Sample records for geochemical gradients final

  1. DOE/SC0001389 Final technical report: Investigation of uranium attenuation and release at column and pore scales in response to advective geochemical gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Kaye S. [Wofford College; Zhu, Wenyi [Wofford College; Barnett, Mark O. [Auburn University


    Experimental approach Column experiments were devised to investigate the role of changing fluid composition on mobility of uranium through a sequence of geologic media. Fluids and media were chosen to be relevant to the ground water plume emanating from the former S-3 ponds at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFC) site. Synthetic ground waters were pumped upwards at 0.05 mL/minute for 21 days through layers of quartz sand alternating with layers of uncontaminated soil, quartz sand mixed with illite, quartz sand coated with iron oxides, and another soil layer. Increases in pH or concentration of phosphate, bicarbonate, or acetate were imposed on the influent solutions after each 7 pore volumes while uranium (as uranyl) remained constant at 0.1mM. A control column maintained the original synthetic groundwater composition with 0.1mM U. Pore water solutions were extracted to assess U retention and release in relation to the advective ligand or pH gradients. Following the column experiments, subsamples from each layer were characterized using microbeam X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence mapping and compared to sediment core samples from the ORIFC, at SSRL Beam Line 2-3. Results U retention of 55-67mg occurred in phosphate >pH >control >acetate >carbonate columns. The mass of U retained in the first-encountered quartz layer in all columns was highest and increased throughout the experiment. The rate of increase in acetate- and bicarbonate-bearing columns declined after ligand concentrations were raised. U also accumulated in the first soil layer; the pH-varied column retained most, followed by the increasing-bicarbonate column. The mass of U retained in the upper layers was far lower. Speciation of U, interpreted from microbeam XANES spectra and XRF maps, varied within and among the columns. Evidence of minor reduction to U(IV) was observed in the first-encountered quartz layer in the phosphate, bicarbonate

  2. Geochemical engineering problem identification and program description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.


    The Geochemical Engineering Program has as its goal the improvement of geochemical fluid management techniques. This document presents the strategy and status of the Geochemical Engineering Program. The magnitude and scope of geochemical-related problems constraining geothermal industry productivity are described. The goals and objectives of the DGE Geochemical Engineering Program are defined. The rationale and strategy of the program are described. The structure, priorities, funding, and management of specific elements within the program are delineated, and the status of the overall program is presented.

  3. Microscale geochemical gradients in Hanford 300 Area sediment biofilms and influence of uranium. (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Duc; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M; Fredrickson, Jim K; Beyenal, Haluk


    The presence and importance of microenvironments in the subsurface at contaminated sites were suggested by previous geochemical studies. However, no direct quantitative characterization of the geochemical microenvironments had been reported. We quantitatively characterized microscale geochemical gradients (dissolved oxygen (DO), H(2), pH, and redox potential) in Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms. Our results revealed significant differences in geochemical parameters across the sediment biofilm/water interface in the presence and absence of U(VI) under oxic and anoxic conditions. While the pH was relatively constant within the sediment biofilm, the redox potential and the DO and H(2) concentrations were heterogeneous at the microscale (<500-1000 μm). We found microenvironments with high DO levels (DO hotspots) when the sediment biofilm was exposed to U(VI). On the other hand, we found hotspots (high concentrations) of H(2) under anoxic conditions both in the presence and in the absence of U(VI). The presence of anoxic microenvironments inside the sediment biofilms suggests that U(VI) reduction proceeds under bulk oxic conditions. To test this, we operated our biofilm reactor under air-saturated conditions in the presence of U(VI) and characterized U speciation in the sediment biofilm. U L(III)-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) showed that 80-85% of the U was in the U(IV) valence state.

  4. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Barge, Laurie


    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  5. Geochemical and Mineralogical Changes in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite Submitted to Heat and Water Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.


    A 20-cm high column of MX80 bentonite compacted at dry density 1.70 g/cm{sup 3} with an initial water content of 16 percent was submitted to heating and hydration by opposite ends for 496 days (TH test). The temperature at the bottom of the column was set at 140 degree centigrade and on top at 30 degree centigrade, and deionised water was injected on top at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. Upon dismantling water content, dry density, mineralogy, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, content of exchangeable cations, and concentration of soluble salts and pH of aqueous extracts were determined in different positions along the bentonite column. The pore water composition was modelled with a geochemical software. The test tried to simulate the conditions of an engineered barrier in a deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. The water intake and distribution of water content and dry density along the bentonite were conditioned by the thermal gradient. Liquid water did not penetrate into the column beyond the area in which the temperature was higher than 100 degree centigrade. A convection cell was formed above this area, and liquid water loaded with ions evaporated towards cooler bentonite as it reached the area where the temperature was too high. In this area precipitation of mineral phases took place, Advection, interlayer exchange and dissolution/precipitation processes conditioned the composition of the pore water along the column. In most of the column the pore water was Na-SO{sub 4} {sup 2}- type, and changed to Na-Cl near the heater. TH treatment did not cause significant changes in the smectite content or the other mineral phases of the bentonite. (Author) 41 refs.

