precise and accurate in the 0.5 to 1.0% range. The corrections involved in obtaining final radiocarbon ages are discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Accuracy of Stokes integration for geoid computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zahra; Jamet, Olivier; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2014-05-01

    Geoid determination by remove-compute-restore (RCR) technique involves the application of Stokes's integral on reduced gravity anomalies. Reduced gravity anomalies are obtained through interpolation after removing low degree gravity signal from space spherical harmonic model and high frequency from topographical effects and cover a spectre ranging from degree 150-200. Stokes's integral is truncated to a limited region around the computation point producing an error that will be reducing by a modification of Stokes's kernel. We study Stokes integral accuracy on synthetic signal of various frequency ranges, produced with EGM2008 spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 2000. We analyse the integration error according to the frequency range of signal, the resolution of gravity anomaly grid and the radius of Stokes integration. The study shows that the behaviour of the relative errors is frequency independent. The standard Stokes kernel is though insufficient to produce 1cm geoid accuracy without a removal of the major part of the gravity signal up to degree 600. The Integration over an area of radius greater than 3 degree does not improve accuracy improvement. The results are compared to a similar experiment using the modified Stokes kernel formula (Ellmann2004, Sjöberg2003). References: Ellmann, A. (2004) The geoid for the Baltic countries determined by least-squares modification of Stokes formula. Sjöberg, LE (2003). A general model of modifying Stokes formula and its least-squares solution Journal of Geodesy, 77. 459-464.

  2. Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.

  3. Accuracy of MRI in Growth Plate Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Analysis of the accuracy of growth plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5T and 7T MR images using histology sections as gold standard. Materials and Methods. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate...... was measured and compared to histology. Results. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1325 μm (SD=183.5) on 1.5 MRI measurements. We found a better correlation between...... the growth plate thickness measured on the 7T MRI and histology samples compared to 1.5T, where the accuracy was poor. Conclusion. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7T MRI. 1.5T MRI can only describe some morphological characteristics; its poor resolution impedes to do...

  4. Accuracy of MRI in Growth Plate Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Analysis of the accuracy of growth plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5T and 7T MR images using histology sections as gold standard. Materials and Methods. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate...... was measured and compared to histology. Results. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1325 μm (SD=183.5) on 1.5 MRI measurements. We found a better correlation between...... the growth plate thickness measured on the 7T MRI and histology samples compared to 1.5T, where the accuracy was poor. Conclusion. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7T MRI. 1.5T MRI can only describe some morphological characteristics; its poor resolution impedes to do...

  5. Speed versus accuracy in collective decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Fitzsimmons, Jon P; Stevens, Martin

    2003-12-01

    We demonstrate a speed versus accuracy trade-off in collective decision making. House-hunting ant colonies choose a new nest more quickly in harsh conditions than in benign ones and are less discriminating. The errors that occur in a harsh environment are errors of judgement not errors of omission because the colonies have discovered all of the alternative nests before they initiate an emigration. Leptothorax albipennis ants use quorum sensing in their house hunting. They only accept a nest, and begin rapidly recruiting members of their colony, when they find within it a sufficient number of their nest-mates. Here we show that these ants can lower their quorum thresholds between benign and harsh conditions to adjust their speed-accuracy trade-off. Indeed, in harsh conditions these ants rely much more on individual decision making than collective decision making. Our findings show that these ants actively choose to take their time over judgements and employ collective decision making in benign conditions when accuracy is more important than speed.

  6. Species comparison of protein synthesis accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, G.P.; Popp, R.A.; Francis, M.C.; Bradshaw, B.S.; Bailiff, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    An important force in evolutionary selection may be informational efficiency, which results in a balance between the energy expended to maintain a high level of fidelity and the energy lost from errors or mutations in the production of defective offspring. The accuracy of DNA replication may be limited by the average accuracy of protein synthesis if the major source of enzymes which make copying errors are those that contain errors resulting from the processes of transcription and translation. Since many gene products are involved in transcription and translation the frequency of mutations which might affect protein fidelity is much higher than those affecting DNA copying. Species comparisons were made of the accuracy of protein synthesis to determine if the requirements for accurate protein synthesis were more stringent for long lived mammals. Using the incorporation of isoleucine in hemoglobin chains which contain no genetically coded isoleucine as a test of protein synthesis fidelity no correlation with lifespan was found among rabbit, marmoset, cow, pig, and human protein synthesis fidelity. The purfication techniques required to prepare highly purified protein for analysis and the criteria for purity are described.

  7. Accuracy and Completeness of Molecular Line Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyansky, Oleg; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We review recent progress in the calculation of the global, high-temperature and accurate room-temperature linelists of various molecules relevant for the analysis of both Earth and exoplanet atmospheres and cool stars. These global line lists can be constructed based on progress in calculation of energy levels up to dissociation and the fitting of the molecular PESs to the experimental data close to dissociation. Sub-percent accuracy in the intensity of calculated absorption lines is achieved thanks to progress in ab initio electronic structure calculations which is aided by the possibility of characterizing their accuracy by the comparison with experimental intensities measured with sub-percent accuracy for some molecular lines. The advantage of variational calculations over experiment though is the ability to produce billions of lines covering all the isotopologues, which is clearly impossible for the experimental observations. Atmospherically and astrophysically important molecules such as H_2O, CO_2, CO and H_3^+ will be considered together with some examples of the other molecules.

  8. PHAT: PHoto-z Accuracy Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, H; Capak, P; Moustakas, L A; Wolf, C; Abdalla, F B; Assef, R J; Banerji, M; Benitez, N; Brammer, G B; Budavari, T; Carliles, S; Coe, D; Dahlen, T; Feldmann, R; Gerdes, D; Gillis, B; Ilbert, O; Kotulla, R; Lahav, O; Li, I H; Miralles, J -M; Purger, N; Schmidt, S; Singal, J

    2010-01-01

    Here we introduce PHAT, the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing programme, an international initiative to test and compare different methods of photo-z estimation. Two different test environments are set up, one (PHAT0) based on simulations to test the basic functionality of the different photo-z codes, and another one (PHAT1) based on data from the GOODS survey. The accuracy of the different methods is expressed and ranked by the global photo-z bias, scatter, and outlier rates. Most methods agree well on PHAT0 but produce photo-z scatters that can differ by up to a factor of two even in this idealised case. A larger spread in accuracy is found for PHAT1. Few methods benefit from the addition of mid-IR photometry. Remaining biases and systematic effects can be explained by shortcomings in the different template sets and the use of priors on the one hand and an insufficient training set on the other hand. Scatters of 4-8% in Delta_z/(1+z) were obtained, consistent with other studies. However, somewhat larger outlier rate...

  9. Computing High Accuracy Power Spectra with Pico

    CERN Document Server

    Fendt, William A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the second release of Pico (Parameters for the Impatient COsmologist). Pico is a general purpose machine learning code which we have applied to computing the CMB power spectra and the WMAP likelihood. For this release, we have made improvements to the algorithm as well as the data sets used to train Pico, leading to a significant improvement in accuracy. For the 9 parameter nonflat case presented here Pico can on average compute the TT, TE and EE spectra to better than 1% of cosmic standard deviation for nearly all $\\ell$ values over a large region of parameter space. Performing a cosmological parameter analysis of current CMB and large scale structure data, we show that these power spectra give very accurate 1 and 2 dimensional parameter posteriors. We have extended Pico to allow computation of the tensor power spectrum and the matter transfer function. Pico runs about 1500 times faster than CAMB at the default accuracy and about 250,000 times faster at high accuracy. Training Pico can be...

  10. Algorithms for improving accuracy of spray simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuiYa; ZHANG YuSheng; XIAO HeLin; XU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Fuel spray is the pivotal process of direct injection engine combustion. The accuracy of spray simulation determines the reliability of combustion calculation. However, the traditional techniques of spray simulation in KIVA and commercial CFD codes are very susceptible to grid resolution. As a consequence, predicted engine performance and emission can depend on the computational mesh. The two main causes of this problem are the droplet collision algorithm and coupling between gas and liquid phases. In order to improve the accuracy of spray simulation, the original KIVA code is modified using the cross mesh droplet collision (CMC) algorithm and gas phase velocity interpolation algorithm. In the constant volume apparatus and D.I. Diesel engine, the improvements of the modified KIVA code in spray simulation accuracy are checked from spray structure, predicted average drop size and spray tip penetration, respectively. The results show a dramatic decrease in grid dependency. With these changes, the distorted phenomenon of spray structure is vanished. The uncertainty in predicted average drop size is reduced from 30 to 5 μm in constant volume apparatus calculation, and the uncertainty is further reduced to 2 μm in an engine simulation. The predicted spray tip penetrations in engine simulation also have better consistency in medium and fine meshes.

  11. On accuracy of upper quantiles estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Markiewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood frequency analysis (FFA entails the estimation of the upper tail of a probability density function (PDF of annual peak flows obtained from either the annual maximum series or partial duration series. In hydrological practice, the properties of various methods of upper quantiles estimation are identified with the case of known population distribution function. In reality, the assumed hypothetical model differs from the true one and one cannot assess the magnitude of error caused by model misspecification in respect to any estimated statistics. The opinion about the accuracy of the methods of upper quantiles estimation formed from the case of known population distribution function is upheld. The above-mentioned issue is the subject of the paper. The accuracy of large quantile assessments obtained from the four estimation methods is compared to two-parameter log-normal and log-Gumbel distributions and their three-parameter counterparts, i.e., three-parameter log-normal and GEV distributions. The cases of true and false hypothetical models are considered. The accuracy of flood quantile estimates depends on the sample size, the distribution type (both true and hypothetical, and strongly depends on the estimation method. In particular, the maximum likelihood method loses its advantageous properties in case of model misspecification.

  12. On accuracy of upper quantiles estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, I.; Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.

