WorldWideScience

Sample records for geochemical landscapes project

  1. History and progress of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Rivera, Francisco Moreira; Rencz, Andrew N.; Garrett, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada, and the Mexican Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km2, 13323 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of North American soils (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). Sampling and analytical protocols were developed at a series of workshops in 20032004 and pilot studies were conducted from 20042007. The ideal sampling protocol at each site includes a sample from 05 cm depth, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a sample from the soil C horizon. The 3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods are used for As, Hg, Se, and total C on this same size fraction. The major mineralogical components are determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method. Sampling in the conterminous U.S. was completed in 2010 (c. 4800 sites) with chemical and mineralogical analysis currently underway. In Mexico, approximately 66% of the sampling (871 sites) had been done by the end of 2010 with completion expected in 2012. After completing sampling in the Maritime provinces and portions of other provinces (472 sites, 7.6% of the total), Canada withdrew from the project in 2010. Preliminary results for a swath from the central U.S. to Florida clearly show the effects of soil parent material and climate on the chemical and mineralogical composition of soils. A sample archive will be established and made available for future investigations.

  2. Objective computerized approaches for centralized geophysical and geochemical landscape project planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilyan Eugene Andreevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present landscape design does not represent a scientific subject in strict sense, being a superposition of decorative and applied landscape art and the methods of graphic architectural planning. Serving interests of customers, it does not harmonize with the individual needs of the ground based on landscape geochemistry and ecology. Hence, it results in great number of grounds not consistent with each other according to geochemical criteria. In many cases total soil changing, isolation of natural hydrodynamic drainage, introduction of exotic plants interacting with their environment (including abiotic relations take place, it results in disequilibrium in the ground. Ecological system efficiency needs to be constantly artificially maintained, and that does not support its stability. In other words, without maintaining sufficient conditions, it will be influenced by succession with the course of time, as a particular case of potential gradient equalization. Hence, at present there is an acute problem to develop such a concept of landscape design, that, covering ecological requirements of customers, would be mass one, not producing gradient isolation effect and ecologically self-sustaining in given environment at the same time. It is evident, that to meet these requirements, this concept should not be the product of subjective vision of the author, but direct consequence of geophysical and geochemical landscape condition with theoretical development allowing calculation testing at any scale of geographical zoning.

  3. Landscape-geochemical factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batulin, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of landscape-geochemical factors on hydrogenic formation of uranium ores is considered. The primary attention is paid to finding reasons for hydrogeochemical background increase in the regions of arid climate. Problems of uranium distribution in alluvial landscapes, hydrogeochemical regime of ground waters, reflecting the effect of waters of the zone of aeration are revealed. Chemical composition of porous solutions in the zone of aeration, as well as historical geochemindstry of landscape a its role from the view point of uranium solution formation in the arid zone are considered [ru

  4. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of

  5. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical Data Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory of Australia is being studied to evaluate the processes involved in the geochemical alteration of the ore body and the formation of the uranium dispersion fan. A broad range of research is being undertaken into the geochemistry and hydrology of the site with the aim of understanding the transport of radionuclides through the system. During the project a range of geochemical and hydrogeochemical models have been developed to account for measured data from the site and with which to predict site evolution. The majority of these models are based on the premise of thermodynamic chemical equilibrium and employ fundamental thermodynamic data to characterise the chemistry of the system. From the differences which exist between the thermodynamic data bases (Appendices I and II) it is possible to gain a view of the level of uncertainty associated with thermodynamic data in each set of calculations. This report gives a brief introduction to the geochemical processes underlying the models, and details the equations used to quantify the more common of these processes (e.g. aqueous speciation and mineral solubility). A description is given of the computer codes (EQ3/6, PHREEQE, MINTEQ) most commonly used during the project for geochemical modelling. Their key features are highlighted and comparisons made. It is concluded that the degree of uncertainty in geochemical modelling studies arising as a result of using one code rather than another is relatively insignificant when compared to that related to differences in the underlying data bases. 73 refs., 3 figs

  6. Landscape and bio- geochemical strategy for monitoring transformation and reclamation of the soil mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Sites of active or abandoned mining represent areas of considerable technogenic impact and need scientifically ground organization of their monitoring and reclamation. The strategy of monitoring and reclamation depends on the scale and character of the physical, chemical and biological consequences of the disturbances. The geochemical studies for monitoring and rehabilitation of the career-dump complexes should methodically account of formation of the particular new landforms and the changes in circulation of the remobilized elements of the soil cover. However, the general strategy should account of both the initial and transformed landscape geochemical structure of the area with due regard to the natural and new content of chemical elements in the environmental components. For example the tailings and waste rocks present new geochemical fields with specifically different concentration of chemical elements that cause formation of new geochemical barriers and landscapes. The way of colonization of the newly formed landscapes depends upon the new geochemical features of the technogenic environment and the adaptive ability of local and intrusive flora. The newly formed biogeochemical anomalies need organization of permanent monitoring not only within the anomaly itself but also of its impact zones. Spatial landscape geochemical monitoring combined with bio-geochemical criteria of threshold concentrations seems to be a helpful tool for decision making on reclamation and operation of the soil mining sites to provide a long-term ecologically sustainable development of the impact zone as a whole.

  7. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  8. Management of environmental and geochemical condition of urban landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. М. Франчук

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical, mechanical and chemical features of urban soils were considered in the article. The influence of basic soils macro- and microelements vital functions of plants and animals was explored, as well as information about dependence of some human diseases distribution on anomalous concentration of certain chemical elements in soil. Basic factors and physical and chemical parameters of soils which affect distribution of chemical elements in soil were defined. It was established, that the level of plant provision with mobile forms of basic nutrition elements affected inhibition of chemical elements accumulation by the plants. The test-system for the efficient express potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus analysis was offered and recommendations for adjusting accumulation processes and carry-over of chemical elements in the soil–plant system of urban landscapes were developed

  9. The Narssaq-project - a geochemical, ecological environmental research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.; Rose-Hansen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of mineral occurrences near the town of Narssaq in South Greenland are recorded to be worth mining in the near future: the uranium occurrences at Kvanefjeld in the northern part of the Ilimaussaq intrusion and the zirconium occurrences in the southern part on the south coast of the Kangerdluarssuk fjord. Consideration of the environment plays a large part in discussions regarding the exploitation of these minerals. A report is given of the geochemical, ecological environmental investigations carried out at Narssaq since 1974. (BP)

  10. Concerning initial and secondary character of radionuclide distribution in elementary landscape geochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Specificity of radionuclide distribution in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) treated as local system of geochemically linked elementary terrestrial units (in toposequence: watershed-slope-closing depression), belongs to one of the less investigated but practically significant problems of current geochemistry. First measurements after the Chernobyl accident showed a considerable variation of Cs-137 distribution in all examined ELGS (Shcheglov et al, 2001; Romanov, 1989; Korobova, Korovaykov, 1990; Linnik, 2008). The results may be interpreted in frames of two alternative hypotheses: 1) irregularity of the initial contamination; 2) secondary redistribution of the initially regular level of fallout. But herewith only a disproof of the first hypothesis automatically justifies the second one. Factors responsible for initial irregularity of surface contamination included: 1) the presence of the so-called "hot" particles in the initial fallout; 2) interception of radionuclides by forest canopy; 3) irregular aerial particles deposition; 4) uneven initial precipitation. Basing on monitoring Cs-137 spatial distribution that has been performed since 2005, we demonstrate that the observed spatial irregularity in distribution of Cs-137 in ELGS reflects a purely secondary distribution of initial reserves of radionuclides in fallout matter due to its migration with water in local geochemical systems. This statement has some significant consequences. 1. Mechanism of migration of matter in ELGS is complicated and could not be reduced solely to a primitive moving from watershed to closing depression. 2. The control of migration of "labeled atoms" (Cs-137) permits to understand common mechanism of migration of water in all systems on the level of ELGS. 3. Understanding formation of the structure of contamination zones in ELGS permits to use mathematical model to solve the inverse problem of restoration of the initially equable level of their contamination. Performed

  11. Principles of the landscape-geochemical and radio-ecological mapping of the territory polluted by technogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotovich, Eh.V.; Shestopalov, V.M.; Pushkarev, A.V.; Mezhdunardonyj Nauchnyj Tsentr' Institut Chernobylya' Ukrainskogo Otdeleniya Vsemirnoj Laboratorii, Kiev; Institut Sel'skokhozyajstvennoj Radiologii, Akademii Agrarnykh Nauk Ukrainy, Kiev; Gosudarstvennoe Geologicheskoe Predpriyatie 'Geoprogn oz' Goskomiteta Geologii i Ispol'zovaniya Nedr Ukrainy, Kiev; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and methodical principles of radio-ecological mapping of the territory polluted by radionuclides as a result of catastrophe at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant are reported. The radio-ecological mapping is based on the landscape-geochemical mapping of the polluted territory which is regarded as a unique natural-technogenic geochemical province. The ecological risk for the inhabitants residing here depends both on the degree and nature of pollution by radionuclides and on the landscape-geochemical factors influencing the radionuclide redistribution and secondary accumulation in different biosphere elements. It is substantiated as necessary to compile three types of radio-ecological maps which are of different purpose: control over the economic activities, protection of the population viability, the prediction of radio-ecological situation and the informing of population

  12. Lateritinga project: a geochemical orientation study for Amazon lateritic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L. da

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of systematic geochemical orientation survey in lateritic weathered terrain, like those form Amazon Region. The main selected targets (sheets) are: Turiacu, Cajuapara and Serra dos Carajas, with 690 samples collected (soils and lateritic rocks). For the Aurizona-Serra do Pirocaua target (Turiacu sheet), within the purpose of this work, 49 samples were collected in a 100x 200m regular grid. From all samples the fraction minor than 200 mesh was taken to analyses (by XRF, AA, OES, ICP and fire assay) for SiO sub(2), Fe sub(2) O sub(3), TiO sub(2), P sub(2) O sub(5), Sr, Ba, Y, Nb, Zr, Ga, Sc, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, As, Bi, Pt, Pd, Th, Au and REE, as well for their mineralogy by XRD. The chemical results were submitted to statistical treatment with the Geoquant-software for IBM-compatible microcomputer. (author)

  13. The spatial relationship between human activities and C, N, P, S in soil based on landscape geochemical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; He, Zheng-Wei; Kong, Bo; Weng, Zhong-Yin; Shi, Ze-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The development and formation of chemical elements in soil are affected not only by parent material, climate, biology, and topology factors, but also by human activities. As the main elements supporting life on earth system, the C, N, P, S cycles in soil have been altered by human activity through land-use change, agricultural intensification, and use of fossil fuels. The present study attempts to analyze whether and how a connection can be made between macroscopical control and microcosmic analysis, to estimate the impacts of human activities on C, N, P, S elements in soil, and to determine a way to describe the spatial relationship between C, N, P, S in soil and human activities, by means of landscape geochemical theories and methods. In addition, the disturbances of human activities on C, N, P, S are explored through the analysis of the spatial relationship between human disturbed landscapes and element anomalies, thereby determining the diversified rules of the effects. The study results show that the rules of different landscapes influencing C, N, P, S elements are diversified, and that the C element is closely related to city landscapes; furthermore, the elements N, P, and S are shown to be closely related to river landscapes; the relationships between mine landscapes and the elements C, N, P, S are apparent; the relationships between the elements C, N, P, S and road landscapes are quite close, which shows that road landscapes have significant effects on these elements. Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the response mechanism analysis of human disturbance and soil chemical element aggregation is feasible, based on the landscape geochemical theories and methods. The spatial information techniques, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems, are effective for research on soil element migration.

  14. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to... requirements to require. The Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project includes treatments previously proposed...

  15. Researchers' experiences, positive and negative, in integrative landscape projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.

    2005-01-01

    Integrative (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) landscape research projects are becoming increasingly common. As a result, researchers are spending a larger proportion of their professional careers doing integrative work, participating in shifting interdisciplinary teams, and cooperating

  16. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  17. Geochemical landscapes of the conterminous United States; new map presentations for 22 elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, N.; Bolviken, B.; Smith, D.B.; Severson, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical maps of the conterminous United States have been prepared for seven major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Ti) and 15 trace elements (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, Y, Zn, and Zr). The maps are based on an ultra low-density geochemical survey consisting of 1,323 samples of soils and other surficial materials collected from approximately 1960-1975. The data were published by Boerngen and Shacklette (1981) and black-and-white point-symbol geochemical maps were published by Shacklette and Boerngen (1984). The data have been reprocessed using weighted-median and Bootstrap procedures for interpolation and smoothing.

  18. The Stonehenge Riverside Project: exploring the Neolithic landscape of Stonehenge

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Parker Pearson; Joshua Pollard; Colin Richards; Julian Thomas; Chris Tilley; Kate Welham

    2008-01-01

    The Stonehenge Riverside Project is a collaborative enterprise directed by six academics from five UK universities, investigating the place of Stonehenge within its contemporary landscape. In this contribution, a series of novel approaches being employed on the project are outlined, before the results of investigations at the Greater Stonehenge Cursus, Woodhenge, the Cuckoo Stone and Durrington Walls are discussed.

  19. The Stonehenge Riverside Project: exploring the Neolithic landscape of Stonehenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Parker Pearson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Stonehenge Riverside Project is a collaborative enterprise directed by six academics from five UK universities, investigating the place of Stonehenge within its contemporary landscape. In this contribution, a series of novel approaches being employed on the project are outlined, before the results of investigations at the Greater Stonehenge Cursus, Woodhenge, the Cuckoo Stone and Durrington Walls are discussed.

  20. Landscape changes based on sedimentological and geochemical studies in the region of Brudzeń Duży

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolska Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and geochemical research carried out in North- West Mazovia, central Poland, allowed the determination of landscape transformation in relation to the history of human settlement. The types of sediments subject to analysis included palaeochannel filling, accumulation on the river floodplain and colluvial deposits. The absolute ages of sediments and their sedimentological features allow the conclusion that the first response to human activity in the area is recorded in the overbank deposits in the Skrwa River valley as a result of the Wielbarska Culture in 200-300 AD. Subsequently, fan accumulation at the mouths of gullies started around the 12th-13th centuries AD. Frequent changes of sediment properties have been observed since the early Middle Ages. The subsequent anthropogenic impact on homogenous deposits is recorded in increased heavy metal concentration in vertical geological profiles.

  1. A projective approach to a language of landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ward Thompson

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Building on the work of Kelly (1955 in personal construct psychology, and Peled (1976, I990 in ecoanalysis, this paper develops projective techniques-which use concepts of personal and phenomenological space-as a means for articulating approaches to landscape design. The projective approach involves two stages. In stage one, projective techniques are used to elicit personal constructs (which may be held at a pre-conscious or sub-conscious level, allowing the holistic experience of landscape to be explored. In stage two, using a 'projection location task' derived from the way we experience and construe the regions of our own bodies, elements of these constructs can then be articulated so as to inform the way we interact and engage with the space around us. This gives insight into the meaning of spatial layouts, which can then be translated into a design language for the structural ordering of space. The author draws on original research conducted with children as well as adults, using projective techniques to draw out their desires and needs in relation to designing their landscape environment. The paper discusses the value of such methods for landscape designers and their clients, and outlines some ongoing research to test the validity of the projection location task.

  2. Landscaping Habitat for Humanity Homes: A Community Outreach Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jodie L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…

  3. Project D.I.R.T.: A landscape architect's excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargmann, J.

    1994-01-01

    To a landscape architect interested in the creative manipulation of the land, mineral extraction presents a massive load for design exploration. The primary goal of Project D.I.R.T., Design Investigations Reclaiming Terrain, was to unearth the possibilities for renewing the perception of mining as creatively integral with the cultural and natural evolution of the landscape. The potential collaboration and planning inherent in the multidisciplinary task of reclamation became evident on a journey to document selected mining sites around the country. Various coal, gold, copper, and taconite operations visited represent a diversity of regional landscapes with specific mining and reclamation practices. Both active and abandoned mined sites serve as case studies presented from a landscape architect's perspective. Examining the legal, social, and economic factors uncovered the frustrations with the legislation governing reclamation and the financial and ethical dilemmas of future land use for dependent communities. Reviewing the technical and ecological aspects revealed the innovations and progress of reclamation technology, but also limited application of ecological principles. These current practices of mining and reclamation illustrate a need to revise the legislation and coordinate an interdisciplinary effort to form truly productive and sustainable landscapes. Moreover, from this landscape architect's point of view, a synthetic approach guided by a broader vision of mining must lead to the creation of meaningful places that objectively reveal and celebrate the industrial heritage of the landscape. Mined lands can be an expression of a reciprocal connection between communities and individuals with the land one cultivates and all nurture. These monumental landscapes may come to represent a dynamic relationship between culture and nature for the next century

  4. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register... Responsible Official for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project. DATES: The Final Environmental Impact...

  5. Ecoturism: Concepts, Reflections and Guidelines for Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guilherme A. Pippi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to expound some concepts and guidelines within the area of ecotourism, in order to aid all those involved in the area, both directly and indirectly, in the process of conception and maintenance of Areas of Environmental Preservation. The analysis deals with the articulation of main objectives and project strategies. In alternative tourism projects, application of methodologies of diagnosis and interpretation, as well as creative sensibility and knowledge of landscape building materials are all necessary in order to conserve the natural and cultural heritage of a region and provide the community and ecotourist with an awakening of environmental consciousness.

  6. Geomechanical/Geochemical Modeling Studies Conducted within the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; Barr, D.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Xie, M.; Zhang, C.

    2005-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status

  7. Geomechanical/Geochemical Modeling Studies Conducted Within the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer; J. Rutqvist; E.L. Sonnenthal; D. Barr; M.Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; M. Xie; C. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status

  8. Managing trade-offs in landscape restoration and revegetation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martine; Cockfield, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Landscape restoration projects often have multiple and disparate conservation, resource enhancement, and sometimes economic objectives, since projects that seek to meet more than one objective tend to be viewed more positively by funding agencies and the community. The degree to which there are trade-offs among desired objectives is an important variable for decision makers, yet this is rarely explicitly considered. In particular, the existence of ecological thresholds has important implications for decision-making at both the project level and the regional level. We develop a model of the possibilities and choices for an agency seeking to achieve two environmental objectives in a region through revegetation of a number of sites. A graphical model of the production possibilities sets for a single revegetation project is developed, and different trade-off relationships are discussed and illustrated. Then the model is used to demonstrate the possibilities for managing all such projects within a region. We show that, where there are thresholds in the trade-off relationship between two objectives, specialization (single- or dominant-objective projects) should be considered. This is illustrated using a case study in which revegetation is used to meet avian biodiversity and salinity mitigation objectives. We conclude that where there are sufficient scientific data, explicit consideration of different types of trade-offs can assist in making decisions about the most efficient mix and type of projects to better achieve a range of objectives within a region.

  9. Landscape ecological security assessment based on projection pursuit in Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wu, Zhifeng; Lou, Quansheng; Huang, Huamei; Cheng, Jiong; Chen, Zhangli

    2012-04-01

    Regional landscape ecological security is an important issue for ecological security, and has a great influence on national security and social sustainable development. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China has experienced rapid economic development and intensive human activities in recent years. This study, based on landscape analysis, provides a method to discover the alteration of character among different landscape types and to understand the landscape ecological security status. Based on remotely sensed products of the Landsat 5 TM images in 1990 and the Landsat 7 ETM+ images in 2005, landscape classification maps of nine cities in the PRD were compiled by implementing Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technology. Several indices, including aggregation, crush index, landscape shape index, Shannon's diversity index, landscape fragile index, and landscape security adjacent index, were applied to analyze spatial-temporal characteristics of landscape patterns in the PRD. A landscape ecological security index based on these outcomes was calculated by projection pursuit using genetic algorithm. The landscape ecological security of nine cities in the PRD was thus evaluated. The main results of this research are listed as follows: (1) from 1990 to 2005, the aggregation index, crush index, landscape shape index, and Shannon's diversity index of nine cities changed little in the PRD, while the landscape fragile index and landscape security adjacent index changed obviously. The landscape fragile index of nine cities showed a decreasing trend; however, the landscape security adjacent index has been increasing; (2) from 1990 to 2005, landscape ecology of the cities of Zhuhai and Huizhou maintained a good security situation. However, there was a relatively low value of ecological security in the cities of Dongguan and Foshan. Except for Foshan and Guangzhou, whose landscape ecological security situation were slightly improved, the cities had reduced

  10. Conference on wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoire Lejzerzon; Sauron, Claire; Villot, Marie; Ratzbor, Guenter; Tausch, Christian; Cagneaux, Bertrand; Jouneau, Agathe; Stemmer, Boris; Huebner, Gundula; Orozco-Souel, Paola; Lhermitte, Charles; Ferus, Elisabeth; Benezech, Philippe; Gunzelmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12

  11. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Thomas Range-Wasatch, Utah. Farmington Project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Bard, C.S.; Witt, D.A.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the Farmington project area of the Thomas Range-Wasatch detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 71 groundwater samples, 345 stream sediment samples, and 178 radiometric readings. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the project area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Uranium concentrations in groundwater range from <0.20 to 21.77 ppB. The highest values are from groundwaters producing from areas in or near the Norwood Tuff and Wasatch, Evanston, and/or Echo Canyon Formations, and the Farmington Canyon Complex. The uranium:boron ratio delineates an anomalous trend associated with the Farmington Canyon Complex. Variables associated with uranium in groundwaters producing from the Norwood Tuff and Wasatch, Evanston, and/or Echo Canyon Formations include the uranium:sulfate ratio, boron, barium, potassium, lithium, silicon, chloride, selenium, and vanadium. Soluble uranium concentrations (U-FL) in stream sediments range from 0.99 to 86.41 ppM. Total uranium concentrations (U-NT) range from 1.60 to 92.40 ppM. Thorium concentrations range from <2 to 47 ppM. Anomalous concentrations of these variables are associated with the Farmington Canyon Complex. Variables which are associated with uranium include cerium, sodium, niobium, phosphorus, titanium, and yttrium

  12. Assessing landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in public infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Lindhjem, Henrik; Magnussen, Kristin

    Undesirable landscape changes, especially from large infrastructure projects, may give rise to large welfare losses due to degraded landscape experiences. These losses are largely unaccounted for in Nordic countries’ planning processes. There is a need to develop practical methods of including...

  13. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Thomas Range-Wasatch, Utah. Cottonwood project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Bard, C.S.; Witt, D.A.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of Cottonwood project area of the Thomas Range-Wasatch detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 15 groundwater samples, 79 stream sediment samples, and 85 radiometric readings. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the project area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Uranium concentrations in groundwater range from 0.25 to 3.89 ppB. The highest concentrations are from groundwaters from the Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Stocks. Variables that appear to be associated with uranium in groundwater include cobalt, iron, potassium, manganese, nickel, sulfate, and to a lesser extent, molybdenum and strontium. This association is attributed to the Monzonitic Little Cottonwood Stock, granodioritic to granitic and lamprophyric dikes, and known sulfide deposits. Soluble uranium concentrations (U-FL) in stream sediments range from 0.31 to 72.64 ppM. Total uranium concentrations (U-NT) range from 1.80 to 75.20 ppM. Thorium concentrations range from <2 to 48 ppM. Anomalous values for uranium and thorium are concentrated within the area of outcrop of the Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Stocks. Variables which are areally associated with high values of uranium, thorium, and the U-FL:U-NT ratio within the Little Cottonwood Stock are barium, copper, molybdenum, and zinc. High concentrations of these variables are located near sulfide deposits within the Little Cottonwood Stock

  14. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  15. Landfire: Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Kristine M. Lee; Matthew G. Rollins; Zhiliang Zhu; James Smith; Darren Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Managers are faced with reducing hazardous fuel, restoring fire regimes, and decreasing the threat of catastrophic wildfire. Often, the comprehensive, scientifically-credible data and applications needed to test alternative fuel treatments across multi-ownership landscapes are lacking. Teams from the USDA Forest Service, Department of the Interior, and The Nature...

  16. From repairing the damaged landscape to restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Granjou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts an empirical sociological approach to analyse how the objectives behind the revegetation of ski trails and runs in the French alpine resort of Alpe d’Huez have evolved since the 1970s. A revegetation programme was first introduced to repair the scars left by the works conducted to equip the resort with infrastructures, and then, over time, it became a more complex restoration project. At first, revegetation techniques were developed to fight soil erosion, but soon also became associated with the idea of “turning the mountain green again”. Now, 40 years later, revegetation is aimed at restoring both a natural ecosystem and a cultural landscape. The ski resort’s managers, local farmers, technicians, and those conducting research in the area share a common desire to promote autochthony, which in some cases runs the risk of reproducing folklore. Far from adopting an overriding ethical perspective, the study suggests that the area’s physical characteristics, specific history and configuration of local actors have shaped and continue to shape both the manner in which ecological restoration is implemented, through political choices and technical decisions, and the debates it gives rise to. The study concludes by examining the specificity of the findings for Alpe d’Huez and discussing their validity for other alpine ski resorts.A partir d’une approche sociologique empirique, ce texte propose une analyse de la mise en œuvre de la revégétalisation sur la station de l’Alpe d’Huez depuis les années 1970. Il montre comment la revégétalisation est passée d’un objectif de réparation des cicatrices provoquées par les aménagements à une entreprise plus complexe de restauration. S’il s’agissait au départ de répondre à un objectif technique de lutte contre l’érosion, la revégétalisation a pris rapidement une tournure paysagère (reverdissement ; elle a ensuite été pensée dans une perspective de

  17. Chapter 4: Overview of the vegetation management treatment economic analysis module in the integrated landscape assessment project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    Forest land provides various ecosystem services, including timber, biomass, and carbon sequestration. Estimating trends in these ecosystem services is essential for assessing potential outcomes of landscape management scenarios. However, the state-and transition models used in the Integrated Landscape Assessment Project for simulating landscape changes over time do not...

  18. Put in value of the Santa Teresa Park as a cultural landscape. Project and Ordinance of the Landscape in the General Guidelines of its Master Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Rosana Sommaruga Montiel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a summary of the landscape studies developed in the framework of 'Lineamientos generales para el Plan Director del Parque Santa Teresa' (General guidelines for Santa Teresa Park Master Plan, agreement made between the Ministry of Tourism, and the Faculty of Architecture, Design And Urbanism of the University of the Republic between August 2015 and July 2016. The purpose of the Convention is to position the Santa Teresa Park as a "model park" for Uruguay, putting in value its patrimonial, landscape and Environmental characteristics, thus contributing to its tourism and sociocultural promotion. The entire project includes and combines different disciplinary studies as well as external contributions. The Research program “Landscape and Public Space” from the Institute of Design in collaboration with VIDIALAB develops the Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Park, through studies and proposals on its landscape structures, sociocultural perceptions and the qualification of the visual landscape.

  19. Using Landsat imagery to detect, monitor, and project net landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Ryan R.; Sohl, Terry L.; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed landscape information is a necessary component to bird habitat conservation planning. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has been providing information on the Earth’s surface for over 40 years via the continuous series of Landsat satellites. In addition to operating, processing, and disseminating satellite images, EROS is the home to nationwide and global landscape mapping, monitoring, and projection products, including:National Land Cover Database (NLCD) – the definitive land cover dataset for the U.S., with updates occurring at five-year intervals;Global Land Cover Monitoring – producing 30m resolution global land cover;LANDFIRE – Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools–EROS is a partner in this joint program between U.S. Department of Agriculture and Department of Interior that produces consistent, comprehensive, geospatial data and databases that describe vegetation, wildland fuel, and fire regimes across the U.S.;Land Cover Trends – a landscape monitoring and assessment effort to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land use and land cover change; andLand Use and Land Cover (LULC) Modeling – a project extending contemporary databases of landscape change forward and backward in time through moderate-resolution land cover projections.

  20. Landscape and participation: construction of a PhD research problem and an analysis method. Towards the comparative analysis of participatory processes of landscape management projects design on a local scale in the Walloon region (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Droeven, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary reflection to the definition of a PhD research problem on the concepts of participation, landscape and project, led the student to be interested in the participatory processes of landscape management projects design, and in the inhabitants landscapes representations. The method includes the comparative analysis of local processes of projects design, and the direct observation of two Walloon landscape management projects design (investigation conducted with stakeholders implied i...

  1. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D A [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  2. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. A. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  3. Landscape ecological impact of climatic change some preliminary findings of the LICC Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the LICC project are to address the potential effects of a future climatic change on (semi-) natural terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes in Europe; six case studies are covered: alpine regions, boreal and subartic regions, Mediterranean region, fluvial systems, wetlands and coastal dunes. Preliminary findings showed a serious lack in fundamental ecological knowledge. Assessment of potential effects involved changes in water and sediment fluxes, changes in the vegetation cover, species response, dispersal and migration in a fragmented landscape and modification of climate impacts by man

  4. Re-animated heritage. National project Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie (New Dutch Water Defence Line as a format for landscape policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Luiten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape policy has always been characterized, often supported but just as often hindered by its multiple origins in both landscape protection and landscape development. Along the recalcitrant and frequently inconsistent lines of preservation of monuments, nature conservation, land use, open-air recreation and the planting of new woods and shrubs respectively, landscape protection did not develop without difficulty. On a government level landscape protection was most extensively laid down in the Structure Plan for Nature Conservation and Protection of the Countryside. In this Plan the government introduced an extensive series of landscape categories, among which National Parks, National Landscapes, Valuable Agricultural Cultural Landscapes, Natural Heritage Valuable Areas, Large Landscape Unities and Valuable Scenic and/or Historical Views. In the Green Space Structure Plan from 1994 the differentiation of landscape policy was drastically reduced to the category of Valuable Cultural Landscapes and in addition a reference was made to the intended execution of large projects, such as the Randstad Green Structure and the National Ecological Network. In the revision of this Structural Plan in 2002 the category of National Landscapes was reintroduced. From the quarter of landscape development approximately every ten years a policy document is issued. The View on Landscape Creation (dating from the seventies, the View on Landscape (eighties and the Policy Document on Landscape (nineties are to be regarded as attempts at a synthesis of the various motives behind landscape development. The gist of these policy documents shifts from manifests for national green areas towards worked-out, integral concepts and formulas for rural-area development and closes with more and more complicatedly formulated recommendations, such as in the Development-oriented Landscape Strategy. After the Policy Document on Landscape with poorly argued maps of the so

  5. Students Perceptions of Excellence in Landscape Architecture Studio Projects: A UNSW Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Corkery

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an action-research project undertaken to explore teaching and learning in the design studio in the Faculty of the Built Environment (FBE, University of New South Wales, Sydney. The research project involved three undergraduate design programmes (architecture, interior architecture and landscape architecture within the FBE, however this paper will focus only on the findings related to the Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (BLArch programme. The studio is at the core of the design-based curriculum for the landscape architecture degree. This setting nurtures and encourages students to demonstrate a range of capabilities and attributes expected in professional practice. Design projects are complex, integrated assessment tasks. While design teachers use criteria to assess knowledge and skills, students often feel the judgement of overall design project excellence is based on subjective interpretation. There is also concern about the effectiveness of design teaching across the studios. Specifically, the study identified students' perceptions of what constitutes the mark of High Distinction (HD and characteristics of the ideal design teacher. This paper does not present a discourse analysis of the theoretical framework and concepts of the research project. That material is presented in previous and subsequent publications (Corkery et al, 2003.