  6. Geochemical Processes and compacted bentonite FEBEX with a thermohydraulic gradient with a thermohydraulic gradient; Procesos geoquimicos y modificaciones texturales en bentonita FEBEX compactada sometida a un gradiente termohidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguey Jimenez, S.; Cuevas Rodriguez, J.; Martin Barca, M.; Vigil de la Villa Mencia, R.; Ramirez Martin, S.; Garcia Gimenez, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)


    At present, the main source of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is the electrical energy production during all sep of developing. In almost all the countries with nuclear programs, the option for the final management of HLW is the Deep Geological Repository (DGR), based on the concept of multi barrier. According to this concept, the wastes is isolated from biosphere by the interposition of confinement barrier. In the context of an investigation of the near field for a repository of HLW, the FEBEX Project, a set of laboratory test has been designed to give a better understanding of the thermo-hydro-mechanical and geochemical behaviour of the compacted bentonite as a confinement barrier. The object of these work is to analyse the properties of the bentonite and its behaviour under conditions that will be found in a repository. The precipitation of mineral phases, due to local changes in the chemical equilibrium and the hydration itself, can produce changes in the salinity of the interstitial water and in the microstructural organisation of the clay particles. the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the bentonite can be modified by the special conditions of the barrier. (Author)

  7. Analysis of the geochemical gradient created by surface-groundwater interactions within riverbanks of the East River in Crested Butte, Colorado (United States)

    Lunzer, J.; Williams, K. H.; Malenda, H. F.; Nararne-Sitchler, A.


    An improved understanding of the geochemical gradient created by the mixing of surface and groundwater of a river system will have considerable impact on our understanding of microorganisms, organic cycling and biogeochemical processes within these zones. In this study, the geochemical gradient in the hyporheic zone is described using a variety of geochemical properties. A system of shallow groundwater wells were installed in a series of transects along a stream bank. Each transect consists of several wells that progress away from the river bank in a perpendicular fashion. From these wells, temperature, conductivity and pH of water samples were obtained via hand pumping or bailing. These data show a clear geochemical gradient that displays a distinct zone in the subsurface where the geochemical conditions change from surface water dominated to groundwater dominated. For this study, the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado has been selected as the river of interest due the river being a relatively undisturbed floodplain. Additionally, the specific section chosen on the East River displays relatively high sinuosity meaning that these meandering sections will produce hyporheic zones that are more laterally expansive than what would be expected on a river of lower sinuosity. This increase in lateral extension of the hyporheic zone will make depicting the subtle changes in the geochemical gradient much easier than that of a river system in which the hyporheic zone is not as laterally extensive. Data has been and will be continued to be collected at different river discharges to evaluate the geochemical gradient at differing rates. Overall, this characterization of the geochemical gradient along stream banks will produce results that will aid in the further use of geochemical methods to classify and understand hyporheic exchange zones and the potential expansion of these techniques to river systems of differing geologic and geographic conditions.

  8. Diversity and geochemical structuring of bacterial communities along a salinity gradient in a carbonate aquifer subject to seawater intrusion. (United States)

    Héry, Marina; Volant, Aurélie; Garing, Charlotte; Luquot, Linda; Elbaz Poulichet, Françoise; Gouze, Philippe


    In aquifers subject to saline water intrusion, the mixing zone between freshwater and saltwater displays strong physico-chemical gradients. Although the microbial component of these specific environments has been largely disregarded, the contribution of micro-organisms to biogeochemical reactions impacting water geochemistry has previously been conjectured. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare bacterial community diversity and composition along a vertical saline gradient in a carbonate coastal aquifer using high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. At different depths of the mixing zone, stable geochemical and hydrological conditions were associated with autochthonous bacterial communities harboring clearly distinct structures. Diversity pattern did not follow the salinity gradient, although multivariate analysis indicated that salinity was one of the major drivers of bacterial community composition, with organic carbon, pH and CO2 partial pressure. Correlation analyses between the relative abundance of bacterial taxa and geochemical parameters suggested that rare taxa may contribute to biogeochemical processes taking place at the interface between freshwater and saltwater. Bacterial respiration or alternative metabolisms such as sulfide oxidation or organic acids production may be responsible for the acidification and the resulting induced calcite dissolution observed at a specific depth of the mixing zone.

  9. An assessment of an environmental gradient using coral geochemical records, Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; McCulloch, M T; Mallela, J; Jupiter, S D; Williams, H Stuart; Lough, J M; Matson, E G


    Coral cores were collected along an environmental and water quality gradient through the Whitsunday Island group, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), for trace element and stable isotope analysis. The primary aim of the study was to examine if this gradient could be detected in coral records and, if so, whether the gradient has changed over time with changing land use in the adjacent river catchments. Y/Ca was the trace element ratio which varied spatially across the gradient, with concentrations progressively decreasing away from the river mouths. The Ba/Ca and Y/Ca ratios were the only indicators of change in the gradient through time, increasing shortly after European settlement. The Mn/Ca ratio responded to local disturbance related to the construction of tourism infrastructure. Nitrogen isotope ratios showed no apparent trend over time. This study highlights the importance of site selection when using coral records to record regional environmental signals. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.