    2010-11-01

    Flood frequency analysis (FFA) entails the estimation of the upper tail of a probability density function (PDF) of annual peak flows obtained from either the annual maximum series or partial duration series. In hydrological practice, the properties of various methods of upper quantiles estimation are identified with the case of known population distribution function. In reality, the assumed hypothetical model differs from the true one and one cannot assess the magnitude of error caused by model misspecification in respect to any estimated statistics. The opinion about the accuracy of the methods of upper quantiles estimation formed from the case of known population distribution function is upheld. The above-mentioned issue is the subject of the paper. The accuracy of large quantile assessments obtained from the four estimation methods is compared to two-parameter log-normal and log-Gumbel distributions and their three-parameter counterparts, i.e., three-parameter log-normal and GEV distributions. The cases of true and false hypothetical models are considered. The accuracy of flood quantile estimates depends on the sample size, the distribution type (both true and hypothetical), and strongly depends on the estimation method. In particular, the maximum likelihood method loses its advantageous properties in case of model misspecification.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of Focused Abdominal Sonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Kent Shek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Focused Abdominal Sono-graphy for Trauma (FAST is widely used for the detection of intraperitoneal free fluids in patients suffering from blunt abdominal trauma (BAT. This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic accuracy of this investigation in a designated trauma centre. Methods: This was a retrospective study of BAT pa-tients over a 6 year period seen in a trauma centre in Hong Kong. FAST findings were compared with laparotomy, ab-dominal computed tomography or autopsy findings, which served as the gold standard for presence of intraperi-toneal free fluids. The patients who did not have FAST or gold standard confirmatory test performed, had preexisting peritoneal fluid, died at resuscitation or had imcomplete docu-mentation of FAST findings were excluded. The performance of FAST was expressed as sensitivity, specificity, predic-tive values (PV, likelihood ratios (LR and accuracy. Results: FAST was performed in 302 patients and 153 of them were included in this analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive PV, negative PV, positive LR, negative LR and accuracy for FAST were respectively 50.0%, 97.3%, 87.0%, 84.6%, 18.8, 0.5 and 85.0%. FAST was found to be more sensitive in less severely injured patients and more specific in more severely injured patients. Conclusion: FAST is a reliable investigation in the initial assessment of BAT patients. The diagnostic values of FAST could be affected by the severity of injury and staff training is needed to further enhance its effective use. Key words: Laparotomy; Autopsy; Tomography, X-ray computed; Tomography, spiral computed; Ultra-sonography

  14. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  15. Accuracy and precision of an IGRT solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gareth J; Rowbottom, Carl G; Mackay, Ranald I

    2009-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) can potentially improve the accuracy of delivery of radiotherapy treatments by providing high-quality images of patient anatomy in the treatment position that can be incorporated into the treatment setup. The achievable accuracy and precision of delivery of highly complex head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with an IGRT technique using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (TPS) was investigated. Four head-and-neck IMRT plans were delivered to a semi-anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom and the dose distribution was measured simultaneously by up to 20 microMOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transmitter) detectors. A volumetric kilovoltage (kV) x-ray image was then acquired in the treatment position, fused with the phantom scan within the TPS using Syntegra software, and used to recalculate the dose with the precise delivery isocenter at the actual position of each detector within the phantom. Three repeat measurements were made over a period of 2 months to reduce the effect of random errors in measurement or delivery. To ensure that the noise remained below 1.5% (1 SD), minimum doses of 85 cGy were delivered to each detector. The average measured dose was systematically 1.4% lower than predicted and was consistent between repeats. Over the 4 delivered plans, 10/76 measurements showed a systematic error > 3% (3/76 > 5%), for which several potential sources of error were investigated. The error was ultimately attributable to measurements made in beam penumbrae, where submillimeter positional errors result in large discrepancies in dose. The implementation of an image-guided technique improves the accuracy of dose verification, particularly within high-dose gradients. The achievable accuracy of complex IMRT dose delivery incorporating image-guidance is within +/- 3% in dose over the range of sample points. For some points in high-dose gradients

  16. Accuracy in Robot Generated Image Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a practical innovation concerning how to achieve high accuracy of camera positioning, when using a 6 axis industrial robots to generate high quality data sets for computer vision. This innovation is based on the realization that to a very large extent the robots positioning...... error is deterministic, and can as such be calibrated away. We have successfully used this innovation in our efforts for creating data sets for computer vision. Since the use of this innovation has a significant effect on the data set quality, we here present it in some detail, to better aid others...... in using robots for image data set generation....

  17. OVERUSE IN LEARNER LANGUAGE: FREQUENCY AND ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshilova, O.N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation bases on the SPbEFL Learner Corpus findings and addresses the issue of overuse in learner output in relation to both frequency and accuracy of basic grammar structures. The article deals with two basic syntactic structures – S V Od and S V C with “be” as copula. The linguistic analysis concerns the choice of object in the first case and subject complement in the second. The objective is to show that overuse of the structures in question results not only in their frequency in learner production, but also in learner specific choice of their constituents.

  18. Estudo da densidade de ligações Cruzadas em géis superabsorventes obtidos do acetato de celulose Study of the crosslinking density in superabsorbent gels obtained from cellulose acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Senna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram realizadas sínteses de géis derivados de acetato de celulose (AC com grau de substituição (GS 2,5 por intermédio de reações de reticulação via esterificação. Os grupos hidroxílicos livres do AC foram reagidos com o dianidrido do ácido 1, 2, 4, 5 benzenotetracarboxílico (PMDA em meio homogêneo. As caracterizações foram realizadas por TGA (Análise termogravimétrica, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR, retro titulação para determinar o grau de substituição do AC e microscopia de força atômica (AFM. Os géis foram sintetizados com as seguintes razões estequiométricas: [1:1], [1:2/3], [1:3] e [3:1] mol de PMDA/mol de OH livre respectivamente. A base da teoria de Flory-Rehner foi empregada para determinar ligações cruzadas nos géis. Os resultados de AFM mostram topografias distintas quando são comparados os géis entre si e quando os géis são comparados ao polímero de acetato de celulose. Este trabalho foi motivado pela importância tecnológica de polímeros de fontes renováveis como a celulose, em que um derivado de celulose foi usado para obter um polímero promissor para liberação controlada de medicamentos e adsorção de metais pesados em meio aquoso. Uma das vantagens deste polímero derivado do acetato de celulose é o emprego de poucas etapas na sua síntese.This work reports the synthesis of gels derived from cellulose acetate (CA with degree of substitution (DS 2.5 through esterification and crosslinking reactions. The free hydroxyl groups were reacted by using dianhydride of acid 1,2,4,5 benzenotetracarboxylic (PMDA as modifier in a homogeneous media. Characterization was performed with Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, retrotitration (known as back titration to determine the degree of substitution of AC and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The gels were synthesized with the following stoichiometric ratios: [1:1], [1:2/3], [1

  19. Curation accuracy of model organism databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Skrzypek, Marek; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Chen, Albert Y; Fulcher, Carol; Li, Gene-Wei; Lemmer, Kimberly C; Mladinich, Katherine M; Chow, Edmond D; Sherlock, Gavin; Karp, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Manual extraction of information from the biomedical literature-or biocuration-is the central methodology used to construct many biological databases. For example, the UniProt protein database, the EcoCyc Escherichia coli database and the Candida Genome Database (CGD) are all based on biocuration. Biological databases are used extensively by life science researchers, as online encyclopedias, as aids in the interpretation of new experimental data and as golden standards for the development of new bioinformatics algorithms. Although manual curation has been assumed to be highly accurate, we are aware of only one previous study of biocuration accuracy. We assessed the accuracy of EcoCyc and CGD by manually selecting curated assertions within randomly chosen EcoCyc and CGD gene pages and by then validating that the data found in the referenced publications supported those assertions. A database assertion is considered to be in error if that assertion could not be found in the publication cited for that assertion. We identified 10 errors in the 633 facts that we validated across the two databases, for an overall error rate of 1.58%, and individual error rates of 1.82% for CGD and 1.40% for EcoCyc. These data suggest that manual curation of the experimental literature by Ph.D-level scientists is highly accurate. Database URL: http://ecocyc.org/, http://www.candidagenome.org//

  20. Accuracy of MR in growth plate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiguetomi-Medina, Juan Manuel [Aarhus University, Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C (Denmark); Rahbek, Ole [Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Department of Children' s Orthopaedics, Aarhus C (Denmark); Ringgaard, Steffen; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Stoedkilde-Joergensen, Hans [Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, The MR Research Center, Aarhus N (Denmark); Moeller-Madsen, Bjarne [Aarhus University, Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Department of Children' s Orthopaedics, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    To analyze the accuracy of growth-plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5-T and 7-T MR images using histology sections as a standard of reference. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5-T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7-T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate was measured and compared to histology. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7-T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1,325 μm (SD = 183.5) on 1.5-T MR measurements. We found a better correspondence between the growth plate thickness measured on the 7-T MR and histology samples compared to 1.5 T. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7-T MR. 1.5-T MR can only describe some morphological characteristics. (orig.)

  1. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  2. Approaching Chemical Accuracy with Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Petruzielo, F R; Umrigar, C J

    2012-01-01

    A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreement between diffusion Monte Carlo and experiment, reducing the mean absolute deviation to 2.1 kcal/mol. Moving beyond a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction, diffusion Monte Carlo with a small complete active space Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction results in near chemical accuracy. In this case, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies is 1.2 kcal/mol. It is shown from calculations on systems containing phosphorus that the accuracy can be further improved by employing a larger active space.

  3. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  4. Enhancing Accuracy of Plant Leaf Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sumathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have become an important source of energy, and are a fundamental piece in the puzzle to solve the problem of global warming. Living beings also depend on plants for their food, hence it is of great importance to know about the plants growing around us and to preserve them. Automatic plant leaf classification is widely researched. This paper investigates the efficiency of learning algorithms of MLP for plant leaf classification. Incremental back propagation, Levenberg–Marquardt and batch propagation learning algorithms are investigated. Plant leaf images are examined using three different Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP modelling techniques. Back propagation done in batch manner increases the accuracy of plant leaf classification. Results reveal that batch training is faster and more accurate than MLP with incremental training and Levenberg– Marquardt based learning for plant leaf classification. Various levels of semi-batch training used on 9 species of 15 sample each, a total of 135 instances show a roughly linear increase in classification accuracy.

  5. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  6. The IBIS / ISGRI Source Location Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, A; Soldi, S; Gotz, D; Caballero, I; Mattana, F; Heras, J A Zurita

    2013-01-01

    We present here results on the source location accuracy of the INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI coded mask telescope, based on ten years of INTEGRAL data and on recent developments in the data analysis procedures. Data were selected and processed with the new Off-line Scientific Analysis pipeline (OSA10.0) that benefits from the most accurate background corrections, the most performing coding noise cleaning and sky reconstruction algorithms available. We obtained updated parameters for the evaluation of the point source location error from the source signal to noise ratio. These results are compared to previous estimates and to theoretical expectations. Also thanks to a new fitting procedure the typical error at 90% confidence level for a source at a signal to noise of 10 is now estimated to be 1.5 arcmin. Prospects for future analysis on the Point Spread Function fitting procedure and on the evaluation of residual biases are also presented. The new consolidated parameters describing the source location accuracy that will...

  7. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the union between two CoCr-alloys and a dental ceramic Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento da união entre duas ligas a base de CoCr e uma cerâmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pretti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Based on the importance of the integrity of the metal/ceramic interface, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the metal-ceramic union of two Co-Cr alloys (Wirobond C, Bego; Remanium 2000, Dentaurum combined with Omega 900 ceramic (Vita Zahnfabrik. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eleven cylindrical matrixes were made for each alloy, and the metallic portion was obtained with the lost wax casting technique with standardized waxing of 4mm of height and of 4mm of diameter. The ceramic was applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations with the aid of a teflon matrix that allowed its dimension to be standardized in the same size as the metallic portion. The specimens were submitted to the shear bond test in an universal testing machine (EMIC, with the aid of a device developed for such intention, and constant speed of 0.5mm/min. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The mean resistance was 48.387MPa for Wirobond C alloy, with standard deviation of 17.718, and 55.956MPa for Remanium 2000, with standard deviation of 17.198. No statistically significant difference was observed between the shear strength of the two metal-ceramic alloys.INTRODUÇÃO: Baseados na importância da integridade da interface metal-cerâmica, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da união metal-cerâmica de duas ligas de Co-Cr (Wirobond C, Bego; Remanium 2000, Dentaurum combinadas com a cerâmica Omega 900 (Vita Zahnfabrik. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram confeccionados 11 corpos-de-prova cilíndricos para cada liga utilizada, sendo que a porção metálica foi obtida por fundição pela técnica da cera perdida, através de enceramentos padronizados com 4mm de altura por 4mm de diâmetro. A aplicação da cerâmica foi realizada segundo recomendações do fabricante, com auxílio de uma matriz de teflon que permitia sua padronização com as mesmas dimensões da porção metálica. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos

  8. A crise da Liga das Nações de 1926: realismo neoclássico, multilateralismo e a natureza da política externa brasileira The League of Nations crisis of 1926: neoclassical realism, multilateralism, and the nature of Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Baracuhy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a natureza da política externa brasileira na crise da Liga das Nações (1926, a partir de modelo teórico do realismo neoclássico. As dinâmicas por posições de poder nos tabuleiros geopolítico e multilateral do sistema internacional e as percepções e estratégias diplomáticas da elite de política externa brasileira são consideradas no estudo teórico.The article analyzes the nature of Brazilian foreign policy in the crisis of the League of Nations (1926 from a neoclassical-realist theoretical perspective. Within this theoretical framework, the dynamics of power positioning in the geopolitical and multilateral chessboards of the international system and the perceptions and diplomatic strategies of the Brazilian foreign-policy elite are taken into account.