  6. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects. Annual report, October 1984-September 1985. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; Jacobs, G.K.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Whatley, S.K.

    1986-05-01

    Information pertaining to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository, which is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE), is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, emphasis was placed on the evaluation of information pertinent to the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. Results on the sorption/solubility behavior of technetium, neptunium, and uranium in the basalt/water geochemical system are summarized and compared to the results of DOE. Also, summaries of results are reported from two geochemical modeling studies: (1) an evaluation of the information developed by DOE on the native copper deposits of Michigan as a natural analog for the emplacement of copper canisters in a repository in basalt, and (2) calculation of the solubility and speciation of radionuclides for representative groundwaters from the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada

  7. Projected gains and losses of wildlife habitat from bioenergy-induced landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Nathan M.; Rubino, Matthew J.; Costanza, Jennifer K.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime A.; Abt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic and foreign renewable energy targets and financial incentives have increased demand for woody biomass and bioenergy in the southeastern United States. This demand is expected to be met through purpose-grown agricultural bioenergy crops, short-rotation tree plantations, thinning and harvest of planted and natural forests, and forest harvest residues. With results from a forest economics model, spatially explicit state-and-transition simulation models, and species–habitat models, we projected change in habitat amount for 16 wildlife species caused by meeting a renewable fuel target and expected demand for wood pellets in North Carolina, USA. We projected changes over 40 years under a baseline ‘business-as-usual’ scenario without bioenergy production and five scenarios with unique feedstock portfolios. Bioenergy demand had potential to influence trends in habitat availability for some species in our study area. We found variation in impacts among species, and no scenario was the ‘best’ or ‘worst’ across all species. Our models projected that shrub-associated species would gain habitat under some scenarios because of increases in the amount of regenerating forests on the landscape, while species restricted to mature forests would lose habitat. Some forest species could also lose habitat from the conversion of forests on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks. The conversion of agricultural lands on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks increased habitat losses for one species with strong associations with pasture, which is being lost to urbanization in our study region. Our results indicate that landscape-scale impacts on wildlife habitat will vary among species and depend upon the bioenergy feedstock portfolio. Therefore, decisions about bioenergy and wildlife will likely involve trade-offs among wildlife species, and the choice of focal species is likely to affect the results of landscape-scale assessments. We offer general principals

  8. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection[Study of Uranium geochemical prospection in Uruguay]; Proyecto Uranio. Prospeccion geoquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J

    1983-07-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results.

  9. Landscape integration and harmonization assessment guide : wind farm siting project on public land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, M.A.; Boudart, M.; Arsenault, M.; Lauzon, M.; Lizotte, C.; Munoz, P.; Poirier, C.; Guimont, C.; Sainte-Marie, L.

    2005-07-01

    The development of a wind farm industry depends greatly on obtaining land use rights. This paper describes a program created by the Quebec Government to make public land available for wind farm construction. In particular, the program allows the government to set aside public land to promote the development of the wind industry in the Gaspe Region and the Matane Regional County Municipality. It also awards land rights for wind farm construction to bidders who have signed wind energy sales contracts with Hydro-Quebec Distribution. The program allows the government to set lease rates for public land used for wind farms based on market rates. This document is a guide used by Quebec's Ministry of Natural Resources to evaluate projects and issue leases for parcels of public land to be used for wind turbine arrays. It identifies major landscape issues associated with wind farms and allows proponents to demonstrate the natural and anthropogenic impacts of a wind farm on the landscape and present mitigative measures to minimize these impacts. This document also identifies the wind farm landscape integration and harmonization principles for public lands in Quebec. It was noted that wind farm projects with 10 MW capacity or less are not subject to guidelines established by the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Institute of place making : A project by the chair of Landscape Architecture at the TU Delft. Oerol 2013: Sense of place

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouderoijen, M.T.; Piccinini, D.

    2013-01-01

    This booklet shows the results of a project developed by TU Delft in a Master elective course offered by the chair of Landscape Architecture: Landscape Architecture ON site, being part of Oerol Festival 2013. The aim of the project was to express the landscape of Terschelling into a temporarily

  11. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Case, F.I.; Land, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Information that is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) pertinent to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The principal emphasis in this report period was on column studies of migration of uranium and technetium in water from well J-13 at the Yucca Mountain site. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed and carefully packed with ground tuff. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves of tritium and TcO 4 - . Elution peaks obtained in past studies with uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations that suggested irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. To try to understand these observations, the effects of flow rate and temperature on uranium migration were studied in detail. Sorption ratios calculated from the elution peaks became larger as the flow rate decreased and as the temperature increased. These observations support the conclusion that the sorption of uranium is kinetically hindered. To confirm this, batch sorption ratio experiments were completed for uranium as a function of time for a variety of conditions

  12. Learning from the Route: a Pilot Project on Landscape Reading along the Itinerary of Via Lauretana Senese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Serenelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay investigates the opportunities generated by recovering a European Pilgrimage Route’s pathway as device for landscape perception and territorial analysis. It is focused on a project conducted by Verdiana Network in collaboration with the Municipality of Asciano (Siena. The project aims to activate processes of landscape planning and management, and promote local tourism within the context of Asciano’s rural landscape and among the cultural and natural heritage intercepted by this pilgrimage route. It concerns the Siena branch of the Via Lauretana, the pilgrimage route toward the Sanctuary of Loreto in the Marche Region. The project focuses on the landscape structure of the route, modelled by the territorial dimension and spatial configuration of the itinerary, together with the social processes of landscape perception activated by the route itself. From this point of view, the project consisted of a process of discovering the landscape along the route and intercepting polar elements that make the itinerary the basis for the development of local tourism and cultural activities.

  13. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  14. Project New Dutch Waterline and Project Arcadian Landscapes : Guidelines for new spatial development based in heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuure, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since the start of the national project New Dutch Waterline, presented as an illustrative example of a renewed approach of which spatial design was cross linked to heritage, for it described in the Nota Belvedere (Feddes, 1999). From 1815 until 1940 the New Dutch Waterline

  15. Motivation, description, and summary status of geomechanical and geochemical modeling studies in Task D of the International DECOVALEX-THMC Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Barr, D.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.

    2005-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status

  16. THE VAST PROJECT: VALORISATION OF HISTORY AND LANDSCAPE FOR PROMOTING THE MEMORY OF WWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nocerino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The VAST (valorisation of history and landscape project (http://vast.fbk.eu/ was part of the initiatives promoted by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy for the commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the First World War (WWI outbreak. The project was primarily aimed to document and promote, through 3D digitization approaches and communication material, the memory of sites, theatre of the world conflict. The Italian Trento’s province had been under the Austro–Hungarian Empire until the end of the WWI, during which represented a crucial and bloody war front between the Austrian and Italian territories. The region was constellated of military fortresses, trenches and tunnels, most of them now ruined and at risk to slowly disappear. 3D surveying and modelling techniques have been exploited to produce 3D digital models of structures and objects, along with virtual tours, communication material and a WebGIS of the area. All the products are available on the web for valorisation, educational and communication purposes.

  17. The Geomatics Contribution for the Valorisation Project in the Rocca of San Silvestro Landscape Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocchini, D.; Chiabrando, F.; Colucci, E.; Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.; Teppati Losè, L.; Villa, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes an emblematic project where several multi-sensor strategies for spatial data acquisition and management, range based and image based, were combined to create a series of integrated territorial and architectural scale products characterized by a rich multi-content nature. The work presented here was finalized in a test site that is composed by an ensemble of diversified cultural deposits; the objects that were surveyed and modelled range from the landscape with its widespread mining sites, the main tower with its defensive role, the urban configuration of the settlement, the building systems and techniques, a medieval mine. For this reason, the Rocca of San Silvestro represented a perfect test case, due to its complex and multi-stratified character. This archaeological site is a medieval fortified village near the municipality of Campiglia Marittima (LI), Italy. The Rocca is part of an Archaeological Mines Park and is included in the Parchi della Val di Cornia (a system of archaeological parks, natural parks and museums in the south-west of Tuscany). The fundamental role of a deep knowledge about a cultural artefact before the planning of a restoration and valorisation project is globally recognized; the qualitative and quantitative knowledge provided by geomatics techniques is part of this process. The paper will present the different techniques that were used, the products that were obtained and will focus on some mapping and WEB GIS applications and analyses that were performed and considerations that were made.

  18. The Vast Project: Valorisation of History and Landscape for Promoting the Memory of Wwi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Morabito, D.; Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Abate, D.; Ebolese, D.; Farella, E.; Fiorillo, F.; Minto, S.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Slongo, C.; Speraj, M. G.

    2017-08-01

    The VAST (valorisation of history and landscape) project (http://vast.fbk.eu/) was part of the initiatives promoted by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) for the commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the First World War (WWI) outbreak. The project was primarily aimed to document and promote, through 3D digitization approaches and communication material, the memory of sites, theatre of the world conflict. The Italian Trento's province had been under the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the end of the WWI, during which represented a crucial and bloody war front between the Austrian and Italian territories. The region was constellated of military fortresses, trenches and tunnels, most of them now ruined and at risk to slowly disappear. 3D surveying and modelling techniques have been exploited to produce 3D digital models of structures and objects, along with virtual tours, communication material and a WebGIS of the area. All the products are available on the web for valorisation, educational and communication purposes.

  19. THE GEOMATICS CONTRIBUTION FOR THE VALORISATION PROJECT IN THE ROCCA OF SAN SILVESTRO LANDSCAPE SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brocchini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emblematic project where several multi-sensor strategies for spatial data acquisition and management, range based and image based, were combined to create a series of integrated territorial and architectural scale products characterized by a rich multi-content nature. The work presented here was finalized in a test site that is composed by an ensemble of diversified cultural deposits; the objects that were surveyed and modelled range from the landscape with its widespread mining sites, the main tower with its defensive role, the urban configuration of the settlement, the building systems and techniques, a medieval mine. For this reason, the Rocca of San Silvestro represented a perfect test case, due to its complex and multi-stratified character. This archaeological site is a medieval fortified village near the municipality of Campiglia Marittima (LI, Italy. The Rocca is part of an Archaeological Mines Park and is included in the Parchi della Val di Cornia (a system of archaeological parks, natural parks and museums in the south-west of Tuscany. The fundamental role of a deep knowledge about a cultural artefact before the planning of a restoration and valorisation project is globally recognized; the qualitative and quantitative knowledge provided by geomatics techniques is part of this process. The paper will present the different techniques that were used, the products that were obtained and will focus on some mapping and WEB GIS applications and analyses that were performed and considerations that were made.

  20. Scientific fundamentals of the exploration and calculability of a waste repository. Project part III, sub-project 2: Validity and applicability of geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, J.

    1991-04-01

    The thermodynamic computer models WATEQF, PHREEQE, EQ3NR/EQ6, and SOLMINEQ 88 have been verified for their applicability to describe geochemical processes in the system salt stock/cap rock/ground water, i.e. processes such as dissolution, sedimentation, exchange and redox reactions. To begin with, the hydrochemical data obtained by the hydrogeological survey at the Gorleben site have been evaluated to thus form a reference data base. Then, these data have been used to derive the essential conditions and benchmark data to establish a geochemical model. (HP) [de

  1. Integrating ecophysiology and forest landscape models to improve projections of drought effects under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric J; De Bruijn, Arjan M G; Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T; Sturtevant, Brian R; Muss, Jordan D; Kubiske, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental drivers of ecosystem processes such as temperature and precipitation are rapidly changing and creating novel environmental conditions. Forest landscape models (FLM) are used by managers and policy-makers to make projections of future ecosystem dynamics under alternative management or policy options, but the links between the fundamental drivers and projected responses are weak and indirect, limiting their reliability for projecting the impacts of climate change. We developed and tested a relatively mechanistic method to simulate the effects of changing precipitation on species competition within the LANDIS-II FLM. Using data from a field precipitation manipulation experiment in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) ecosystem in New Mexico (USA), we calibrated our model to measurements from ambient control plots and tested predictions under the drought and irrigation treatments against empirical measurements. The model successfully predicted behavior of physiological variables under the treatments. Discrepancies between model output and empirical data occurred when the monthly time step of the model failed to capture the short-term dynamics of the ecosystem as recorded by instantaneous field measurements. We applied the model to heuristically assess the effect of alternative climate scenarios on the piñon-juniper ecosystem and found that warmer and drier climate reduced productivity and increased the risk of drought-induced mortality, especially for piñon. We concluded that the direct links between fundamental drivers and growth rates in our model hold great promise to improve our understanding of ecosystem processes under climate change and improve management decisions because of its greater reliance on first principles. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  3. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Project Roadkill: Linking European Hare vehicle collisions with landscape-structure using datasets from citizen scientists and professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretz, Carina; Heigl, Florian; Steiner, Wolfgang; Bauer, Thomas; Suppan, Franz; Zaller, Johann G.

    2015-04-01

    Road networks can implicate lots of negative effects for wildlife. One of the most important indication for strong landscape fragmentation are roadkills, i.e. collisions between motorised vehicles and wild animals. A species that is often involved in roadkills is the European hare (Lepus europaeus). European hare populations are in decline throughout Europe since the 1960s and classified as "potentially endangered" in the Red Data Book of Austria. Therefore, it is striking that in the hunting year 2013/14, 19,343 hares were killed on Austrian roads translating to 53 hare roadkills each day, or rather about two per hour. We hypothesized, that (I) hare-vehicle-collisions occur as an aggregation of events (hotspot), (II) the surrounding landscape influences the number of roadkilled hares and (III) roadkill data from citizen science projects and data from professionals (e.g. hunters, police) are convergent. Investigations on the surrounding landscape of the scenes of accidents will be carried out using land cover data derived from Landsat satellite images. Information on road kills are based on datasets from two different sources. One dataset stems from the citizen science project "Roadkill" (www.citizen-science.at/roadkill) where participants report roadkill findings via a web application. The second dataset is from a project where roadkill data were collected by the police and by hunters. Besides answering our research questions, findings of this project also allow the location of dangerous roadkill hotspots for animals and could be implemented in nature conservation actions.

  5. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Robert E.; Rollins, Matthew; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA. The primary index used to prioritize treatment areas across the nation is Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) computed as departures of current conditions from the historical fire and landscape conditions. This paper describes a process that uses an extensive set of ecological models to map FRCC from a departure statistic computed from simulated time series of historical landscape composition. This mapping process uses a data-driven, biophysical approach where georeferenced field data, biogeochemical simulation models, and spatial data libraries are integrated using spatial statistical modeling to map environmental gradients that are then used to predict vegetation and fuels characteristics over space. These characteristics are then fed into a landscape fire and succession simulation model to simulate a time series of historical landscape compositions that are then compared to the composition of current landscapes to compute departure, and the FRCC values. Intermediate products from this process are then used to create ancillary vegetation, fuels, and fire regime layers that are useful in the eventual planning and implementation of fuel and restoration treatments at local scales. The complex integration of varied ecological models at different scales is described and problems encountered during the implementation of this process in the LANDFIRE prototype project are addressed.

  6. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  7. Preliminary Assessment of JERS-1 SAR to Discriminating Boreal Landscape Features for the Boreal Forest Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Williams, Cynthia; Podest, Erika; Chapman, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project and a preliminary assessment of JERS-1 SAR imagery for application to discriminating features applicable to boreal landscape processes. The present focus of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project is the production of continental scale wintertime and summertime SAR mosaics of the North American boreal forest for distribution to the science community. As part of this effort, JERS-1 imagery has been collected over much of Alaska and Canada during the 1997-98 winter and 1998 summer seasons. To complete the mosaics, these data will be augmented with data collected during previous years. These data will be made available to the scientific community via CD ROM containing these and similar data sets compiled from companion studies of Asia and Europe. Regional landscape classification with SAR is important for the baseline information it will provide about distribution of woodlands, positions of treeline, current forest biomass, distribution of wetlands, and extent of major rivercourses. As well as setting the stage for longer term change detection, comparisons across several years provides additional baseline information about short-term landscape change. Rapid changes, including those driven by fire, permafrost heat balance, flooding, and insect outbreaks can dominate boreal systems. We examine JERS-1 imagery covering selected sites in Alaska and Canada to assess quality and applicability to such relevant ecological and hydrological issues. The data are generally of high quality and illustrate many potential applications. A texture-based classification scheme is applied to selected regions to assess the applicability of these data for distinguishing distribution of such landcover types as wetland, tundra, woodland and forested landscapes.

  8. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  9. Landscape biography as research strategy: The case of the South Netherlands project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roymans, N.G.A.M.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Van der Heijden, C.; Bosma, J.E.; Kolen, J.C.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the outline of a biographical approach to landscape as developed in the Netherlands during the last 15 years by archaeologists, thereby integrating perspectives formulated by the social anthropologists Appadurai and Kopytoff and the cultural geographer Samuels. The result is a

  10. The greenGain project - Biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work for renewable energy production in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clalüna, Aline; Baumgarten, Wibke; García Galindo, Daniel; Lenz, Klaus; Doležal, Jan; De Filippi, Federico; Lorenzo, Joaquín; Montagnoli, Louis

    2017-04-01

    The project greenGain is looking for solutions to increase the energy production with regional and local biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work, which is performed in the public interest. The relevant resources analysed in the greenGain model regions are, among others, biomass residues from clearing invasive vegetation in marginal agricultural lands in Spain, and residues from abandoned vineyards and olive groves in landscape protected areas in Italy. The main target groups are regional and local players who are responsible for maintenance and conservation work and for the biomass residue management in their regions. Moreover, the focus will be on service providers - including farmers and forest owners, their associations, NGOs, energy providers and consumers. Local companies, municipalities and public authorities are collaborating to identify the still underutilised non-food biomass resources and to discuss the way to integrate them into the local and regional biomass markets. Since the start of the three year project in January 2015, the partners from Italy, Spain, Czech Republic and Germany analysed, among other, the biomass feedstock potential coming from landscape maintenance work, and assessed various technological options to utilise this type of biomass. Further, political, legal and environmental aspects as well as awareness raising and public acceptance actions regarding the energetic use of biomass from public areas were assessed. greenGain also facilitates the exchange between model regions and other similar relevant players in the EU and shares examples of good practice. General guidelines will be prepared to guarantee a wide dissemination to other regions in the EU. Thus, the project shows how to build-up reliable knowledge on local availability of this feedstock and provides know-how concerning planning, harvesting, pre-treatment, storage and sustainable conversion pathways to a wide range of stakeholders in the EU.

  11. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  12. Mapping the above and belowground biomass in three landscapes in Cameroon, Rwanda and DRC: pilot cases in REDD+ pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufo Kankeu, R.

    2017-12-01

    A number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches and despite their comparison there is still a gap. To fill this gap there is a need to provide accurate maps based on the field data on all types of land use and land cover. Based on the field data from plots established in three pilot projects around Virunga National park in Rwanda, Tri-national Sangha landscape in Cameroon and lac Télé-Lac Tumba landscape in DRC, this paper intend to analyse the relationship between land use change and biomass and present the variability through biomass/carbon maps. The above and belowground biomass was calculated from 95 nested plots of 20 meters radius. The value of biomass/carbon per plot were thus used to elaborate carbon maps of each study site. In the same the way the correlation between the land use and underground and above ground carbon stock were analysed using geographically weighted regression. These data have been joint with classified Spot 5 image and aggregated to come out will acceptable result. Results show that there is a strong relationship between land use in various project sites and the carbon stock related, the change of a forest cover directly impact on carbon stock/biomass.in the same way carbon map realized base on field data and IDW, Kriging or spline module show an idea on the carbon distribution but the maps are not accurate giving the distance between plots,

  13. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  14. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical results from surface sediments and the sediment record from Site 2 of the ICDP drilling project at Lake Towuti, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, A. K.; Melles, M.; Wennrich, V.; Vogel, H.; Just, J.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Morlock, M.; Opitz, S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 1000 m of sediment core were recovered in spring 2015 from three different drill sites in tropical Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E), Indonesia, during the Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Furthermore, a set of 84 lake surface sediment samples, distributed over the entire lake, was collected in order to better understand modern sedimentary processes. The surface samples were investigated for physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological properties at the University of Cologne (UoC), Germany. On the sediment cores macro- and microscopical lithological descriptions, line-scan imaging, logging of physical properties (MSCL), and subsampling was conducted at the National Lacustrine Core Facility of the University of Minnesota, USA, in November 2015 and January 2016. Afterwards, the archive core halves and 672 subsamples of TDP Site 2 were shipped to the UoC for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning and sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses, respectively, supplemented by visible to near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIR) at Brown University, USA. The data from the surface samples evidence that allochthonous sedimentation in Lake Towuti today is dominated by fluvial supply from five distinguishable source areas: (i) the Mahalona River to the north, which drains lakes Mahalona and Matano, (ii) inlets around the village of Timampu to the northwest, (iii) the Loeha River to the east, (iv) the Lengke River to the south, and (v) the Lemo-Lemo River to the northeast of Lake Towuti. Of these, source areas (ii) and (iii) as well as (iv) and (v) have similar geochemical compositions, respectively. In addition, the lake sedimentation is significantly influenced by gravitational sediment supply from steep slopes as well as lake-internal gravitational and density-driven processes. The uppermost 41 m of sediment core 2A consist of pelagic sediments (totaling 11 m) and event layers from mass movement

  15. Collaborative Environmental Projects in a Multicultural Society: Working from within Separate or Mutual Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Alkaher, Iris

    2010-01-01

    A multicultural socio-environmental project that is framed in the ideas of education for sustainability brought together Jew and Arab students was investigated to identify the participants' views of the program's objectives and their accomplishments. We investigated the project's strengths and weaknesses according to the participants' views and…

  16. The 'glass earth' - geochemical frontiers in exploration through cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.; Denton, G.; Giblin, A.; Korsch, M.; Andrew, A.; Whitford, D.

    1999-01-01

    'Glass Earth' represents a number of current and planned projects within CSIRO aimed at making 'transparent' the top 1000 m of the Earth's crust It builds upon current technologies developed within a number of CSIRO divisions as well as the Australian Mineral Exploration Technologies CRC (AMET CRC), the Australian Geodynamics CRC (AG CRC) and the CRC for Landscape Evolution and Mineral Exploration (CRC LEME). New geophysical and geochemical technologies will be developed to complement these, together with new capabilities in modelling, data integration and visualisation, including hydrogeochemistry, hydrogeology, surface geochemistry and isotope geochemistry, modelling of chemical, fluid and heat flows in rock and regolith, advanced visualisation and data fusion. This paper describes some recent work in the field of isotope geochemistry, with the principal aim of 'seeing through' cover to understand basement geology and detect hidden ore systems

  17. The Giza "written" landscape and the double project of King Khufu

    OpenAIRE

    Magli, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, different scientific disciplines, from Physics to Egyptology, from Geology to Archaeoastronomy, evidenced a series of clues pointing to the possibility that the original project of the pyramid complex of Khufu at Giza included also the project of the second pyramid complex at the same site, that of Khafra. The aim of the present paper is to discuss this issue in a systematic fashion and to explore its consequences on the way the ancient Egyptians conceived and built monuments...

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The following collection of papers was presented at a workshop on geochemical modeling that was sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Waste Management Program sponsored this conference based on their belief that geochemical modeling is particularly important to the radioactive waste disposal project because of the need to predict the consequences of long-term water-rock interactions at the proposed repository site. The papers included in this volume represent a subset of the papers presented at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference and cover a broad spectrum of detail and breadth in a subject that reflects the diverse research interests of the conference participants. These papers provide an insightful look into the current status of geochemical modeling and illustrate how various geochemical modeling codes have been applied to problems of geochemical interest. The emphasis of these papers includes traditional geochemical modeling studies of individual geochemical systems, the mathematical and theoretical development and refinement of new modeling capabilities, and enhancements of data bases on which the computations are based. The papers in this proceedings volume have been organized into the following four areas: Geochemical Model Development, Hydrothermal and Geothermal Systems, Sedimentary and Low Temperature Environments, and Data Base Development. The participants of this symposium and a complete list of the talks presented are listed in the appendices

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on geochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The following collection of papers was presented at a workshop on geochemical modeling that was sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Waste Management Program sponsored this conference based on their belief that geochemical modeling is particularly important to the radioactive waste disposal project because of the need to predict the consequences of long-term water-rock interactions at the proposed repository site. The papers included in this volume represent a subset of the papers presented at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference and cover a broad spectrum of detail and breadth in a subject that reflects the diverse research interests of the conference participants. These papers provide an insightful look into the current status of geochemical modeling and illustrate how various geochemical modeling codes have been applied to problems of geochemical interest. The emphasis of these papers includes traditional geochemical modeling studies of individual geochemical systems, the mathematical and theoretical development and refinement of new modeling capabilities, and enhancements of data bases on which the computations are based. The papers in this proceedings volume have been organized into the following four areas: Geochemical Model Development, Hydrothermal and Geothermal Systems, Sedimentary and Low Temperature Environments, and Data Base Development. The participants of this symposium and a complete list of the talks presented are listed in the appendices.

  20. Glomed-Land: a research project to study the effect of global change in contrasted mediterranean landscapes and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Hueso-González, Paloma; León-Gross, Teodoro; Molina, Julián; Remond, Ricardo; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2017-04-01

    The Global Change is referred to the occurrence of great environmental changes associated to climatic fluctuations and human activity as wel (Vitousek et al., 1997; Steffen et al., 2004; Dearing et al., 2006). García-Ruiz et al. (2015) indicated that the relief varies very slowly in time while the changes in vegetation, overland flow generation and erosion occurred very rapidly and conditioned by their interactions and the climate variability as well. The GLOMED-LAND Project has its bases and scientific justification on the combination of the experience of the members of the research team, from one side, in the analysis of the dynamics and eco-geomorphological and climatic processes in Mediterranean environments of southern Spain, in the context of current Global change, and from another, in the study, development and application of new tools for simulation and modelling of future scenarios, and finally, in the analysis of the impact that society exercises the broadcast media related to the problem derived from the awareness and adaptation to Global change. Climate change (CC), directly affects the elements that compose the landscape. Both in the analysis of future climate scenarios raised by the IPCC (2013), such as the regionalisation carried out by AEMET, the Mediterranean region and, especially, the South of Spain, - with its defined longitudinal pluviometric gradient - configured as one of the areas of greatest uncertainty, reflected in a higher concentration of temporal rainfall, and even a reduction in the rainfall. Faced with this situation, the CC can modify the current landscape setting, with all the environmental impacts that this would entail for the terrestrial ecosystems and the systemic services rendered to the society. The combination of different work scales allows the analysis of the dynamics of the landscape and the consequence of its modifications on, hydro-geomorphological processes, closely related to degradation processes that can affect the

  1. Adapting Landscape Mosaics of medIteranean Rainfed Agrosystems for a sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources: the ALMIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Frédéric; Mekki, Insaf; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    In the context of mitigating the pressures induced by global change combined with demography and market pressures, there is increasing societal demand and scientific need to understand the functioning of Mediterranean Rainfed Agrosystems (MRAs) for their potential to provide various environmental and economic services of importance such as food production, preservation of employment and local knowhow, downstream water delivery or mitigation of rural exodus. Efficient MRAs management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and natural resources preservation are needed. Such strategies require innovative system based research, integration across approaches and scales. One of the major challenges is to make all contributions from different disciplines converging towards a reproducible transdisciplinary approach. The objective of this communication is to present the ALMIRA project, a Tunisian - Moroccan - French project which lasts four years (2014 - 2017). The communication details the societal context, the scientific positioning and the related work hypothesis, the study areas, the project structure, the expected outcomes and the partnership which capitalizes on long term collaborations. ALMIRA aims to explore the modulation of landscape mosaics within MRAs to optimize landscape services. To explore this new lever, ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new Integrated Assessment Modelling approach that explicitly i) includes innovations and action means into prospective scenarii for landscape evolutions, and ii) addresses landscape mosaics and processes of interest from the agricultural field to the resource governance catchment. This requires tackling methodological challenges in relation to i) the design of spatially explicit landscape evolution scenarii, ii) the coupling of biophysical processes related to agricultural catchment hydrology, iii) the digital mapping of landscape properties and iv) the economic assessment of the

  2. Coupling of transport and geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    This report considers mass transport in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository, and detailed geochemical modelling of the ground-water in the near-field. A parallel approach to this problem of coupling transport and geochemical codes is the subject of another CEC report (ref. EUR 10226). Both studies were carried out in the framework of the CEC project MIRAGE. (Migration of radionuclides in the geosphere)

  3. Curated routes: the project of developing experiential tracks in sub-urban landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Papathanasiou, Maximi; Uyttenhove, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The Curated Routes project reflects on the visiting routes’ ability to make apparent the internal characteristics of urban environments. The project’s name allude to the intellectual function of curation and the materiality of routes. Curate deals with the practice of arranging material –tangible or intangible- in a way that a new understanding of an area is revealed. The word routes refers to the linear associations that link places and guide movement. The Curated Routes aim to reinforce the...

  4. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L.; Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C.; Mayes, B.; Iason, G.; Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V.; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T.; White, N.; Guillitte, O.