    To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.

  11. Low temperature geomicrobiology follows host rock composition along a geochemical gradient in Lau Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Sylvan


    Full Text Available The East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC and Valu Fa Ridge (VFR comprise a ridge segment in the southwest Pacific Ocean where rapid transitions in the underlying mantle chemistry manifest themselves as gradients in seafloor rock geochemistry. We studied the geology and microbial diversity of three silicate rock samples and three inactive sulfide chimney samples collected, from north to south, at the vent fields Kilo Moana, ABE, Tui Malila and Mariner. This is the first study of microbial populations on basaltic andesite, which was sampled at Mariner vent field. Silicate rock geochemistry exhibits clear latitudinal trends that are mirrored by changes in bacterial community composition. α-proteobacteria, ε-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are most common on a silicate collected from Kilo Moana and their proportions decrease linearly on silicates collected further south. Conversely, a silicate from Mariner vent field hosts high proportions of a unique lineage of Chloroflexi unrelated (<90% sequence similarity to previously recovered environmental clones or isolates, which decrease at ABE and are absent at Kilo Moana. The exteriors of inactive sulfide structures are dominated by lineages of sulfur oxidizing α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and ε-proteobacteria while the interior of one chimney is dominated by putative sulfur-reducing δ-proteobacteria. A comparison of bacterial communities on inactive sulfides from this and previous studies reveals the presence of a clade of uncultured Bacteroidetes exclusive to sulfidic environments, and a high degree of heterogeneity in bacterial community composition from one sulfide structure to another. In light of the heterogeneous nature of bacterial communities observed here and in previous studies of both active and inactive hydrothermal sulfide structures, the presence of numerous niches may be detected on these structures in the future by finer scale sampling and analysis.

  12. Electroceramic functional gradient materials. Final report 1995 - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft Soerensen, O. [ed.


    In this programme the research and development is focused on electroceramic materials, which are of direct interest for the Danish producers of electronic components (AMP Danmark) and ceramic gas sensors (PBI-Dansensor) as well as companies involved in development of fuel cells (Haldor Topsoee). The R and D work has been focused on strategic materials research, both application oriented and more basic research, and on development of new techniques for fabrication of EFGM (Electroceramic Functional Gradient Materials) of three types: LC circuit materials (electronic noise filters), oxides for electrochemical reactors and solid oxide fuel cell applications (SOFC) and materials (semiconductors, oxygen ion conductors) for oxygen sensors. This work has been carried out in five projects: 1) Integrated filter components; 2) Electrochemical reactor materials; 3) Oxygen sensors based on semiconductors and oxygen ion conductors; 4) Interface models - synthesis and characterisation; 5) Suppression of cracking in multilayered ceramic materials. (EHS)

  13. Rank gradient in co-final towers of certain Kleinian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Girão, Darlan


    We prove that if the fundamental group of an orientable finite volume hyperbolic 3-manifold has finite index in the reflection group of a right-angled ideal polyhedra in $\\mathbb{H}^3$ then it has a co-final tower of finite sheeted covers with positive rank gradient. The manifolds we provide are also known to have co-final towers of covers with zero rank gradient.

  14. Transition of microbiological and sedimentological features associated with the geochemical gradient in a travertine mound in northern Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Sugihara, Chiya; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Okumura, Tomoyo; Takashima, Chizuru; Harijoko, Agung; Kano, Akihiro


    Modern travertines, carbonate deposits in Ca-rich hydrothermal water with high pCO2, often display a changing environment along the water path, with corresponding variability in the microbial communities. We investigated a travertine-bearing hot spring at the Blue Pool in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The thermal water of 62 °C with high H2S (200 μM) and pCO2 ( 1 atm) developed a travertine mound 70 m wide. The concentrations of the gas components H2S and CO2, decrease immediately after the water is discharged, while the dissolved oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation increase in the downstream direction. Responding to the geochemical gradient in the water, the surface biofilms change color from white to pink, light-green, dark-green, and brown as the water flows from the vent; this corresponds to microbial communities characterized by chemolithoautotrophs (Halothiobacillaceae), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), Anaerolineaceae, and co-occurrence of green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexales)-Cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales), respectively. In an environment with a certain level of H2S (> 1 μM), sulfur digestion and anoxygenic photosynthesis can be more profitable than oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria. The precipitated carbonate mineral consists of aragonite and calcite, with the proportion of aragonite increasing downstream due to the larger Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratio in the water or the development of thicker biofilm. Where the biofilm is well developed, the aragonite travertines often exhibit laminated structures that were likely associated with the daily metabolism of these bacteria. The microbiological and sedimentological features at the Blue Pool may be the modern analogs of geomicrobiological products in the early Earth. Biofilm of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria had the potential to form ancient stromatolites that existed before the appearance of cyanobacteria.

  15. Geochemical and isotope characterization of geothermal spring waters in Sri Lanka: Evidence for steeper than expected geothermal gradients (United States)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Subasinghe, N. D.; Merten, Dirk; Dissanayake, C. B.