  9. Relação funcional entre a proteína Bub3 do checkpoint mitótico e a proteína motora dineína na ligação cinetocoro-microtúbulos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Patrícia Manuela Areias da

    2011-01-01

    O checkpoint mitótico assegura a fidelidade da segregação cromossómica a cada divisão celular. Este mecanismo de controlo inibe a anafase até que todos os cromossomas estabeleçam uma ligação bipolar, através dos seus cinetocoros irmãos, com os microtúbulos provenientes de pólos opostos do fuso mitótico, culminando no seu alinhamento na placa metafásica, fenómeno designado de congressão. Algumas das proteínas do checkpoint mitótico, designadamente Bub1, BubR1 e Bub3, para alé...

  10. Avaliação da resistência à corrosão de eletrodepósitos de liga ZnFe sobre aço tratado com filmes contendo sais de terras raras e silanos BTSE, BTESPTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a resistência a corrosão do aço revestido com eletrodepósito de liga ZnFe tratado com filmes constituídos de uma pré-camada obtida através de solução de sais de terras raras (Ce ou La) acrescida de filmes de silanos bis 1,2-[trietoxissilil]etano) (BTSE) e/ou bis-(3-[trietoxissilil]-propil) - tetrassulfeto (BTESPTS). Esses sistemas foram avaliados através das Curvas de Polarização, Espectroscopia de Impedância Eletroquímica (EIE), M...

  11. Recobrimento da liga Ti-6Al-4V com hidroxiapatita pelo método sol-gel e sua aplicação a hastes femorais não-cimentadas Coating of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with hydroxyapatite by using sol-gel method and its application to non-cemented femoral stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Avés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O recobrimento de ligas metálicas com cerâmicas bioativas visa acelerar a formação óssea ao redor do implante, contribuindo para a sua estabilização. Neste trabalho estudou-se a fase cerâmica de hidroxiapatita depositada pelo processo sol-gel em chapas da liga metálica Ti-6Al-4V. A camada de recobrimento foi caracterizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, por difração de raios X e sua adesão ao substrato foi avaliada pelo teste de cisalhamento O teste de citocompatibilidade mostrou que o processo de recobrimento por sol-gel não promoveu morte celular significativamente maior que o controle (p > 0,05. Além disso, hastes femorais removidas de pacientes (explantes foram adequadamente recobertas utilizando-se o processo sol-gel.The coating of metallic alloys with bioactive ceramics aims to accelerate bone formation around the implant, contributing to its fixation. In this paper, the deposition of hydroxyapatite ceramic on Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets by the sol-gel method was studied. The coating layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and its adhesion to substrate was evaluated by shear testing. The citocompatibility test shows that the sol-gel coating did not provoke the cell death significantly higher than the control (p > 0.05. Moreover, femoral stems removed from patient (explants were adequately coated using the sol-gel process.

  12. Accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; George, Amanda M; Baker, Alicia; Rohr, Linda E; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure and step count. Thirteen participants wore the vivofit activity tracker for five days. Participants were required to independently perform 1 h of self-selected activity each day of the study. On day four, participants came to the lab to undergo BMR and a treadmill-walking task (TWT). On day five, participants completed 1 h of office-type activities. BMR values estimated by the vivofit were not significantly different from the values measured through indirect calorimetry (IC). The vivofit significantly underestimated EE for treadmill walking, but responded to the differences in the inclination. Vivofit underestimated step count for level walking but provided an accurate estimate for incline walking. There was a strong correlation between EE and the exercise intensity. The vivofit activity tracker is on par with similar devices and can be used to track physical activity.

  13. Quantitative code accuracy evaluation of ISP33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalli, H.; Miwrrin, A. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Purhonen, H. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Aiming at quantifying code accuracy, a methodology based on the Fast Fourier Transform has been developed at the University of Pisa, Italy. The paper deals with a short presentation of the methodology and its application to pre-test and post-test calculations submitted to the International Standard Problem ISP33. This was a double-blind natural circulation exercise with a stepwise reduced primary coolant inventory, performed in PACTEL facility in Finland. PACTEL is a 1/305 volumetrically scaled, full-height simulator of the Russian type VVER-440 pressurized water reactor, with horizontal steam generators and loop seals in both cold and hot legs. Fifteen foreign organizations participated in ISP33, with 21 blind calculations and 20 post-test calculations, altogether 10 different thermal hydraulic codes and code versions were used. The results of the application of the methodology to nine selected measured quantities are summarized.

  14. Prognostic Accuracy of Electroencephalograms in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm;

    2017-01-01

    (267 infants). Any aEEG background abnormality was a predictor of abnormal outcome. For prediction of a developmental quotient ...CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...

  15. Accuracy analysis of a spectral Poisson solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaldi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy)]. E-mail: rambaldi@bo.infn.it; Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Mattioli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Franchi, A. [GSI, Darmstadt, Planckstr. 1, 64291 (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    We solve Poisson's equation in d=2,3 space dimensions by using a spectral method based on Fourier decomposition. The choice of the basis implies that Dirichlet boundary conditions on a box are satisfied. A Green's function-based procedure allows us to impose Dirichlet conditions on any smooth closed boundary, by doubling the computational complexity. The error introduced by the spectral truncation and the discretization of the charge distribution is evaluated by comparison with the exact solution, known in the case of elliptical symmetry. To this end boundary conditions on an equipotential ellipse (ellipsoid) are imposed on the numerical solution. Scaling laws for the error dependence on the number K of Fourier components for each space dimension and the number N of point charges used to simulate the charge distribution are presented and tested. A procedure to increase the accuracy of the method in the beam core region is briefly outlined.

  16. Stereotype accuracy of ballet and modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

    2004-02-01

    The authors recorded preprofessional ballet and modern dancers' perceptions of the personality traits of each type of dancer and self-reports of their own standing, to test the accuracy of the group stereotypes. Participants accurately stereotyped ballet dancers as scoring higher than modern dancers on Fear of Negative Evaluation and Personal Need for Structure and accurately viewed the groups as equal on Fitness Esteem. Participants inaccurately stereotyped ballet dancers as lower on Body Esteem; the groups actually scored the same. Sensitivity correlations across traits indicated that dancers were accurate about the relative magnitudes of trait differences in the two types of dancers. A group of nondancers reported stereotypes that were usually in the right direction although of inaccurate magnitude, and nondancers were sensitive to the relative sizes of group differences across traits.

  17. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...... shutter is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Camera delay is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. A 3-D image is constructed from a sequence of 50-100 2-D reflectivity images, where each frame integrates about 700 laser pulses on the CCD. In 50 Hz video mode...

  18. Human Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs in Search

    CERN Document Server

    Aperjis, Christina; Wu, Fang

    2010-01-01

    When foraging for information, users face a tradeoff between the accuracy and value of the acquired information and the time spent collecting it, a problem which also surfaces when seeking answers to a question posed to a large community. We empirically study how people behave when facing these conflicting objectives using data from Yahoo Answers, a community driven question-and-answer site. We first study how users behave when trying to maximize the amount of acquired information while minimizing the waiting time. We find that users are willing to wait longer for an additional answer if they have received a small number of answers. We then assume that users make a sequence of decisions, deciding to wait for an additional answer as long as the quality of the current answer exceeds some threshold. The resulting probability distribution for the number of answers that a question gets is an inverse Gaussian, a fact that is validated by our data.

  19. Moyamoya disease: diagnostic accuracy of MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, I; Suzuki, S; Matsushima, Y

    1995-07-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in moyamoya disease. We studied 30 patients with this disease, comparing MRI and angiographic findings. The diagnostic value of MRI was evaluated for occlusive lesions, collateral vessels, and parenchymal lesions. In all patients bilateral occlusion or stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and proximal anterior and middle cerebral arteries was clearly shown by MRI, and staging of the extent of occlusion agreed with angiographic staging in 44 (73%) of 60 arteries. MRI, particularly coronal images, clearly showed basal cerebral moyamoya vessels in 54 hemispheres, and 45 of a total of 71 large leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels were identified. MRI also showed parenchymal lesions in 48 (80%) hemispheres, and the extent of occlusion in the anterior and posterior circulations respectively correlated with white matter and cortical and/or subcortical infarcts.

  20. Improved accuracy in nano beam electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, A; Rouviere, J-L [CEA, INAC, SP2M, LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Clement, L, E-mail: armand.beche@cea.f, E-mail: jean-luc.rouviere@cea.f [ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, F-38920 Crolles (France)

    2010-02-01

    Nano beam electron diffraction (NBD or NBED) is applied on a well controlled sample in order to evaluate the limit of the technique to measure strain. Measurements are realised on a 27nm thick Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} layer embedded in a silicon matrix, with a TITAN microscope working at 300kV. Using a standard condenser aperture of 50{mu}m, a probe size diameter of 2.7 nm is obtained and a strain accuracy of 6x10{sup -4} (mean root square, rms) is achieved. NBED patterns are acquired along a [110] direction and the bidimensionnal strain in the (110) plane is measured. Finite element simulations are carried out to check experimental results and reveal that strain relaxation and probe averaging in a 170nm thick TEM lamella reduces strain by 15%.

  1. On the accuracy of the Debye shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Fuentes, M A

    2012-01-01

    The expression for the Debye shielding in plasma physics is usually derived under the assumptions that the plasma particles are weakly coupled, so their kinetic energy is much larger than the potential energy between them, and that the velocity distributions of the plasma species are Maxwellian. The first assumption also establishes that the plasma parameter ND, the number of particles within a sphere with a Debye radius should be greater than 1, and determines the difference between weakly and strongly coupled plasmas. Under such assumptions, Poisson's equation can be linearised, and a simple analytic expression obtained for the electrostatic potential. However, textbooks rarely discuss the accuracy of this approximation. In this work we compare the linearised solution with the exact one, obtained numerically, and show that the linearisation, which underestimates the exact solution, is reasonably good even for ND ~ 40. We give quantitative criteria to set the limit of the approximation when the number of par...