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, 134 Cs, 137 Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work

  5. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L; Hubbard, L; Avila, R; Wallberg, L [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E; Scimone, M; Milesi, C [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B; Iason, G [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A; Vetikko, V [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R; Nylen, T [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T; White, N [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H; Aro, L; Kaunisto, S [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  6. The geochemical atlas of Alaska, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Granitto, Matthew; Denning, Paul; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.

    2016-06-21

    A rich legacy of geochemical data produced since the early 1960s covers the great expanse of Alaska; careful treatment of such data may provide significant and revealing geochemical maps that may be used for landscape geochemistry, mineral resource exploration, and geoenvironmental investigations over large areas. To maximize the spatial density and extent of data coverage for statewide mapping of element distributions, we compiled and integrated analyses of more than 175,000 sediment and soil samples from three major, separate sources: the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys geochemical databases. Various types of heterogeneity and deficiencies in these data presented major challenges to our development of coherently integrated datasets for modeling and mapping of element distributions. Researchers from many different organizations and disparate scientific studies collected samples that were analyzed using highly variable methods throughout a time period of more than 50 years, during which many changes in analytical techniques were developed and applied. Despite these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey has produced a new systematically integrated compilation of sediment and soil geochemical data with an average sample site density of approximately 1 locality per 10 square kilometers (km2) for the entire State of Alaska, although density varies considerably among different areas. From that compilation, we have modeled and mapped the distributions of 68 elements, thus creating an updated geochemical atlas for the State.

  7. Geochemical Constraints for Mercury's PCA-Derived Geochemical Terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockstill-Cahill, K. R.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    PCA-derived geochemical terranes provide a robust, analytical means of defining these terranes using strictly geochemical inputs. Using the end members derived in this way, we are able to assess the geochemical implications for Mercury.

  8. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  9. Evaluation of Different Topographic Corrections for Landsat TM Data by Prediction of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC in Topographically Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira Ediriweera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reflected radiance in topographically complex areas is severely affected by variations in topography; thus, topographic correction is considered a necessary pre-processing step when retrieving biophysical variables from these images. We assessed the performance of five topographic corrections: (i C correction (C, (ii Minnaert, (iii Sun Canopy Sensor (SCS, (iv SCS + C and (v the Processing Scheme for Standardised Surface Reflectance (PSSSR on the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM reflectance in the context of prediction of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC in hilly landscapes in north-eastern Australia. The performance of topographic corrections on the TM reflectance was assessed by (i visual comparison and (ii statistically comparing TM predicted FPC with ground measured FPC and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-derived FPC estimates. In the majority of cases, the PSSSR method performed best in terms of eliminating topographic effects, providing the best relationship and lowest residual error when comparing ground measured FPC and LiDAR FPC with TM predicted FPC. The Minnaert, C and SCS + C showed the poorest performance. Finally, the use of TM surface reflectance, which includes atmospheric correction and broad Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF effects, seemed to account for most topographic variation when predicting biophysical variables, such as FPC.

  10. Evolving Health Expenditure Landscape of the BRICS Nations and Projections to 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Potapchik, Elena; Popovich, Larisa; Barik, Debasis; Getzen, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    Global health spending share of low/middle income countries continues its long-term growth. BRICS nations remain to be major drivers of such change since 1990s. Governmental, private and out-of-pocket health expenditures were analyzed based on WHO sources. Medium-term projections of national health spending to 2025 were provided based on macroeconomic budgetary excess growth model. In terms of per capita spending Russia was highest in 2013. India's health expenditure did not match overall economic growth and fell to slightly less than 4% of GDP. Up to 2025 China will achieve highest excess growth rate of 2% and increase its GDP% spent on health care from 5.4% in 2012 to 6.6% in 2025. Russia's spending will remain highest among BRICS in absolute per capita terms reaching net gain from $1523 PPP in 2012 to $2214 PPP in 2025. In spite of BRICS' diversity, all countries were able to significantly increase their investments in health care. The major setback was bold rise in out-of-pocket spending. Most of BRICS' growing share of global medical spending was heavily attributable to the overachievement of People's Republic of China. Such trend is highly likely to continue beyond 2025. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  12. Habitat landscape pattern and connectivity indices : used at varying spatial scales for harmonized reporting in the EBONE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estreguil, C.; Caudullo, G.; Whitmore, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study is motivated by biodiversity related policy information needs on ecosystem fragmentation and connectivity. The aim is to propose standardized and repeatable methods to characterize ecosystem landscape structure in a harmonized way at varying spatial scales and thematic resolutions

  13. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  14. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  15. Downscaling Climate Projections to a Mountainous Landscape: A Climate Impact Assessment for the U.S. Northern Rockies Crown of the Continent Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, J.; Anderson, R.; Running, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    In topographically complex landscapes, there is often a mismatch in scale between global climate model projections and more local climate-forcing factors and related ecological/hydrological processes. To overcome this limitation, the objective of this study was to downscale climate projections to the rugged Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) within the U.S. Northern Rockies and assess future impacts on water balances, vegetation dynamics, and carbon fluxes. A 40-year (1970-2009) spatial historical climate dataset (800m resolution, daily timestep) was generated for the CCE and modified for terrain influences. Regional climate projections were downscaled by applying them to the fine-scale historical dataset using a modified delta downscaling method and stochastic weather generator. The downscaled projections were used to drive the Biome-BGC ecosystem model. Overall CCE impacts included decreases in April 1 snow water equivalent, less days with snow on the ground, increased vegetation water stress, and increased growing degree days. The relaxing of temperature constraints increased annual net primary productivity (NPP) throughout most of the CCE landscape. However, an increase in water stress seems to have limited the growth in NPP and, in some areas, NPP actually decreased. Thus, CCE vegetation productivity trends under increasing temperatures will likely be determined by local changes in hydrologic function. Given the greater uncertainty in precipitation projections, future work should concentrate on determining thresholds in water constraints that greatly modify the magnitude and direction of carbon accumulation within the CCE under a warming climate.

  16. Reconnaissance Geochemical Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distribution patterns. The geochemical distribution maps of the elements reveal that Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Sc, Ni, Cr, .... After filtration, the leached solutions were diluted with ultra ...... some other rare earth elements in the study area. The occurrence ...

  17. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  18. Predictive geochemical mapping using environmental correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilford, John; Caritat, Patrice de; Bui, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of chemical elements at and near the Earth's surface, the so-called critical zone, is complex and reflects the geochemistry and mineralogy of the original substrate modified by environmental factors that include physical, chemical and biological processes over time. Geochemical data typically is illustrated in the form of plan view maps or vertical cross-sections, where the composition of regolith, soil, bedrock or any other material is represented. These are primarily point observations that frequently are interpolated to produce rasters of element distributions. Here we propose the application of environmental or covariate regression modelling to predict and better understand the controls on major and trace element geochemistry within the regolith. Available environmental covariate datasets (raster or vector) representing factors influencing regolith or soil composition are intersected with the geochemical point data in a spatial statistical correlation model to develop a system of multiple linear correlations. The spatial resolution of the environmental covariates, which typically is much finer (e.g. ∼90 m pixel) than that of geochemical surveys (e.g. 1 sample per 10-10,000 km 2 ), carries over to the predictions. Therefore the derived predictive models of element concentrations take the form of continuous geochemical landscape representations that are potentially much more informative than geostatistical interpolations. Environmental correlation is applied to the Sir Samuel 1:250,000 scale map sheet in Western Australia to produce distribution models of individual elements describing the geochemical composition of the regolith and exposed bedrock. As an example we model the distribution of two elements – chromium and sodium. We show that the environmental correlation approach generates high resolution predictive maps that are statistically more accurate and effective than ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting interpolation

  19. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  20. An analysis of historic and projected climate scenarios in the Western United States using hydrologic landscape classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Identifying areas of similar hydrology within the United States and its regions (hydrologic landscapes - HLs) is an active area of research. HLs are being used to construct spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, a...

  1. Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Philip A. Townsend; John E. Gross; Warren B. Cohen; Paul Bolstad; Wang Y. Q.; Phyllis Adams

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing provides a broad view of landscapes and can be consistent through time, making it an important tool for monitoring and managing protected areas. An impediment to broader use of remote sensing science for monitoring has been the need for resource managers to understand the specialized capabilities of an ever-expanding array of image sources and analysis...

  2. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  3. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  4. Atlante project. A landscape planning and management; Progetto Atlante. Quadro di riferimento, analisi degli strumenti esistenti, implementazione metodologica e applicazione prototipale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, N.; Del Ciello, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The Atlante Project applied in Emilia-Romagna region, has the objective in management of transformations in landscape, evaluating the sustainability of choice of programming. [Italian] Il progetto Atlante, si e' posto l'obiettivo di verificare la validita' delle Unita' di Paesaggio, come riferimento per una gestione delle trasformazioni del territorio, che permetta di anticipare la valutazione della sostenibilita' delle scelte della programmazione superando l'attuale prassi di verifica amministrativa a posteriori, che l'esperienza degli ultimi anni ha dimostrato non essere efficace.

  5. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    groundwaters, and also by stable isotopes and uranium isotopes in secondary minerals. Information on timing of water and solute movements is important because it indicates any correlation with the timing of external events that might have perturbed and destabilised the groundwater system in the past, and allows a timescale to be estimated for the persistence of stable conditions. Data from a number of published site investigation projects and research programmes are reviewed to illustrate the patterns of geochemical data and the relationships between them, and how these are interpreted in terms of hydrodynamic stability. Data from Aespoe and Stripa and from exploratory boreholes at Finnsjoen and other sites in Sweden are compiled and discussed. Preliminary data from SKB's ongoing site investigations at Simpevarp/Laxemar and Forsmark are not considered in detail but their general similarities with Aespoe and Finnsjoen/SFR respectively are introduced into the discussion of geochemical evidence for groundwater stability in inland and coastal areas. Relevant data from Finnish sites including Olkiluoto, from the Whiteshell URL area in Canada, from Sellafield in the UK, and from the Tono area and URL in Japan are also summarised in appendices and discussed because they add further insights into the interpretation of geochemical indicators for a range of geological environments. The compiled data provide only limited scope for comparison of groundwater evolution and stability between inland and coastal areas in Sweden, because of the patchiness of representative data especially from early site studies. The external changes that might have perturbed stable groundwater conditions in the past are glaciation (i.e. melt water, mechanical loading/unloading and permafrost) and varying sea water infiltration at coastal sites due to changes in palaeo-Baltic and isostatic conditions. The present distributions of palaeo-Baltic sea water in groundwaters at coastal sites vary, reflecting local

  6. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    groundwaters, and also by stable isotopes and uranium isotopes in secondary minerals. Information on timing of water and solute movements is important because it indicates any correlation with the timing of external events that might have perturbed and destabilised the groundwater system in the past, and allows a timescale to be estimated for the persistence of stable conditions. Data from a number of published site investigation projects and research programmes are reviewed to illustrate the patterns of geochemical data and the relationships between them, and how these are interpreted in terms of hydrodynamic stability. Data from Aespoe and Stripa and from exploratory boreholes at Finnsjoen and other sites in Sweden are compiled and discussed. Preliminary data from SKB's ongoing site investigations at Simpevarp/Laxemar and Forsmark are not considered in detail but their general similarities with Aespoe and Finnsjoen/SFR respectively are introduced into the discussion of geochemical evidence for groundwater stability in inland and coastal areas. Relevant data from Finnish sites including Olkiluoto, from the Whiteshell URL area in Canada, from Sellafield in the UK, and from the Tono area and URL in Japan are also summarised in appendices and discussed because they add further insights into the interpretation of geochemical indicators for a range of geological environments. The compiled data provide only limited scope for comparison of groundwater evolution and stability between inland and coastal areas in Sweden, because of the patchiness of representative data especially from early site studies. The external changes that might have perturbed stable groundwater conditions in the past are glaciation (i.e. melt water, mechanical loading/unloading and permafrost) and varying sea water infiltration at coastal sites due to changes in palaeo-Baltic and isostatic conditions. The present distributions of palaeo-Baltic sea water in groundwaters at coastal sites vary, reflecting

  7. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  8. Geochemical prospecting in Guiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, R.

    1957-01-01

    During the last few years geochemical prospecting techniques have become common usage in the field of mineral deposit prospecting. The real scope of these methods lies in their use in the prospecting of large areas. The most promising use of the geochemistry and hydro-geochemistry of uranium is in heavily forested tropical territories, with few outcrops, where radiometry is strongly handicapped. (author) [fr

  9. Evaluation of landscape coverings to reduce soil lead hazards in urban residential yards: The Safer Yards Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, H.J.; Gray, K.A.; Chen Tianyue; Finster, M.E.; Peneff, Nicholas; Schaefer, Peter; Ovsey, Victor; Fernandes, Joyce; Brown, Mavis; Dunlap, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of landscape coverings to reduce the potential for exposure to lead-contaminated soil in an urban neighborhood. Residential properties were randomized in to three groups: application of ground coverings/barriers plus placement of a raised garden bed (RB), application of ground coverings/barriers only (no raised bed, NRB), and control. Outcomes evaluated soil lead concentration (employing a weighting method to assess acute hazard soil lead [areas not fully covered] and potential hazard soil lead [all soil surfaces regardless of covering status]), density of landscape coverings (6=heavy, >90% covered; 1=bare, <10% covered), lead tracked onto carpeted entryway floor mats, and entryway floor dust lead loadings. Over 1 year, the intervention groups had significantly reduced acute hazard soil lead concentration (median change: RB, -478 ppm; NRB, -698 ppm; control, +52 ppm; Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.02), enhanced landscape coverings (mean change in score: RB, +0.6; NRB, +1.5; control, -0.6; ANOVA, P<0.001), and a 50% decrease in lead tracked onto the floor mats. The potential hazard soil lead concentration and the entryway floor dust lead loading did not change significantly. Techniques evaluated by this study are feasible for use by property owners but will require continued maintenance. The long-term sustainability of the method needs further examination

  10. Status report on geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the findings of a review undertaken on behalf of the project management group of the programme 'Endlagersicherheit in der Nachbetriebsphase' based at GSF-IfT (Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit - Institut fuer Tieflagerung) to establish the current status of research into the simulation of geochemical processes relevant to radiological assessment. The review is intended to contribute to Stage 1 of a strategy formulated to enhance the use of geochemical models in Germany. Emphasis has been placed on processes deemed to be of greatest relevance to performance assessment for a HLW-repository in a salt dome principally, speciation-solubility in high salinity solutions, complexation by natural organics and generation-transport of colloids. For each of these and other topics covered, a summary is given of fundamental concepts, theoretical representations and their limitations, highlighting, where appropriate, the advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches. The availability of data to quantify any given representation is addressed, taking into account the need for information at elevated temperatures and pressures. Mass transfer is considered in terms of aqueous, particulate and gas-mediated transport, respectively. (orig.) [de

  11. Laboratory batch experiments and geochemical modelling of water-rock-supercritical CO2 reactions in Southern San Joaquin Valley, California oil field sediments: Implications for future carbon capture and sequestration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Rivas, C.; Freeman, S.; Tan, T. W.; Baron, D.; Horton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of CO2 as supercritical liquid in oil reservoirs has been proposed for enhanced oil recovery and a way to lower atmospheric CO2 levels. The fate of CO2 after injection requires an understanding of mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions occurring between the formation minerals and the existing formation brines at formation temperatures and pressures in the presence of supercritical CO2. In this study, core samples from three potential storage formations, the Vedder Fm. (Rio Bravo oil field), Stevens Fm. (Elk Hills oil field) and Temblor Fm. (McKittrick oil field) were reacted with a synthetic brine and CO2(sc) at reservoir temperature (110°C) and pressure (245-250 bar). A combination of petrographic, SEM-EDS and XRD analyses, brine chemistry, and PHREEQ-C modelling were used to identify geochemical reactions altering aquifer mineralogy. XRD and petrographic analyses identified potentially reactive minerals including calcite and dolomite (~2%), pyrite (~1%), and feldspars (~25-60%). Despite the low abundance, calcite dissolution and pyrite oxidation were dominant geochemical reactions. Feldspar weathering produced release rates ~1-2 orders of magnitude slower than calcite dissolution. Calcite dissolution increased the aqueous concentrations of Ca, HCO3, Mg, Mn and Sr. Silicate weathering increased the aqueous concentrations of Si and K. Plagioclase weathering likely increased aqueous Ca concentrations. Pyrite oxidation, despite attempts to remove O2 from the experiment, increased the aqueous concentration of Fe and SO4. SEM-EDS analysis of post-reaction samples identified mixed-layered illite-smectites associated with feldspar grains suggesting clay mineral precipitation in addition to calcite, pyrite and feldspar dissolution. The Vedder Fm. sample underwent complete disaggregation during the reaction due to cement dissolution. This may adversely affect Vedder Formation CCS projects by impacting injection well integrity.

  12. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  13. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  14. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  15. Geochemical modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted

  16. Geochemical modeling: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted.

  17. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  18. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project

  19. Hysteretic Vortex-Matching Effects in High-Tc Superconductors with Nanoscale Periodic Pinning Landscapes Fabricated by He Ion-Beam Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, G.; Jausner, F.; Haag, L. T.; Lang, W.; Dosmailov, M.; Bodea, M. A.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2017-07-01

    Square arrays of submicrometer columnar defects in thin YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ (YBCO) films with spacings down to 300 nm are fabricated by a He ion-beam projection technique. Pronounced peaks in the critical current and corresponding minima in the resistance demonstrate the commensurate arrangement of flux quanta with the artificial pinning landscape, despite the strong intrinsic pinning in epitaxial YBCO films. While these vortex-matching signatures are exactly at the predicted values in field-cooled experiments, they are displaced in zero-field-cooled, magnetic-field-ramped experiments, conserving the equidistance of the matching peaks and minima. These observations reveal an unconventional critical state in a cuprate superconductor with an artificial, periodic pinning array. The long-term stability of such out-of-equilibrium vortex arrangements paves the way for electronic applications employing fluxons.

  20. Integrated geophysical-geochemical methods for archaeological prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    A great number of field measurements with different methods and instruments were conducted in attempts to develop a method for an optimal combination of various geochemical and geophysical methods in archaeological prospecting. The research presented in this thesis focuses on a study of how different anthropogenic changes in the ground can be detected by geochemical and geophysical mapping and how the results can be presented. A six-year pilot project, Svealand in Vendel and Viking periods (S...

  1. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  2. Landscape scale ecological monitoring as part of an EIA of major construction activities: experience at the Turkish section of the BTC crude oil pipeline project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sükran; Kurum, Ekrem

    2009-09-01

    Ecological monitoring is a complementary component of the overall environmental management and monitoring program of any Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report. The monitoring method should be developed for each project phase and allow for periodic reporting and assessment of compliance with the environmental conditions and requirements of the EIA. Also, this method should incorporate a variance request program since site-specific conditions can affect construction on a daily basis and require time-critical application of alternative construction scenarios or environmental management methods integrated with alternative mitigation measures. Finally, taking full advantage of the latest information and communication technologies can enhance the quality of, and public involvement in, the environmental management program. In this paper, a landscape-scale ecological monitoring method for major construction projects is described using, as a basis, 20 months of experience on the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Crude Oil Pipeline Project, covering Turkish Sections Lot B and Lot C. This analysis presents suggestions for improving ecological monitoring for major construction activities.

  3. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  4. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  5. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Baah-Acheamfour

    Full Text Available There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD. The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis, American beech (Fagus grandifolia, white birch (Betula papyrifera, red oak (Quercus rubra, sugar maple (Acer saccharum, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea, black spruce (Picea mariana, red spruce (Picea rubens, red maple (Acer rubrum L., and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis. True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair to 0.41 (moderate for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  6. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Anna Haines; Emily Usher; Paul Gobster; Mike. Dockry

    2018-01-01

    This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their...

  7. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    plants and animals (Kovalsky, 1974; Letunova, Kovalsky, 1978, Ermakov, 1999). Obtained zones of different eco-geochemical risk need particular strategy basing on maximum possible correspondence to the natural geochemical conditions. For example, the assessment of effects of the nuclear accident in any case needs taking into account the synergetic results of ionizing radiation in different eco-geochemical conditions. In this respect the most contaminated areas should be withdrawn from living but some spatial arable lands can be used for seeds or technical crops production. The less contaminated areas still used in agriculture need shifting to fodder or species giving non-contaminated products (e.g. oil). Wet meadows of superaqueous landscapes with a relatively high radionuclide transfer to the plants should be excluded from grazing but other areas with lower transfer to forage may be used. In all the cases the resultant remediation should achieve first of all the maximum decrease of the summary negative health effect for the residents or working personnel. References Vernadsky V.I., 1926. Biosphere. Leningrad, Nauch. khim.-tekhn. izd-vo, 147 p. Vernadsky V.I., 1960. Selected works, Vol. 5. Moscow, izd-vo AN SSSR, 422 p. Kovalsky V.V., 1974. Geochemical ecology. Moscow, Nauka, Letunova S.V., Kovalsky V.V., 1978. Geochemical ecology of microorganisms. Moscow, Nauka, 148 pp. Ermakov V.V., 1999.Geochemical ecology as a result of the system-based study of the biosphere. Problems of biogeochemistry and geochemical ecology. Transactions of the Biogeochem. Lab., 23, Moscow, Nauka, 152-182.

  8. Geochemical Survey of Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, A.; Duarte, P.J.; Almeida, M.G. de; Medeiros, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    The area studied i this work is located in a triangle formed by the Sibiro and Boca da Mata Sugar-Mills and Serinhaem country. In the Cabo Formation the search determinated conglomerates, arcos and clays. Although the highest geochemical activity have been done in the decomposed crystalin, and the values from Cabo Formation don't be encourager, this formation has lithology compatible with uranium mineralization. The Cabo Formation's sediments presents lithologic variations very expressives, with conglomerates, arcoses and clay silts, which determinate the choise of the area. This area presented favorable to uranium prospecting and to others elements interesting to ragional geochemistry. The atomic absorption analysis, fluorimetry and spectrometry were done for the following elements: Zn, V, Ti, Ni, Pb, Mn, Ga, Cu, Co, Bi, Ag, B, Mo, and U. (C.D.G.) [pt

  9. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  10. Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Sufficiency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the efforts of the royal family to moralise the environmental behaviour of their subjects in the name of the Sufficiency Economy philosophy solicited by King Bhumibol since the 1990s in Thailand. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nan province, Northern Thailand, in 2008 and 2009, I focus particularly on Royal Projects recently promoted to correct the rural practices of the ethnic minority groups living in the hills of Nan. In the past, many of these ethnic groups took part in the Maoist insurgency while at present, they represent a key basin of support- ers for the reformist Red Shirts movement which is currently threatening the role of the monarchy in Thai politics. The research suggests that the recently increased trend of staging new projects for sustainable agro-forestry management in a ‘red’ area as Nan does not only aim at improving the conditions of mountain peoples and of the environment, but simultaneously increases the political influence of the conservative forces over this ‘ungovernable’ territory in times of political crisis. ----- Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Bemühungen der königlichen Familie in Thailand seit den 1990-er Jahren, das Umweltverhalten ihrer Subjekte im Namen der Sufficiency Economy Philosophie von König Bhumibol zu moralisieren. Mit Bezug auf ethnografische Forschung in der Provinz Nan in Nordthailand in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 fokussiere ich insbesondere auf Royal Projects, die in letzter Zeit gefördert werden, um ländliche Praktiken ethnischer Minderheiten in den Bergen von Nan zu korrigieren. In der Vergangenheit waren viele dieser ethnischen Gruppen am maoistischen Aufstand beteiligt, während sie heute ein zentrales Auffangbecken für UnterstützerInnen der reformistischen Rothemden, die derzeit die Rolle der Monarchie in der thailändischen Politik in Frage stellen, darstellen. Die Forschung deutet an, dass der Trend zur Einführung von neuen Projekten f

  11. All-union Conference. Principles and methods of regional and geochemical investigations into radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collection presents abstracts of papers concerning landscape-geochemical research of radionuclides migration; aspects of 'hot particles' study; radionuclides forms and behaviour in soils, in soil-plant; soil-natural water systems, as well as in water ecosystems. Methods of natural objects artificial radioactivity study are reviewed. Distribution of natural radionuclides in soils. natural waters, etc. is discussed

  12. Protection of drinking water reservoirs in buried glacial valleys in the ice-marginal landscape for securing future demand in the European perspective (ENCORE-Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, F. W. H.; Bregman, E. P. H.

    2012-04-01

    Quaternary glaciations have left a significant sedimentological fingerprint in the subsurface of north Europe, in the form of buried glacial valleys. These structures are important drinking water reservoirs for millions of people in the ice-marginal landscape, but are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution (nitrate, sulphate and organic pollutants) and geogenic pollution (salinization). That is one of the conclusion of a recent overview study in the IML of northern Europe from the North Sea to the southern Baltic area. Adequate policy making is yet not possible for several reasons: - Large amounts of data are needed to get a good grip on the lateral continuity of the complex infill. - The BurVal Working Group (2006) has shown that a combination of high resolution seismic survey, together with transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys can provide realistic data for 3D hydrogeological models. However, these data have not yet been retrieved on a European scale. - Available borehole data can only be used as control points in 3D hydrological models, since the infill of buried glacial valleys is often lateral too complex to make sound interpolations possible. Pollution in buried glacial valleys crosses national borders in northern Europe and therefore national geological surveys have to cooperate in a newly formed European project on protection of these structures. The ENCORE - project (Environmental Conference of the European Regions) has shown in the past that it can facilitate fruitful European cooperation, which is urgently needed due to the costs of gathering data and due to knowledge gaps between different countries. By working together in a European context, these problems can be reduced so that better policy making is possible in order to secure our future drinking water availability.

  13. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  14. 3D RECONSTRUCTION AND MODELING OF SUBTERRANEAN LANDSCAPES IN COLLABORATIVE MINING ARCHEOLOGY PROJECTS: TECHNIQUES, APPLICATIONS AND EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arles

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining and underground archaeology are two domains of expertise where three-dimensional data take an important part in the associated researches. Up to now, archaeologists study mines and underground networks from line-plot surveys, cross-section of galleries, and from tool marks surveys. All this kind of information can be clearly recorded back from the field from threedimensional models with a more cautious and extensive approach. Besides, the volumes of the underground structures that are very important data to explain the mining activities are difficult to evaluate from "traditional" hand-made recordings. They can now be calculated more accurately from a 3D model. Finally, reconstructed scenes are a powerful tool as thinking aid to look back again to a structure in the office or in future times. And the recorded models, rendered photo-realistically, can also be used for cultural heritage documentation presenting inaccessible and sometimes dangerous places to the public. Nowadays, thanks to modern computer technologies and highly developed software tools paired with sophisticated digital camera equipment, complex photogrammetric processes are available for moderate costs for research teams. Recognizing these advantages the authors develop and utilize image-based workflows in order to document ancient mining monuments and underground sites as a basis for further historical and archaeological researches, performed in collaborative partnership during recent projects on medieval silver mines and preventive excavations of undergrounds in France.

  15. Statistical interpretation of geochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carambula, M.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical results have been obtained from a geochemical research from the following four aerial photographies Zapican, Carape, Las Canias, Alferez. They have been studied 3020 samples in total, to 22 chemical elements using plasma emission spectrometry methods.

  16. Final Report (BMWi Project No.: 02 E 10971): Joint project: Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems - Subproject 2: Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the prese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Fritsch, Katharina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Lippold, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Poetsch, Maria [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Kulenkampff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Jordan, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Joseph, Claudia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Bader, Miriam [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2016-02-29

    The objective of this project was to study the influence of increased salinities on interaction processes in the system radionuclide – organics – clay – aquifer. For this, complexation, redox, sorption, and diffusion studies were performed under variation of the ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg-1) and the background electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2).

  17. Geochemical and Mineralogical Profiles Across the Listvenite- Metamorphic Transition in the Basal Megathrust of the Oman Ophiolite: First Results from Drilling at Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, M.; Bennett, E.; Carter, E.; Kourim, F.; Lafay, R.; Noël, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.