    SummarySeven geothermal springs from the Precambrian high-grade metamorphic terrain of Sri Lanka were investigated to assess their formation processes and to determine reservoir temperatures based on their chemical compositions. Silica-based geothermometric calculations for the Marangala and Nelumwewa springs showed the highest average reservoir temperatures of 122 °C and 121 °C, respectively. Samples of low temperature (isotope ratios 2H/1H and 18O/16O (expressed as δ2HH2O and δ18OH2O). Discharge temperatures of the thermal waters varied from 39-62 °C. These waters showed low concentrations of selected trace elements (Fe Cu isotope compositions of geothermal waters ranged from -6.5 to -5.0‰ for δ18OH2O and between -39 ‰ to -28 ‰ for δ2HH2O. In the non-geothermal waters, the isotope values were almost identical within the analytical uncertainties of 0.1‰ and 1‰ for δ2HH2O and δ18OH2O, respectively. In addition, all isotope ratios of geothermal and non-geothermal water samples scattered around the local meteoric water lines for the dry and intermediate climatic regions of Sri Lanka, thus indicating origin from precipitation without further influences of evaporation or water rock interaction. This similarity to the local meteoric water lines also makes influences of seawater an unlikely factor. Close matches of geochemical and isotope data from geothermal and corresponding non-geothermal waters confirm the hypothesis of a common source. The proposed model for Sri Lanka subsurface waters is that rainfall from the dry and/or intermediate climatic zones percolates with little time delay downward through structurally weaker zones in high-grade metamorphic rocks. They are subsequently heated by steep or heterogeneous geothermal gradients that are most likely associated with the Highland-Vijayan thrust zone.

  16. Geochemical and geologic factors effecting the formulation of gas hydrate: Task No. 5, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.


    The main objective of our work has been to determine the primary geochemical and geological factors controlling gas hydrate information and occurrence and particularly in the factors responsible for the generation and accumulation of methane in oceanic gas hydrates. In order to understand the interrelation of geochemical/geological factors controlling gas hydrate occurrence, we have undertaken a multicomponent program which has included (1) comparison of available information at sites where gas hydrates have been observed through drilling by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) on the Blake Outer Ridge and Middle America Trench; (2) regional synthesis of information related to gas hydrate occurrences of the Middle America Trench; (3) development of a model for the occurrence of a massive gas hydrate as DSDP Site 570; (4) a global synthesis of gas hydrate occurrences; and (5) development of a predictive model for gas hydrate occurrence in oceanic sediment. The first three components of this program were treated as part of a 1985 Department of Energy Peer Review. The present report considers the last two components and presents information on the worldwide occurrence of gas hydrates with particular emphasis on the Circum-Pacific and Arctic basins. A model is developed to account for the occurrence of oceanic gas hydrates in which the source of the methane is from microbial processes. 101 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. A. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)


    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  18. Final Report: Molecular Basis for Microbial Adhesion and Geochemical Surface Reactions: A Study Across Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama


    Computational chemistry was used to help provide a molecular level description of the interactions of Gram-negative microbial membranes with subsurface materials. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in microbial metal binding, microbial attachment to mineral surfaces, and, eventually, oxidation/reduction reactions (electron transfer) that can occur at these surfaces and are mediated by the bacterial exterior surface. The project focused on the interaction of the outer microbial membrane, which is dominated by an exterior lipopolysaccharide (LPS) portion, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the mineral goethite and with solvated ions in the environment. This was originally a collaborative project with T.P. Straatsma and B. Lowery of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The University of Alabama effort used electronic structure calculations to predict the molecular behavior of ions in solution and the behavior of the sugars which form a critical part of the LPS. The interactions of the sugars with metal ions are expected to dominate much of the microscopic structure and transport phenomena in the LPS. This work, in combination with the molecular dynamics simulations of Straatsma and the experimental electrochemistry and microscopy measurements of Lowry, both at PNNL, is providing new insights into the detailed molecular behavior of these membranes in geochemical environments. The effort at The University of Alabama has three components: solvation energies and structures of ions in solution, prediction of the acidity of the critical groups in the sugars in the LPS, and binding of metal ions to the sugar anions. An important aspect of the structure of the LPS membrane as well as ion transport in the LPS is the ability of the sugar side groups such as the carboxylic acids and the phosphates to bind positively charged ions. We are studying the acidity of the acidic side groups in order to better understand the ability of

  19. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.


    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

  20. Geochemical stratigraphy and correlation within large igneous provinces: The final preserved stages of the Faroe Islands Basalt Group (United States)

    Millett, J. M.; Hole, M. J.; Jolley, D. W.; Passey, S. R.