  2. Accuracy verification methods theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, Olli; Repin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accuracy verification methods was understood at the very beginning of the development of numerical analysis. Recent decades have seen a rapid growth of results related to adaptive numerical methods and a posteriori estimates. However, in this important area there often exists a noticeable gap between mathematicians creating the theory and researchers developing applied algorithms that could be used in engineering and scientific computations for guaranteed and efficient error control.   The goals of the book are to (1) give a transparent explanation of the underlying mathematical theory in a style accessible not only to advanced numerical analysts but also to engineers and students; (2) present detailed step-by-step algorithms that follow from a theory; (3) discuss their advantages and drawbacks, areas of applicability, give recommendations and examples.

  3. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  4. Improving the accuracy of death certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, K A; Farquhar, D R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important purposes, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies in information undermine the quality of the data derived from death certificates. METHODS: An educational intervention was designed and implemented to improve internal medicine residents' accuracy in death certificate completion. A total of 229 death certificates (146 completed before and 83 completed after the intervention) were audited for major and minor errors, and the rates of errors before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Major errors were identified on 32.9% of the death certificates completed before the intervention, a rate comparable to previously reported rates for internal medicine services in teaching hospitals. Following the intervention the major error rate decreased to 15.7% (p = 0.01). The reduction in the major error rate was accounted for by significant reductions in the rate of listing of mechanism of death without a legitimate underlying cause of death (15.8% v. 4.8%) (p = 0.01) and the rate of improper sequencing of death certificate information (15.8% v. 6.0%) (p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Errors are common in the completion of death certificates in the inpatient teaching hospital setting. The accuracy of death certification can be improved with the implementation of a simple educational intervention. PMID:9614825

  5. Accuracy of anemia diagnosis by physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Quantification of clinical signs such as the presence or absence of pallor at clinical examination is a key step for making diagnoses. The aim was, firstly, to evaluate two methods for anemia diagnosis by physical examination: four-level evaluation (crosses method: +/++/+++/++++ and estimated hemoglobin values, both performed by medical students and staff physicians; and secondly, to investigate whether there was any improvement in assessment accuracy according to the number of years in clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Forty-four randomly selected physicians and medical students in a tertiary care teaching hospital completed a physical examination on five patients with mild to severe anemia. METHODS: The observers used four-level evaluation and also predicted the hemoglobin level. Both methods were compared with the real hemoglobin value as the gold standard. RESULTS: The mean estimated hemoglobin value correlated better with the real hemoglobin values than did the four-level evaluation method, for attending physicians, residents and students (Spearman's correlation coefficients, respectively: 1.0, 1.0 and 0.9 for guessed hemoglobin and -0.8, -0.8 and -0.7 for the four-level evaluation method. There were no differences in the mean "guessed" hemoglobin values from attending physicians, residents and students. However, the correlation between guessed hemoglobin value and the four-level method was positive for attending physicians, thus suggesting some kind of improvement with time (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that estimated hemoglobin was more accurate than evaluation by the four-level method. The number of years in clinical practice did not improve the accuracy of clinical examination for anemia.

  6. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2005-05-01

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  7. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernica, George [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Boer, Steven F de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Diaz, Aidnag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Fenstermaker, Robert A [Department of Neurosurgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Podgorsak, Matthew B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2005-05-07

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  8. Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kasper; Aagaard, Esben; Torkov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the precision and positional accuracy of different orthognathic procedures following virtual surgical planning in 30 patients. To date, no studies of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning have evaluated the influence of segmentation on positional accuracy ...

  9. Accuracy Assessment Points for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Thematic accuracy requirements for the USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program specify 80% accuracy for each map unit that represents USNVC floristic types. A total of...

  10. IMPROVED ACCURACY AND ROUGHNESS MEASURES FOR ROUGH SETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yuming; Xu Baowen

    2002-01-01

    Accuracy and roughness, proposed by Pawlak(1982), might draw a conclusion inconsistent with our intuition in some cases. This letter analyzes the limitations in these measures and proposes improved accuracy and roughness measures based on information theory.

  11. A SINGLE STEP SCHEME WITH HIGH ACCURACY FOR PARABOLIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传淼; 胡志刚

    2001-01-01

    A single step scheme with high accuracy for solving parabolic problem is proposed. It is shown that this scheme possesses good stability and fourth order accuracy with respect to both time and space variables, which are superconvergent.

  12. Accuracy Assessment Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in May, 1997 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS Vegetation...

  13. Pesquisa de marcadores para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína C de ligação à miosina em familiares de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica Research of markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and myosin binding protein C in relatives of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Paula Tirone; Edmundo Arteaga; Alexandre da Costa Pereira; José Eduardo Krieger; Paula de Cássia Buck; Barbara Maria Ianni; Charles Mady

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar os marcadores moleculares para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína-C de ligação à miosina em familiares de portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 12 famílias que realizaram anamnese, exame físico, eletrocardiograma, ecocardiograma e coleta de sangue para o estudo genético através da reação em cadeia da polimerasse. RESULTADOS: Dos 227 familiares 25% eram acometidos, sendo 51% do sexo masculino com idade média de 35±19...

  14. [Accuracy of a pulse oximeter during hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, C; Fukada, T; Hasegawa, R; Satoh, K; Furuya, Y; Ohe, Y

    1996-04-01

    The accuracy of the pulse oximeter was examined in hypoxic patients. We studied 11 cyanotic congenital heart disease patients during surgery, and compared the arterial oxygen saturation determined by both the simultaneous blood gas analysis (CIBA-CORNING 288 BLOOD GAS SYSTEM, SaO2) and by the pulse oximeter (DATEX SATELITE, with finger probe, SpO2). Ninty sets of data on SpO2 and SaO2 were obtained. The bias (SpO2-SaO2) was 1.7 +/- 6.9 (mean +/- SD) %. In cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, SpO2 values were significantly higher than SaO2. Although the reason is unknown, in constantly hypoxic patients, SpO2 values are possibly over-estimated. In particular, pulse oximetry at low levels of saturation (SaO2 below 80%) was not as accurate as at a higher saturation level (SaO2 over 80%). There was a positive correlation between SpO2 and SaO2 (linear regression analysis yields the equation y = 0.68x + 26.0, r = 0.93). In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in constantly hypoxic patients, but the values thus obtained should be compared with the values measured directly when hypoxemia is severe.

  15. Firing temperature accuracy of four dental furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Per; Ciber, Edina; Dérand, Tore

    2011-01-01

    In spite of using recommended firing and displayed temperatures, low-fired dental porcelain more often demonstrates unsatisfactory results after firing than porcelain fired at higher temperatures. It could therefore be anticipated that temperatures shown on the display are incorrect, implying that the furnace does not render correct firing programs for low-fired porcelain. The purpose of this study is to investigate deviations from the real temperature during the firing process and also to illustrate the service and maintenance discipline of furnaces at dental laboratories. Totally 20 units of four different types of dental furnaces were selected for testing of temperature accuracy with usage of a digital temperature measurement apparatus, Therma 1. In addition,the staffs at 68 dental laboratories in Sweden were contacted for a telephone interview on furnace brand and on service and maintenance program performed at their laboratories. None of the 20 different dental furnaces in the study could generate the firing temperatures shown on the display, indicating that the hypothesis was correct. Multimat MCII had the least deviation of temperature compared with displayfigures. 62 out of 68 invited dental laboratories chose to participate in the interviews and the result was that very few laboratories had a service and maintenance program living up to quality standards. There is room for improving the precision of dental porcelain furnaces as there are deviations between displayed and read temperatures during the different steps of the firing process.

  16. Dimensional accuracy of thermoformed polymethyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, R G

    1996-12-01

    Thermoforming of polymethyl methacrylate sheet is used to produce a number of different types of dental appliances. The purpose of this study was to determine the dimensional accuracy of thermoformed polymethyl methacrylate specimens. Five blanks of the acrylic resin were thermoformed on stone casts prepared from a silicone mold of a brass master die. The distances between index marks were measured both on the cast and on the thermoformed blanks with an optical comparator. Measurements on the blanks were made again 24 hours after processing and then 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after immersion in water. Linear shrinkage of less than 1% (range 0.37% to 0.52%) was observed 24 hours after removal of the blanks from the cast. Immersion of the thermoformed specimens in water resulted in an increase in measured dimensions, but after 3 months' immersion these increases were still less than those of the cast (range 0.07% to 0.18%). It was concluded that it is possible to thermoform Perspex polymethyl methacrylate accurately.

  17. Overlay accuracy with respect to device scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

    2012-03-01

    Overlay metrology performance is usually reported as repeatability, matching between tools or optics aberrations distorting the measurement (Tool induced shift or TIS). Over the last few years, improvement of these metrics by the tool suppliers has been impressive. But, what about accuracy? Using different target types, we have already reported small differences in the mean value as well as fingerprint [1]. These differences make the correctables questionable. Which target is correct and therefore which translation, scaling etc. values should be fed back to the scanner? In this paper we investigate the sources of these differences, using several approaches. First, we measure the response of different targets to offsets programmed in a test vehicle. Second, we check the response of the same overlay targets to overlay errors programmed into the scanner. We compare overlay target designs; what is the contribution of the size of the features that make up the target? We use different overlay measurement techniques; is DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay) more accurate than IBO (Image Based Overlay)? We measure overlay on several stacks; what is the stack contribution to inaccuracy? In conclusion, we offer an explanation for the observed differences and propose a solution to reduce them.

  18. Navigation in Orthognathic Surgery: 3D Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiali, Giovanni; Roncari, Andrea; Bianchi, Alberto; Taddei, Fulvia; Marchetti, Claudio; Schileo, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to determine the absolute accuracy of maxillary repositioning during orthognathic surgery according to simulation-guided navigation, that is, the combination of navigation and three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgery. We retrospectively studied 15 patients treated for asymmetric dentofacial deformities at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from January 2010 to January 2012. Patients were scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography before and after surgery. The virtual surgical simulation was realized with a dedicated software and loaded on a navigation system to improve intraoperative reproducibility of the preoperative planning. We analyzed the outcome following two protocols: (1) planning versus postoperative 3D surface analysis; (2) planning versus postoperative point-based analysis. For 3D surface comparison, the mean Hausdorff distance was measured, and median among cases was 0.99 mm. Median reproducibility orthognathic surgery, if compared with the surgical computer-designed project realized with a dedicated software, particularly for the vertical dimension, which is the most challenging to manage.

  19. Accuracy and robustness evaluation in stereo matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc M.; Hanca, Jan; Lu, Shao-Ping; Schelkens, Peter; Munteanu, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Stereo matching has received a lot of attention from the computer vision community, thanks to its wide range of applications. Despite of the large variety of algorithms that have been proposed so far, it is not trivial to select suitable algorithms for the construction of practical systems. One of the main problems is that many algorithms lack sufficient robustness when employed in various operational conditions. This problem is due to the fact that most of the proposed methods in the literature are usually tested and tuned to perform well on one specific dataset. To alleviate this problem, an extensive evaluation in terms of accuracy and robustness of state-of-the-art stereo matching algorithms is presented. Three datasets (Middlebury, KITTI, and MPEG FTV) representing different operational conditions are employed. Based on the analysis, improvements over existing algorithms have been proposed. The experimental results show that our improved versions of cross-based and cost volume filtering algorithms outperform the original versions with large margins on Middlebury and KITTI datasets. In addition, the latter of the two proposed algorithms ranks itself among the best local stereo matching approaches on the KITTI benchmark. Under evaluations using specific settings for depth-image-based-rendering applications, our improved belief propagation algorithm is less complex than MPEG's FTV depth estimation reference software (DERS), while yielding similar depth estimation performance. Finally, several conclusions on stereo matching algorithms are also presented.