    2017-12-01

    The transition from the base of the Oman ophiolite to the underlying metamorphic sole was drilled at Hole BT1B (Sumail Massif) during Phase 1 of Oman Drilling Project (Winter 2016-2017). 74 samples were collected from the 300m of recovered cores for whole rock geochemical and XRD analyses. 55 listvenites, ophicarbonates and serpentinites, and 19 schists and greenstones were analyzed for major and minor elements (XRF) and for CO2 and S concentrations (CHNS) aboard DV Chikyu (ChikyuOman, Summer 2017). Analyses for trace elements (ICP-MS) at the University of Montpellier are in progress. The composition of listvenites, ophicalcites and serpentinites recovered at Hole BT1B record extensive interactions between CO2-rich fluids and the serpentinized peridotites. These reactions involved addition of SiO2 and formation of carbonates at the expense of the serpentinized peridotite protolith. All samples recovered from the mantle section are enriched in fluid mobile and incompatible trace elements compared to the mean composition of the Oman mantle. These enrichments are up to 103 times the Oman mantle for Rb and Ba. They mimic the pattern of the samples from the metamorphic sole. This suggests that the composition of the listvenites in these elements is controlled by that of contaminating fluids that may have originated in the same lithologies as those drilled at the base of Hole BT1B. Listvenites, ophicalcites and serpentinites also show notable downhole chemical variations, with listvenites showing marked variations in Al2O3 and TiO2. Occurrence of lherzolites and cpx-harzburgites has been reported at the base of the Oman dominantly harzburgitic mantle section. The observed variations in the listvenites (Al2O3 and TiO2) could be related to the composition of their protolith, the deepest having more fertile compositions. Alternatively, the observed downhole changes in the composition of listvenites may relate to the progressive equilibration of the reacting ultramafic

  18. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The processes and types of dispersion that produce anomalies in stream water, stream sediment, and ground water, and the factors that must be considered in planning and interpreting geochemical surveys are reviewed. Examples of surveys near known deposits show the types of results to be expected. Background values depend mainly on the content of U in rocks of the drainage area. In igneous rocks, U tends to increase with potassium from ultramafic rocks (0.01 ppM) to granitic rocks (1 to 5 ppM). Some alkalic rocks have unusually high contents of U (15 to 100 ppM). Uranium-rich provinces marked by igneous rocks unusually rich in U are recognized in several areas and appear to have a deep crustal or mantle origin. In western U.S., many tertiary tuffaceous rocks have a high U content. Sandstones, limestones, and many shales approximate the crustal abundance at 0.5 to 4 ppM, but black shales, phosphates, and some organic materials are notably enriched in U. Uranium is very soluble in most oxidizing waters at the earth's surface, but is precipitated by reducing agents (organic matter, H 2 S) and adsorbed by organic material and some Fe oxides. In most surface and ground waters, U correlates approximately with the total dissolved solids, conductivity, and bicarbonate concentration of the water, and with the U content of rocks it comes into contact with. Most surveys of stream water near known districts show distinct anomalies extending a few km to tens of km downstream. A complication with water is the large variability with time, up to x 50, as a result of changes in the ratio of ground water to direct runoff, and changes in rate of oxidation and leaching. Collection and analysis of water samples also pose some difficulties

  19. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  20. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    value -referring to biodiversity, geodiversity, culture- which can be considered as a special heritage. Starting from the concept of Geomorphosite, a geomorphologic landform with a scientific, cultural and socio-economical value (Panizza 2001), we propose a further definition, useful in the preliminary steps of the landscape analysis: "geomorpho-landscape" as a spatial object or component of a geological landscape, whose geo-morphological evolution, linked to the geological setting, are elements of aesthetical, semiological as well as historical and cultural value. The structure of the landscape is represented by the physical shape and spatial organization, in dynamic way: it is necessary to provide a readout of the landscape components that supplements the geo-morphological, lithological, geodiversity data (Lugeri et alii, 2012). The concept of "geomorpho-landscape" is conceived to address the need to describe by a synthetic approach the geological processes emerging at the landscape scale, allowing to link spatial patterns to geological processes Each geo-form has in itself geological, geo-morphological, landmark, historical and cultural features, of such special relevance, that they can be defined in terms of scientific quality, rarity, aesthetic appeal and educational and cultural value. Reference List AMADIO V. (2003). Analisi di sistemi e progetti di paesaggio. Franco Angeli, Milano, pp 236 AMADIO V, AMADEI M, BAGNAIA R, DI BUCCI D, LAURETI L, LISI A, LUGERI FR, LUGERI N. (2002). The role of Geomorphology in Landscape Ecology: The Landscape Unit Map of Italy', Scale 1: 250,000 ("Carta della Natura" Project). In: Allison RJ (ed) Applied Geomorphology: theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons, London, pp 265-282 APAT (2003). Carta della natura alla scala 1:250,000: metodologie di realizzazione. APAT, Manuali e linee guida 17/2003, Roma, pp 103 LUGERI F.R., FARABOLLINI P., GRAVIANO G. & AMADIO V. (2012). Geoheritage: Nature and culture in a landscape approach. European

  1. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  2. Geochemical reactivity of rocks of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chuman, T.; Gürtlerová, P.; Hruška, Jakub; Adamová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2014), s. 341-349 ISSN 1744-5647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : geochemical reactivity * Czech Republic * susceptibility to weathering Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2014

  3. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  4. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  5. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  6. Investigation of a natural geochemical barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    Groundwater data from lysimeters and monitor wells in the vicinity of the Bowman, North Dakota, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site indicated that there is a mechanism in the subsurface which cleans up downward-percolating fluids. It was hypothesized that clays and organic materials in the sediments sequestered hazardous constituents from infiltrating fluids. A program was designed to collect sediment cores from various locations on and around the site and to analyze the sediments to determine whether there has been a build up of hazardous constituents in any specific type of sedimentary material. Materials that concentrate the hazardous constituents would be potential candidates to be used in constructed geochemical barriers. The water quality of the groundwater contained within the sedimentary section indicates that there is a transport of contaminants down through the sediments and that these contaminants are removed from solution by the iron-bearing minerals in the organic-rich lignite beds. The data gathered during the course of this investigation indicate that the lignite ashing operations have added very little of the hazardous constituents of concern--arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, or uranium--to the sediments beneath the UMTRA Project site. At both locations, the hazardous constituents are concentrated in the upper most lignite bed. These data offer a natural analog for laboratory tests in which sphagnum peat was used to sequester hazardous constituents. Constructed geochemical barriers are a viable mechanism for the clean-up of the majority of hazardous constituents from uranium mill tailings in groundwater

  7. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  8. 'Landscape Mirror' & 'Feed the Wind' : Teaching Landscape Architecture on Site at Oerol Festival in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.T.; Bobbink, I.

    2012-01-01

    In the projects 'Landscape Mirror' 2011 and 'Feed the Wind' 2012 students of the Master of Landscape Architecture of the TU Delft have made an interactive project that evolved over the course of Oerol, a unique yearly recurring festival on the Wadden-Sea island Terschelling for landscape theatre &

  9. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  10. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  11. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay. GEOCHEMICAL AND .... tries, as filling material in the pulp and paper, toothpaste and paint industries as well ..... tions very vital to human health and other ac- tivities of man.

  12. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  13. Oak Ridge Geochemical Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The Oak Ridge reconnaissance program is responsible for the geochemical survey in a 12-state area covering Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. The program concept is outlined and the planning and organization of the program is discussed

  14. Granite-repository - geochemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some geochemical data of importance for a radioactive waste repository in hard rock are reviewed. The ground water composition at depth is assessed. The ground water chemistry in the vicinity of uranium ores is discussed. The redox system in Swedish bedrock is described. Influences of extreme climatic changes and of repository mining and construction are also evaluated

  15. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  16. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as 228 Ac, 214 Bi and 214 Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  17. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  18. GEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used in the Earth Sciences as a means of obtaining information about the molecular-scale environment of fluids in porous geological materials. Laboratory experiments were conducted to advance our fundamental understanding of the link between the NMR response and the geochemical properties of geological materials. In the first part of this research project, we studied the impact of both the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space and the surface relaxivity on the NMR response of fluids in sand-clay mixtures. This study highlighted the way in which these two parameters control our ability to use NMR measurements to detect and quantify fluid saturation in multiphase saturated systems. The second part of the project was designed to explore the way in which the mineralogic form of iron, as opposed to simply the concentration of iron, affects the surface relaxation rate and, more generally, the NMR response of porous materials. We found that the magnitude of the surface relaxation rate was different for the various iron-oxide minerals because of changes in both the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the pore space, and the surface relaxivity. Of particular significance from this study was the finding of an anomalously large surface relaxivity of magnetite compared to that of the other iron minerals. Differences in the NMR response of iron minerals were seen in column experiments during the reaction of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand with aqueous Fe(II) solutions to form goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite; indicating the potential use of NMR as a means of monitoring geochemical reactions. The final part of the research project investigated the impact of heterogeneity, at the pore-scale, on the NMR response. This work highlighted the way in which the geochemistry, by controlling the surface relaxivity, has a significant impact on the link between NMR data and the microgeometry of the pore space.

  19. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  20. Role of geochemical background at evaluation of investment attractiveness of recreational territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol'ga Konstantinovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of natural geochemical background when estimating investment attractiveness of recreational areas. It is noted, that geochemical background influence on people's sickness rate isn't considered now. Though it's understood, that even insignificant increase of geochemical background in relation to percentage abundance of Earth crest may lead to endemic diseases of people, animals and plants. An indicator of geochemical endemicity areas was proposed for assessing the impact of storage elements and of a lack of geological environment on human health. Thanks to this measure, and taking into account landscape features of the area, the authors allocated lands, dangerous and potentially dangerous in terms of endemicity. The importance of ratings was achieved by the use of those factors that could have a great influence on the cost of land development. This includes, first of all, the factors that affect population health, and economic and geographic factors that minimize the cost of the territory development and the factors that give rise to financial risks and risks of human losses. The main risk factors include: potential ecological and geochemical risk; high absolute heights, development and activity of dangerous geological processes and phenomena. Systemacity of researches was reached by using factors, that characterize the object from different aspects; readiness of area infrastructure to its exploration and possible risks. Objectivity was achieved by the use of figures obtained from the results of geochemical and engineering surveys with their metrological support.

  1. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  2. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe) [de

  3. Understanding the whole city as landscape. A multivariate approach to urban landscape morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stiles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Landscape Convention implies a requirement for signatory states to identify their urban landscapes which goes beyond the traditional focus on individual parks and green spaces and the links between them. Landscape ecological approaches can provide a useful model for identifying urban landscape types across a whole territory, but the variables relevant for urban landscapes are very different to those usually addressing rural areas. This paper presents an approach to classifying the urban landscape of Vienna that was developed in a research project funded by the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology: ‘Urban Fabric and Microclimate Response’. Nine landscape types and a number of sub-types were defined, using a multivariate statistical approach which takes account of both morphological and urban climate related variables. Although the variables were selected to objectively reflect the factors that could best represent the urban climatic characteristics of the urban landscape, the results also provided a widely plausible representation of the structure of the city’s landscapes. Selected examples of the landscape types that were defined in this way were used both to simulate current microclimatic conditions and also to model the effects of possible climatic amelioration measures. Finally the paper looks forward to developing a more general-purpose urban landscape typology that allows investigating a much broader complex of urban landscape functions.

  4. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  5. L.O.T.O. - Landscape Opportunities For Territorial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rossi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union promoted the transnational cooperation project L.O.T.O. (Landscape Opportunities for Territorial Organization by the program Interreg IIIB CADSES. The project gave up the illustration of some outputs in the seminar Landscape opportunities. Guidelines for the landscape management of the territorial transformations (Milan, 2005, October 6th-7th. This paper is a summary of introduction at the project. The attaches are the original reports of the end seminar. 

  6. Landscape design methods in architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape has been used as a metaphor or conceptual reference for an increasing amount of excellent architectural projects in the last two decades. The phenomenon seems to be a substantial innovation of architecture with an interesting potential for artistic, social and ecological gains. To be able

  7. Biography of an Industrial Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    Biography of an Industrial Landscape tells the story of one of the most significant urban redevelopment projects in northern Europe at the turn of the century. Examining the reinvention of the Carlsberg brewery site in Copenhagen as a city district, Svava Riesto unpacks the deeper assumptions abo...

  8. Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrami, F.; Bijster, J.; Bitarafan, N.; Cao, Z.; Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ruan, L.; Maas, M.; Mayr, R.; Rozenmuller, M.; Toriano, L.; Yoshitake, M.; Jauslin, D.

    2009-01-01

    14 Project Documentations and Analysis of Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods. MVRDV Villa VPRO, Powerhouse Company Villa 1, Herman Herzberger Coda Museum, NL Architects Basket Ba, SeARCH Posbank Pavillion, Wiel Arets Hedge House, OMA Kunsthal and Educatorium, Maaskant Johnson Wax, Diller &

  9. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    landscapes were formed, through prehistoric, Roman and medieval times up to the post-modern nature building projects aimed at restoring biodiversity. A brochure was developed to raise awareness and promote interest for a landscape historical concept, in which each region profits from being part of a quality history.

  10. Geochemical maps of stream sediments in central Colorado, from New Mexico to Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Giles, Stuart A.; Klein, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a series of geologic, mineral resource, and environmental assessment studies in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, from Leadville eastward to the range front and from New Mexico to the Wyoming border. Regional stream-sediment geochemical maps, useful for assessing mineral resources and environmental effects of historical mining activities, were produced as part of the study. The data portrayed in this 56-parameter portfolio of landscape geochemical maps serve as a geochemical baseline for the region, indicate element abundances characteristic of various lithologic terranes, and identify gross anthropogenic effects of historical mining. However, although reanalyzed in this study by modern, sensitive methods, the majority of the stream-sediment samples were collected in the 1970s. Thus, metal concentrations portrayed in these maps represent stream-sediment geochemistry at the time of collection.

  11. GEOBASI: The geochemical Database of Tuscany Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Raco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the new Regional Geochemical Database (RGDB, called GEOBASI, is presented and illustrated in the framework of a joint collaboration among the three Tuscan universities (Florence, Pisa and Siena, CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, ARPAT (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection, LAMMA (Environmental Modelling and Monitoring Laboratory for Sustainable Development Consortium and S.I.R.A. (Territorial and Environmental Informative System of Tuscany. The database has permitted the construction of a repository where the geochemical information (compositional and isotopic has been stored in a structured way so that it can be available for different groups of users (e.g. institutional, public and private companies. The information contained in the database can in fact be downloaded freely and queried to correlate geochemistry to other non compositional variables. The first phase of the project was aimed at promoting the use of the geochemical data already available from previous investigations through a powerful Web-GIS interface to implement the exploratory statistics graphical-numerical tools used to: 1 analyse the spatial variability of the investigated context, 2 highlight the geographic location of data pertaining to classes of values or single cases, 3 compare the results of different analytical methodologies applied to the determination of the same element and/or chemical species, 4 extract the geochemical data related to specific monitoring plans and/or geographical areas, and finally 5 recover information about data below the detection limit to understand their impact on the behaviour of the investigated variable. Developments of this project will be focused on the definition of rules and standardized methods in a way that external users could also interactively pursue the RGDB. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of the Scarlino-Follonica plain will permit the improvement and test of

  12. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    very general indication of geochemical distribution patterns and should not be used for site specific studies. The atlas maps for each element were computer-generated at the state's geographic information system (Center for Geographic Information and Analysis [CGIA]). The Division of Statistics and Information Services provided input files. The maps in the atlas are point maps. Each sample is represented by a symbol generally corresponding to a quartile class. Other reports will transmit sample and analytical data for state regions. Data are tentatively planned to be available on disks in spreadsheet format for personal computers. During the second phase of this project, stream-sediment samples are being assigned to state geologic map unit names using a GIS system to determine background and anomaly values. Subsequent publications will make this geochemical data and accompanying interpretations available to a wide spectrum of interdisciplinary users. ?? 1993.

  13. An integrated geophysical and geochemical exploration of critical zone weathering on opposing montane hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Bandler, A.; Pommer, R. E.; Novitsky, C. G.; Holbrook, S.; Moore, J.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying coupled geochemical and hydrological properties and processes that operate in the critical zone is key to predicting rock weathering and subsequent transmission and storage of water in the shallow subsurface. Geophysical data have the potential to elucidate geochemical and hydrologic processes across landscapes over large spatial scales that are difficult to achieve with point measurements alone. Here, we explore the connections between weathering and fracturing, as measured from integrated geochemical and geophysical borehole data and seismic velocities on north- and south-facing aspects within one watershed in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. We drilled eight boreholes up to 13 m deep on north- and south-facing aspects within Upper Gordon Gulch, and surface seismic refraction data were collected near these wells to explore depths of regolith and bedrock, as well as anisotropic characteristics of the subsurface material due to fracturing. Optical televiewer data were collected in these wells to infer the dominant direction of fracturing and fracture density in the near surface to corroborate with the seismic data. Geochemical samples were collected from four of these wells and a series of shallow soil pits for bulk chemistry, clay fraction, and exchangeable cation concentrations to identify depths of chemically altered saprolite. Seismic data show that depth to unweathered bedrock, as defined by p-wave seismic velocity, is slightly thicker on the north-facing slopes. Geochemical data suggest that the depth to the base of saprolite ranges from 3-5 m, consistent with a p-wave velocity value of 1200 m/s. Based on magnitude and anisotropy of p-wave velocities together with optical televiewer data, regolith on north-facing slopes is thought to be more fractured than south-facing slopes, while geochemical data indicate that position on the landscape is another important characteristic in determining depths of weathering. We explore the importance

  14. Geochemical normalization of magnetic susceptibility for investigation of floodplain sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faměra, Martin; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Elznicová, J.; Grison, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2018), č. článku 189. ISSN 1866-6280 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00340S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Background functions * Geochemical normalization * Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility * Post-depositional processes * Provenance Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Geology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2016

  15. Learning topography with Tangible Landscape games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasova, A.; Tabrizian, P.; Harmon, B. A.; Petras, V.; Millar, G.; Mitasova, H.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding topography and its representations is crucial for correct interpretation and modeling of surface processes. However, novice earth science and landscape architecture students often find reading topographic maps challenging. As a result, many students struggle to comprehend more complex spatial concepts and processes such as flow accumulation or sediment transport.We developed and tested a new method for teaching hydrology, geomorphology, and grading using Tangible Landscape—a tangible interface for geospatial modeling. Tangible Landscape couples a physical and digital model of a landscape through a real-time cycle of hands-on modeling, 3D scanning, geospatial computation, and projection. With Tangible Landscape students can sculpt a projection-augmented topographic model of a landscape with their hands and use a variety of tangible objects to immediately see how they are changing geospatial analytics such as contours, profiles, water flow, or landform types. By feeling and manipulating the shape of the topography, while seeing projected geospatial analytics, students can intuitively learn about 3D topographic form, its representations, and how topography controls physical processes. Tangible Landscape is powered by GRASS GIS, an open source geospatial platform with extensive libraries for geospatial modeling and analysis. As such, Tangible Landscape can be used to design a wide range of learning experiences across a large number of geoscience disciplines.As part of a graduate level course that teaches grading, 16 students participated in a series of workshops, which were developed as serious games to encourage learning through structured play. These serious games included 1) diverting rain water to a specified location with minimal changes to landscape, 2) building different combinations of landforms, and 3) reconstructing landscapes based on projected contour information with feedback.In this poster, we will introduce Tangible Landscape, and

  16. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  17. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  18. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na

    2012-05-01

    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  19. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  20. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Maarten J; Keller, Daniela; Holderegger, Rolf; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Kienast, Felix; Bolliger, Janine

    2014-03-01

    For conservation managers, it is important to know whether landscape changes lead to increasing or decreasing gene flow. Although the discipline of landscape genetics assesses the influence of landscape elements on gene flow, no studies have yet used landscape-genetic models to predict gene flow resulting from landscape change. A species that has already been severely affected by landscape change is the large marsh grasshopper (Stethophyma grossum), which inhabits moist areas in fragmented agricultural landscapes in Switzerland. From transects drawn between all population pairs within maximum dispersal distance (landscape composition as well as some measures of habitat configuration. Additionally, a complete sampling of all populations in our study area allowed incorporating measures of population topology. These measures together with the landscape metrics formed the predictor variables in linear models with gene flow as response variable (F(ST) and mean pairwise assignment probability). With a modified leave-one-out cross-validation approach, we selected the model with the highest predictive accuracy. With this model, we predicted gene flow under several landscape-change scenarios, which simulated construction, rezoning or restoration projects, and the establishment of a new population. For some landscape-change scenarios, significant increase or decrease in gene flow was predicted, while for others little change was forecast. Furthermore, we found that the measures of population topology strongly increase model fit in landscape genetic analysis. This study demonstrates the use of predictive landscape-genetic models in conservation and landscape planning.

  1. Energy landscapes, landscapes in transition. How to prepare one's territory to the deployment of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This guide first defines the notion of landscape, outlines what is at stake with decentralised renewable energy production, and presents the various important aspects of a deployment of decentralised renewable energy production. It describes how to define a general strategy for the integration of this production: relationship between energy and landscape, project implementation, partnership, tools to anticipate changes, evolution of social demand through dialogue, conciliation of technical and financial constraints and landscape ambitions. An appendix proposes legal and bibliographical information: legal relationships between energy and landscape, possible arrangements for PLU (plan local d'urbanisme, local urban plan) and SCOT (schema de coherence territoriale, territorial planning document)

  2. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described.

  3. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described

  4. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtelot, H A

    1979-12-11

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes.

  5. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  6. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  7. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  8. From Landscape Research to Landscape Planning : Aspects of Integration, Education and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Research policy favours projects that integrate disciplinary knowledge and involve non-academic stakeholders. Consequently, integrative concepts - interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity - are gaining currency in landscape research and planning. Researchers are excited by the prospect of merging

  9. Coupled geochemical and solute transport code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, J.R.; Hostetler, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of coupled geochemical hydrologic codes have been reported in the literature. Some of these codes have directly coupled the source-sink term to the solute transport equation. The current consensus seems to be that directly coupling hydrologic transport and chemical models through a series of interdependent differential equations is not feasible for multicomponent problems with complex geochemical processes (e.g., precipitation/dissolution reactions). A two-step process appears to be the required method of coupling codes for problems where a large suite of chemical reactions must be monitored. Two-step structure requires that the source-sink term in the transport equation is supplied by a geochemical code rather than by an analytical expression. We have developed a one-dimensional two-step coupled model designed to calculate relatively complex geochemical equilibria (CTM1D). Our geochemical module implements a Newton-Raphson algorithm to solve heterogeneous geochemical equilibria, involving up to 40 chemical components and 400 aqueous species. The geochemical module was designed to be efficient and compact. A revised version of the MINTEQ Code is used as a parent geochemical code

  10. Geochemical prospecting for uranium and thorium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of analytical geochemical prospecting methods for uranium and thorium is given excluding radiometric techniques, except those utilized in the determination of radon. The indicator (pathfinder) elements useful in geochemical surveys are listed for each of the types of known uranium and thorium deposits; this is followed by sections on analytical geochemical surveys based on rocks (lithochemical surveys), unconsolidated materials (pedochemical surveys), natural waters and sediments (hydrochemical surveys), biological materials (biogeochemical surveys) and gases (atmochemical surveys). All of the analytical geochemical methods are applicable in prospecting for thorium and uranium, particularly where radiometric methods fail due to attenuation by overburden, water, deep leaching and so on. Efficiency in the discovery of uranium and/or thorium orebodies is promoted by an integrated methods approach employing geological pattern recognition in the localization of deposits, analytical geochemical surveys, and radiometric surveys. (author)

  11. High-level radioactive waste disposal: Key geochemical issues and information needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Bembia, P.J.; Bradbury, J.W.; Jackson, K.C.; Kelly, W.R.; Kovach, L.A.; Mo, T.; Tesoriero, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry plays a key role in determining the potential of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site for long-term radionuclide containment and isolation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a set of issues and information needs important for characterizing geochemistry at the potential sites being investigated by the Department of Energy Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project, and Salt Repository Project. The NRC site issues and information needs consider (1) the geochemical environment of the repository, (2) changes to the initial geochemical environment caused by construction and waste emplacement, and (3) interactions that affect the transport of waste radionuclides to the accessible environment. The development of these issues and information needs supports the ongoing effort of the NRC to identify and address areas of geochemical data uncertainty during prelicensing interactions

  12. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  13. Roads Belong in the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Roads are often associated with a fragmentation or splintering of landscapes and their natural connectivity; particularly in relation to ‘green infrastructure’ they are often considered problematic elements that rupture and barricade. Conversely, as part of larger networks, roads can be considered...... important elements in the creation of new, ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. This argument will be unfolded and substantiated in this article through theoretical reflections which conceptually re-locate road networks...... in the urban landscape, supported by relevant reference projects that illustrate the potential of road networks as a platform for ‘green infrastructure’....

  14. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  15. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  16. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Robert; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Computer modelling can provide better information on building projects presented in two dimensional drawings but never built. A cemetery project in Denmark was formed as a solid model in its sloping landscape using Softimage. Boolean operations were used to position walls at a given height above...

  17. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  18. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  19. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  20. Using climate-FVS to project landscape-level forest carbon stores for 100 years from field and LiDAR measures of initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian B. Galvez; Andrew T. Hudak; John C. Byrne; Nicholas L. Crookston; Robert F. Keefe

    2014-01-01

    Forest resources supply a wide range of environmental services like mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). As climate is changing, forest managers have added pressure to obtain forest resources by following stand management alternatives that are biologically sustainable and economically profitable. The goal of this study is to project the...

  1. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinberg, J [comp.

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  2. Proceedings of 2. Brazilian Geochemical Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Some works about geochemistry are presented, including themes about geochemical exploration, lithogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, analytical geochemistry, geochemistry of carbonatites and rare earth elements and organic geochemistry. (C.G.C.) [pt

  3. Determination of geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics in Bilecik Marble, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Ozbay, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Natural stones are one of the oldest known building materials. There are more than 400 natural stone in Turkey. Recently, the demand for the natural stone types in markets has been increasing rapidly. For this reason, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of natural stone are very important. Bilecik province is located at the northwest part of Turkey and it is surrounded by Sakarya, Bursa, Eskisehir and Kutahya city. Bilecik is one of the important marble industry regions of Turkey. Thus, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of Bilecik marble are very important. In this study, Bilecik marble was collected to determine the geochemistry and natural radioactivity. Then, analyses of geochemical and natural radioactivity in the marble samples are interpreted. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study is supported by Bilecik Seyh Edebali University scientific project (Project Number =2011-02-BIL.03-04).

  4. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Tonsina area, Valdez Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 128 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Tonsina area in the Chugach Mountains, Valdez quadrangle, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical databases of both agencies

  5. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Zane Hills, Hughes and Shungnak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential.The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska.For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 105 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Zane Hills area in the Hughes and Shungnak quadrangles, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical databases of both agencies.

  6. Landscape and landscape ecology as factors in the process of integrated spatial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Congress on Landscape Ecology in Veldhoven in 1981 (Tjallingii and De Veer 1981).Natural landscapes and landscape aspects of nature conservation was certainly a theme on the conference, but the main focus was on man-made landscapes, including urban ecology and the relations between urban and rural...... were very eager to be engaged in practical landscape planning, their scientific responsibility forced them often to be more and more humble concerning the applicability, often confronted with the economic consequences of their advises. As a consequence especially many biologists moved again into pure...... told, that the local farm cooperative had got a loan from the Ministry of Agriculture to cover the expenditures. Due to the experimental character of the project the loan was very attractive: It was free of rent and payment. But one important condition was added: It had to be proved that the corridor...

  7. Landscape control on the hydrogeochemistry of As, Co and Pb in a boreal stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wällstedt, Teresia; Björkvald, Louise; Laudon, Hjalmar; Borg, Hans; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

    2017-08-01

    In a boreal stream network, stream water concentrations of As, Co and Pb (filtered, 30% wetland), which was suggested to be controlled by atmospheric deposition in combination with high DOC release from the wetlands. For Co, the highest concentrations were found in the forest dominated sites (>98% forest), which were attributed to the weathering of minerogenic sources. Contrasting response to runoff events could also be related to landscape type; during the spring flood, decreasing concentrations of As, Co and Pb were observed in the wetland dominated catchments due to dilution, while increasing concentrations during spring flood were observed in the mixed catchments (2-30% wetland) and to some degree in the forested catchments, probably due to flushing of the organic-rich riparian sources. Further, metal speciation was calculated using the geochemical equilibrium model Visual MINTEQ. This suggests that dissolved inorganic species of As and Co dominated in headwater streams with low pH while DOC had a major influencing role for Pb. In the larger mixed streams where pH was higher and precipitation of e.g. colloidal Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides was favoured, the major influencing factor was instead adsorption to colloidal Fe for As and Pb, while association to organic matter and colloids of e.g. Mn influenced the concentrations of Co. We thus conclude that landscape type and the magnitude of the runoff events are of great importance for the spatial and temporal variations of As, Co and Pb in this boreal stream network. Projected climate change, with increasing runoff, may therefore influence riverine concentrations and fluxes differently, depending on the prevailing landscape type.

  8. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  9. Geochemical features of the elemental composition of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L).Maxim) in Kemerovo Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, V. A.; Sobolev, I. S.; Baranovskaya, N. V.; Kolesnikova, E. A.; Chernenkaya, E. V.; Yalaltdinova, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    Biogeochemical sampling of the aboveground part of meadowsweet (Fillipendula Ulmaria (L). Maxim) allowed us to study ecological and geochemical features of 10 regions in Kemerovo Oblast, including both natural and man-made landscapes. The content of 55 elements in the plant is determined by ICP-MS. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to establish the effect of the soil mineral composition and the mining region specificity on the elemental composition of meadowsweet, to reveal significant positive correlations of the elements and to establish a statistically significant difference in the studied areas on the basis of the content of some elements. Sample reference to one of the clusters, followed by an assessment of their geochemical features is determined by the K-average method.

  10. Forest landscape restoration in the drylands of Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Adrian C.; Del Castillo, Rafael F.; Echeverría, Cristian; Geneletti, Davide; González Espinosa, Mario; Malizia, Lucio R.; Premoli, Andrea C.; Rey Benayas, José María; Smith Ramírez, Cecilia; Williams Linera, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted t...

  11. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  12. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  13. Instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses of selected geochemical reference materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * photon activation analysis * geochemical reference materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  14. Passive Solar Landscape Design: Its Impact on Fossil Fuel Consumption Through Landscape Design

    OpenAIRE

    Boelt, Robin Wiatt

    2006-01-01

    Gas, electricity, heating and cooling buildings - comfort â our lives revolve around fossil fuels. Technology and the demands of living in todayâ s society add to our gigantic fossil fuel appetite. With gas prices topping three dollars per gallon, changes must be made. This thesis project presents an analysis of passive solar landscape design (PSLD) principles used to create microclimates within the landscape, and thereby increasing human comfort both indoors and outdoors. The ...

  15. Integrating social, economic, and ecological values across large landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; Megan K. Creutzburg; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) was a multiyear effort to produce information, maps, and models to help land managers, policymakers, and others conduct mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate cumulative effects of management actions for...

  16. Clustering problems for geochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, V.E.; Larson, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    The Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Uranium Resource Evaluation Project uses a two-stage sampling program to identify potential uranium districts. Cluster analysis techniques are used in locating high density sampling areas as well as in identifying potential uranium districts. Problems are considered involving the analysis of multivariate censored data, laboratory measurement error, and data standardization

  17. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    and variations in water chemistry that are caused by large scale geochemical processes taking place at the timescale of thousands of years. The most important geochemical processes are ion exchange (Valreas and Aveiro) where freshwater solutes are displacing marine ions from the sediment surface, and carbonate......Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... dissolution (East Midlands, Valreas and Aveiro). Reactive transport models, employing the code PHREEQC, which included these geochemical processes and one-dimensional solute transport were able to duplicate the observed patterns in water quality. These models may provide a quantitative understanding...