    The Faroe Islands Basalt Group (FIBG) comprises a gross stratigraphic thickness of over 6.5 km of dominantly extrusive basaltic facies erupted during the Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene. In this study we present 140 major and trace element analyses from flow by flow field and borehole sample profiles, through the Enni Formation, which comprises the final phase of volcanism preserved on the Faroe Islands. The sample profiles target geographically spaced and overlapping stratigraphic sequences tied relative to a 3D ArcGIS surface for the regionally extensive volcaniclastic Argir Beds marker unit. From these profiles five geochemical groups including one low TiO2 (Low-Ti 1.5 wt%) groups differentiated by Nb, Zr, Y and V variations are identified in conjunction with previous studies. The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of these groups is mapped across the islands and demonstrates a complex inter-digitated flow field evolution. Within the finer scale variations, broad spatial and temporal development trends are identified demonstrating the potential for correlation within the volcanic succession at the local, tens of kilometers scale. Low-Ti lavas formed in association with lithospheric thinning and developed extensive flow fields between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland contemporaneous to the eruption of High-Ti smaller melt fraction lava flows in both locations. The progression of High-Ti lava groups preserved on either side of the developing rift zone is very similar, but is not, however, chronostratigraphic due to multiple inter-digitations of the chemical types. We tentatively suggest that a previously proposed rift-oblique transfer zone between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland enabled non-uniform lithospheric thinning and the preservation of a near-continuous High-Ti melting region between these areas beyond the onset of Low-Ti eruptions which were initially fed from the west. This study highlights the complex nature of late stage flood basalt

  1. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fujita, Yoshiko [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  2. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.


    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  3. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.


    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20110462 Chen Furong(Anhui Institute of Geological Survey,Hefei 230001,China)Ore-Search Prospects of Gold and Tungsten Geochemical Anomalies in Ningdun Area,Anhui Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(2),2010,p.150-153,5 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)Key words:gold ores,tungsten ores,geochemical exploration,AnhuiGeochemical anomalies of gold and tungsten in Ningdun area are dominated by the element association of Au-As-W-Bi.These anomalies are well coincident with

  5. Final Report: Improved Site Characterization And Storage Prediction Through Stochastic Inversion Of Time-Lapse Geophysical And Geochemical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Mcnab, W; Hao, Y; White, D; Johnson, J


    During the last months of this project, our project activities have concentrated on four areas: (1) performing a stochastic inversion of pattern 16 seismic data to deduce reservoir bulk/shear moduli and density; the need for this inversion was not anticipated in the original scope of work, (2) performing a stochastic inversion of pattern 16 seismic data to deduce reservoir porosity and permeability, (3) complete the software needed to perform geochemical inversions and (4) use the software to perform stochastic inversion of aqueous chemistry data to deduce mineral volume fractions. This report builds on work described in progress reports previously submitted (Ramirez et al., 2009, 2010, 2011 - reports fulfilled the requirements of deliverables D1-D4) and fulfills deliverable D5: Field-based single-pattern simulations work product. The main challenge with our stochastic inversion approach is its large computational expense, even for single reservoir patterns. We dedicated a significant level of effort to improve computational efficiency but inversions involving multiple patterns were still intractable by project's end. As a result, we were unable to fulfill Deliverable D6: Field-based multi-pattern simulations work product.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20081182 Chen Guoguang(China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Zhou Guohua Eco-Geochemical Assessment Based On Geosciences(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,28(2),2007,p.79-84,2 tables,6 refs.)Key words:regional geochemical


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20131784 An Guoying(China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources,Beijing 100083,China);Lei Yingping Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenic Prospecting Areas in Yunkai Area,Guangxi(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,36


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20091835 Cheng Hangxin(School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Zhuang Guangmin The Cd Geochemical Province in the Source Area of the Yangtze River and the Output Fluxes of Cd for Its Major Water Systems(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,15(5),2008,p.203-211,5 illus.,5 tables,25 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:cadmium,geochemical province,Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau20091836 Cheng Hangxin(School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Yang Zhongfang A New Round of Global Geochemical


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20152642 Baoyinwuliji(Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey,Hohhot 010020,China);Zhao Wentao Geochemical Anomaly and Metallogenic Potential of the Naomugengsumu Lithium Mineralization Area in Inner Mongolia(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20122626 Li Dongfeng ( Liaoning Institute of Mineral Resources Exploration,Shenyang 110032,China ) Application of Comprehensive Geophysical-Geochemical Method in Toudao-yingzi Gold Field ( Journal of Liaoning Technical University ( Natural Sciences ), ISSN1008-0562,CN21-1379 / N,30 ( 6 ), 2011,p.849-852,1illus.,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:gold ores,geophysical exploration,geochemical exploration,Liaoning Province


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20151884 An Guoying(China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources,Beijing100083,China)Regional Geochemistry of Sanjiang Region in Yunnan Province and Its Copper-Polymetallic Prospecting Significance(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,

  12. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilger, R.H. Jr. (ed.)


    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  13. Signature lipid biomarkers for in situ microbial biomass, community structure and nutritional status of deep subsurface microbiota in relation to geochemical gradients. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Ringelberg, D.B.