  20. Blood Gas Analyzer Accuracy of Glucose Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yafen; Wanderer, Jonathan; Nichols, James H; Klonoff, David; Rice, Mark J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the comparability of glucose levels measured with blood gas analyzers (BGAs) and by central laboratories (CLs). Glucose measurements obtained between June 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed. The agreement between CL and BGA results were assessed using Bland-Altman, consensus error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses. We further analyzed the BGAs' performance against the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2014 draft guidance and 2016 final guidance for blood glucose monitoring and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 standard. We analyzed 2671 paired glucose measurements, including 50 pairs of hypoglycemic values (1.9%). Bland-Altman analysis yielded a mean bias of -3.1 mg/dL, with 98.1% of paired values meeting the 95% limits of agreement. In the hypoglycemic range, the mean bias was -0.8 mg/dL, with 100% of paired values meeting the 95% limits of agreement. When using CEG analysis, 99.9% of the paired values fell within the no risk zone. Similar results were found using SEG analysis. For the FDA 2014 draft guidance, our data did not meet the target compliance rate. For the FDA 2016 final guidance, our data partially met the target compliance rate. For the ISO standard, our data met the target compliance rate. In this study, the agreement for glucose measurement between common BGAs and CL instruments met the ISO 2013 standard. However, BGA accuracy did not meet the stricter requirements of the FDA 2014 draft guidance or 2016 final guidance. Fortunately, plotting these results on either the CEG or the SEG revealed no results in either the great or extreme clinical risk zones. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High accuracy GNSS based navigation in GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Shehaj, Endrit; Blunt, Paul; Botteron, Cyril; Farine, Pierre-André

    2017-07-01

    Although significant improvements in efficiency and performance of communication satellites have been achieved in the past decades, it is expected that the demand for new platforms in Geostationary Orbit (GEO) and for the On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) on the existing ones will continue to rise. Indeed, the GEO orbit is used for many applications including direct broadcast as well as communications. At the same time, Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS), originally designed for land, maritime and air applications, has been successfully used as navigation system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and its further utilization for navigation of geosynchronous satellites becomes a viable alternative offering many advantages over present ground based methods. Following our previous studies of GNSS signal characteristics in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), GEO and beyond, in this research we specifically investigate the processing of different GNSS signals, with the goal to determine the best navigation performance they can provide in a GEO mission. Firstly, a detailed selection among different GNSS signals and different combinations of them is discussed, taking into consideration the L1 and L5 frequency bands, and the GPS and Galileo constellations. Then, the implementation of an Orbital Filter is summarized, which adaptively fuses the GN1SS observations with an accurate orbital forces model. Finally, simulation tests of the navigation performance achievable by processing the selected combination of GNSS signals are carried out. The results obtained show an achievable positioning accuracy of less than one meter. In addition, hardware-in-the-loop tests are presented using a COTS receiver connected to our GNSS Spirent simulator, in order to collect real-time hardware-in-the-loop observations and process them by the proposed navigation module.

  2. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  3. Accuracy estimation of foamy virus genome copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rethwilm Axel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses (FVs are the most genetically stable viruses of the retrovirus family. This is in contrast to the in vitro error rate found for recombinant FV reverse transcriptase (RT. To investigate the accuracy of FV genome copying in vivo we analyzed the occurrence of mutations in HEK 293T cell culture after a single round of reverse transcription using a replication-deficient vector system. Furthermore, the frequency of FV recombination by template switching (TS and the cross-packaging ability of different FV strains were analyzed. Results We initially sequenced 90,000 nucleotides and detected 39 mutations, corresponding to an in vivo error rate of approximately 4 × 10-4 per site per replication cycle. Surprisingly, all mutations were transitions from G to A, suggesting that APOBEC3 activity is the driving force for the majority of mutations detected in our experimental system. In line with this, we detected a late but significant APOBEC3G and 3F mRNA by quantitative PCR in the cells. We then analyzed 170,000 additional nucleotides from experiments in which we co-transfected the APOBEC3-interfering foamy viral bet gene and observed a significant 50% drop in G to A mutations, indicating that APOBEC activity indeed contributes substantially to the foamy viral replication error rate in vivo. However, even in the presence of Bet, 35 out of 37 substitutions were G to A, suggesting that residual APOBEC activity accounted for most of the observed mutations. If we subtract these APOBEC-like mutations from the total number of mutations, we calculate a maximal intrinsic in vivo error rate of 1.1 × 10-5 per site per replication. In addition to the point mutations, we detected one 49 bp deletion within the analyzed 260000 nucleotides. Analysis of the recombination frequency of FV vector genomes revealed a 27% probability for a template switching (TS event within a 1 kilobase (kb region. This corresponds to a 98% probability that FVs

  4. Time to publication among completed diagnostic accuracy studies: associated with reported accuracy estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël A. Korevaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evaluations have documented that studies evaluating the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions are not always reported, and that those with statistically significant results are published more rapidly than those without. This can lead to reporting bias in systematic reviews and other literature syntheses. We evaluated whether diagnostic accuracy studies that report promising results about the performance of medical tests are also published more rapidly. Methods We obtained all primary diagnostic accuracy studies included in meta-analyses of Medline-indexed systematic reviews that were published between September 2011 and January 2012. For each primary study, we extracted estimates of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index, the completion date of participant recruitment, and the publication date. We calculated the time from completion to publication and assessed associations with reported accuracy estimates. Results Forty-nine systematic reviews were identified, containing 92 meta-analyses and 924 unique primary studies, of which 756 could be included. Study completion dates were missing for 285 (38 % of these. Median time from completion to publication in the remaining 471 studies was 24 months (IQR 16 to 35. Primary studies that reported higher estimates of sensitivity (Spearman’s rho = −0.14; p = 0.003, specificity (rho = −0.17; p < 0.001, and Youden’s index (rho = −0.22; p < 0.001 had significantly shorter times to publication. When comparing time to publication in studies reporting accuracy estimates above versus below the median, the median number of months was 23 versus 25 for sensitivity (p = 0.046, 22 versus 27 for specificity (p = 0.001, and 22 versus 27 for Youden’s index (p < 0.001. These differential time lags remained significant in multivariable Cox regression analyses with adjustment for other study characteristics, with

  5. Eletrodissolução anódica em sistema de injeção em fluxo: uma alternativa rápida e eficiente para dissolução de ligas metálicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva José Bento Borba da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Anodic electrodissolution procedure in a flow injection system for determination of constituents in alloys is discussed. This approach implement sample preparation procedure by using a chamber and a DC power supply with constant direct current. Solid sample was attached to chamber as anode. In this review a general overview of these procedure is presented. The procedure presented a good performance characterized by a high sample throughput determinations, good accuracy and relative standard deviation.

  6. Caracterização do processo de análise do jogo em clubes da 1ª liga portuguesa profissional de futebol na época 2005/2006 Characterization of match analysis process in Portuguese first football league teams: season 2005/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O nível competitivo alcançado pelo futebol profissional tem exigido níveis de desempenho cada vez mais elevados. Uma das formas que tem sido utilizada para monitorá-la é a análise do jogo (AJ. O presente trabalho pretendeu caracterizar o processo de AJ na 1ª liga portuguesa profissional de futebol. Os objetivos do estudo foram conhecer: 1 a importância da AJ; 2 a frequência da sua realização; 3 os profissionais envolvidos; 4 os instrumentos e métodos utilizados; e 5 a importância atribuída pelos treinadores a diferentes eixos de análise. A amostra foi constituída por 16 treinadores da 1ª liga portuguesa de futebol profissional 2005/2006 (89% do universo em estudo. A cada um deles foi aplicado um questionário previamente validado por oito especialistas. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a AJ adquire a sua pertinência ao nível da planificação tático-estratégica. É comumente utilizado um instrumento com categorias predefinidas e os eixos de análise eleitos estão relacionados com a dimensão tático-estratégica do jogo. O treinador principal é o protagonista na análise do jogo da sua equipe, delegando a função de análise dos adversários num profissional da equipe técnica. Os sistemas de análise utilizados não são sofisticados e apenas uma minoria admite recorrer à informática. Os eixos de análise menos valorizados estão relacionados com a análise energético-funcional dos jogadores. Sintetizando, na referida liga o processo de AJ é sistematizado e foca preferencialmente a vertente táctico-estratégica dos jogos analisados. No entanto, apesar de serem utilizados instrumentos com categorias predefinidas, os sistemas de análise utilizados são pouco sofisticado.Nowadays, the competitive level achieved by professional football has required performance levels to increase highly. Match analysis is one of the tools that has been used to control performance. The aim of this work was to characterise match

  7. Estudo comparativo da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo do revestimento de três ligas metálicas utilizadas na indústria, aplicadas por soldagem com arames tubulares Comparative study of the wear resistance of three metal cored wire welded coatings used in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinícius de Melo Leite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As ligas metálicas aplicadas por soldagem em superfícies, objetivando a proteção contra o desgaste e o conseqüente aumento da vida útil de peças e equipamentos, têm sido utilizadas em larga escala nas indústrias de bens de consumo e nos setores de mineração e sucroalcooleiro. O desgaste abrasivo em peças e equipamentos representa, nestas industriais, um dos principais fatores de depreciação de capital e uma importante fonte de despesas com manutenção. Para a aplicação do revestimento por soldagem, os arames tubulares têm sido uma alternativa cada vez mais viável, devido à sua alta produtividade e qualidade de solda, substituindo, em parte, o uso do eletrodo revestido. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer um estudo comparativo da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo do revestimento aplicado por soldagem com arames tubulares autoprotegidos de três ligas metálicas utilizadas na indústria, uma do tipo Fe-Cr-C, outra do tipo Fe-Cr-C com adição de nióbio e boro e a terceira, do tipo Fe-Cr-C com adição de nióbio. Os revestimentos anti-desgaste, conhecidos como revestimento duro, foram aplicados em chapas de aço carbono, com os mesmos parâmetros e procedimentos de soldagem. Os corpos de prova foram obtidos por corte e retificação e foram submetidos a ensaios de desgaste abrasivo, em um abrasômero Roda de Borracha, conforme procedimento estabelecido pela norma ASTM G65-91. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a liga Fe-Cr-C com adição de Nióbio e Boro apresentou desempenho superior em relação ao desgaste abrasivo.The metal alloys deposited by welding on the components surface, with the objective of protection against wear and the consequent increase in the lifetime of parts and equipments, have been used extensively in the consumer products industry and sectors of Mining and Sugar & alcohol. The abrasive wear on parts and equipments represents one of the main depreciation factors of capital and the major source of