  18. Geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The basic purpose of this book is to present an analysis of the various geochemical methods applicable in the search for all types of thorium and uranium deposits. The general chemistry and geochemistry of thorium and uranium are briefly described in the opening chapter, and this is followed by a chapter on the deposits of the two elements with emphasis on their indicator (pathfinder) elements and on the primary and secondary dispersion characteristics of thorium and uranium in the vicinity of their deposits. The next seven chapters form the main part of the book and describe geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium, stressing selection of areas in which to prospect, radiometric surveys, analytical geochemical surveys based on rocks (lithochemical surveys), unconsolidated materials (pedochemical surveys), natural waters and sediments (hydrochemical surveys), biological materials (biogeochemical surveys), gases (atmochemical surveys), and miscellaneous methods. A final brief chapter reviews radiometric and analytical methods for the detection and estimation of thorium and uranium. (Auth.)

  19. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  20. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  1. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  2. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  3. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  4. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-11-05

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.

  5. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  6. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  7. Landscape Architecture in Contemporary Danish Suburban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roden, Tina Maria

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate and re-think the both loved and criticised suburbia and its incompatibility in relation to the current environmental and climate prospects, these projects suggest that a landscape orientated approach to (sub)urban development can provide more adaptive and flexible frameworks to meet...

  8. Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation

  9. Robust statistics and geochemical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages of robust procedures over ordinary least-squares procedures in geochemical data analysis is demonstrated using NURE data from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, USA. Robust principal components analysis with 5% multivariate trimming successfully guarded the analysis against perturbations by outliers and increased the number of interpretable factors. Regression with SINE estimates significantly increased the goodness-of-fit of the regression and improved the correspondence of delineated anomalies with known uranium prospects. Because of the ubiquitous existence of outliers in geochemical data, robust statistical procedures are suggested as routine procedures to replace ordinary least-squares procedures

  10. Coupling of transport and geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This contract stipulated separate pieces of work to consider mass transport in the far-field of a repository, and more detailed geochemical modelling of the groundwater in the near-field. It was envisaged that the far-field problem would be tackled by numerical solutions to the classical advection-diffusion equation obtained by the finite element method. For the near-field problem the feasibility of coupling existing geochemical equilibrium codes to the three dimensional groundwater flow codes was to be investigated. This report is divided into two sections with one part devoted to each aspect of this contract. (author)

  11. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Durango, Colorado. This is one in a series of site specific geochemical investigations performed on the inactive uranium mill tailings included in the UMTRA Project. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results will be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples are water extracted remove easily soluble salts and acids extracted to remove cabonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Three major conclusions are: (1) carbonate salts and low TDS characterize the tailings; (2) the adjacent area and raffinate ponds contain contaminants deposited by a single event of fluid permeation of the soils; and (3) the Animas River adjacent to the site has elevated gross alpha activity attributed to 226 Ra in the sediments derived from the tailings or milling activities

  12. Joint project. Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems. Subproject 2. Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the presence of repository-relevant organics. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeide, Katja; Fritsch, Katharina; Lippold, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project was to study the influence of increased salinities on interaction processes in the system radionuclide - organics - clay - aquifer. For this purpose, complexation, redox, sorption, and diffusion studies were performed under variation of the ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg -1 ) and the background electrolyte. The U(VI) complexation by propionate was studied in dependence on ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg -1 NaClO 4 ) by TRLFS, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. An influence of ionic strength on stability constants was detected, depending on the charge of the respective complexes. The conditional stability constants, determined for 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 complexes at specific ionic strengths, were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. The interaction of the bacteria Sporomusa sp. MT-2.99 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2.2 cells, isolated from Opalinus Clay, with Pu was studied. The experiments can be divided into such without an electron donor where biosorption is favored and such with addition of Na-pyruvate as an electron donor stimulating also bioreduction processes. Moreover, experiments were performed to study the interactions of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 with U(VI), Eu(III), and Cm(III) in 3 M NaCl solutions. Research for improving process understanding with respect to the mobility of multivalent metals in systems containing humic matter was focused on the reversibility of elementary processes and on their interaction. Kinetic stabilization processes in the dynamics of humate complexation equilibria were quantified in isotope exchange studies. The influence of high salinity on the mobilizing potential of humic-like clay organics was systematically investigated and was described by modeling. The sorption of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) onto the iron(II)-containing minerals magnetite and siderite was studied by means of batch sorption experiments, ATR FT-IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The strong Tc retention at

  13. Joint project. Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems. Subproject 2. Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the presence of repository-relevant organics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, Katja; Fritsch, Katharina; Lippold, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Ressource Ecology; and others

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this project was to study the influence of increased salinities on interaction processes in the system radionuclide - organics - clay - aquifer. For this purpose, complexation, redox, sorption, and diffusion studies were performed under variation of the ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg{sup -1}) and the background electrolyte. The U(VI) complexation by propionate was studied in dependence on ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg{sup -1} NaClO{sub 4}) by TRLFS, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. An influence of ionic strength on stability constants was detected, depending on the charge of the respective complexes. The conditional stability constants, determined for 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 complexes at specific ionic strengths, were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. The interaction of the bacteria Sporomusa sp. MT-2.99 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2.2 cells, isolated from Opalinus Clay, with Pu was studied. The experiments can be divided into such without an electron donor where biosorption is favored and such with addition of Na-pyruvate as an electron donor stimulating also bioreduction processes. Moreover, experiments were performed to study the interactions of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 with U(VI), Eu(III), and Cm(III) in 3 M NaCl solutions. Research for improving process understanding with respect to the mobility of multivalent metals in systems containing humic matter was focused on the reversibility of elementary processes and on their interaction. Kinetic stabilization processes in the dynamics of humate complexation equilibria were quantified in isotope exchange studies. The influence of high salinity on the mobilizing potential of humic-like clay organics was systematically investigated and was described by modeling. The sorption of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) onto the iron(II)-containing minerals magnetite and siderite was studied by means of batch sorption experiments, ATR FT-IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The strong Tc

  14. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  15. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Millings, Margaret R.; Kautsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P and T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume - primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (''brownfield'') scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P and T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations

  16. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Millings, Margaret R.; Kautsky, Mark

    2014-01-08

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P&T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume – primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (“brownfield”) scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P&T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations.

  17. Landscape Builder: Software for the creation of initial landscapes for LANDIS from FIA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dijak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I developed Landscape Builder to create spatially explicit landscapes as starting conditions for LANDIS Pro 7.0 and LANDIS II landscape forest simulation models from classified satellite imagery and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA data collected over multiple years. LANDIS Pro and LANDIS II models project future landscapes by simulating tree growth, tree species succession, disease, insects, fire, wind, and management disturbance. Landscape Builder uses inventory plot attributes from the FIA inventory database, FIA unit map, National Forest type map, National Forest size class map, land cover map, and landform map to assign FIA plot attributes to raster pixels representing a real forest landscape. In addition to creating a detailed map of current (initial forest landscape conditions, the software produces specific files required for use in LANDIS Pro 7.0 or LANDIS II format. Other tools include the ability to create a dominant species and age-class map from previously created LANDIS maps, a tool to create a dominant species and age-class map from a stand map and field plot data, and a tool to convert between Esri ascii rasters and Erdas file format types.

  18. Can porosity affect the hyperspectral signature of sandy landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Kimmel, Bradley W.

    2017-10-01

    Porosity is a fundamental property of sand deposits found in a wide range of landscapes, from beaches to dune fields. As a primary determinant of the density and permeability of sediments, it represents a central element in geophysical studies involving basin modeling and coastal erosion as well as geoaccoustics and geochemical investigations aiming at the understanding of sediment transport and water diffusion properties of sandy landscapes. These applications highlight the importance of obtaining reliable porosity estimations, which remains an elusive task, notably through remote sensing. In this work, we aim to contribute to the strengthening of the knowledge basis required for the development of new technologies for the remote monitoring of environmentally-triggered changes in sandy landscapes. Accordingly, we employ an in silico investigation approach to assess the effects of porosity variations on the reflectance of sandy landscapes in the visible and near-infrared spectral domains. More specifically, we perform predictive computer simulations using SPLITS, a hyperspectral light transport model for particulate materials that takes into account actual sand characterization data. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive investigation relating porosity to the reflectance responses of sandy landscapes. Our findings indicate that the putative dependence of these responses on porosity may be considerably less pronounced than its dependence on other properties such as grain size and shape. Hence, future initiatives for the remote quantification of porosity will likely require reflectance sensors with a high degree of sensitivity.

  19. Geochemical prospect ion results of Treinta y Tres aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Bonnefoy, D.; Garau, M.; Spangenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the multielemental geochemical strategy. The samples were studied by e spectrometry in the laboratories of Orleans.

  20. Geochemical prospecting techniques for ore deposits in periglacial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitul'ko, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Necessity and prospects of the implementation of geochemical methods of search in periglacial regions are discussed. The behaviour of chemical elements under the conditions of oxide and sulphate cryogenic topographies whose development has common regularities is analyzed. According to the specificity of migration the observed elements have been divided into four groups: active, mobile, low-mobile and inert migrants. Uranium which is present in ores in the form of pitchblende in oxide zones of the oxidation is actively redistributed. In zones of the oxidation of rare metal metasomatites connected with alkalic ultrabasic rocks only that part of U is mobile which being released from pyrochlore forms the regenerated uranium black and the partial enrichment of the iron gossan. Th like other elements of the 4-th group in all oxidation zones is observed to accumulate in minerals - concentrators: thorite, pyrochlore and so on. A diagram is plotted which characterizes the migration of elements whithin aureole landscapes as well as in automonous and dependent topographies of ore-free areas. The complex nature of secondary aureoles displays the most complete anomalous spectrum of elements - indicators of mineralization. The table of the most typical elements - indicators of the secondary scattering of some endogenic deposits of the cryolitic zone is given

  1. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China). Jin-Long Ni Jun-Lai Liu Xiao-Ling Tang ...

  2. Kriging - a challenge in geochemical mapping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štojdl, J.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Elznicová, J.; Popelka, J.; Váchová, T.; Hošek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, APR (2017) ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly 2017. 23.04.2017-28.04.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : kriging * geochemical mapping Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-3615.pdf

  3. Appliance of geochemical engineering in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Zhang Chengjiang; Ni Shijun; Li Kuanliang

    2008-01-01

    The basic foundation of applying geochemical engineering to control environment, common engineering models of disposal radioactive waste and the functions of the engineering barriers are introduced in this paper. The authors take the geochemical engineering barrier materiel research of a radioactive waste repository as an example to explain the appliance of geochemical engineering in the disposal of radioactive waste. And the results show that it can enhance the security of the nuclear waste repository if we use geochemical engineering barrier. (authors)

  4. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  5. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  6. Proceedings of 13. International Geochemical Exploration Symposium. 2. Brazilian Geochemical Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Some works about geochemistry are presented, including themes about geochemical exploration, lithogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, analyical geochemistry, geochemistry of carbonatites and rare earth elements and organic geochemistry. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. Factors of the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids at geochemical barriers in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, N. E.; Kasimov, N. S.; Vlasov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    The bulk contents and concentrations of mobile (extracted by an ammonium acetate buffer with EDTA) Cd, Pb, Sb, As, Bi, Zn, and Cu were determined in the surface horizons of urban soils in the Eastern administrative okrug of Moscow. The regression analysis showed that the accumulation of these metals and metalloids in the soils is controlled by the physicochemical soil properties and by number of anthropogenic factors and landscape conditions (geochemical position, type of loose deposits, character of land use, dust load, vehicle emissions, building pattern, percent of green areas, and the extent of sealed soils). The precipitation of studied elements on the geochemical barriers had the following regularities: Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulated on the alkaline barriers; Bi, Sb, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, on chemisorption barriers; Sb, As, and Pb, on organomineral barriers; and Cd and Cu, on the sorption-sedimentation barriers. Technogenic transformation of the physicochemical properties of urban soils resulted in the increase of the mean bulk contents of heavy metals and metalloids by 33-99%; the portion of elements fixed on the geochemical barriers increased by 26-50%.

  8. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk; Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R. [Health Protection Agency (HPA) - Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Larmour, R. [Environment and Heritage Service, Department of the Environment, Belfast BT7 2JA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  9. Geochemical modelling: what phenomena are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1989-12-01

    In the framework of safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, retention phenomena are usually taken into account by the Kd concept. It is well recognized that this concept is not enough for safety assessment models, because of the several and strong assumptions which are involved in this kind of representation. One way to have a better representation of the retention phenomena, is to substitute for this Kd concept an explicit description of geochemical phenomena and then couple transport codes with geochemical codes in a fully or a two-step procedure. We use currently such codes, but the scope of this paper is to display the limits today of the geochemical modelling in connection with sites analysis for deep disposal. In this paper, we intend to give an overview of phenomena which are missing in the geochemical models, or which are not completely introduced in the models. We can distinguish, on one hand phenomena for which modelling concepts exist such as adsorption/desorption and, on the other hand, phenomena for which modelling concepts do not exist for the moment such as colloids, and complexation by polyelectrolyte solutions (organics). Moreover we have to take care of very low concentrations of radionuclides, which can be expected from the leaching processes in the repository. Under those conditions, some reactions may not occur. After a critical review of the involved phenomena, we intend to stress the main directions of the wishful evolution of the geochemical modelling. This evolution should improve substantially the quality of the above-mentioned site assessments

  10. Geochemical mapping study of Panjang island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Sumardjo

    2010-01-01

    Impact of industrial and regional development are not only related to an improvement of socio-economic, but also to an environmental conservation and sustainable. This impact could be observed on a change of geochemical mapping before and after an operational of the industry. In the relation with a regional development and resources utilization, the geochemical mapping have been done in the aim to know a resources and an elemental distribution at Panjang island. In this research, ko-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k_0-INAA) have been applied in an elemental quantification on the geochemical mapping. Pencuplikan of geochemical sample have been carried out by using a grid systematic method with a sample density of about 10 sample per square kilometre involved 85 pencuplikan point. The geochemical sample of sediment and soil have been provided as a dry weight of 100 mesh. Internal quality control have done by using a number of Standard Reference Materials obtained from US. Geological Survey. Fifteen elements of Sc, Co, In, Rb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu, La, Yb, Th, U, lr and Hf contained in standard materials have been evaluated. The analysis result show that a relative standard deviation less than 11 %, except for Mo (13 %) and lr (26 %). Fourteen elements of Al, Br, Ca, Co, Eu, Fe, La, U, Na, Ce, Mn, As, Sc and Th have been mapped and presented in this paper. The major elements of Ca, Al and Fe, and minor elements of Mn, U and Sc are distributed at all region. The lanthanide elements of La, Ce and Eu have vary concentration and could be found at the middle to the north of the island. (author)

  11. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  12. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  13. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  14. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  15. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  16. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  17. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  18. Geochemical analysis of the sealing system. Technical Report to work package 9.1.2. Preliminary safety case of the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Mingliang; Herbert, Horst-Juergen

    2012-02-15

    The geochemical reaction simulation of ground water and brines with sealing materials for a proposed repository at the Gorleben site is a task under the framework of the VSG project. The calculations presented in this report are aimed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the geochemical stability of three potential engineering barrier materials foreseen in the shaft sealing system in case of groundwater and brine intrusion. The long-term stability of these materials is a key issue for the sealing function of the shaft seals. This is governed by many factors such as geotechnical, hydraulic and geochemical processes. In order to better understand the potential effect of geochemical processes on the long-term properties of these sealing materials, geochemical simulations of the potential interactions between groundwater and brine and shaft sealing materials were performed.

  19. Digital landscapes of imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  20. Landscape Pattern Detection in Archaeological Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Traviglia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated detection of landscape patterns on Remote Sensing imagery has seen virtually little or no development in the archaeological domain, notwithstanding the fact that large portion of cultural landscapes worldwide are characterized by land engineering applications. The current extraordinary availability of remotely sensed images makes it now urgent to envision and develop automatic methods that can simplify their inspection and the extraction of relevant information from them, as the quantity of information is no longer manageable by traditional “human” visual interpretation. This paper expands on the development of automatic methods for the detection of target landscape features—represented by field system patterns—in very high spatial resolution images, within the framework of an archaeological project focused on the landscape engineering embedded in Roman cadasters. The targets of interest consist of a variety of similarly oriented objects of diverse nature (such as roads, drainage channels, etc. concurring to demark the current landscape organization, which reflects the one imposed by Romans over two millennia ago. The proposed workflow exploits the textural and shape properties of real-world elements forming the field patterns using multiscale analysis of dominant oriented response filters. Trials showed that this approach provides accurate localization of target linear objects and alignments signaled by a wide range of physical entities with very different characteristics.

  1. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451

  2. Geochemical characterisation of Elbe river high flood sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, F. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Sektion Boden-/Gewaesserforschung]|[UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Rupp, H.; Meissner, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Sektion Boden-/Gewaesserforschung; Lohse, M.; Buettner, O.; Friese, K. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Miehlich, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    2001-07-01

    Quality aims for land usage in flood plains have to be worked out in the Russian-German research project 'Effects of floods on the pollution of agricultural used flood plain soils of the Oka River and the Elbe River'. It is financed by the Germany Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ 02 WT 9617/0). Beside the characterisation of the present pollution of soils for the middle Elbe, it is necessary to prognosticate the current pollutant input. At the examination site nearby Wittenberge, Elbe River kilometers 435 and 440, natural deposited flood sediments were sampled by artificial lawn mats. By the geochemical characterisation it is possible to record the metal input into the flood plain and to win knowledge about the sedimentation process. The results of sediment investigation of the high flood in spring 1997 are presented. (orig.)

  3. Application of cluster analysis to geochemical compositional data for identifying ore-related geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuguang; Zhou, Kefa; Wang, Jinlin; Yang, Genfang; Wang, Shanshan

    2017-12-01

    Cluster analysis is a well-known technique that is used to analyze various types of data. In this study, cluster analysis is applied to geochemical data that describe 1444 stream sediment samples collected in northwestern Xinjiang with a sample spacing of approximately 2 km. Three algorithms (the hierarchical, k-means, and fuzzy c-means algorithms) and six data transformation methods (the z-score standardization, ZST; the logarithmic transformation, LT; the additive log-ratio transformation, ALT; the centered log-ratio transformation, CLT; the isometric log-ratio transformation, ILT; and no transformation, NT) are compared in terms of their effects on the cluster analysis of the geochemical compositional data. The study shows that, on the one hand, the ZST does not affect the results of column- or variable-based (R-type) cluster analysis, whereas the other methods, including the LT, the ALT, and the CLT, have substantial effects on the results. On the other hand, the results of the row- or observation-based (Q-type) cluster analysis obtained from the geochemical data after applying NT and the ZST are relatively poor. However, we derive some improved results from the geochemical data after applying the CLT, the ILT, the LT, and the ALT. Moreover, the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms are more reliable than the hierarchical algorithm when they are used to cluster the geochemical data. We apply cluster analysis to the geochemical data to explore for Au deposits within the study area, and we obtain a good correlation between the results retrieved by combining the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms and the potential zones of Au mineralization. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms is an effective tool to identify potential zones of mineralization from geochemical data.

  4. Pocos de Caldas Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The first annual report of the Pocos de Caldas Project describes the results of the feasibility study established to test the objectives of the work. Boreholes have been drilled at two sites, the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine and Morro do Ferro, to assess the feasibility of using them as natural analogues of radionuclide migration processes. Detailed geochemical analysis and hydrogeological studies are described. (author)

  5. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  6. Uranium geochemical exploration in northwestern Luzon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.; Ogena, M.; Tauli, G.

    1980-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical stream water and sediment survey which was conducted in northwestern Luzon was able to detect ten (10) uranium anomalous areas. These anomalous areas are located along a north-south trending zone of Miocene marine clastics and sedimentary rocks with tuffaceous sediment intercalations. In general, northwest Luzon has low radioactivity except for two anomalous areas which have 3 to 6 times background radioactivity. Radon anomalies occur in sparsely scattered locations. The anomalous zones appear to be related to major north-south faults and secondary northeast-southwest trending structures. Geochemical correlations between uranium and other elements such as copper, lead, zinc, manganese, silver, cobalt and nickel are generally very poor. (author)

  7. Retention/sorption and geochemical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, D.; Grandia, F.; Domenech, C. [Enviros Spain, S.L., Barcelona (Spain); SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Sellin, P. [SKB - Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management, SE, Stockholm (Sweden); Hunter, F.M.I.; Bate, F.; Heath, T.G.; Hoch, A. [Serco Assurance, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Werme, L.O. [SKB - Svensk Karnbranslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bruggeman, C.; Maes, I.A.; Breynaert, E.; Vancluysen, J. [Leuven Katholieke Univ., Lab. for Colloid Chemistry (Belgium); Montavon, G.; Guo, Z. [Ecole des Mines, 44 - Nantes (France); Riebe, B.; Bunnenberg, C.; Meleshyn, A. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Zentrum fur Strahlenschutz und Radiookologie, Hannover (Germany); Dultz, S. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Institut fur Bodenkunde, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 4 articles dealing with: the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 HLNW repository: insights from reactive transport modelling (D. Arcos, F. Grandia, C. Domenech, P. Sellin); the investigation of iron transport into bentonite from anaerobically corroding steel: a geochemical modelling study (F.M.I. Hunter, F. Bate, T.G. Heath, A. Hoch, L.O. Werme); SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} adsorption on conditioned Na-illite: XAS spectroscopy, kinetics, surface complexation model and influence of compaction (C. Bruggeman, A. Maes, G. Montavon, E. Breynaert, Z. Guo, J. Vancluysen); the influence of temperature and gamma-irradiation on the anion sorption capacity of modified bentonites (B. Riebe, C. Bunnenberg, A. Meleshyn, S. Dultz)

  8. Geochemical approach to evaluate deforest of mangroves

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiga, Hiroaki; Diallo, Ibrahima M'bemba; Bah Mamadou Lamine Malick,; Ngulimi. Faustine Miguta,; Magai. Paschal Justin,; Shati Samwel Stanley,

    2016-01-01

    Processes of mangrove deforest related human activities were examined. To evaluate changes of soil feature, multielements geochemical compositions of mangrove muds and soils of deforest were analyzed. To describe present situation of the mangrove, Conakry in Guinea, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, Sundarbans of Bangladesh and Nago in Okinawa of Japan were selected. Soil samples of the forests were evaluated enrichment of biologically concentrated heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and Fe, and TS (total s...

  9. Geochemical indicators of gold ore fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Yu.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principles of selection of indicators for genetic reconstructions and prognostic valuations of gold mineralization of diverse morphological and geochemical types have been substantiated. The neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation and detection limit of 1-10 -8 %, instrumental neutron-activation analysis and atomic-absorption analysis are the main methods of determination of gold low contents in the rocks, as well as diverse elements, including transition, rare earth elements and tellurium, in gold. 50 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  10. Synthesizing Earth's geochemical data for hydrogeochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Kubicki, J.; Miller, D.; Richter, D.; Giles, L.; Mitra, P.

    2007-12-01

    For over 200 years, geochemical, microbiological, and chemical data have been collected to describe the evolution of the surface earth. Many of these measurements are data showing variations in time or in space. To forward predict hydrologic response to changing tectonic, climatic, or anthropogenic forcings requires synthesis of these data and utilization in hydrogeochemical models. Increasingly, scientists are attempting to synthesize such data in order to make predictions for new regions or for future time periods. However, to make such complex geochemical data accessible requires development of sophisticated cyberinfrastructures that both invite uploading as well as usage of data. Two such cyberinfrastructure (CI) initiatives are currently developing, one to invite and promote the use of environmental kinetics data (laboratory time course data) through ChemxSeer, and the other to invite and promote the use of spatially indexed geochemical data for the Earth's Critical Zone through CZEN.org. The vision of these CI initiatives is to provide cyber-enhanced portals that encourage domain scientists to upload their data before publication (in private cyberspace), and to make these data eventually publicly accessible (after an embargo period). If the CI can be made to provide services to the domain specialist - e.g. to provide data analysis services or data comparison services - we envision that scientists will upload data. In addition, the CI can promote the use and comparison of datasets across disciplines. For example, the CI can facilitate the use of spatially indexed geochemical data by scientists more accustomed to dealing with time-course data for hydrologic flow, and can provide user-friendly interfaces with CI established to facilitate the use of hydrologic data. Examples of the usage of synthesized data to predict soil development over the last 13ky and its effects on active hydrological flow boundaries in surficial systems will be discussed for i) a N

  11. Summary report on geochemical barrier special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Long-term management of uranium mill tailings must provide assurance that soluble contaminants will not migrate beyond the Point of Compliance. Conventional management alternatives provide containment through the use of physical barriers which are designed to prevent migration of water through the tailings pile. An alternative is to geochemically modify the tailings to immobilize the contaminants. This investigation examined three potential geochemical modifiers to determine their ability to immobilize inorganic groundwater contaminants found in uranium mill tailings. These modifiers were hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ), limestone (CaCO 3 ), and a sphaegnum peat moss. This investigation focused on both the geochemical interactions between the tailings and the modifiers, and the effects the modifiers had on the physical strength of the tailings. The geochemical investigations began with characterization of the tailings by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This was followed by batch leaching experiments in which various concentrations of each modifier were added to tailings in shaker flasks and allowed to come to equilibrium. Finally, column experiments were conducted to simulate flow through a tailings pile. The results show that all of the modifiers were at least moderately effective at immobilizing most of the groundwater contaminants of concern at uranium mill tailings sites. Hydrated lime was able to achieve 90 percent concentration reduction of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, uranium, and sulfate when added at a two percent concentration. Limestone was somewhat less effective and peat removed greater than 90 percent of arsenic, lead, uranium, and sulfate at a one percent concentration. The column tests showed that kinetic and/or mass transfer limitations are important and that sufficient time must be allowed for the immobilization reactions to occur

  12. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the northeastern Alaska Range, Healy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, and Tanacross quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 670 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the northeastern Alaska Range, in the Healy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, and Tanacross quadrangles, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical

  13. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Kougarok area, Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 302 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Kougarok River drainage as well as smaller adjacent drainages in the Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated

  14. Sharp fronts within geochemical transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider some reactive geochemical transport problems in groundwater systems. When incoming fluid is in disequilibrium with the mineralogy sharp transition fronts may develop. They show that this is a generic property for a class of systems where the timescales associated with reaction and diffusion phenomena are much shorter than those associated with advective transport. Such multiple timescale problems are relevant to a variety of processes in natural systems: mathematically methods of singular perturbation theory reduce the dimension of the problems to be solved locally. Furthermore, they consider how spatial heterogeneous mineralogy can impact upon the propagation of sharp geochemical fronts. The authors developed an asymptotic approach in which they solve equations for the evolving geometry of the front and indicate how the non-smooth perturbations due to natural heterogeneity of the mineralogy on underlying ground water flow field are balanced against the smoothing effect of diffusion/dispersive processes. Fronts are curvature damped, and the results here indicate the generic nature of separate front propagation within both model (idealized) and natural (heterogeneous) geochemical systems

  15. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  16. Geochemical sensitivity analysis: Identification of important geochemical parameters for performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.; Guzowski, R.; Rechard, R.; Erickson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA Standard for geologic disposal of high level waste requires demonstration that the cumulative discharge of individual radioisotopes over a 10,000 year period at points 5 kilometers from the engineered barrier system will not exceed the limits prescribed in 40 CFR Part 191. The roles of the waste package, engineered facility, hydrogeology and geochemical processes in limiting radionuclide releases all must be considered in calculations designed to assess compliance of candidate repositories with the EPA Standard. In this talk, they will discuss the geochemical requirements of calculations used in these compliance assessments. In addition, they will describe the complementary roles of (1) simple models designed to bound the radionuclide discharge over the widest reasonable range of geochemical conditions and scenarios and (2) detailed geochemical models which can provide insights into the actual behavior of the radionuclides in the ground water. Finally, they will discuss development of sensitivity/uncertainty techniques designed to identify important site-specific geochemical parameters and processes using data from a basalt formation

  17. Creating dune landscapes for nature and housing - how to assess the designs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, J.; Jungerius, P. D.; Hartman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades landscape and nature organisations in The Netherlands initiated discussions about safeguarding characteristic historical landscapes, as well as improving nature and landscape quality. In these discussions they were supported by Dutch government agencies and newspapers. As a consequence, architects, landscape architects and building firms in the Netherlands try to upgrade the quality of houses and build-up areas by creating special landscape settings. Dunes are one of the landscapes that appeal to the designers, and several projects make use of dunes to create a quality living environment. Also nature manager construct dunes in what is called 'new nature'. This contribution evaluates several projects creating dune landscapes. Criteria for the evaluation are: - the subsequent geomorphology, - the materials used for construction, - the resulting internal structure, - the soil profile, - the relationship with the vegetation, - the historical integrity of the location. These examples indicate that engaging earth-scientific knowhow would substantially improve the authenticity of the designs.

  18. Projecting land-use and land cover change in a subtropical urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lagrosa IV; Wayne C. Zipperer; Michael G. Andreu

    2018-01-01

    Urban landscapes are heterogeneous mosaics that develop via significant land-use and land cover (LULC) change. Current LULC models project future landscape patterns, but generally avoid urban landscapes due to heterogeneity. To project LULC change for an urban landscape, we parameterize an established LULC model (Dyna-CLUE) under baseline conditions (continued current...