    To obtain a better understanding of the microbial ecology of the deep subsurface, it was necessary to employ alternate techniques for the identification of microorganisms in situ. Classical microbiological techniques assay only those organisms which are culturable with bias occurring towards the media selected. Since culturable microorganisms typically represents only 0.1 to 10% of the extant microbiota, techniques for the direct assay of microorganisms in situ were needed. The analysis of cellular lipid biomarkers is a technique whereby microbial communities can be assayed directly in a variety of environmental matrices. Through the quantitative recovery of lipid biomarkers, estimations of cell biomass, community composition and community nutritional and/or physiological status can be obtained.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20111167 Cao Zhonghuang(Wuhan Iron & Steel Group Minerals Company,Wuhan 430063,China);Luo Xianrong Comparative Study of Copper-Nickel Deposit Exploration by the Geoelectro-chemical Extraction Method in Different Overburden Areas(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.476-482,4 illus.,5 tables,20 refs.)Key words:geo-electrochemical methods,copper ores,nickel ores,Gansu Province,Jilin Province The authors have made a comparative study of quantitative and qualitative analysis and application of the geoelectro-chemical extraction method in different overburden areas in southward extension of Jinchuan in Gansu Province and Hongqiling in Jilin Province.The authors found that this method extracted very few ions in arid areas covered with debris,but the prospecting effect was almost the same as that in moist areas covered with thick overburden.And this method could show objectively differences of geochemical characters

  15. Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST): A Pilot Field Experiment for Inter-Calibration of Biogeochemistry and Nucleic Acid Measurements Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronk, Deborah


    The Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST) project sought to correlate biogeochemical flux rates with measurements of gene expression and mRNA abundance to demonstrate the application of molecular approaches to estimate the presence and magnitude of a suite of biogeochemical processes. The study was headed by Lee Kerkhoff of Rutgers University. In this component of the GRIST study, we characterized ambient nutrient concentrations and measured uptake rates for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and dissolved free amino acids) during two diel studies at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  16. Pilot-scale field tests of high-gradient magnetic filtration. Final report, September 1977-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooding, C.H.


    The report gives results of using a 5100 cu m/hr mobile pilot plant to evaluate the effectiveness and economics of applying high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to particulate emission control. A 4-1/2 month test program was conducted at a Pennsylvania sintering plant to characterize the performance of the pilot plant and to demonstrate its practicality under long-term operation. Analysis of the results indicates that high-efficiency collection can be achieved economically if HGMF is applied to steel industry dusts that are more homogeneous and more strongly magnetic than the tested sinter dust. The report describes laboratory pilot-plant work that demonstrated collection efficiencies greater than 99% with basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace dusts. The development of a filter cleaning system and the design and construction of the pilot plant are discussed. Experimental data are reported.

  17. National Geochemical Database: Soil (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US...

  18. National Geochemical Database: Sediment (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment in...

  19. National Geochemical Database: Sediment (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment...

  20. Geochemical investigations into the retention of reactive carbon compounds for toxic heavy metals. Final report; Geochemische Untersuchungen zur Retention von reaktiven Kohlenstoffverbindungen fuer toxische Schwermetalle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, H.; Mansel, A.; Crustewitz, C.


    The composition, reactivity and stability of reactive organic carbon compounds adsorbed on geogenic matrices was investigated. The surface deposits of NOM and its dependence on geochemical parameters was investigated in selected geomatrices. The retention of toxic heavy metals on these surface deposits of NOM was investigated in consideration of the presence of hydroxy species and inorganic ligands. The investigations of the reactivity of the NOM species requires analyses of these compounds and of the heavy metals in the ultratracer region. This was possible by means of radiochemical methods that were further developed in the context of this project. Radioactive labeling of identified reactive carbon compounds, e.g. with radioactive iodine, on the one hand, and the use of radioactive Cu, Pb, Hg isotopes on the other hand enabled speciation analyses in the binary systems (heavy metal + geomatrix, heavy metal + reactive carbon compounds, reactive carbon compounds + geomatrix) and especially in the ternary system (heavy metal + geomatrix + reactive carbon compounds) in defined conditions. The special labelling techniques were a precondition for distribution measurements in the near-natural, low concentration range. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war es, mit der vorhandenen Analytik und Expertise die Zusammensetzung, die Reaktivitaet und die Stabilitaet der auf den geogenen Matrizes sorbierten reaktiven organischen Kohlenstoffverbindungen und die damit verbundenen Stoffumsaetze aufzuklaeren. An ausgewaehlten Geomatrizes wurde die Ausbildung von Oberflaechendepositen des NOM und deren Abhaengigkeit gegenueber geochemischen Parametern untersucht. Unter der Beruecksichtigung der Gegenwart von Hydroxyspezies und anorganischen Liganden wurde die Retention toxischer Schwermetalle an diesen Oberflaechendepositen des NOM untersucht. Die Untersuchungen zur Reaktivitaet der NOM-Spezies setzt eine Analytik dieser Verbindungen und der Schwermetalle im Ultraspurenbereich