  8. Enfermeira de ligação: uma estratégia de integração em rede Enfermera de comunicación: una estrategia de integración en red Liaison nurse: a strategy of network integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bernardino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva identificar a demanda e as possibilidades de atuação da enfermeira de ligação no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. É uma pesquisa descritiva na modalidade estudo de caso, desenvolvida de agosto de 2007 a maio de 2008 e realizada em duas etapas distintas. Primeiramente se realizou uma monitorização das altas hospitalares por meio de formulários, e em seguida, após a seleção de uma unidade de internação em que houve a atuação do papel de enfermeira de ligação junto aos usuários com alta hospitalar, foram entrevistados 10 destes, com a utilização de um roteiro semi-estruturado. Por último, foi realizada a categorização das entrevistas e submissão dos dados à análise temática. Os resultados apontam que a implantação da função enfermeira de ligação é um passo para viabilizar a integração do HC/UFPR à rede e colaborar para a integralidade da atenção.Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar la demanda y posibilidades de acción de la enfermera de comunicación en el Hospital de Clínicas de la Universidad Federal de Paraná. Es un trabajo descriptivo en la modalidad estudio de caso, desarrollado entre agosto de 2007 y mayo de 2008, y realizado en dos etapas. Primero, se realizó un seguimiento de altas hospitalarias por medio de formularios; posteriormente fue seleccionada una unidad de internación en que hubo la acción de la Enfermera de Comunicación junto a los pacientes de alta hospitalaria y fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 10 destos. Finalmente, fue realizada la categorización y envío de datos para análisis temática. Los resultados demostraron que la implantación de la función Enfermera de Comunicación es un paso para viabilizar la integración del HC/UFPR a la red y colaborar para la integralidad de la atención.This paper aims to identify the demand and potential activities of the Liaison Nurse position in the Hospital de Cl

  9. Influence of Exposure Time on Prototyping Accuracy in Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴懋亮; 方明伦; 胡庆夕; 戴春祥; 卢秉恒

    2004-01-01

    A novel stereolithgraphy system with conventional UV light as a light source uses the 2D worktable as moving components,whose characteristics determine the accuracy of the prototyping parts. Many factors including mass of the worktable, elasticity and damp coefficients, speed and acceleration affect the non-uniform exposure time of the resin, and eventually influence the cured line shape and the curing accuracy. A light shuttle is used to eliminate the cure errors, greatly improving accuracy of the parts.

  10. Virtual Teaching Simulation for Robot Assembly Accuracy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征; 周宏甫; 刘斌

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, by teaching a 3D robot unit model and playing back to simulate the assembly process in a virtual assembly environment, errors in robot assembly are analyzed. The paper also presents a visualization method for analyzing accuracy of the robot assembly, and studies the influence of the spatial pose of a robot on the success rate of an axis-hole assembly, and accuracy of the robot teaching program in particular. Through integration of various errors and on the basis of assembly accuracy, tolerance of error sources can be reasonably distributed to meet the assembly accuracy requirement, therefore the planning of robot assembly unit can be improved.

  11. A fast RCS accuracy assessment method for passive radar calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongsheng; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Lingli; Ma, Lingling; Liu, QI

    2016-10-01

    In microwave radar radiometric calibration, the corner reflector acts as the standard reference target but its structure is usually deformed during the transportation and installation, or deformed by wind and gravity while permanently installed outdoor, which will decrease the RCS accuracy and therefore the radiometric calibration accuracy. A fast RCS accuracy measurement method based on 3-D measuring instrument and RCS simulation was proposed in this paper for tracking the characteristic variation of the corner reflector. In the first step, RCS simulation algorithm was selected and its simulation accuracy was assessed. In the second step, the 3-D measuring instrument was selected and its measuring accuracy was evaluated. Once the accuracy of the selected RCS simulation algorithm and 3-D measuring instrument was satisfied for the RCS accuracy assessment, the 3-D structure of the corner reflector would be obtained by the 3-D measuring instrument, and then the RCSs of the obtained 3-D structure and corresponding ideal structure would be calculated respectively based on the selected RCS simulation algorithm. The final RCS accuracy was the absolute difference of the two RCS calculation results. The advantage of the proposed method was that it could be applied outdoor easily, avoiding the correlation among the plate edge length error, plate orthogonality error, plate curvature error. The accuracy of this method is higher than the method using distortion equation. In the end of the paper, a measurement example was presented in order to show the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Resistência de união entre cimentos e liga de níquel-cromo, em função da ciclagem térmica e variações no procedimento de união Tensile bond strength between cements and nickel-chromium alloy related to thermocycling and adhesive variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ruiz MARTUCI

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A investigação teve a finalidade de avaliar a resistência de união de uma liga de níquel-cromo com diversos agentes cimentantes frente à imersão, sem ou com termociclagem e idade. A liga usada foi a Litecast B. Os sistemas adesivos usados foram Ketac-Cem, Vitremer, Enforce com Flúor em três variações: a com primer apenas (Enforce P; b com primer e adesivo (Enforce P + A; c apenas adesivo (Enforce A. Discos metálicos, obtidos por fundição, foram cimentados entre si, constituindo os corpos de prova, que foram imersos em água destilada e submetidos ou não à ciclagem térmica. Os testes foram feitos 1 e 90 dias após a cimentação. As conclusões foram: o Ketac-Cem apresentou baixa resistência adesiva, sendo superado pelo Vitremer; o Enforce P, embora aumentasse a resistência ao longo do tempo, fez com que ela permanecesse baixa; o Enforce P + A apresentou alta resistência em um dia, que diminuiu ao longo do tempo; o Enforce A apresentou superioridade adesiva, que se manteve ao longo do tempo com ciclagem térmica; a influência da ciclagem térmica foi dependente do sistema adesivo.We evaluated tensile bond strengths between a nickel-chromium alloy and cements at different times (one and 90 days using or not thermocycling. Alloy used was Litecast B, and luting cements were Ketac-Cem, Vitremer, and Fluoride Enforce with three variations: a only primer; b with primer and bond; c only with bond. Metallic discs with 6 mm diameter were cemented together and immersed in distilled water. Half specimens were thermocycled and half one not. Conclusions were: Ketac-Cem presented low bonding strength, being that of Vitremer very higher; the material Enforce when used only with primer increased adhesion with time but yet remained relatively low after 90 days; Enforce used with bond only achieved superior adhesion, still present specially with termocycling after 90 days; influence of thermocycling depends on adhesive system.

  13. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  14. Linkage study of voltage-gated potassium channels in familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Análise de ligação dos canais de potássio voltagem-dependente na epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs play a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and have been implicated in some types of epilepsies. Recently, autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE was associated with antibodies against VGKC. In addition, patients with LE showed partial epilepsy and increased T2 signal abnormalities in limbic structures. We have reported familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (FMTLE associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA and other signs of mesial temporal sclerosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In order to investigate whether VGKC may be associated to HA present in FMTLE, we perform linkage study in these candidate genes. Seventy-three microsatellites markers were genotyped in different human autosomal chromosome. Two-point LOD scores did not show evidence for linkage with any of the microsatellite markers genotyped (Zmax ranging from 0.11to-9.53 at theta=0.00. In the present study, linkage data showed no evidence that VGKC are involved in the determination of HA in FMTLE.Canais de potássio voltagem-dependentes (CPVD desempenham importante papel na excitabilidade neuronal e estão associados a determinados tipos de epilepsia. Recentemente, um tipo de encefalite límbica autoimune (EL foi associado com anticorpos contra CPVD. Além disso, há relatos de pacientes com EL e epilepsia parcial, além de hipersinal em regiões límbicas detectadas em imagens de ressonância magnética (IRM. Nós temos descrito a epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial familial (ELTMF associada à atrofia hipocampal (AH e outros sinais de esclerose mesial temporal observadas em IRM. Para investigar se os CPVD podem estar associados com a AH identificada na ELTMF, empregamos o estudo de ligação genética nesses genes candidatos. Setenta e três marcadores microssatélites foram genotipados e o LOD score de dois pontos mostrou Zmax variando de 0.11 a -9.53 para teta=0.00. No presente estudo, os dados obtidos com a an

  15. Accuracy of References in Ten Library Science Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Nancy N.

    1992-01-01

    A study of 100 article citations from 11 library science journals showed only 45 article citations that were completely free of errors, while 11 had major errors--i.e., errors preventing or hindering location of the reference--and the remaining 44 had minor errors. Citation accuracy in library science journals appears similar to accuracy in other…

  16. Camera Calibration Accuracy at Different Uav Flying Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. R.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Idris, K. M.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used to acquire highly accurate data in deformation survey, whereby low-cost digital cameras are commonly used in the UAV mapping. Thus, camera calibration is considered important in obtaining high-accuracy UAV mapping using low-cost digital cameras. The main focus of this study was to calibrate the UAV camera at different camera distances and check the measurement accuracy. The scope of this study included camera calibration in the laboratory and on the field, and the UAV image mapping accuracy assessment used calibration parameters of different camera distances. The camera distances used for the image calibration acquisition and mapping accuracy assessment were 1.5 metres in the laboratory, and 15 and 25 metres on the field using a Sony NEX6 digital camera. A large calibration field and a portable calibration frame were used as the tools for the camera calibration and for checking the accuracy of the measurement at different camera distances. Bundle adjustment concept was applied in Australis software to perform the camera calibration and accuracy assessment. The results showed that the camera distance at 25 metres is the optimum object distance as this is the best accuracy obtained from the laboratory as well as outdoor mapping. In conclusion, the camera calibration at several camera distances should be applied to acquire better accuracy in mapping and the best camera parameter for the UAV image mapping should be selected for highly accurate mapping measurement.

  17. Grey System Forecast for Firing Accuracy of Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qi-yue; QIU Wan-hua

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the system and subsystem forecast models for firing accuracy have been built by means of theory of Grey System Forecast. It has provided a scientific forecasting method for micro-errorcontrol and macro-error-control and improving the firing accuracy.

  18. Diagnostic methods I: sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. van Stralen; V.S. Stel; J.B. Reitsma; F.W. Dekker; C. Zoccali; K.J. Jager

    2009-01-01

    For most physicians, use of diagnostic tests is part of daily routine. This paper focuses on their usefulness by explaining the different measures of accuracy, the interpretation of test results, and the implementation of a diagnostic strategy. Measures of accuracy include sensitivity and specificit

  19. Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M.…

  20. Concept Mapping Improves Metacomprehension Accuracy among 7th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Joshua S.; Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored concept map construction as a useful intervention to improve metacomprehension accuracy among 7th grade students. In the first experiment, metacomprehension was marginally better for a concept mapping group than for a rereading group. In the second experiment, metacomprehension accuracy was significantly greater for a…

  1. Clock accuracy analysis for a coherent IR-UWB system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Young, A.; Philips, K.; Groot, H. de

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a duty-cycled coherent impulse radio UWB system is typically dominated by the accuracy of its timing references. In this paper, a timing analysis is presented for an IR-UWB system to specify the accuracy requirements for the internal clocks of the transceiver. A possible clock gen

  2. 12 CFR 740.2 - Accuracy of advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of advertising. 740.2 Section 740.2... ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.2 Accuracy of advertising. No insured credit union may use any advertising (which includes print, electronic, or broadcast media, displays and signs, stationery, and...

  3. Prediction of Rate Constants for Catalytic Reactions with Chemical Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow, C Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ex machina: A computational method for predicting rate constants for reactions within microporous zeolite catalysts with chemical accuracy has recently been reported. A key feature of this method is a stepwise QM/MM approach that allows accuracy to be achieved while using realistic models with accessible computer resources.

  4. Accuracy of depth of cut in micro milling operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    In any kind of conventional machining operation, dimensional and geometrical accuracy of the machined part cannot be achieved without a precise control of cutting parameters as well as positioning accuracy. Miniaturization of components implies a reduction of all component’s dimensions and involv...