  19. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  20. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  1. The Landscape of the Gibbet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Sarah; Dyndor, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT From the Murder Act of 1752 until the Anatomy Act of 1832 it was forbidden to bury the bodies of executed murderers unless they had first been anatomised or ‘hung in chains’ (gibbeted). This paper considers some of the observations of the Wellcome-funded project ‘Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse’ as they relate to the practice of gibbeting. The nature of hanging in chains is briefly described before an extensive discussion of the criteria by which gibbets, which often remained standing for many decades, were selected. These are: proximity to the scene of crime, visibility, and practicality. Exceptions, in the forms of those sentenced by the Admiralty Courts, and those sentenced in and around London, are briefly considered. Hanging in chains was an infrequent punishment (anatomical dissection was far more frequently practised) but it was the subject of huge public interest and attracted thousands of people. There was no specified time for which a body should remain hanging, and the gibbet often became a known landmark and a significant place in the landscape. There is a remarkable contrast between anatomical dissection, which obliterates and anonymises the body of the individual malefactor, and hanging in chains, which leaves a highly personalised and enduring imprint on the actual and imaginative landscape. PMID:27335506

  2. Organised session - Rewilding landscapes for the future - learning from the past.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijles, Erik; Spek, Mattheus

    2016-01-01

    Natura2000 and Water Framework Directive policies aim for natural conditions in rural landscapes within the EU. As a result, many nature restoration, reconstruction or 'rewilding' projects are currently underway to (re)create natural landscapes. Such projects often strive for a multi-disciplinary

  3. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  4. On a possible parent crater for Australasian tektites: Geochemical, isotopic, geographical and other constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Kameník, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 154, MAR (2016), s. 123-137 ISSN 0012-8252 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-22351S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Australasian tektite * Parent crater * Geochemical analysis * Isotope analysis * Chinese loess * Badain Jaran Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; DD - Geochemistry (USMH-B) Impact factor: 7.051, year: 2016

  5. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  6. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  7. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  8. Ecology and Education in Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Miller

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape architects engage in a wide range of projects relating to environmental quality. Indeed, the goals of preserving biodiversity and maintaining the integrity of ecological function is implicit in the charters of several of the discipline's professional organisations. Nonetheless, there is widespread opinion that much of the potential of design to contribute to environmental solutions goes unrealised. There are numerous explanations that purport to account for this situation; in this paper, we focus on one, the assertion that degree programmes in landscape architecture generally do a poor job of preparing students for practice grounded in ecological awareness. We examined the validity of this assertion by quantifying the amount and form of ecology-based coursework required of landscape architecture students. We surveyed the curricula of all 63 accredited, first-professional degree programmes in North America (28 offering a BLA, 17 offering an MLA and 18 offering both. We focused on required courses that could be categorised as emphasising information-based ecology, ecology/design integration, or plant identification and ecology. We recorded the level (introductory or advanced and number of credit hours for each course, and the total number of credits required for graduation in each programme. Thirty-seven undergraduate programmes required an introductory information-based ecology course. Only 13 required an advanced class in ecology and, of these, only three required coursework in landscape ecology. All of the undergraduate programmes except one required a plant class. Ten of the graduate programmes required an information-based class, an advanced, except one. Six required a course in landscape ecology. Eight required at least one ecology-design integration course, yet had no requirements regarding information-based courses. Thirty graduate programmes required at least one plant course. We discuss the implications of these results and

  9. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  10. Translating landscape: the Colombian Chorographic Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Uribe Hanabergh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1850 the Colombian government developed a project to survey the young country´s landscape. Scientists, writers, and artists were invited to make part of the project led by the Italian military, geographer and cartographer, Agustin Codazzi. After nine years and three different artists, the Commission had many watercolor drawings that portrayed a landscape, not only in its physical traits, but also in its social, economic and agricultural development. Through the lens of these artists, the drawings that concluded the survey showed a landscape that was truly original but that was also seen through the lens of a certain romantic eye inherited by a firm European legacy. As a result, these watercolors show the different regions, people, and means of transportation, crops and trades. The Colombian Chorographic Commission was an important project in the construction of the Colombian modern nation, a country that was constantly divided by federalist and centralist politics, liberal and conservative parties. An interesting union between science, politics and art, these drawings represent the process of the modernization of nineteenth-century Colombia.

  11. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  12. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  13. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  14. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  15. Cs-137 behaviour in landscape-geochemical structures of barrier complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakh, L.I.; Ivashkevich, I.I.; Adamovich, A.A.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Cs-137 distribution and cumulation accrues more actively in a marsh ecological systems of barrier complexes. The physical chemical and biogeochemical barriers influence on different way on these processes

  16. Dynamics of biochemical processes and redox conditions in geochemically linked landscapes of oligotrophic bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The biological activity in oligotrophic peatlands at the margins of the Vasyugan Mire has been studied. It is shown found that differently directed biochemical processes manifest themselves in the entire peat profile down to the underlying mineral substrate. Their activity is highly variable. It is argued that the notion about active and inert layers in peat soils is only applicable for the description of their water regime. The degree of the biochemical activity is specified by the physical soil properties. As a result of the biochemical processes, a micromosaic aerobic-anaerobic medium is developed under the surface waterlogged layer of peat deposits. This layer contains the gas phase, including oxygen. It is concluded that the organic and mineral parts of peat bogs represent a single functional system of a genetic peat profile with a clear record of the history of its development.

  17. Some results of NURE uranium geochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some technical developments of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program which are of general application in geochemical exploration are being studied. Results of stream water and suspended and bottom sediment analyses are compared for an area near Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Variations of uranium content of water samples with time in the North Carolina Piedmont are seen to correlate with rainfall. Ground water samples from coastal and piedmont areas were analyzed for helium. All media sampled provide useful information when properly analyzed and interpreted as part of a total geological analysis of an area

  18. Panay carborne radiometric and geochemical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A carborne radiometric survey and stream sediments collection were conducted in Panay and Guimaras Islands. An area in Nabas, Aklan, situated in the northwestern tip of Panay (Buruanga Peninsula) which indicated 2 to 3 times above background radioactivity was delineated. Uranium content in the stream sediment samples collected from Buruanga Peninsula was generally higher than those obtained in other parts of the island. Radioactivity measurements and uranium content in stream sediments were found to be within background levels. It is recommended that follow-up radiometric and geochemical surveys be undertaken in Buruanga Peninsula and additional stream sediments samples be collected in Panay to achieve better sampling density and coverage. (author)

  19. DNA-based methods of geochemical prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Matthew [Mill Valley, CA

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  20. Geochemical modelling. Pt.1, Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte Jensen, B.; Jensen, H.; Pearson, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    This work is carried out under cost-sharing contract with the European Atomic Energy Community in the framework of its fourth research programme on radioactive waste management and radioactive waste storage. This final report is subdivided into two parts. In the first part, JENSEN, a computer code for the computation of chemical equilibria in aqueous systems, describes the structure, function and use of a new geochemical computer program intended for PC's. The program, which is written in Turbo Pascal, version 4, is fundamentally similar to most other geochemical programs, but combines in one program several of the merits these programs have. The intention has been to make an advanced program, which also should be user friendly and fast, and to attain this several new algorithms have been developed and implemented. The program has a built-in database mainly based on the CHEMVAL compilation containing data for 395 soluble species and 149 minerals. The program can find equilibria in the presence of all or some of these soluble species, under conditions or fixed or floating pH and / or Redox potential. The program by itself eliminates a bad guess of a candidate for precipitation. In the present version, the program can identify which minerals and how much of them there will be formed when equilibrium is established. In the second part, LITTLE JOE, an expert system to support geochemical modelling, describes the construction of a minor expert system for use in the evaluation of analytical data for the composition of ground waters from limestone formation. Although the example given is rather limited in scope, the application of the expert system for the evaluation of the analytical data clearly demonstrates the mature expert knowledge imbedded in the system which is contrasted with the uncritical acceptance of analytical or theoretical data. With the overall neglect of ion-exchange and the formation of solid solutions in geochemical calculations, geochemistry is

  1. Baseline geochemical data for stream sediment and surface water samples from Panther Creek, the Middle Fork of the Salmon River, and the Main Salmon River from North Fork to Corn Creek, collected prior to the severe wildfires of 2000 in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann; Crock, James G.; Meier, Allen; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance baseline geochemical study in central Idaho. The purpose of the baseline study was to establish a 'geochemical snapshot' of the area, as a datum for monitoring future change in the geochemical landscape, whether natural or human-induced. This report presents the methology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, sediment, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples collected during this geochemical investigation. In the summer of 2000, the Clear Creek, Little Pistol, and Shellrock wildfires swept across much of the area that was sampled. Thus, these data represent a pre-fire baseline geochemical dataset. A 2001 post- fire study is planned and will involve re-sampling of the pre-fire baseline sites, to allow for pre- and post-fire comparison.

  2. Projecting Project Management's Future within the Academic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. universities have had century-long success in absorbing existing professions into their curricula--by making academe their gatekeeper. These professions often started with apprenticeships and short training courses leading to a certification examination--and were then elevated and "academized" into a comprehensive body of knowledge,…

  3. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  5. Recomposing mined lands: Landscape as arena for education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, S.

    1998-01-01

    This project is an hypothetical design using landscape architectural principles and processes for land use in the near distant future. The site is the Powell River Project 1,700 acres of surface-mined coal country in southwestern Virginia. In this design, the author challenges the boundaries of normative reclamation and makes a case for using landscape architectural planning and design in reclamation decisions. The power of design is that it integrates the technical with the cultural and enables wider consideration for post-mining uses. The author's theses is that landscape can be the best teacher and influence of people's attitudes about their environment history and cultural conditions. To make informed decisions, a populace must understand these issues. In the design the Powell River Project landscape is a system composed of interrelated parts; actively mined areas, reclaimed areas (pre- and post- 1997), the nascent Education Center within the Project, the Powell River watershed, and nearby towns. This whole extends well beyond the Project's bounds out into the Appalachian region of Virginia's southwestern counties. The project design recomposes the parts in a way that considers both near-term uses and long-term economic growth potential. Phase 1 is a clearly defined and strengthened Education center and expansion of the Center's regional presence. Phase 2 is the development of the Norton-Wise-Powell River Project Triangle into a focus of regional cultural, economic and environmental affairs

  6. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  7. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  8. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  9. Research on geochemical exploration in geotherm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirowatari, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Yukio; Koga, Akito; Iwanaga, Tatsuto.

    1987-01-01

    The decisive factor of geotherm development is to improve the exploration techniques. By effectively carrying out the selection of promising development spots and the decision of well drilling positions, the geotherm development exceeding existing energy sources becomes feasible. There have been many problems in conventional geotherm exploration such as the high cost and long work period, therefore, it was decided to advance the research on geochemical exploration techniques which are relatively simple and can be carried out with low cost. When the techniques of geochemistry are used, for example, in the case that there are hot springs or fumaroles, the temperature, origin, properties and so on of underground hot water reservoirs can be estimated from their chemical composition. The method of examining the mercury concentration in soil and soil air has been in practical use in the geothermal districts where the ground surface symptom lacks. This time, the method of investigation using radon, thoron and gamma ray as the exploration indices was newly studied. The index compositions for geochemical exploration, new exploration index compositions, the method of measurement, the basic investigation and on-the-spot investigation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kaistila, M.

    1983-06-01

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  11. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO 3 - type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab

  12. Urban Landscape Architecture in the Reshaping of the Contemporary Cityscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou, Maria; Bourlidou, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    The contemporary urban landscape is the evolving image of dynamic social, economic and ecological changes and heterogeneity. It constitutes the mirror of history, natural and cultural, urban processes, as well as locations of hybrid character, such as degraded and fragmented spaces within the urban fabric or in the city boundaries -areas in between, infrastructures, post-industrial and waterfront sites, but also potential grounds for urban development. Along with the awakening of the global ecological awareness and the ongoing discussion on sustainability issues, the cityscape with its new attributes, constitutes a challenging field of research and planning for various disciplines, further more than landscape architecture, such as architecture, planning, ecology, environment and engineering. This paper focuses on the role of urban landscape architecture, via its theory and practice, in the reshaping of the city territory. It aspires to broaden the discussion concerning the upgrading of the contemporary cities, aiming firstly at the determination of a wider vocabulary for the urban landscape and its design, and secondly at the highlighting of landscape architecture’s contribution to the sustainable perspective of urban design and planning. The methodology is based on a comparative research implemented both on a theoretical level and on a level of applied work. Urban landscape architecture is described through theory and practice, along with correlative approaches deriving mainly from landscape urbanism and secondarily from the field of architecture. Urban landscape is approached as a socio-ecological and perceptual legible, a territory of culture, process and production; operating as an entity of ecological, infrastructural systems and planning needs, it is also regarded as a precedent for urban development. Furthermore, the research is supported by selected European and International urban landscape projects, presented in a cohesive multiscalar approach, from the

  13. River flooding and landscape changes impact ecological conditions of a scour hole lake in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Donders, T.H.; Hoek, W.Z.; Koolen-Eekhout, M.; Koolmees, H.H.; Lavooi, E.

    2010-01-01

    A 400-year sediment record from an 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the Meuse River in the Netherlands was investigated for past changes in water quality, flooding frequency and landscape change using geophysical, geochemical and micropaleontological information. The results are

  14. Fred Tschopp, Landscape Architect: The American Practice 1938 - 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Adam

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fred Tschopp, a Swiss-American landscape architect practised in both New Zealand and America from the 1920s to 1970. While in New Zealand (1929-1932, Tschopp worked in Auckland, Wellington and Rotorua. Tschopp's projects in New Zealand represent a new form of practice, a modernist approach to the practise of landscape architecture. We argue that Tschopp's work is a break from conventional landscape design practice in New Zealand during the 1920s and 1930s. He introduced three important ideas; the first was the idea of the park as a multi-functional space that accommodates a wide range of community needs, sport, education and productive horticulture. The second were ideas of a new discipline, planning, which had developed from the landscape architectural programme at Harvard University. The third idea was a regionalist sensibility, influenced by his earlier projects for the Theodore Payne nursery in Los Angeles. Tschopp insisted on the uses of indigenous New Zealand plants in many of his New Zealand projects, notably his work for Parliament grounds and the Rotorua plan. On Tschopp's return to America he began working for the giant California water and power utility, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP. For over 30 years Tschopp was responsible for the design, implementation, and maintenance of over 30 landscapes; reservoirs, storage tanks, and pumping stations, as part the vast infrastructure of the LADWP. This paper describes and discusses Tschopp's landscape practice at the LADWP and outlines Tschopp's career, examining in detail two particular areas of practice. Our contention is that Tschopp abandons his interest in the regional and, instead, develops one particular aspect of modernist practice, functionalism. We explore some of the ways writers and designers of landscape architecture have engaged with functionalism and finish by framing Tschopp's practice within this somewhat neglected aspect of the modern landscape.

  15. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  16. Sulfide geochemical survey in Dawahan, Larap, Camarines Norte (Southern Luzon), Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    Sulfide geochemical activation analysis survey was conducted in Southern Luzon, Philippines. Trace elements in the rocks of Dawahan, Larap, Camarines Norte, particularly in the sulfide fraction of the rocks were determined and correlated in the search for mineral deposits in the project area. The study has shown that the Cu, V, Co, Pb, Mn, Zn, Ni, Au, Ag and As distributions in Dawahan are log normal with Cu, As and V having an excess of low values. There is a direct relationship between the mineralizations of Ag and Pb with Cu mineralization. Fair geochemical correlations were observed between Cu-Zn, Cu-As and Cu-Co. Low negative or inverse correlation exists between Cu-Mn, Cu-V and Cu-Au. Silver is a good pathfinder for copper deposits in Dawahan and adjacent areas and most probably including the Paracale mining district

  17. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  18. Presentation of results of the BMBF-sponsored project `Establishment of ecological areas in landscaping after mining`, Massen, 8 February 1996. Conference report; Ergebnispraesentation des BMBF-Foerderprojekts ``Schaffung oekologischer Vorrangflaechen bei der Gestaltung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft``, Massen, den 8. Februar 1996. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-08

    The conference report presents the results of the BMBF-sponsored research project on ecologically compatible landscape revegetation after mining in the south-western part of the Niederlausitz brown-coal mining district. The following individual topics were dealt with: the form, e.g. the relief, of the landscape to be created, different types of ground use, types of biotopes and the site conditions required in each case. The revegetation and recolonization of the dumps and tail banks with plants and invertebrates as well as with reptiles, amphibians and avifauna are further points of the project presentation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Band wird das Ergebnis des BMBF-gefoerderten Forschungsvorhaben zur Schaffung einer oekologisch vertretbaren Bergbaufolgelandschaft im Suedwesten des Niederlausitzer Braunkohlerevier erlaeutert. Im Einzelnen wird die landschaftliche Gestaltung, wie die Reliefentwicklung, die einzelnen Bodennutzungstypen sowie die Biototypen und ihrer erforderlichen Standortverhaeltnisse beschrieben. Die Wiederbesiedlung der Kippen und Halden mit Pflanzen und Wirbellosen, sowie die Ansiedlung von Reptilien, Amphibien und Voegeln sind weitere Punkte der Projektpraesentation. (orig.)

  19. Behaviour of nature and technogenic radioisotopes in buried geochemical barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Onoshko, M.P.; Generalova, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Behaviour of potassium 40, radium 226, thorium 232, strontium 90 and cesium 137 on geochemical barriers connected with buried soils and cut-off meander sediments of the Holocene age of the Sozh river valley are examined. Some sides of the barrier geochemical structure caused by syngeneic and epigenetic processes have been taken into consideration

  20. Integration Research for Shaping Sustainable Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  1. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  2. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Application of partial dissolution techniques to geochemical exploration has advanced from an early empirical approach to an approach based on sound geochemical principles. This advance assures a prominent future position for the use of these techniques in geochemical exploration for concealed mineral deposits. Partial dissolution techniques are classified as single dissolution or sequential multiple dissolution depending on the number of steps taken in the procedure, or as "nonselective" extraction and as "selective" extraction in terms of the relative specificity of the extraction. The choice of dissolution techniques for use in geochemical exploration is dictated by the geology of the area, the type and degree of weathering, and the expected chemical forms of the ore and of the pathfinding elements. Case histories have illustrated many instances where partial dissolution techniques exhibit advantages over conventional methods of chemical analysis used in geochemical exploration. ?? 1984.

  3. Methodological approaches in estimating anomalous geochemical field structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, R; Rudmin, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical statistic methods were applied to analyze the core samples from vertical expendable wells in Chertovo Koryto gold ore field. The following methods were used to analyse gold in samples: assay tests and atomic absorption method (AAS), while emission spectrum semiquantative method was applied to identify traces. The analysis of geochemical association distribution in one central profile demonstrated that bulk metasomatic aureoles are characteristic of concentric zonal structure. The distribution of geochemical associations is correlated to the hydrothermal stages of mineral formation identified in this deposit. It was proved that the processed geochemical data by factor and cluster analyses provided additional information on the anomalous geochemical field structure in gold- bearing black-shale strata. Such methods are effective tools in interpretating specific features of geochemical field structures in analogous potential ore-bearing areas

  4. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  5. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 7: Site-specific natural geochemical concentrations and fluxes at four repository investigation sites in Finland for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Loefman, J.; Luukkonen, A.; Partamies, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report concerns site-specific data achieved during the studies of four Finnish candidate sites for nuclear fuel repository. The aims are to examine the level of radioactive concentrations (U, Rn, K, Rb, Cs, Ra, Th), their sources and their fluxes at different sites and at different depths, and whether differences in chemical conditions result from the geology or hydrogeology. The sites cover virtually the formation history of Finnish Precambrian bedrock and differ geochemically significantly. Romuvaara represents Archean basement gneisses with low K and U contents. Proterozoic migmatitic mica gneisses at Olkiluoto represent a very reducing geochemical environment with graphite and sulphides. Oxidising conditions have characterised the formation of early synkinematic granitoids at Kivetty and as well as anorogenic rapakivi granite Haestholmen. Particularly the rapakivi granite is enriched with incompatible elements such as K, Rb, U and Th. Hydrogeologically the sites differ as well. The inland sites, Romuvaara and Kivetty, have been above the highest shoreline since the retreat of the ice of the Weichselian glaciation, whereas the coastal sites have been below sea level. Hydraulic gradient is also higher inland than on shore. The contents of radioactive elements vary significantly between the sites and between deep and shallow groundwaters. Uranium concentrations at each site decrease mainly with the increasing depth, and they correlate relatively with bedrock contents between the sites. However, the observed exceptionally low contents are considered to result from a short water-rock interaction time in shallow groundwaters at Kivetty and from actively reducing groundwater conditions in deep groundwaters at Olkiluoto. Radon contents correlate mainly with U-concentrations, suggesting that Rn derives predominantly from dissolved U. Potassium and rubidium concentrations correlate with salinity, indicating that their main source is seawater or ancient brine

  6. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  7. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  8. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fujita, Yoshiko [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  9. Conservation of butterfly populations in dynamic landscapes: The role of farming practices and landscape mosaic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aviron, S.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 205, 1-2 (2007), s. 135-145 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087301; GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GEDIV/06/E013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Connectivity * Landscape dynamics * Resource disturbance * Movement * Simulation model Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007

  10. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  11. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  12. NEA international co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This text is consecrated at the international co-operative projects of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of reactor safety (Halden reactor project, Loft project, studies on the damaged Three Mile Island unit-2 reactor, inspection of reactor steel components, incident reporting system) and in the field of radioactive waste management (Stripa project, geochemical data bases, Alligator river project, seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities)

  13. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  14. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  15. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  16. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  17. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  18. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  19. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  20. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  1. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  2. Visual simulations of forest wildlife habitat structure, change, and landscape context in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Anna M. Lester; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2007-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful tool for depicting projections of forest structure and landscape conditions, for communicating habitat management practices, and for providing a landscape context to private landowners and to those concerned with public land management. Recent advances in visualization technology, especially in graphics quality, ease of use, and relative...

  3. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mörtberg, U.M.; Balfors, B.; Knol, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape

  4. Pocos de Caldas Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The second annual report of the Pocos de Caldas Project describes the results of the first phase of the post-feasibility study investigations. Boreholes have been drilled at two sites, the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine and Morro do Ferro, and rock and groundwater samples analysed to provide data on natural analogues of radionuclide migration processes. These detailed geochemical analysis and hydrogeological studies are described, and related to four specific objectives concerning issues of importance in repository performance assessment. (author)

  5. Using historical simulations of vegetation to assess departure of current vegetation conditions across large landscapes[Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Holsinger; Robert E. Keane; Brian Steele; Matthew C. Reeves; Sarah Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project, or LANDFIRE Prototype Project, was conceived, in part, to identify areas across the nation where existing landscape conditions are markedly different from historical conditions (Keane and Rollins, Ch. 3). This objective arose from the recognition that over 100 years of land use and wildland...

  6. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  7. Simulation of radionuclide retardation at Yucca Mountain using a stochastic mineralogical/geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Campbell, K.; Eggert, K.; Travis, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary transport calculations for radionuclide movement at Yucca Mountain. Several different realizations of spatially distributed sorption coefficients are used to study the sensitivity of radionuclide migration. These sorption coefficients are assumed to be functions of the mineralogic assemblages of the underlying rock. The simulations were run with TRACRN 1 , a finite-difference porous flow and radionuclide transport code developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. Approximately 30,000 nodes are used to represent the unsaturated and saturated zones underlying the repository in three dimensions. Transport calculations for a representative radionuclide cation, 135 Cs, and anion, 99 Tc, are presented. Calculations such as these will be used to study the effectiveness of the site's geochemical barriers at a mechanistic level and to help guide the geochemical site characterization program. The preliminary calculations should be viewed as a demonstration of the modeling methodology rather than as a study of the effectiveness of the geochemical barriers. The model provides a method for examining the integration of flow scenarios with transport and retardation processes as currently understood for the site. The effects on transport of many of the processes thought to be active at Yucca Mountain may be examined using this approach. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  8. Stream-sediment geochemical exploration for uranium in Narigan area Central Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdi, M.; Khoshnoodi, K.; Kavand, M.; Ashteyani, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposits of Iran occur mainly in the Central Iran zone. Several uranium deposits have been discovered in this zone. The Narigan area is one of the most important uranium mineralized area in this zone. The uranium bearing sequences in this area are contained in the plutonic to volcanic rocks of Narigan which intruded to the Pre-Cambrian pyroclastics rocks. Plutonic and volcanic rocks are granite, rhyolite and volcanoclastic. Diabasic dykes have been intruded to these igneous rocks. The plutonic and volcanic rocks have been covered by Cretaceous limestones which seem to be youngest the rocks in this area. The aim of our project is to develop a regional exploration strategy for uranium in these igneous rocks. A grid-based sampling was planned following the results of the previous geochemical mapping at a scale of 1:100,000, integrated with geophysical data and alteration zones and outcrop of intrusive rocks. The following results are based on geological, and stream geochemical explorations in 1:20000 scale of this area. During this study 121 samples were collected from the stream sediments of <80 mesh for final sampling. Ten percent of the samples were used for checking laboratories errors. The samples were collected according to conventional methods from 30-40 cm depth of stream sediments. Finally, geochemical and radiometric data were combined and the results introduced 3 anomalies in the Narigan area

  9. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  10. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  11. Generating new varieties of shrubs for landscapes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Norimah Yusof; Shakinah Salleh

    2012-01-01

    This project which was funded by National Landscape Department was aimed at generating new varieties of shrubs suitable for landscapes in Malaysia. Three species of shrubs commonly used in Malaysian landscapes (hibiscus, canna and turnera) were selected for generating new varieties through mutagenesis techniques using gamma rays and ion beams. The main objective was to produce new varieties with desired characters, such as longer bloom period, unique and prominent petal colors and larger flower size. Through this project, several potential mutants have been identified such as turnera with longer bloom period, canna with new flower colors and hibiscus with different flower form. These mutants are currently undergoing field screening at Serdang to analyze their genetic stability, and will be registered as new varieties with Department of Agriculture before being transferred to end-users. (author)

  12. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  13. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  14. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  15. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  16. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  17. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  18. Traditional Wooden Architecture and Landscape in Karelia. Methodological considerations for the analysis and census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Parinello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The survey work on the Karelian landscape and traditional architecture, embedded within the European research project entitled "Wooden Architecture. Karelian Timber Traditional Architecture and Landscape", is intended to enable understanding of how Karelian culture and history have led, over time, unique urban landscapes. The context of transformation, in which they were involved in both the behavioral habits of local populations both traditional architectural ones, which are mixed with models and with the administrative Soviet structures, were analyzed in this scientific field in order to not compromise the conservation and enhancement of the historic, architectural and landscape of this country.

  19. Challenges of the urban peripheral landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Pinheiro Cordeiro dos Santos Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral regions of Sao Paulo reveal a profound contradiction in their landscapes – on the one hand, remnants of their original biophysical basis and, on the other, increasing pressure for the territory’s occupation. The northwest sector of the periphery, for example, presents environmentally sensitive areas which are at the same time under great pressure for occupation by those who do so by choice (the property market and those who have none (irregular and high-risk occupation. The poor inhabitants of these regions have increasingly organized themselves to achieve basic rights through community associations, social movements, and cultural groups ever since the recent re-democratization process in Brazil. It is precisely in these urban spaces, which are precarious in many ways, that significant subjectivities have emerged in participatory processes, expressing an awareness of environmental issues with an implicit desire for more humanized landscapes. These processes often include children and their teachers as protagonists. For thirteen years, the Landscape, Art and Culture Laboratory (LABPARC of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism (FAU at USP has been working with educators and children from municipal public schools, developing projects, research, and university extension work in the region. This article aims to discuss this experience with the objective of showing the gains achieved and the challenges that may arise within the perspective of a collective construction of the city, where urban interventions can be harmonized with water sources, streams, steep slopes, forests, and fauna.

  20. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  1. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  2. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  3. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  4. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  5. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  6. Chungthang: an emerging urban landscape in Sikkim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The Indian border state of Sikkim has remained relatively detached from the rest of India owing to its cultural distinction and geographical isolation from the Indian mainland. However, over the recent decade state-induced economic liberalisation, evinced in private hydro-power projects, pharmace......-induced development in Chungthang, north Sikkim, and the creation of an urban landscape that raises questions and concerns about belonging and identity......., pharmaceutical companies and educational institutes, has been the predominant cause of social, economic and spatial transformation in the region, visible in infrastructural growth, rapid urbanisation of rural and semi-urban areas, increased consumerism and changing aspirations. This paper focuses on state...

  7. The content of landscape form [the limits of formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Treib

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The values behind the question of landscape appreciation and evaluation also inform the greater question of landscape content. Here the content of landscape architecture is taken as the raw material transformed through design, material from which we may derive pleasure and/or significance. What sort of raw material, its potential and its relevance, is the essay's base subject. Admittedly, structure, space, and pattern may constitute content in and of themselves: a poetics of form and space. But deeper works may result from using these vehicles to embody other types of content, among them the understanding and judicious application of ecological processes (including the immediate as well as larger site over time, and the regard for humans singly and in groups, contemporary and over time. The manner in which the designer addresses these factors may also elevate a physical statement of these concerns, alone or together, to a poetic level. It is admittedly a difficult task, and without doubt, no work is ever perfect in all respects. Nonetheless, several landscape architects currently in practice have produced designs with these considerations at their core. The work of Hargreaves Associates in the United States, and Georges Descombes and Dieter Kienast in Switzerland serve as the prime case studies. The landscape architect's project here utilizes the eternalized moment of history to inform the making of physical places. The landscape must succeed in the present - social provisions, construction intelligence, aesthetic interest - amalgamating the voices of the past with those of the "now."

  8. [Regional ecological construction and mission of landscape ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Duning; Xie, Fuju; Wei, Jianbing

    2004-10-01

    The eco-construction on regional and landscape scale is the one which can be used to specific landscape and intercrossing ecosystem in specific region including performing scientific administration of ecosystem and optimizing environmental function. Recently, the government has taken a series of significant projects into action, such as national forest protection item, partly forest restoration, and adjustment of water, etc. Enforcing regional eco-construction and maintaining the ecology security of the nation have become the strategic requisition. In various regions, different eco-construction should be applied, for example, performing ecological safeguard measure in ecological sensitive zone, accommodating the ecological load in ecological fragile zone, etc., which can control the activities of human being, so that, sustainable development can be reached. Facing opportunity and challenge in the development of landscape ecology, we have some key topics: landscape pattern of ecological security, land use and ecological process, landscape changes under human activity stress, quantitative evaluation of the influence on human being activities, evaluation of zonal ecological security and advance warning of ecological risk, and planning and optimizing of model in landscape eco-construction.