  1. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Barbeau


    . As a co-PI in the NSF/OPP-funded project, I was responsible for iron addition incubation and radiotracer experiments, and analysis of iron chemistry, including iron-organic speciation. This final technical report describes the results of my DOE funded project to analyse reduced iron species using an FeLume flow injection analysis chemiluminescence system as an extension of my work on the NSF/OPP project. On the cruise in 2004, spatial and temporal gradients in Fe(II) were determined, and on-board incubations were conducted to study Fe(II) lifetime and production. Following the cruise a further series of experiments was conducted in my laboratory to study Fe(II) lifetimes and photoproduction under conditions typical of high latitude waters. The findings of this study suggest that, in contrast to results observed during mesoscale iron addition experiments, steady-state levels of Fe(II) are likely to remain low (below detection) even within a significant gradient in dissolved Fe concentrations produced as a result of natural iron enrichment processes. Fe(II) is likely to be produced, however, as a reactive intermediate associated with photochemical reactions in surface waters. While Fe(II) lifetimes measured in the field in this study were commensurate with those determined in previously published Southern Ocean work, Fe(II) lifetimes reflective of realistic Southern Ocean environmental conditions have proven difficult to determine in a laboratory setting, due to contamination by trace levels of H2O2. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that direct ligand-to-metal charge transfer reactions of strong Fe(III)-organic complexes do appear to be a viable source of available Fe(II) in Antarctic waters, and further studies are needed to characterize the temperature dependence of this phenomenon.

  2. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)


    local palaeohydrogeological conditions. It is likely that inland areas have had longer durations of post-glacial fresh water infiltration than coastal areas, possibly causing greater degrees of dilution and dispersion of preexisting groundwaters and thus overprinting their hydrochemical and isotopic 'fingerprints'. Lower post-glacial hydraulic gradients relative to inland sites may account for the occurrence of more relict cold-climate water at coastal sites. Some general observations are based on rather thin evidence and therefore speculative. Firstly, it seems that glacial melt water penetrated many hundreds of metres and in some places to at least 1,000 m depth. However the low remaining proportions of melt water and of much older saline Shield water suggest that melt water flux did not fully displace pre-existing groundwaters at these depths. Secondly, where there has been post-glacial infiltration of palaeo-Baltic sea water, the density stratification or compartmentalisation effect coupled with low hydraulic gradient has reduced rates of subsequent fresh water circulation after shoreline recession. There are many uncertainties in interpreting these geochemical indicators in terms of the penetration depths of glacial melt waters and the degree to which they replace preexisting groundwaters, of other aspects of groundwater stability, and of comparisons between inland and coastal groundwater systems. Uncertainties derive partly from the reliability of groundwater samples as being representative of in situ conditions, and partly from the non-uniqueness of interpretative models. Future investigations using these approaches need to improve sampling, to make conjunctive use of geochemical and isotopic indicators which have varying timescales and sensitivities, and to integrate these indicators with palaeohydrogeological modelling to support the development of reliable groundwater flow and solute transport models for Performance Assessment.

  3. Geochemical patterns and microbial contribution to iron plaque formation in the rice plant rhizosphere (United States)

    Maisch, Markus; Murata, Chihiro; Unger, Julia; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline


    Rice is the major food source for more than half of the world population and 80 percent of the worldwide rice cultivation is performed on water logged paddy soils. The establishment of reducing conditions in the soil and across the soil-water interface not only stimulates the microbial production and release of the greenhouse gas methane. These settings also create optimal conditions for microbial iron(III) reduction and therefore saturate the system with reduced ferrous iron. Through the reduction and dissolution of ferric minerals that are characterized by their high surface activity, sorbed nutrients and contaminants (e.g. arsenic) will be mobilized and are thus available for uptake by plants. Rice plants have evolved a strategy to release oxygen from their roots in order to prevent iron toxification in highly ferrous environments. The release of oxygen to the reduced paddy soil causes ferric iron plaque formation on the rice roots and finally increases the sorption capacity for toxic metals. To this date the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the formation of iron plaque are not deciphered. It has been hypothesized that iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria play a potential role in the iron(III) mineral formation along the roots. However, not much is known about the actual processes, mineral products, and geochemical gradients that establish within the rhizosphere. In the present study we have developed a growth set-up that allows the co-cultivation of rice plants and iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria, as well as the visual observation and in situ measurement of geochemical parameters. Oxygen and dissolved iron(II) gradients have been measured using microelectrodes and show geochemical hot spots that offer optimal growth conditions for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidizers. First mineral identification attempts of iron plaque have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained results on mineraology and crystallinity have been

  4. National Geochemical Database: Concentrate (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemistry of concentrates from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US and...

  5. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.


    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  6. Database creation, data quality assessment, and geochemical maps (phase V, deliverable 59)—Final report on compilation and validation of geochemical data: Chapter D in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II) (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Giles, Stuart A.; Lee, Gregory K.; Smith, Steven M.


    Under the World Bank-funded Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II), this Phase V geochemistry report follows earlier Phase I and Phase II summary reports on geochemical data (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007 and Eppinger, 2007; respectively). All the reports are based on evaluations of geochemical data collected in 1999-2004 under an earlier World Bank program (PRISM-I) by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) for the Government of Mauritania. There are no associated Phase III or IV reports.

  7. Geochemical Calculations Using Spreadsheets. (United States)

    Dutch, Steven Ian


    Spreadsheets are well suited to many geochemical calculations, especially those that are highly repetitive. Some of the kinds of problems that can be conveniently solved with spreadsheets include elemental abundance calculations, equilibrium abundances in nuclear decay chains, and isochron calculations. (Author/PR)

  8. Regional Geochemical Division-A Tool for Delineating Geochemical Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Regional geochemical division is a mapping technique to divide an area into slices where the associations between geochemical elements are relatively simple and uniform. The result of division is expressed on a 2-D map. The scheme of regional geochemical division includes non-supervised pattern recognition, elementary statistics and factor analysis. A practical example in a gold prospecting area in Jilin, China, and the corresponding explanation are presented. Regional geochemical division is a basic approach to the delineation of the geochemical blocks as well.