  5. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  6. Accuracy analysis of the part made by selected laser sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different factors, including the precision of selected laser sintering (SLS) equipment, sintering temperature, sintered thickness of individual layer and laser scanning route, on the SLS part accuracy have been analyzed and studied. Some measures are suggested in order to improve the part accuracy made by SLS.

  7. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  8. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  9. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  10. Improving metacomprehension accuracy in an undergraduate course context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D; Jaeger, Allison J; Jarosz, Andrew F; Cushen, Patrick J; Thiede, Keith W

    2016-12-01

    Students tend to have poor metacomprehension when learning from text, meaning they are not able to distinguish between what they have understood well and what they have not. Although there are a good number of studies that have explored comprehension monitoring accuracy in laboratory experiments, fewer studies have explored this in authentic course contexts. This study investigated the effect of an instructional condition that encouraged comprehension-test-expectancy and self-explanation during study on metacomprehension accuracy in the context of an undergraduate course in research methods. Results indicated that when students received this instructional condition, relative metacomprehension accuracy was better than in a comparison condition. In addition, differences were also seen in absolute metacomprehension accuracy measures, strategic study behaviors, and learning outcomes. The results of the current study demonstrate that a condition that has improved relative metacomprehension accuracy in laboratory contexts may have value in real classroom contexts as well. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Recognition accuracy by experienced men and women players of basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millslagle, Duane G

    2002-08-01

    This study examined 30 experienced basketball players' recognition accuracy by sex, playing position (guard, forward, and center), and situations in the game of basketball. The study used a perceptual cognitive paradigm in which subjects viewed slides of structured and unstructured game situations and accurately recognized the presence or absence of the basketball. A significant difference in recognition accuracy by sex, players' position, and structure of the game situation was found. Male players' recognition accuracy was better than the female players'. The recognition accuracy of subjects who played guard was better than that of subjects who played forward or center. The players' recognition accuracy was more accurate when observing structured plays versus unstructured plays. The conclusion of this study suggested that experienced basketball players differ in their cognitive and visual searching processes by sex and player position within the sport of basketball.

  12. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. To achieve this, the sensor itself has better than 1 nT accuracy. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it is also necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance, we used covariance analysis and attempted to corroborate it with simulations. Although not perfect, the two generally agree and show the expected behaviors. With the annual calibration regimen, these predictions suggest that the magnetometers will meet their accuracy requirements.

  13. The accuracy assessment in areal interpolation:An empirical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Areal interpolation is the process of transferring data from source zones to target zones. While method development remains a top research priority in areal interpo-lation,the accuracy assessment aspect also begs for attention. This paper reports an empirical experience on probing an areal interpolation method to highlight the power and potential pitfalls in accuracy assessment. A kriging-based interpolation algorithm is evaluated by several approaches. It is found that accuracy assessment is a powerful tool to understand an interpolation method,e.g. the utility of ancillary data and semi-variogram modeling in kriging in our case study. However,different assessment methods and spatial units on which assessment is conducted can lead to rather different results. The typical practice to assess accuracy at the source zone level may overestimate interpolation accuracy. Assessment at the target zone level is suggested as a supplement.

  14. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  15. O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligação emocional com o bebé La participación del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vínculo emocional con el bebé Father’s involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rui Duarte Farias Nogueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enquadramento: a ligação emocional entre pai e filho é determinante na transição para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do bebé. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relação entre as variáveis sóciodemográficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordão umbilical com a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Metodologia: efetuámos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de caráter descritivo analítico. Aplicámos um questionário e a escala bonding validada para a população Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005, em três momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1º e no 3º dia após o parto a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificámos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos, o acompanhamento da grávida às consultas de vigilância da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grávida nos preparativos para o nascimento do bebé, a leitura de informação sobre o bebé em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordão umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligação afetiva entre o pai e o bebé se os profissionais de saúde promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto.Marco: el vínculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transición hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del bebé.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relación entre las variables sociodemográficas, la participación en el embarazo o el corte del cordón umbilical y el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Metodología: se realizó un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario y la escala de Bonding validado para la población portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005, en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer día después del parto a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se

  16. As origens da participação da América Latina na Organização de Saúde da Liga das Nações, 1920 a 1940 The League of Nations Health Organization and the rise of Latin American participation, 1920-40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Weindling

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Organização de Saúde da Liga das Nações colaborou com especialistas latino-americanos em saúde pública e doenças infecciosas desde o início da década de 1920 e até a eclosão da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Desenvolveu estudos sobre saúde e nutrição infantil e sobre a lepra. A abordagem foi orientada por especialistas, tendo em mira o desenvolvimento da saúde pública em bases científicas. Houve conferências, visitas e relatórios sobre a América Latina. O artigo demonstra que a colaboração da América Latina com aquela organização internacional de saúde foi ampla e multifacetada.The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.

  17. Accuracy Assessment of Coastal Topography Derived from Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, N.; Millescamps, B.; Pouget, F.; Dumon, A.; Lachaussée, N.; Bertin, X.

    2016-06-01

    To monitor coastal environments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a low-cost and easy to use solution to enable data acquisition with high temporal frequency and spatial resolution. Compared to Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) or Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), this solution produces Digital Surface Model (DSM) with a similar accuracy. To evaluate the DSM accuracy on a coastal environment, a campaign was carried out with a flying wing (eBee) combined with a digital camera. Using the Photoscan software and the photogrammetry process (Structure From Motion algorithm), a DSM and an orthomosaic were produced. Compared to GNSS surveys, the DSM accuracy is estimated. Two parameters are tested: the influence of the methodology (number and distribution of Ground Control Points, GCPs) and the influence of spatial image resolution (4.6 cm vs 2 cm). The results show that this solution is able to reproduce the topography of a coastal area with a high vertical accuracy (distribution and a large number of GCPs. The accuracy is correlated with the number of GCPs (use 19 GCPs instead of 10 allows to reduce the difference of 4 cm); the required accuracy should be dependant of the research problematic. Last, in this particular environment, the presence of very small water surfaces on the sand bank does not allow to improve the accuracy when the spatial resolution of images is decreased.

  18. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-06-22

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10(-6)°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  19. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  20. Accuracy of the mammographic report category according to BIRADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunpat, Siriporn; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Khojarern, Rungrat; Arpakupakul, Nualta

    2005-01-01

    To determine the accuracy and predictive value of the mammographic report according to the BIRADS categories in Songklanagarind University Hospital. Mammograms of 1000 women who came to Songklanagarind University Hospital from June 1998 to September 1999 were reported and placed in category 1 for negative results, category 2 for benign lesions, category 3 for probably benign lesions, category 4 for suspicious lesions and category 5 for highly suspicious lesions. Accuracy was determined by either histology or by unchanged follow-up mammography within 24 months. The total accuracy was 97.8%, sensitivity 62.5% and specificity 98.1%.

  1. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE LOCATION SYSTEMWITH PHASE DIFFERENCE RATE MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conventional mono-station passive location techniques of direction finding are low in speed and accuracy. It may not meet the requirements of modern targeting or accuracy attacking actions. For a moving observer, by employing some passive measurements such as Doppler or Phase Difference Rate (PDR), the location error can be reduced to nearly one-fifth of the conventional error[1~4].  In this paper, the location method using PDR is introduced in section one. Location accuracy analysis is given in section two. Simulation results of error's lower bound of 3D location are produced in section four. Finally, the conclusion is presented in section five.

  2. [Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongjian

    2013-05-01

    The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

  3. Research on techniques to improve accuracy in SBL locating systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jie; LIU Bo-sheng; SONG Hai-yan

    2008-01-01

    Short baseline system (SBL), which is a kind of underwater acoustic locating technology, has widely applicable value. In order to examine the capability of ship model design, the ship model experimentation should have high accuracy. This paper focuses on the key techniques of high accuracy locating system, including high accuracy sub-array position emendation, divisional locating, anti multi-path interference measure, etc. Experiments show that the SBL locating systems has received the satisfying effect owing to these key techniques proposed in this paper.

  4. A study of laseruler accuracy and precision (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted to investigate Laserruler accuracy and precision. Tests were performed on 0.050 in., 0.100 in., and 0.120 in. gauge block standards. Results showed and accuracy of 3.7 {mu}in. for the 0.12 in. standard, with higher accuracies for the two thinner blocks. The Laserruler precision was 4.83 {mu}in. for the 0.120 in. standard, 3.83 {mu}in. for the 0.100 in. standard, and 4.2 {mu}in. for the 0.050 in. standard.

  5. Inertial measures of motion for clinical biomechanics: comparative assessment of accuracy under controlled conditions - changes in accuracy over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    Full Text Available Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven't been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1 to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2 to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time.This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP. Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials.Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase.The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame.Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their full potential in capturing clinical outcomes.

  6. Accuracy Assessment Points for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 1543 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the summer of 2005 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were randomly...

  7. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  8. Precision and Accuracy of Topography Measurements on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Hurford, T. A.; Foley, M. A.; Varland, K.

    2007-03-01

    Reports of the death of the melt-through model for chaotic terrain on Europa have been greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. They are based on topographic maps of insufficient quantitative accuracy and precision.

  9. Effective Analysis of Chinese Word-Segmentation Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Weiyin

    2007-01-01

    Automatic word-segmentation is widely used in the ambiguity cancellation when processing large-scale real text,but during the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation,many detected word candidates are invalid.These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy,as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words.In this paper,we propose several methods for reducing the difficulties and improving the accuracy of the word-segmentation of written Chinese,such as full segmentation of a sentence,processing the duplicative word,idioms and statistical identification for unknown words.A simulation shows the feasibility of our proposed methods in improving the accuracy of word-segmentation of Chinese.

  10. Accuracy Assessment Points for Petersburg National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Petersburg National Battlefield. It was...

  11. Rasch modeling of accuracy and confidence measures from cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Insu; Lee, Jihyun; Stankov, Lazar; Wilson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The use of IRT models has not been rigorously applied in studies of the relationship between test-takers' confidence and accuracy. This study applied the Rasch measurement models to investigate the relationship between test-takers' confidence and accuracy on English proficiency tests, proposing potentially useful measures of under or overconfidence. The Rasch approach provided the scaffolding to formulate indices that can assess the discrepancy between confidence and accuracy at the item or total test level, as well as at particular ability levels locally. In addition, a "disattenuated" measure of association between accuracy and confidence, which takes measurement error into account, was obtained through a multidimensional Rasch modeling of the two constructs where the latent variance-covariance structure is directly estimated from the data. The results indicate that the participants tend to show overconfidence bias in their own cognitive abilities.

  12. Assessing and ensuring GOES-R magnetometer accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Delano; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma error per axis. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma error per axis. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  13. Accuracy Assessment Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Wupatki National Monument and in the surrounding...

  14. Accuracy of road management data collection at various information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice ... for project preparation and management of maintenance operations, respectively. ... in data accuracy on the resulting first year work programme and budget estimates is not as significant.

  15. Accuracy Assessment Points for Badlands National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the accuracy assessment data associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Badlands National Park and...

  16. Method for Improving Indoor Positioning Accuracy Using Extended Kalman Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Seoung-Hyeon; Lim, Il-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    .... However, the beacon performance is poor in terms of the indoor positioning accuracy because of noise, motion, and fading, all of which are characteristics of a bluetooth signal and depend on the installation location...