  9. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Agnoletti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  10. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  11. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  12. Geochemical behavior of disposed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book are organized to cover the chemical aspects that are important to understanding the behavior of disposed radioactive wastes. These aspects include radionuclide sorption and desorption, solubility of radionuclide compounds, chemical species of radionuclides in natural waters, hydrothermal geochemical reactions, measurements of radionuclide migration, solid state chemistry of wastes, and waste-form leaching behavior. The information in each of the papers is necessary to predict the transport of radionuclides from wastes via natural waters and thus to predict the safety of the disposed waste. Radionuclide transport in natural waters is strongly dependent on sorption, desorption, dissolution, and precipitation processes. The first two papers discuss laboratory investigations of these processes. Descriptions of sorption and desorption behavior of important radionuclides under a wide range of environmental conditions are presented in the first section. Among the sorbents studied are basalt interbed solids, granites, clays, sediments, hydrous oxides, and pure minerals. Effects of redox conditions, groundwater composition and pH on sorption reactions are described

  13. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  14. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  15. Podoconiosis: non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gail; Tekola, Fasil; Newport, Melanie J

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews peer-reviewed publications and book chapters on the history, epidemiology, genetics, ecology, pathogenesis, pathology and management of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis). Podoconiosis is a non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkalic clay soils. It is found in at least 10 countries in tropical Africa, Central America and northwest India, where such soils coexist with high altitude, high seasonal rainfall and low income. Podoconiosis develops in men and women working barefoot on irritant soils, with signs becoming apparent in most patients by the third decade of life. Colloid-sized silicate particles appear to enter through the skin, are taken up into macrophages in the lower limb lymphatics and cause endolymphangitis and obliteration of the lymphatic lumen. Genetic studies provide evidence for high heritability of susceptibility to podoconiosis. The economic burden is significant in affected areas dependent on subsistence farming. Podoconiosis is unique in being an entirely preventable non-communicable disease. Primary prevention entails promoting use of footwear in areas of irritant soil; early stages are reversible given good foot hygiene, but late stages result in considerable economic and social difficulties, and require extended periods of elevation and occasionally nodulectomy.

  16. Petroleum geochemical responses to reservoir rock properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Reservoir geochemistry is used to study petroleum basin development, petroleum mixing, and alterations. In this study, polar non-hydrocarbons were used as proxies for describing reservoir properties sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. A core flood experiment was conducted on a Carboniferous siltstone core obtained from a site in the United Kingdom. Core samples were then obtained from a typical upper shoreface in a North Sea oilfield. The samples were extracted with a dichloromethane and methanol mixture. Alkylcarbazoles and alkylfluorenones were then isolated from the samples. Compositional changes along the core were also investigated. Polar non hydrocarbons were studied using a wireline gamma ray log. The strongest deflections were observed in the basal coarsening upwards unit. The study demonstrated the correlations between molecular markers, and indicated that molecular parameters can be used to differentiate between clean sand units and adjacent coarsening upward muddy sand sequences. It was concluded that reservoir geochemical parameters can provide an independent response to properties defined by petrophysical methods. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Studying the early modern landscape in the Czech republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodějovská, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-98 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : historical landscape * early modern period * czech research Subject RIV: AB - History

  18. Hacked Landscapes: Tensions, Borders, and Positionality in Spatial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    By focusing on critical geographies, landscape, and spatial literacy, this article evaluates a semester-long spatial justice project conducted in a preservice teacher education program. The analysis recognizes the limitations of reading the products literally as a means of comprehending spatial representation. It expands the analysis by hacking…

  19. Parallel Landscapes: Bohemia and Moravia in the age of Comenius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semotanová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 53-68 ISSN 2333-4142 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : landscapes * early modern history * historical geography Subject RIV: AB - History

  20. Gardens of Situations: Learning from the Danish Modern Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2009-01-01

    of an interlacing of understanding and space.” (Sieverts, 2007) Learning from a series of modern Danish landscape architectural projects by Brandt, Sørensen and Andersson I will define a specific form for gardening – and more importantly a specific form for gathering – which I call „Gardens of Situations...

  1. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, J.

    1989-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  2. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenber, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  3. Drift pumice in the central Indian Ocean Basin: Geochemical evidence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.; JaiSankar, S.; Ilangovan, D.

    Abundant white to light grey-coloured pumice without ferromanganese oxide coating occurs within the Quaternary sediments of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Two distinct groups of pumice are identified from their geochemical composition, which...

  4. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  5. Uruguay mining Inventory: Geochemical prospecting results of Valentines mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.; Filippini, J.

    1985-01-01

    This work is about geochemical prospecting carried out into the Uruguay mining inventory framework. In this case the survey was in Valentines mapping. Florida, Durazno and Treinta y Tres provinces of Uruguay .

  6. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  7. The geochemical chararateristics of the marble deposits east of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), marbles were investigated with the view to establishing marble occurrences and their geochemical characteristics. Crystalline rocks of the Nigerian Basement Complex (migmatite – gneiss complex) underlie the area. Ten marble bodies were ...

  8. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  9. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vallés-Planells

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  10. A Dutch Perspective on Coastal Louisiana Flood Risk Reduction and Landscape Stabilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dijkman, Jos

    2007-01-01

    .... The project was aimed at identifying options for the long-term reduction of flood risks and landscape stabilization in Planning Areas I and 2 in Louisiana, in the framework of the Louisiana Coastal...

  11. Geochemical, hydrological, and biological cycling of energy residual. Research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobber, F.J.

    1983-03-01

    Proposed research goals and specific research areas designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biophysical mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy residuals in natural systems can be understood are described. Energy development and production have resulted in a need for advanced scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants in subsurface environments

  12. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution using chemical equilibrium codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Pirhonen, V.

    1991-01-01

    Geochemical equilibrium codes are a modern tool in studying interaction between groundwater and solid phases. The most common used programs and application subjects are shortly presented in this article. The main emphasis is laid on the approach method of using calculated results in evaluating groundwater evolution in hydrogeological system. At present in geochemical equilibrium modelling also kinetic as well as hydrologic constrains along a flow path are taken into consideration

  13. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  14. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  15. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  16. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  17. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  18. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  19. Landscape ecological planning: Integrating land use and wildlife conservation for biomass crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.

  20. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  1. Evolution of hillslope soils: The geomorphic theater and the geochemical play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyungsoo; Weinman, Beth; Mudd, Simon Marius; Hurst, Martin; Attal, Mikael; Maher, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We ask 'how and how fast do hillslope soils form as the landscape's morphology changes over time?'. → Over wide range of denudation rates, soil thicknesses do not vary significantly. → Colluvial soils with lower denudation rates (above the knick point) are enriched in fine size fractions, Zr, and pedogenic crystalline Fe oxides. → In the two steep hillslopes below the knickpoint, no systematic topgraphic trends were found for soil geochemistry. → Soils show increasing Zr enrichment in the downslope direction only in the hillslope above the knickpoint. - Abstract: How and how fast do hillslope soils form as the landscape's morphology changes over time? Here results are shown from an ongoing study that simultaneously examines the morphologic and geochemical evolution of soil mantled hillslopes that have been exposed to distinctively different denudation history. In Northern Sierra Nevada, California, the authors are investigating a tributary basin to the Middle Fork Feather River. A major incision signal from the river is well marked in a knickpoint within the tributary basin which stretches from its mouth to the Feather River at an elevation of ∼700 m to the plateau at an elevation of ∼1500 m. Hillslopes are significantly steeper below the knickpoint. The area's total denudation rates are currently being constrained using cosmogenic radio nuclides, but a previous study suggested an order of magnitude difference in total denudation rates below and above the knickpoint. When compared with topographic attributes calculated from LIDAR data, physical erosion rates can be modeled as a linear function of ridge top curvature. Surprisingly, over the wide range of total denudation rates, soil thicknesses do not vary significantly until a threshold point where soil mantled landscapes abruptly shift to bedrock dominated landscapes. Bioturbation by tree falls appear to buffer soil thickness over the wide range of physical soil erosion rates. From

  2. Evolution of hillslope soils: The geomorphic theater and the geochemical play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Weinman, Beth [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Mudd, Simon Marius; Hurst, Martin; Attal, Mikael [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, Scotland (United Kingdom); Maher, Kate [Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Braun Hall 118, 450 Serra Mall, Bldg. 320, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We ask 'how and how fast do hillslope soils form as the landscape's morphology changes over time?'. > Over wide range of denudation rates, soil thicknesses do not vary significantly. > Colluvial soils with lower denudation rates (above the knick point) are enriched in fine size fractions, Zr, and pedogenic crystalline Fe oxides. > In the two steep hillslopes below the knickpoint, no systematic topgraphic trends were found for soil geochemistry. > Soils show increasing Zr enrichment in the downslope direction only in the hillslope above the knickpoint. - Abstract: How and how fast do hillslope soils form as the landscape's morphology changes over time? Here results are shown from an ongoing study that simultaneously examines the morphologic and geochemical evolution of soil mantled hillslopes that have been exposed to distinctively different denudation history. In Northern Sierra Nevada, California, the authors are investigating a tributary basin to the Middle Fork Feather River. A major incision signal from the river is well marked in a knickpoint within the tributary basin which stretches from its mouth to the Feather River at an elevation of {approx}700 m to the plateau at an elevation of {approx}1500 m. Hillslopes are significantly steeper below the knickpoint. The area's total denudation rates are currently being constrained using cosmogenic radio nuclides, but a previous study suggested an order of magnitude difference in total denudation rates below and above the knickpoint. When compared with topographic attributes calculated from LIDAR data, physical erosion rates can be modeled as a linear function of ridge top curvature. Surprisingly, over the wide range of total denudation rates, soil thicknesses do not vary significantly until a threshold point where soil mantled landscapes abruptly shift to bedrock dominated landscapes. Bioturbation by tree falls appear to buffer soil thickness over the wide range of physical soil

  3. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    regard to secondary redistribution of chemical elements; 3) selection of areas adequate for the short- and long-term ecogeochemical monitoring; 4) selection of areas as global and regional biogeochemical standards. The approach was used to evaluate contribution of stable iodine deficiency and radioactive iodine fallout to distribution of thyroid diseases among population of the Bryansk region [1], to evaluate natural transformation of the initially uniform spatial structure of N, P, K in agricultural fields [2] and radiocesium in forest and flood plain landscapes [3]. The work has been partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 07-05-00912; 10-05-01148; 13-05-00823). References Korobova E.M., S.L. Romanov, A.I. Kuvylin, E.I. Chesalova, V.Yu. Beriozkin, I.V. Kurnosova. Modern natural and technogenic iodine biogeochemical provinces: spatial structure and health effects. Goldschmidt 2011, Prague, August 14-19, 2011. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 3, June 2011, Goldschmidt abstracts 2011, www.minersoc.org, 1224. Romanov S.L. Patterns of the structure of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fields in landscape systems of Belorussia. Thesis. Moscow, Moscow State University, 1991, 20 p. Korobova E.M., Romanov S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial structure of geochemical fields and modeling of the geochemical field structure. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8.

  4. Compilation of kinetic data for geochemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Savage, D.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic data, including rate constants, reaction orders and activation energies, are compiled for 34 hydrolysis reactions involving feldspars, sheet silicates, zeolites, oxides, pyroxenes and amphiboles, and for similar reactions involving calcite and pyrite. The data are compatible with a rate law consistent with surface reaction control and transition-state theory, which is incorporated in the geochemical software package EQ3/6 and GWB. Kinetic data for the reactions noted above are strictly compatible with the transition-state rate law only under far-from-equilibrium conditions. It is possible that the data are conceptually consistent with this rate law under both far-from-equilibrium and near-to-equilibrium conditions, but this should be confirmed whenever possible through analysis of original experimental results. Due to limitations in the availability of kinetic data for mine-water reactions, and in order to simplify evaluations of geochemical models of groundwater evolution, it is convenient to assume local-equilibrium in such models whenever possible. To assess whether this assumption is reasonable, a modeling approach accounting for couple fluid flow and water-rock interaction is described that can be use to estimate spatial and temporal scale of local equilibrium. The approach is demonstrated for conditions involving groundwater flow in fractures at JNC's Kamaishi in-situ tests site, and is also used to estimate the travel time necessary for oxidizing surface waters to migrate to the level of a HLW repository in crystalline rock. The question of whether local equilibrium is a reasonable assumption must be addressed using an appropriate modeling approach. To be appropriate for conditions at the Kamaishi site using the modeling approach noted above, the fracture fill must closely approximate a porous mine, groundwater flow must be purely advective and diffusion of solutes across the fracture-host rock boundary must not occur. Moreover, the mineralogical and

  5. Development of thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu; Neyama, Atsushi

    1999-09-01

    Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000degC. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25degC) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25degC and l bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100degC at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and log K(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated using SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT model, and because primary

  6. Development of thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Neyama, Atsushi [Computer Software Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000degC. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25degC) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25degC and l bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100degC at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and log K(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated using SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT model, and because primary

  7. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  8. Uncertainty in reactive transport geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedegaard-Jensen, A.; Ekberg, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Geochemical modelling is one way of predicting the transport of i.e. radionuclides in a rock formation. In a rock formation there will be fractures in which water and dissolved species can be transported. The composition of the water and the rock can either increase or decrease the mobility of the transported entities. When doing simulations on the mobility or transport of different species one has to know the exact water composition, the exact flow rates in the fracture and in the surrounding rock, the porosity and which minerals the rock is composed of. The problem with simulations on rocks is that the rock itself it not uniform i.e. larger fractures in some areas and smaller in other areas which can give different water flows. The rock composition can be different in different areas. In additions to this variance in the rock there are also problems with measuring the physical parameters used in a simulation. All measurements will perturb the rock and this perturbation will results in more or less correct values of the interesting parameters. The analytical methods used are also encumbered with uncertainties which in this case are added to the uncertainty from the perturbation of the analysed parameters. When doing simulation the effect of the uncertainties must be taken into account. As the computers are getting faster and faster the complexity of simulated systems are increased which also increase the uncertainty in the results from the simulations. In this paper we will show how the uncertainty in the different parameters will effect the solubility and mobility of different species. Small uncertainties in the input parameters can result in large uncertainties in the end. (authors)

  9. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  10. Predictive geophysics: geochemical simulations to geophysical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, R. G.; Cleverley, J.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing focus on deep exploration for covered targets, new methods are required to target mineral systems under cover. Geophysical responses are driven by physical property contrasts; for example, density contrasts provide a gravity signal, acoustic impedance contrasts provide a seismic reflection signal. In turn, the physical properties for basement, crystalline rocks which host the vast majority of mineral systems are determined almost wholly by the mineralogy of the rocks in question. Mineral systems, through the transport of heat and reactive fluids, will serve to modify the physical properties of country rock as they chemically alter the hosting strata. To understand these changes, we have performed 2D reactive transport modelling that simulates the formation of Archean gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. From this, we derive a model of mineralogy that we can use to predict the density, magnetic susceptibility and seismic reflection changes associated with ore formation. It is then possible to predict the gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection responses associated with these deposits. Scenario mapping, such as testing the ability to resolve buried ore bodies or the geophysical survey spacing required to resolve the mineral system, can be performed to produce geophysical targets from these geochemical simulations. We find that there is a gravity response of around 9% of the unaltered response for deposits even buried by 1km of cover, and there is a magnetic spike associated with proximal alteration of the ore system. Finally, seismic reflection response is mostly characterised by additional reflections along faults that plumb the alteration system.

  11. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  12. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  13. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  14. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  15. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  16. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  17. Activate: Social Action in landscape Architecture Design Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mclean

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflection on the teaching approach adopted in two landscape architecture design studios where students were engaged in developing design projects and campaign strategies informed by personal understandings of action and advocacy for and with communities. The approach was a deliberate application of principles from advocacy theory enmeshed in an educational philosophy of learner-centeredness and the intent was for students to develop strong individual senses of awareness and empowerment in an environment that value personal interests and learning. An evaluation of the approach as an attempt to position landscape architecture as social practice is provided.

  18. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Haines area, Juneau and Skagway quadrangles, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 212 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Chilkat, Klehini, Tsirku, and Takhin river drainages, as well as smaller drainages flowing into Chilkat and Chilkoot Inlets near Haines, Skagway Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska. Additionally some samples were also chosen from the Juneau gold belt, Juneau Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical

  19. The Landscape Of Philosophy Of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistrup Madsen, Bodil; Hjørland, Birger; Brier, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, all higher education programs must include a course on philosophy of science. Therefore, a group of researchers at Copenhagen Business School (CBS) are developing a smartphone application where information about central theoretical paradigms and concepts from philosophy of science can...... be visualized and disseminated in an easily accessible and systematic manner. This will be achieved by entering structured knowledge about concepts from philosophy of science in both Danish and English into a terminology and knowledge base which will provide the opportunity to “navigate in conceptual landscapes......” (here used metaphorically for terminological ontologies) in the same way as we navigate in maps. The result of the project will be a tool that can help students in their studies and support their information retrieval. The project is based on existing technologies and research in knowledge organization...

  20. Significance of geochemical characterization to performance at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. concept for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste resembles those of other countries in that it relies upon burial in a deep geologic medium. This concept relies upon multiple barriers to retard transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment; those barriers consist of the waste form, waste container, engineered barrier system (including possible backfill) and retardant properties of the host rock. Because mobilization of radionuclides is fundamentally a geochemical problem, an understanding of past, present, and future geochemical processes is a requisite part of site characterization studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geochemical information is needed for evaluating three favorable conditions (the rates of geochemical processes, conditions that promote precipitation or sorption of radionuclides or prohibit formation of colloids, and stable mineral assemblages) and four potentially adverse conditions of the site (groundwater conditions that could increase the chemical reactivity of the engineered barried system or reduce sorption, potential for gaseous radionuclide movement, and oxidizing groundwaters) for key issues of radionuclide release, groundwater quality, and stability of the geochemical environment. Preliminary results of long-term heating experiments indicate that although zeolites can be modified by long-term, low temperature reactions, their beneficial sorptive properties will not be adversely affected. Mineral reactions will be controlled by the aqueous activity of silica in groundwater with which the minerals are in contact. Geochemical barriers alone may satisfy release requirements to the accessible environment for many radionuclides; however, additional site specific geochemical and mineralogical data are needed to test existing and future radionuclide transport models

  1. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  2. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  3. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  4. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  5. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  6. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  7. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and

  8. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  9. Microbial communities in a High Arctic polar desert landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M McCann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla consistently dominated the soils and accounted for 95 % of all sequences, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi being the dominant lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, Acidobacterial relative abundances were low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to the circumneutral soil pH in this region which has resulted from the weathering of the underlying carbonate geology. In addition, we correlated previously measured geochemical variables to determine potential controls on the communities. Soil phosphorus, pH, nitrogen and calcium significantly correlated with β-diversity indicating a landscape scale lithological control of soil nutrients which in turn influenced community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α- diversity, specifically the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices.

  10. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  11. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  12. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  13. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  14. The Industrial Engineering publishing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Claasen, Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Looking at the Industrial Engineering publishing landscape through the window of Google Search, an interesting panorama unfolds. The view that I took is actually just a peek and therefore my description of what I saw is not meant to be comprehensive. The African landscape is empty except for the South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (SAJIE). This is an extraordinary situation if compared to the South American continent where there are Industrial Engineering journals in at least ...

  15. The landscapes of tourism space

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.

  16. Transfer Relations Between Landscape Functions - The Hydrological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrer, N.; Lenhart, T.; Eckhardt, K.; Frede, H.-G.

    EC market policies and regional subsidy programs have an enormous impact on local land use. This has far reaching consequences on various landscape functions. In the joint research project SFB299 at the Giessen University the effect of land use options on economic, ecological and hydrological landscape functions are under investigation. The continuous time step model SWAT-G (Eckhardt et al., 2000; Arnold et al., 1998) is employed to characterize the influence of land use patterns on hydrological processes. The model was calibrated and validated employing a split sample approach. For two mesoscale watersheds (Aar, 60 km2; Dietzhölze, 81 km2) located in the Lahn-Dill- Bergland, Germany, different land use scenarios were analyzed with regard to their hydrological impact. Additionally the effect of land use change was analyzed with an ecological and an agro-economic model. The impact of the stepwise changing land use was expressed as trade off relations between different landscape functions.

  17. The role of geochemical prospecting in phased uranium exploration. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.Y.; Armour-Brown, A.; Olsen, H.; Lundberg, B.; Niesen, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The commencement of a UNDP/IAEA uranium exploration project in Northern Greece in 1971 offered the opportunity to test and apply an exploration strategy based on a phased use of geochemical exploration methods. The paper reviews the exploration task, the strategy selected, and some results obtained. The project area (22000 km 2 ) was explored by car-borne survey, covering 15000 km of road and track. Concurrently, a stream sediment geochemical survey was begun which aimed at a nominal sample density of one sample per square kilometre. Samples were analysed for copper, lead, zinc, silver, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, mercury and manganese, in addition to uranium. At each site, a general reading of radioactivity was made, and treated like another element analysis. The reconnaissance programme succeeded in delineating a number of important target areas, varying in size from a few to several hundred square kilometres with significant uranium potential. Follow-up and detailed surveys have been carried out over a number of these, including a sedimentary basin of continental deposits which have been found to contain occurrences of secondary uranium minerals, and two areas in which granitic bodies have been found to have fracture systems and secondary uranium mineralization of economic interest. In no case has sufficient work been yet done to prove economic deposits of uranium. The phased strategy used has, however, already been demonstrated to be effective in the environment of northern Greece. (author)

  18. Industrial Wasteland as Faced with Contemporary Landscape Architects’ Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubielewicz-Michalczuk, Malwina

    2017-10-01

    The following article describes the problem of regeneration of industrial wasteland. It is illustrated with examples selected form various design projects created by outstanding contemporary landscape architects. It also shows how a correctly planned and performed project concerning regeneration of derelict industrial sites serves multiple functions, i. e. it serves as recreational zone as well as activates people. Moreover, it significantly enhances environmental value of a given area as well as stimulates emergence of innovative landscape investments. The paper presents innovative compositional arrangements used in creating projects concerning brownfields; balanced proportions of spatial elements, the possibility of approaching the area from different levels and perspectives and, also, the possibility of engaging fully with nature by physical contact with it.

  19. Geochemical Evolution of the Louisville Seamount Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Mahoney, J. J.; Koppers, A. A.; Lonsdale, P. F.

    2007-12-01

    The Louisville seamount chain is a 4300 km long chain of submarine volcanoes in the southwestern Pacific that is commonly thought to represent a hotspot track. It spans an ~80 Myr age range, comparable to that of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain (Koppers et al., G-cubed, 5 (6), 2004). The few previously dredged igneous samples are dominantly basaltic and alkalic, and have been inferred to represent post-shield volcanism (Hawkins et al., AGU Monograph, 43, 235, 1987). Their isotope and trace element signatures suggest an unusually homogenous mantle source (Cheng et al., AGU Monograph, 43, 283, 1987). Dredging in 2006, during the AMAT02RR cruise of the R.V. Revelle, was carried out in the hope of recovering both shield and post-shield samples and of exploring the geochemical evolution of the chain. Igneous rocks were recovered from 33 stations on 23 seamounts covering some 47 Myr of the chain's history. Our study, focusing on the major and trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics of these samples, shows that all are alkalic basalts, basanites and tephrites containing normative nepheline. Variations in major and trace elements appear to be controlled predominantly by variable extents of melting and fractional crystallization, with little influence from mantle source heterogeneity. Indeed, age-corrected isotopic values define only a narrow range, in agreement with long-term source homogeneity relative to the scale of melting; e.g., ɛNd varies from +4.1 to +5.7, 206Pb/204Pb from 19.048 to 19.281, and 87Sr/86Sr from 0.70362 to 0.70398. These values broadly fall within the fields of the proposed "C" or "FOZO" mantle end-members. However, small variations are present, with less radiogenic Nd and Pb isotope ratios at the older, western end of the chain, defining a trend toward a broadly EM2-like composition. Although some workers have postulated that the Louisville hotspot was the source of the ~120 Myr Ontong Java Plateau, our samples are isotopically distinct

  20. Improvement of registration accuracy of a handheld augmented reality system for urban landscape simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Fukuda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for visual landscape assessment in large-scale projects for the evaluation of the effects of a particular project on the surrounding landscape has grown in recent years. Augmented reality (AR has been considered for use as a landscape simulation system in which a landscape assessment object created by 3D models is included in the present surroundings. With the use of this system, the time and the cost needed to perform a 3DCG modeling of present surroundings, which is a major issue in virtual reality, are drastically reduced. This research presents the development of a 3D map-oriented handheld AR system that achieves geometric consistency using a 3D map to obtain position data instead of GPS, which has low position information accuracy, particularly in urban areas. The new system also features a gyroscope sensor to obtain posture data and a video camera to capture live video of the present surroundings. All these components are mounted in a smartphone and can be used for urban landscape assessment. Registration accuracy is evaluated to simulate an urban landscape from a short- to a long-range scale. The latter involves a distance of approximately 2000 m. The developed AR system enables users to simulate a landscape from multiple and long-distance viewpoints simultaneously and to walk around the viewpoint fields using only a smartphone. This result is the tolerance level of landscape assessment. In conclusion, the proposed method is evaluated as feasible and effective.

  1. Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Maurice A.

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical exploration is an important part of copper-resource evaluation. A large number of geochemical exploration techniques, both proved and untried, are available to the geochemist to use in the search for new copper deposits. Analyses of whole-rock samples have been used in both regional and local geochemical exploration surveys in the search for copper. Analyses of mineral separates, such as biotite, magnetite, and sulfides, have also been used. Analyses of soil samples are widely used in geochemical exploration, especially for localized surveys. It is important to distinguish between residual and transported soil types. Orientation studies should always be conducted prior to a geochemical investigation in a given area in order to determine the best soil horizon and the best size of soil material for sampling in that area. Silty frost boils, caliche, and desert varnish are specialized types of soil samples that might be useful sampling media. Soil gas is a new and potentially valuable geochemical sampling medium, especially in exploring for buried mineral deposits in arid regions. Gaseous products in samples of soil may be related to base-metal deposits and include mercury vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxysulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the noble gases, the halogens, and many hydrocarbon compounds. Transported materials that have been used in geochemical sampling programs include glacial float boulders, glacial till, esker gravels, stream sediments, stream-sediment concentrates, and lake sediments. Stream-sediment sampling is probably the most widely used and most successful geochemical exploration technique. Hydrogeochemical exploration programs have utilized hot- and cold-spring waters and their precipitates as well as waters from lakes, streams, and wells. Organic gel found in lakes and at stream mouths is an unproved sampling medium. Suspended material and dissolved gases in any type of water may also be useful

  2. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  3. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  4. Landscape architecture as an entity of property development in Wilayah Persekutuan, Putrajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nasyution bin Abdul Razak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between landscape architecture and property development. Landscape architecture emphasizes the nature of conservation, development of public parks, city parks, local parks, artificial forests, lakes, recreational areas, outdoor recreation centers, open space systems and other components of landscape architecture in providing opportunities and benefits for real estate development. Backed by ample literature review, this study reveals the significant relationship between land, real estate and landscape architecture. Landscape architecture which provides an open park and green space can be expanded to benefit the social, environment and economy through optimal used of space in property development project. Hence, this study discusses the objectives which are to determine significant factors in the development of landscape architecture, to identify the importance of landscape architecture in real estate development, and to assess the relationship between landscape architecture and property development land. This study involved 50 respondents from renowned developers; Putrajaya Holdings Sdn Bhd (PJH, Selangor State Development Corporation (PKNS, the local authority; Putrajaya Corporation (PPJ, Kajang Municipal Council (MPKj, relevant agencies; Valuation and Property Services Department-JPPH (Ministry of Finance, Department of Town and Country Planning (Peninsular Malaysia, developers registered with ReHDA and residents / property owners in the study area. To conclude, this study offers adequate benefits to policy makers, also relevant agencies such as the local authorities, landowners, property developers, the relevant professionals and communities on the positive effects and significant relationships between landscape architecture and property development.

  5. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late nineteenth century, landscape protection in the deserts of the Southwest, United States of America, like many places worldwide, has been driven by the conservation of landscape icons, such as unusual geological features in wilderness areas. Yet, in the past two decades, leading conservation scholars worldwide have called for a shift in this paradigm to one that emphasises landscape systems, which is based on holistic landscape ecology. The shift in emphas is to landscape systems opens new opportunities to protect desert landscape systems at the regional scale rather than just remnant patches at the local scale. In this paper, the authors present, for public consideration, a typology of the five major desert landscapes that can be used as the bas is for protecting regional landscape systems in the deserts of the Southwest. As a case study, several representative examples of recent regional open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area are analysed and compared with the typology in order to understand how successfully the projects have addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert.

  6. Adjustment of geochemical background by robust multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional analyses of exploration geochemical data assume that the background is a constant or slowly changing value, equivalent to a plane or a smoothly curved surface. However, it is better to regard the geochemical background as a rugged surface, varying with changes in geology and environment. This rugged surface can be estimated from observed geological, geochemical and environmental properties by using multivariate statistics. A method of background adjustment was developed and applied to groundwater and stream sediment reconnaissance data collected from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Source-rock lithology appears to be a dominant factor controlling the chemical composition of groundwater or stream sediments. The most efficacious adjustment procedure is to regress uranium concentration on selected geochemical and environmental variables for each lithologic unit, and then to delineate anomalies by a common threshold set as a multiple of the standard deviation of the combined residuals. Robust versions of regression and RQ-mode principal components analysis techniques were used rather than ordinary techniques to guard against distortion caused by outliers Anomalies delineated by this background adjustment procedure correspond with uranium prospects much better than do anomalies delineated by conventional procedures. The procedure should be applicable to geochemical exploration at different scales for other metals. ?? 1985.