  17. Accuracy Assessment Points for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 500 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in July and August of 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Five hundred and one...

  18. Optimal trajectory and insertion accuracy of sacral alar iliac screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutaka Yamada

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The optimal trajectories of SAISs in a Japanese patient population are more lateral in males and more caudal in females. This study examines the clinical safety and accuracy of SAIS insertion on these optimal trajectories.

  19. The accuracy of interpreting key psychiatric terms by ad hoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the most salient instances of cultural distance between doctor and ... Objective: This study examined the competence and accuracy of ad hoc interpreters in interpreting ..... Williams M, Bekker S. Language policy and speech practice in Cape.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL APPROBATION OF INTELLECTUAL SYSTEM FOR MACHINING ACCURACY CONTROL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. N. Mironova

    2017-01-01

    ... for technological process while using methods of artificial intelligence. To ensure the machining accuracy by point tools, an intellectual system has been developed and it is based on technologies of functional semantic networks...

  1. Characterizing Accuracy and Precision of Glucose Sensors and Meters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodbard, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is need for a method to describe precision and accuracy of glucose measurement as a smooth continuous function of glucose level rather than as a step function for a few discrete ranges of glucose...

  2. Impact of Surface Waves on SWOT's Projected Ocean Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eva Peral; Ernesto Rodríguez; Daniel Esteban-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

      The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission being considered by NASA has, as one of its main objectives, to measure ocean topography with centimeter scale accuracy over kilometer scale spatial resolution...

  3. Accelerating scientific codes by performance and accuracy modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific software is often driven by multiple parameters that affect both accuracy and performance. Since finding the optimal configuration of these parameters is a highly complex task, it extremely common that the software is used suboptimally. In a typical scenario, accuracy requirements are imposed, and attained through suboptimal performance. In this paper, we present a methodology for the automatic selection of parameters for simulation codes, and a corresponding prototype tool. To be amenable to our methodology, the target code must expose the parameters affecting accuracy and performance, and there must be formulas available for error bounds and computational complexity of the underlying methods. As a case study, we consider the particle-particle particle-mesh method (PPPM) from the LAMMPS suite for molecular dynamics, and use our tool to identify configurations of the input parameters that achieve a given accuracy in the shortest execution time. When compared with the configurations suggested by exp...

  4. On the accuracy of recent Goddard gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Wagner, C. A.; Patel, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has occupied a central position within NASA with respect to the development of earth gravity models. The gravity models at Goddard, which are referred to as the Goddard earth models (GEM's) have been under development for more than 15 years. The fields have increased in size and (apparent) accuracy with the inclusion of new tracking data, better nongravitational force modeling, and more orbits over a wide range of inclinations and mean motions. The usefulness of the considered models depends largely on accuracy estimates. The present paper is concerned with a reevaluation of earlier accuracy assessments, taking into account the accuracies of the GEM 9 and the GEM-L2 models. It is found that GEM 9 is about 30 percent more accurate than originally estimated in 1979 from older gravimetry data.

  5. Accuracy testing of a new intraoral 3D camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, A; Ender, A; Mörmann, W; Attin, T

    2009-01-01

    Surveying intraoral structures by optical means has reached the stage where it is being discussed as a serious clinical alternative to conventional impression taking. Ease of handling and, more importantly, accuracy are important criteria for the clinical suitability of these systems. This article presents a new intraoral camera for the Cerec procedure. It reports on a study investigating the accuracy of this camera and its potential clinical indications. Single-tooth and quadrant images were taken with the camera and the results compared to those obtained with a reference scanner and with the previous 3D camera model. Differences were analyzed by superimposing the data records. Accuracy was higher with the new camera than with the previous model, reaching up to 19 microm in single-tooth images. Quadrant images can also be taken with sufficient accuracy (ca 35 microm) and are simple to perform in clinical practice, thanks to built-in shake detection in automatic capture mode.

  6. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  7. Accuracy of spinal navigation for Magerl-screws

    CERN Document Server

    Herz, T

    2001-01-01

    Study design: assessment of the accuracy of frameless stereotactic navigation at the second cervical vertebra. Objectives: to assess the influence of the protocol of preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique on the accuracy of navigation for implanting Magerl-screws. Summary of background data: the use of navigation systems for implanting Magerl-screws could help to decrease the risk of complications and to reduce the required skin incision. Two parameters conceivably affecting the accuracy are the protocol of the preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique. Methods: four cervical spine segments of human cadavers were scanned with two different protocols (3 mm slice thickness/2 mm table increment, 1 mm slice thickness/1 mm table increment). Registration was performed either based on anatomical landmarks or using a specially designed percutaneous registration device. For the accuracy-check, the pointer tip was exactly placed on markers. The distance between the pointer and the marker displaye...

  8. A Novel Navigation Robustness and Accuracy Improvement System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for L1 C/A-based navigation with better anti-spoofing ability and higher accuracy, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop a...

  9. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Initial Endoscopy for Ampullary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hee Seung; Jang, Jong Soon; Lee, Seungho; Yeon, Myeong Ho; Kim, Ki Bae; Park, Jae Geun; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Mi Jin; HAN, JOUNG-HO; Sung, Rohyun; Park, Seon Mee

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Ampullary tumors come in a wide variety of malignant forms. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy for ampullary tumors, and analyzed the causes of misdiagnosis. Methods We compared endoscopic imaging and biopsy results to final diagnoses. Types of endoscope, numbers of biopsy specimens taken, and final diagnoses were evaluated as possible factors influencing diagnostic accuracy. Results Final diagnoses were 19 adenocarcinomas, 18 normal or papillitis, 11 adenomas, ...

  11. Accuracy of Star Cluster Parameters from Integrated UBVRI Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; Stonkute, R; Vansevicius, V

    2007-01-01

    We study the capability of the UBVRI photometric system to quantify star clusters in terms of age, metallicity, and color excess by their integrated photometry. The well known age-metallicity-extinction degeneracy was analyzed for various parameter combinations, assuming different levels of photometric accuracy. We conclude that the UBVRI photometric system enables us to estimate star cluster parameters over a wide range, if the overall photometric accuracy is better than ~0.03 mag.

  12. The Accuracy of Market Reporters under Liveweight Selling Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Naughtin, John C.; Holland, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A series of trials was conducted to test the accuracy of livestock market reporters under liveweight selling conditions in Victoria using a range of cattle types. The performance of the market reporters in carcass weight and fat cover estimation was poorer for cows than for bullocks, while the accuracy of the estimates for bullocks sold under liveweight was similar to that reported earlier for young cattle sold on a per head basis.

  13. Collective animal decisions: preference conflict and decision accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Conradt, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Social animals frequently share decisions that involve uncertainty and conflict. It has been suggested that conflict can enhance decision accuracy. In order to judge the practical relevance of such a suggestion, it is necessary to explore how general such findings are. Using a model, I examine whether conflicts between animals in a group with respect to preferences for avoiding false positives versus avoiding false negatives could, in principle, enhance the accuracy of collective decisions. I...

  14. Increase in error threshold for quasispecies by heterogeneous replication accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Furusawa, Mitsuru

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the error threshold for quasispecies with heterogeneous replication accuracy. We show that the coexistence of error-free and error-prone polymerases can greatly increase the error threshold without a catastrophic loss of genetic information. We also show that the error threshold is influenced by the number of replicores. Our research suggests that quasispecies with heterogeneous replication accuracy can reduce the genetic cost of selective evolution while still producing a variety of mutants.

  15. Improvement of Electrochemical Machining Accuracy by Using Dual Pole Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is one of the best al ternatives for producing complex shapes in advanced materials used in aircraft a nd aerospace industries. However, the reduction of the stray material removal co ntinues to be major challenges for industries in addressing accuracy improvement . This study presents a method of improving machining accuracy in ECM by using a dual pole tool with a metallic bush outside the insulated coating of a cathode tool. The bush is connected with anode and so the el...

  16. Accuracy of ultrasound to identify chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Allan; Kerry; Thoirs; Maureen; Phillips

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To identify and assess studies reporting the diagnostic performance of ultrasound imaging for identifying chronic liver disease(CLD)in a high risk population. METHODS:A search was performed to identify studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound imaging for CLD.Two authors independently used the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies(QUADAS)checklist to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies.Inter-observer reliability of the QUADAS tool was assessed by measu...

  17. The correlation between accent perception accuracy and listening proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田方

    2012-01-01

    This study tries to examine the correlation between Chinese EFL learners' accent perception accuracy of and their lis- tening proficiency. Accent annotation data were collected from 80 English-majored freshmen and sophomores. Results show that their accent perception accuracy is positively related to their listening proficiency. Therefore, it is concluded that the teaching of the accent should be enhanced to help students overcome some supersegmental obstacles in their listening.

  18. Assessment of the Accuracy of Close Distance Photogrammetric JRC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Poropat, George; Gratchev, Ivan; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-11-01

    By using close range photogrammetry, this article investigates the accuracy of the photogrammetric estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC), a measure of the degree of roughness of rock joint surfaces. This methodology has proven to be convenient both in laboratory and in site conditions. However, the accuracy and precision of roughness profiles obtained from photogrammetric 3D images have not been properly established due to the variances caused by factors such as measurement errors and systematic errors in photogrammetry. In this study, the influences of camera-to-object distance, focal length and profile orientation on the accuracy of JRC values are investigated using several photogrammetry field surveys. Directional photogrammetric JRC data are compared with data derived from the measured profiles, so as to determine their accuracy. The extent of the accuracy of JRC values was examined based on the error models which were previously developed from laboratory tests and revised for better estimation in this study. The results show that high-resolution 3D images (point interval ≤1 mm) can reduce the JRC errors obtained from field photogrammetric surveys. Using the high-resolution images, the photogrammetric JRC values in the range of high oblique camera angles are highly consistent with the revised error models. Therefore, the analysis indicates that the revised error models facilitate the verification of the accuracy of photogrammetric JRC values.

  19. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  20. Collective animal decisions: preference conflict and decision accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa

    2013-12-06

    Social animals frequently share decisions that involve uncertainty and conflict. It has been suggested that conflict can enhance decision accuracy. In order to judge the practical relevance of such a suggestion, it is necessary to explore how general such findings are. Using a model, I examine whether conflicts between animals in a group with respect to preferences for avoiding false positives versus avoiding false negatives could, in principle, enhance the accuracy of collective decisions. I found that decision accuracy nearly always peaked when there was maximum conflict in groups in which individuals had different preferences. However, groups with no preferences were usually even more accurate. Furthermore, a relatively slight skew towards more animals with a preference for avoiding false negatives decreased the rate of expected false negatives versus false positives considerably (and vice versa), while resulting in only a small loss of decision accuracy. I conclude that in ecological situations in which decision accuracy is crucial for fitness and survival, animals cannot 'afford' preferences with respect to avoiding false positives versus false negatives. When decision accuracy is less crucial, animals might have such preferences. A slight skew in the number of animals with different preferences will result in the group avoiding that type of error more that the majority of group members prefers to avoid. The model also indicated that knowing the average success rate ('base rate') of a decision option can be very misleading, and that animals should ignore such base rates unless further information is available.