  7. Orientation geochemical survey for uranium exploration using 230Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dingliang.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of 230 Th in soils, rocks and ores and its relationship with respect to uranium ore formation are discussed for its possible use in geochemical exploration for U. 230 Th, U and Ra, being members of the same decay series, are different in their geochemical behavior upon which the study is orientated. Twenty uranium deposits and occurrences located in western and southern Hunan province are tested. Geochemical data obtained are comprehensively correlated. It is suggested that 230 Th is useful not only in U-Ra disequilibrium study but also in understanding the geochemical evolution of U ores. The data aid to interpret the genesis of uranium deposits and to assess the radioactive anomalies and uranium-bearing zones. Therefore, it can be adopted as a tool for searching in deep-buried uranium ores. The field procedure is rather simple and flexible to meet any geological environment. It is easy to read out and is less influnced by any kind of interference. In case of disequilibrium caused by oxidation and reduction during the period of ore formation it still gives good indication compared with that of radiometry, radonmetry and geochemical sampling for U

  8. Advanced cost-effective surface geochemical techniques for oil/gas/uranium exploration, environmental assessments and pipeline monitoring - a template for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, Paul; Chanrasekharan, G.Y.V.N.; Rajender Rao, S.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced geochemical soil gas methods have been successfully developed for the exploration of oil/gas/uranium and for environmental assessments. Application of these cost-effective technologies in India can substantially reduce exploration risk while accelerating the development of oil/gas/uranium onshore resources. A reliable and effective monitoring system using geochemical soil gas surveys ensures that CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery operations as well as CO 2 sequestration projects are safe and acceptable for the disposal of CO 2 , Soil gas surveys along with other technologies can also be applied for monitoring of oil/gas pipelines for leakage, especially those that are old or pass through populated regions

  9. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  10. Sources to the landscape - detailed spatiotemporal analysis of 200 years Danish landscape dynamics using unexploited historical maps and aerial photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Dupont, Henrik

    to declassification of military maps and aerial photos from the cold war, only relatively few sources have been made available to researchers due to lacking efforts in digitalization and related services. And even though the digitizing of cartographic material has been accelerated, the digitally available materials...... or to the commercial photo series from the last 20 years. This poster outlines a new research project focusing on the potential of unexploited cartographic sources for detailed analysis of the dynamic of the Danish landscape between 1800 – 2000. The project draws on cartographic sources available in Danish archives...... of material in landscape change studies giving a high temporal and spatial resolution. The project also deals with the opportunity and constrain of comparing different cartographic sources with diverse purpose and time of production, e.g. different scale and quality of aerial photos or the difference between...

  11. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in climate may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between climatic change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic climatic data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the climatic driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the effects of changes in climate on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado

  12. Geochemical Modeling Of F Area Seepage Basin Composition And Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.

    2012-01-01

    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors affecting basin

  13. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  14. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Geophysical and geochemical techniques for exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittig, M.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed descriptive information in this book is based on 389 US patents that deal with geophysical and geochemical techniques useful for the exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals. Where it was necessary to round out the complete technological picture, a few paragraphs from cited government reports have been included. These techniques are used in prospecting for oil, coal, oil shale, tar sand and minerals. The patents are grouped under the following chapters: geochemical prospecting; geobiological prospecting; geophysical exploration; magnetic geophysical prospecting; gravitational geophysical prospecting; electrical geophysical prospecting; nuclear geophysical prospecting; seismic geophysical prospecting; and exploratory well drilling. This book serves a double purpose in that it supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the US patent literature in this field. By indicating all the information that is significant, and eliminating legal jargon and juristic phraseology, this book presents an advanced, industrially oriented review of modern methods of geophysical and geochemical exploration techniques

  16. Geochemical methods for identification of formations being prospective for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, A.M.; Komarova, N.I.; Spiridonov, A.A.; Shor, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geochemical methods of uranium content evaluation in metamorphic, ultrametamorphic and sedimentary formations are considered. At that, the following four factors are of the highest importance: 1) average uranium content-geochemical background; 2) character of uranium distribution; 3) forms of uranium presence; 4) the value of thorium-uranium ratio. A complex of radiogeochemical criteria, favourable for uranium presence is formulated: high average background content of total and '' mobile''uranium and high value of variation coefficient (80-100% and above); low (approximately one or lower) thorium-uranium ratio; sharp increase in uranium concentration in accessory minerals. Radiogeochemical peculiarities of metamorphic and ultrametamorphic formations prospective for uranium are enumerated. The peculiarities condition specificity of geochemical prospecting methods. Prospecting methods first of all must be directed at the evaluation of radioelement distribution parameters and specification of the forms of their presence

  17. Landscape and land use history of Eurajoki between 1840 and 2007: Analysis of geographical data and landscape transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, T.; Kaeyhkoe, N.

    2011-11-01

    Posiva and the University of Turku Laboratory of Computer Cartography (UTU-LCC) agreed in 2010-2011 to conduct a joint research project about the development of the landscape of Eurajoki municipal. The project included transformation of digital historical cadastral maps into spatial data that can be analyzed and visualized with desktop GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Posiva is going to use the historical spatial data created in this project in their next Biosphere Description -report. Titta Koistinen (BSc) from the department of Geography and Geology produced and analyzed the data and docent Niina Kaeyhkoe (University of Turku), Jani Helin (MSc) and Ari Ikonen (MSc) supervised the work. The used methods and fundamental results of the project are represented in this report. The research about the transformation of the rural landscape of Eurajoki is going to continue in the Master's Thesis of Titta Koistinen. When studing scenarios and possible future landscapes of an area, the past landscape has an integral role. In addition historical maps have a key role in landscape transformation studies because they offer spatial data, information about the landscape features and land use of man, from the earlier decades and centuries. In Finland cadastral maps span as far as to the 17th century. Unfortunately this time scale covers only part of the country. Transforming of historical cartographic data into digital spatial data includes many concerns and requires caution. However when the process is conducted well, historical spatial data can provide new possibilities in analyzing, modelling and visualizing of the landscape change and dynamics. In addition transformation to digital spatial data is the only way historical landscape information can be used together with modern spatial data products. In this report the whole transformation process of the digital cadastral maps into vectorized spatial data is depicted. This includes interpritation of the used maps

  18. Assessing man-induced environmental changes in the Sepetiba Bay (Southeastern Brazil) with geochemical and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel Ferreira; Peres, Lucas G. M.; Yepez, Santiago; Mulholland, Daniel S.; Machado, Wilson; Tonhá, Myller; Garnier, Jérémie

    2017-10-01

    The Sepetiba Bay, Southeastern Brazil, has undergone intense environmental changes due to anthropogenic influence. This work aims to: (i) evaluate the changes in the drainage landscape use over the last decades, (ii) identify new and past punctual and diffuse anthropogenic sources and assess risks of man-induced disturbances of the coastal zones of Sepetiba. A multivariate statistics approach on the sediment's elemental geochemical dataset discriminated three groups: the electroplating waste-affected elements (As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), terrigenous elements (Si, K, Ti, Al and Fe), and biogenic and carbonate-derived elements (Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Ni, and Cr). Sediment core profiles of trace elements evidence records of former environmental impacts from old metallurgical wastes. Analysis of two Landsat images from 30 years ago and 2015 reveals a decrease in the mangrove area of nearly 26%. The ongoing suppression of mangroves could enhance the release of trace elements into the Sepetiba Bay, increasing the risks to human and biota health.

  19. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  20. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  1. Geochemical composition of permafrost-affected soils around the town Tiksi, Northern Yakutia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcibor, Iuliia; Eschenbach, Annette; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2014-05-01

    Northeastern Siberia represents an area remote from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. However, a risk of airborne pollution by trace metals from anthropogenic sources connected to the settlements exists. The largest of these are the settlements Tiksi (71° 42' 55.6" N, 128° 48' 46.3" E) and Kyusyur (70° 45' 41.7" N, 127° 23' 04.7" E). The area of Tiksi is located between the Lena River and the Kharaulach River mouths. It covers parts of Primorsky Ridge and Kharaulach Mountains which are a part of the Verkhoyansk Range. The objective of this study was to investigate features of the spatial element distribution in representative landscape-geochemical units of the Tiksi area and to identify whether local pollution from the settlement takes place. The physical and chemical properties of soils were accessed at three sites located radially in the immediate vicinity to the town Tiksi and one control site remote 10 km south from the settlement. The elements measured were As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils. Differences in the element content were found for various relief forms (depressions, slopes, and elevations). The coefficient of soil buffer capacity (Bf) for the surface soil horizons in depressions was the highest (Bf > 40 %) for the majority of elements indicating their intensive accumulation there. In the surface soil horizons of elevated landscape forms the coefficient, by contrast showed low to very low soil buffer capacity to accumulate metals (0 % acid-base barriers. No significant difference in metal distribution among studied sites was revealed, except for the western site which was characterized by the highest median Ni concentration. The data suggest that ecological impacts at the studied sites were low except for one site north to Tiksi where signs of local pollution probably as a result of local emissions of fuel and mining operations were detected. Keywords: Trace metals; Russian Arctic; Northeastern Siberia; Permafrost

  2. Analysis of land consolidation projects and their impact on land use change, landscape structure, and agricultural land resource protection: case studies of Pilsen-South and Pilsen-North (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, J.; Koupilová, M.; Pavlíček, T.; Zemek, František; Kvítek, T.; Pečenka, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13 ISSN 1860-1871 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : land consolidation * land use change * land scape structure * soil protection * grassing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.692, year: 2016

  3. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  4. Effect of source integration on the geochemical fluxes from springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Phillips, Fred M.; White, Art F.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Liu, Fengjing

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical fluxes from watersheds are typically defined using mass-balance methods that essentially lump all weathering processes operative in a watershed into a single flux of solute mass measured in streamflow at the watershed outlet. However, it is important that we understand how weathering processes in different hydrological zones of a watershed (i.e., surface, unsaturated, and saturated zones) contribute to the total geochemical flux from the watershed. This capability will improve understanding of how geochemical fluxes from these different zones may change in response to climate change. Here, the geochemical flux from weathering processes occurring solely in the saturated zone is investigated. This task, however, remains exceedingly difficult due to the sparsity of subsurface sampling points, especially in large, remote, and/or undeveloped watersheds. In such cases, springflow is often assumed to be a proxy for groundwater (defined as water residing in fully saturated geologic formations). However, springflow generation may integrate different sources of water including, but not limited to, groundwater. The authors’ hypothesis is that long-term estimates of geochemical fluxes from groundwater using springflow proxies will be too large due to the integrative nature of springflow generation. Two conceptual models of springflow generation are tested using endmember mixing analyses (EMMA) on observations of spring chemistries and stable isotopic compositions in a large alpine watershed in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. In the “total springflow” conceptual model, springflow is assumed to be 100% groundwater. In the “fractional springflow” conceptual model, springflow is assumed to be an integration of different sources of water (e.g., groundwater, unsaturated flow, preferential flow in the soil, etc.) and groundwater is only a fractional component. The results indicate that groundwater contributions in springflow range from 2% to 100

  5. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  6. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Salt Lake City, Utah. This is one in a series of site specific geochemical investigations performed on the inactive uranium mill tailings included in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results will be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples were water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were anlyzed for the major and trace elements. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Four major conclusions are: (1) sediments in the ditches and creeks adjacent to the site contain tailings, however, the waters were generally not contaminated; (2) tailings are mixed with the soils within a meter below the tailings in some locations, however, water-soluble contaminants decrease to below background levels within 30 cm below the tailings; (3) there has not been significant acid seepage into the soils below the tailings; and (4) salt crusts on the tailings contain trace elements, with the elements that form chloride complexes having the greatest accumulation

  7. Landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in a Nordic context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Reinvang, Rasmus; Zandersen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services in the form of experiences derived from landscapes are potentially important, but often overlooked. Given the large and unprecedented landscape changes many of the Nordic countries are undergoing, there is a need to find ways of including people’s preferences and the v......Cultural ecosystem services in the form of experiences derived from landscapes are potentially important, but often overlooked. Given the large and unprecedented landscape changes many of the Nordic countries are undergoing, there is a need to find ways of including people’s preferences...... and decision-making contexts in the Nordics. The literature demonstrates potentially high unaccounted welfare loss from landscape change. We find clear weaknesses in current practices, that a second phase will try to address. The project was carried out by Vista Analysis in Oslo and Department of Environmental...

  8. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied

  9. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Theresa Burcsu

    2010-01-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide...

  10. A landscape plan based on historical fire regimes for a managed forest ecosystem: the Augusta Creek study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Cissel; Frederick J. Swanson; Gordon E. Grant; Deanna H. Olson; Gregory V. Stanley; Steven L. Garman; Linda R. Ashkenas; Matthew G. Hunter; Jane A. Kertis; James H. Mayo; Michelle D. McSwain; Sam G. Swetland; Keith A. Swindle; David O. Wallin

    1998-01-01

    The Augusta Creek project was initiated to establish and integrate landscape and watershed objectives into a landscape plan to guide management activities within a 7600-hectare (19,000-acre) planning area in western Oregon. Primary objectives included the maintenance of native species, ecosystem processes and structures, and long-term ecosystem productivity in a...

  11. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    by practical problems of European cultural – especial agricultural – landscapes since the rise of the environmental movement. Central themes have been the consequences of technological and structural changes within European agriculture for the landscape and the development of habitats and dispersal...... Problemstellungen basieren auf multifunktionalen Nutzungskonzepten ruraler Landschaften, besonders im Hinblick auf Suburbanisierungsprozesse. Eine Anzahl untereinander vergleichbarer Projekte, mit parallelen bis ähnlichen Ausprägungen innerhalb Dänemarks und weiteerer europäischer Länder, werden exemplarisch...

  12. Navigating the Interface Between Landscape Genetics and Landscape Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Storfer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequencing data become increasingly available for non-model organisms, a shift has occurred in the focus of studies of the geographic distribution of genetic variation. Whereas landscape genetics studies primarily focus on testing the effects of landscape variables on gene flow and genetic population structure, landscape genomics studies focus on detecting candidate genes under selection that indicate possible local adaptation. Navigating the transition between landscape genomics and landscape genetics can be challenging. The number of molecular markers analyzed has shifted from what used to be a few dozen loci to thousands of loci and even full genomes. Although genome scale data can be separated into sets of neutral loci for analyses of gene flow and population structure and putative loci under selection for inference of local adaptation, there are inherent differences in the questions that are addressed in the two study frameworks. We discuss these differences and their implications for study design, marker choice and downstream analysis methods. Similar to the rapid proliferation of analysis methods in the early development of landscape genetics, new analytical methods for detection of selection in landscape genomics studies are burgeoning. We focus on genome scan methods for detection of selection, and in particular, outlier differentiation methods and genetic-environment association tests because they are the most widely used. Use of genome scan methods requires an understanding of the potential mismatches between the biology of a species and assumptions inherent in analytical methods used, which can lead to high false positive rates of detected loci under selection. Key to choosing appropriate genome scan methods is an understanding of the underlying demographic structure of study populations, and such data can be obtained using neutral loci from the generated genome-wide data or prior knowledge of a species

  13. Teaching Basic Field Skills Using Screen-Based Virtual Reality Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J.; Robinson, A.; Gordon, C.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Morgan, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    We are using screen-based virtual reality landscapes, created using the Unity 3D game engine, to augment the training geoscience students receive in preparing for fieldwork. Students explore these landscapes as they would real ones, interacting with virtual outcrops to collect data, determine location, and map the geology. Skills for conducting field geological surveys - collecting, plotting and interpreting data; time management and decision making - are introduced interactively and intuitively. As with real landscapes, the virtual landscapes are open-ended terrains with embedded data. This means the game does not structure student interaction with the information as it is through experience the student learns the best methods to work successfully and efficiently. These virtual landscapes are not replacements for geological fieldwork rather virtual spaces between classroom and field in which to train and reinforcement essential skills. Importantly, these virtual landscapes offer accessible parallel provision for students unable to visit, or fully partake in visiting, the field. The project has received positive feedback from both staff and students. Results show students find it easier to focus on learning these basic field skills in a classroom, rather than field setting, and make the same mistakes as when learning in the field, validating the realistic nature of the virtual experience and providing opportunity to learn from these mistakes. The approach also saves time, and therefore resources, in the field as basic skills are already embedded. 70% of students report increased confidence with how to map boundaries and 80% have found the virtual training a useful experience. We are also developing landscapes based on real places with 3D photogrammetric outcrops, and a virtual urban landscape in which Engineering Geology students can conduct a site investigation. This project is a collaboration between the University of Leeds and Leeds College of Art, UK, and all

  14. Urban Landscapes and Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Andersson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research targeting sustainable urban landscapes needs to include findings and methods from many lines of ecological research, such as the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function, the role of humans in ecosystems, landscape connectivity, and resilience. This paper reviews and highlights the importance of these issues for sustainable use of ecosystem services, which is argued to be one aspect of sustainable cities. The paper stresses the need to include social and economic factors when analyzing urban landscapes. Spatially explicit data can be used to assess the roles different green areas have in providing people with ecosystem services, and whether people actually have access to the services. Such data can also be used to assess connectivity and heterogeneity, both argued to be central for continuous, long-term provision of these services, and to determine the role urban form has for sustainability.

  15. Transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River: sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior of transuranic and other long-lived radionuclides in the lower Columbia River are summarized. Inventories have been estimated from the measured activities of the different radionuclides in 50 cores raised in 1977 and 1978, while annual export of transuranic radionuclides was determined from monthly water collections in the estuary. Continental shelf inventories of Pu and Am isotopes have been estimated using excess 210 Pb inventories and the mean 210 Pb//sup 239,240/Pu inventory ratio of 100 +/- 19 observed in representative cores raised from the shelf. Despite the substantial past addition of radioactivity to the river from operation of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford, the amounts of reactor-derived radionuclides in river sediments are small relative to fallout-derived nuclides. Erosional processes have mobilized both fallout-derived /sup 239,240/Pu and 137 Cs from the landscape to the river, but the quantities involved represent <1% of their fallout inventories within the river's drainage basin. 36 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Legible landscapes: the use of narratives in landscape design for leisure and tourism in Dutch cultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, leisure and tourism have become significant factors in rural development, which is manifest in the ‘commodification’ of landscapes. However, leisure and tourist markets are very competitive and consumers increasingly demand high quality, unique and memorable experiences. Landscape

  17. The study of the landscape: from a holistic approach to a social concept of knowledges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Badiali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three examples of the study and enhancement of the landscape in Italy are presented. The interdisciplinary approach to this topic is carried out not simply by juxtaposing disciplines, but by the integration of different ambits. In this way, disjunctive thought is substituted by a holistic approach that produces communication more appropriate to research. This offers the scientists a tool that is of paramount importance for their studies, and for ordinary citizens, a new way of considering the landscape. Example 1: Sustainable tourism and man–landscape relationships: Ecomuseum, Castello di Serravalle (Bologna. By studying the landscape of a hilly wine-producing area, it has been possible to observe the signs of reciprocal man–environment interactions that have characterized the area for over two millennia. For this reason, an Ecomuseum was founded, to provide an efficient tool for the enhancement of sustainable tourism, and also to popularize knowledge of local cultural heritage among the citizens. Example 2: Lago Bracciano near Montese (Modena: re-assessment of an Apennine area combining archeology, landscape and history. The landscape of areas containing historical settlements of local populations was reconstructed. This started with archeological and documentary data that had not yet been correlated, which was integrated with geological and geochemical data. In this way, a marginal tourism area has been improved by appraisal of its intrinsic cultural and historical values. Example 3: Geological elements and poetic trails in Frignano Park. This geological–literary itinerary starts from the assumption that there is a specific poetic and cultural value to the Modena Apennines that is linked to the morphological and geological features of this territory. Geology and literature become an accompaniment to a new pilgrimage of knowledge.

  18. Comments on geochemical aspects of SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou

    2000-01-01

    The Swedish Government has asked SKB to carry out a safety assessment of the KBS-3 disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel 'to demonstrate that the KBS-3 method has good prospects of being able to meet the safety and radiation protection requirements which SKI and SSI have specified in recent years.' The results of that assessment, referred to as SR 97, have recently been published. The present report summarizes the results of a review of selected geochemical aspects of SR 97. These subjects include the hydrochemical evolution of a defective canister, thermodynamic data supporting estimates of radioelement solubilities, modeling of near-field chemistry and analyses of the effects of ice melting on propagation of an oxidizing front to repository depths. The primary focus of the review is on the canister-defect scenario, and, more specifically, on supporting analyses of the hydromechanical evolution of a defective canister. The results of these analyses figure prominently in the safety assessment because they suggest that even a defective canister will, in effect, remain dry for as long as 200,000 years. This is an important constraint because it is taken in SR 97 as the period of time required for a continuous water pathway to form in the near field. The transport of most radionuclides (i.e., those that do not exist as a gas) cannot occur until this pathway is formed. It is concluded that although SKBs hydromechanical models are sound, they may suffer from an over-simplification of the chemical processes involved. Analyses using the models do not acknowledge that the chemical system within the canister is open in all respects to the chemical system in the buffer. Instead, mass transfer across the defect at the canister-buffer interface is limited to liquid H 2 O and water vapor. Consideration of mass transfer of other gases [e.g., CO 2 and H 2 S] dissolved in buffer porewaters suggests that associated reactions involving the iron insert and inner surfaces of the

  19. Geochemical and hydrodynamic phosphorus retention mechanisms in lowland catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, B.

    2017-01-01

    The release of phosphorus (P) to surface water from heavily fertilised agricultural fields is of major importance for surface water quality. The research reported in this thesis examined the role of geochemical and hydrodynamic processes controlling P speciation and transport in lowland catchments

  20. Geothermal investigations with isotope and geochemical techniques in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) for Latin America on the Use of Isotope and Geochemical Techniques in Geothermal Exploration started in 1984. The first activity carried out was a Seminar on isotope and geochemical techniques in geothermal exploration, which took place in June 1984 in Morelia, Mexico. During the seminar, which was attended by representatives of the institutions which later took part in the programme, the objectives, main research lines, and geothermal fields to be studied during the CRP were discussed. The first research contracts were awarded towards the end of 1984. The field work started in 1985 and continued through 1990. During the implementation of the CRP a considerable number of geothermal fields were studied in the nine participating countries. The investigations carried out were geochemically quite comprehensive in most cases, but in some others they were still in a reconnaissance stage when the CRP ended: the latter studies are not reported in these proceedings, but the data obtained are in principle available from the relevant national institutions. While investigations with conventional geochemical techniques had already started in several fields before 1985, isotope methods were applied for the first time in all cases during this CRP. Due to the remoteness and high elevation of many of the fields studied and the adverse meteorological conditions during long periods of the year, the investigations could not proceed rapidly: this is the main reason for the unusually long duration of the CRP, which could be concluded only after more than five years after its inception

  1. Comparison of thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratillake, M.R.; Newton, G.W.A.; Robinson, V.J.

    1988-05-01

    Four thermodynamic databases used by European groups for geochemical modelling have been compared. Thermodynamic data for both aqueous species and solid species have been listed. When the values are directly comparable any differences between them have been highlighted at two levels of significance. (author)

  2. Overview of geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.J.; Wolery, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste management are discussed with an emphasis on data base development and computer code. Other areas for future research include: precipitation kinetics, fixed fugacity, sorption, glasslt. slashwater interactions, redox disequilibrium and kinetics, radiolysis, solid solutions, and isotopic fractionation. 15 references

  3. Geochemical trends in the weathered profiles above granite gneiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical trends in the weathered profiles above granite gneiss and schist of Abeokuta area, southwestern Nigeria. Anthony T Bolarinwa, Anthony A Elueze. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 19-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  4. Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in the Dange Formation Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Niveria. OA Adekeye, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 101-106. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  5. Geochemical characterization of the siliciclastic rocks of Chitravati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Somasekhar

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... Chitravati Group of Cuddapah Supergroup to decipher the provenance and depositional environment. Both the units ... Based on major element geochemical classification diagram, Pulivendla Quartzite .... The youngest age limit of the Nallamalai ...... eastern Oregon and western Idaho, USA: Implications for.

  6. Uruguay Mining inventory. Florida fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Artignan, D.; Vairon, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Florida fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory. In this work were covered 660 km2 obtaining 752 samples for study which were analyzed by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories

  7. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil ... Kalpana1 D J Patil1 A M Dayal1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500606, India.

  8. Uruguay Mining inventory. Las Animas fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Spangenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Las Animas fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory. In this work were covered 660 km2 obtaining 738 samples for study which were analyzed by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories.

  9. Uruguay Mining inventory. Minas fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Artignan, D.; Vairon, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Minas fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory. In this work were covered 380 km2 obtaining with 433 samples for study which were analized by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories

  10. Mining inventory of Uruguay. Polanco fotoplano geochemical prospecting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H; Artignan, D; Vairon, P

    1982-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out in Polanco fotoplano within the framework of Uruguay Mining inventory . In this work were covered 660 km2 obtaining 685 samples for study which were analyzed by Plasma Emission Spectrometry in Orleans BRGM laboratories

  11. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  12. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  13. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  14. Cooling towers in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cooling tower as a large technical construction is one of the most original industrial buildings. It sticks out as an outlandish element in our building landscape, a giant which cannot be compared with the traditional forms of technical buildings. If it is constructed as a reinforced-concrete hyperboloid, its shape goes beyond all limits of building construction. Judgment of these highly individual constructions is only possible by applying a novel standard breaking completely with tradition. This new scale of height and dimension in industrial construction, and in particular the modern cooling tower, requires painstaking care and design and adaptation to the landscape around it. (orig.) [de

  15. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 6: Site-specific natural geochemical concentrations and fluxes at the Palmottu U-Th mineralisation (Finland) for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaija, J.; Blomqvist, R.; Rasilainen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Research activities focused on field studies at the Palmottu U-Th mineralisation at Nummi-Pusula in southwestern Finland in order to increase the data on groundwater chemistry of the overburden, to gather additional information of the Quaternary deposit concentrations of the previously recognised Eastern Flow System and Palmottu Brook valley. Also U inventories were estimated for a 300 m x 500 m x 250 bedrock block. From the Palmottu uranium-thorium-mineralisation there are a lot of geochemical data available from mineral phases, bedrock, peat, soil cover, lake sediments, groundwater both in the overburden and in bedrock. Especially data about the uranium concentrations in different media is comprehensive. This data can be used for the PA repository performance assessment and related calculations. The main important contributions for the performance assessment of repositories for radioactive waste are summarized in the following: 1) there are indications in the oxygen isotope composition of the groundwater, which suggest that the site may have been subjected to deep (several hundred metres) penetration of glacial melt water. This melt water does not appear to have changed the reducing conditions prevailing below the upper hydraulically active zone. Another possible process, capable to generate the depleted oxygen isotope values is a freezing front under permafrost conditions, 2) Modelling of the redox and pH controls in a flow system supported that the rock would have sufficient redox buffering capacity to counteract deep penetration of oxidising conditions. Moreover, measured present-day redox potentials demonstrate that if oxidising conditions had penetrated to depth, the conditions have been restored to reducing, 3) Based on the occurrence of young uranophanes and uranium accumulations in association with fracture calcites, it can be concluded that a continuous alteration and oxygenating process is in progress at Palmottu. This process was also manifested by

  16. The shifting cross-media news landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Steeg Larsen, Bent

    2010-01-01

    and lifestyles. Theoretically the study is anchored in Habermas’s notion of the public sphere, and its recent reconceptualizations in theories of ‘cultural citizenship’, 'civic agency' and 'public connection'. The project operationalizes these theories through the concept of users' perceived “worthwhileness......The article offers new insights for democracy and for news producers by mapping the use and users of today’s cross-media news landscape, as the everyday consumption of news across the range of available news media and formats is shifting as a result of transformations of technology, culture......” of news media, a user-anchored concept which incorporates the different functionalities of the situational cross-media use of news by citizen/consumers in everyday life. Empirically the article presents the findings of a large-scale survey that traces the imminent challenges facing players in the news...

  17. The geochemical behavior of protactinium 231 and its chosen geochemical analogue thorium in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.

    1983-03-01

    To be able to judge whether protactinium 231 might represent a major contribution to the human radiation risk from high level radioactive waste a literature study of the geochemical behavior of protactinium has been made. The interest in protactinium determinations has, as far, been in the field of marine geochemistry and geochronology. These investigations show that thorium may be used as a chemical analogue. The content of protactinium 231 is determined by the 235 U content and consequently the occurrence of protactinium in nature is directly associated to the geochemistry of uranium. The pronounced hydrolytic tendency of protactinium and its great sorption and coprecipitation capacity ought to prevent or at least appreciably delay its transport from a back-filled nuclear waste vault to the uppermost surface of the earth. It also has a tendency to form colloids or particulates which may be strongly fixed on a rock surface. In adsorption and desorption processes kinetics must play an important role. Our knowledge in this field is quite limited. Under the physico-chemical conditions in the sea, protactinium is rapidly scavenged from the water column by particulates. It accumulates in the sediments. (author)

  18. Landscape history and archaeology of open field landscapes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071365303

    2016-01-01

    The landscapes of open fields were the grain baskets of medieval Europe. The term ‘open fields’ refers to the large arable fields that have an open character because the individual parcels of the owners were not surrounded by hedges, woodbanks, drystone walls or other visible boundaries. In this

  19. Site study plan for geochemical analytical requirements and methodologies: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan documents the analytical methodologies and procedures that will be used to analyze geochemically the rock and fluid samples collected during Site Characterization. Information relating to the quality aspects of these analyses is also provided, where available. Most of the proposed analytical procedures have been used previously on the program and are sufficiently sensitive to yield high-quality analyses. In a few cases improvements in analytical methodology (e.g., greater sensitivity, fewer interferences) are desired. Suggested improvements to these methodologies are discussed. In most cases these method-development activities have already been initiated. The primary source of rock and fluid samples for geochemical analysis during Site Characterization will be the drilling program, as described in various SRP Site Study Plans. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 28 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  20. The use of geochemical barriers for reducing contaminants emanating from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groffman, A.R.; Longmire, P.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Downs, W.

    1991-01-01

    A problem facing the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project is the contamination of local ground water by leachate emanating form the tailings piles. These fluids have a low pH and contain heavy metals and trace elements such as arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, and uranium. In order to meet ground water standards low hydraulic conductivity covers are installed over the tailings embankment. in some cases it may be necessary to install a geochemical barrier down gradient from the tailings embankment in order to remove the hazardous constituents. By using geochemical barriers to reduce undesirable species form a contaminant plume, fluids emanating form beneath a repository can in effect be scrubbed before entering the water table. Materials containing adsorbing clays, iron oxyhydroxides and zeolites, and reducing materials such as coal and peat, are being used effectively to attenuate contaminants form uranium mill tailings. Experiments to directly determine attenuation capacities of selected buffer/adsorption materials were conducted in the laboratory. Batch leach tests were conducted in lieu of column tests when the hydraulic conductivity of materials was too low to use in columns and shales