  9. Geochemical quantification of semiarid mountain recharge. (United States)

    Wahi, Arun K; Hogan, James F; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baillie, Matthew N; Eastoe, Christopher J


    Analysis of a typical semiarid mountain system recharge (MSR) setting demonstrates that geochemical tracers help resolve the location, rate, and seasonality of recharge as well as ground water flowpaths and residence times. MSR is defined as the recharge at the mountain front that dominates many semiarid basins plus the often-overlooked recharge through the mountain block that may be a significant ground water resource; thus, geochemical measurements that integrate signals from all flowpaths are advantageous. Ground water fluxes determined from carbon-14 ((14)C) age gradients imply MSR rates between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) m(3)/year in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, USA. This estimated range is within an order of magnitude of, but lower than, prior independent estimates. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MSR has a 65% +/- 25% contribution from winter precipitation and a 35% +/- 25% contribution from summer precipitation. Chloride and stable isotope results confirm that transpiration is the dominant component of evapotranspiration (ET) in the basin with typical loss of more than 90% of precipitation-less runoff to ET. Such geochemical constraints can be used to further refine hydrogeologic models in similar high-elevation relief basins and can provide practical first estimates of MSR rates for basins lacking extensive prior hydrogeologic measurements.

  10. Gradient networks (United States)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.


    Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).

  11. Geochemical modeling: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A.


    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted.

  12. Identification of Geochemical Anomaly by Multifractal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shuyun; Cheng Qiuming; Ke Xianzhong; Bao Zhengyu; Wang Changming; Quan Haoli


    The separation of anomalies from geochemical background is an important part of data analysis because lack of such identifications might have profound influence on or even distort the final analysis results. In this article, 1 672 geochemical analytical data of 11 elements, including Cu, Mo, Ag, Sn, and others, from a region within Tibet, South China, are used as one example. Together with the traditional anomaly recognition method of using the iterative mean ±2σ, local multifractality theory has been utilized to delineate the ranges of geochemical anomalies of the elements. To different degrees, on the basis of original data mapping, C-A fractal analysis and singularity exponents, Sn differs from the other 10 elements. Moreover, geochemical mapping results based on values of the multifractal asymmetry index for all elements delineate the highly anomalous area. Similar to other 10 elements, the anomalous areas of Sn delineated by the asymmetry index distribute along the main structure orientations. According to the asymmetry indexes, the 11 elements could be classified into 3 groups: (1) Ag and Au, (2) As-Sb-Cu-Pb-Zn-Mo, and (3) Sn-Bi-W.This paragenetic association of elements can be used to interpret possible origins of mineralization, which is in agreement with petrological analysis and field survey results.

  13. Final Technical Report: The effects of climate, forest age, and disturbance history on carbon and water processes at AmeriFlux sites across gradients in Pacific Northwest forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    Investigate the effects of disturbance and climate variables on processes controlling carbon and water processes at AmeriFlux cluster sites in semi-arid and mesic forests in Oregon. The observations were made at three existing and productive AmeriFlux research sites that represent climate and disturbance gradients as a natural experiment of the influence of climatic and hydrologic variability on carbon sequestration and resulting atmospheric CO2 feedback that includes anomalies during the warm/ dry phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  14. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle]. (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A


    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  15. The geochemical Phenomenon-Local geochemical fields in a glacier (scientific note)


    V. N., Makarov


    Geochemical fields in alpine cold and warm glaciers were studied. Local geochemical fields of typomorphic elements were found to form in the ice and on the surface of glaciers overlying ore bodies and endogenic geochemical haloes. The formation of local cryogenic geochemical fields in the glaciers results from sharp geochemical heterogeneity and geochemical processes in underlying rocks which cause cryogenic migration of chemical elements and compounds in the glacier. The thickness of geochem...

  16. The geochemical Phenomenon-Local geochemical fields in a glacier (scientific note)


    V. N., Makarov


    Geochemical fields in alpine cold and warm glaciers were studied. Local geochemical fields of typomorphic elements were found to form in the ice and on the surface of glaciers overlying ore bodies and endogenic geochemical haloes. The formation of local cryogenic geochemical fields in the glaciers results from sharp geochemical heterogeneity and geochemical processes in underlying rocks which cause cryogenic migration of chemical elements and compounds in the glacier. The thickness of geochem...

  17. Evaluation of geochemical data acquired from regular grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezvoda, V.; Jelinkova, E.; Segeth, K.


    Geochemical data obtained during mineral exploration often are biased by systematic as well as random errors; these may result in failures when usual methods of evaluation are used. This is true particularly in soil surveys carried out in regions where a long history of prospecting and mining activity has occurred and/or where aerial chemical pollution is likely to have occurred. A satisfactory evaluation of geochemical data even in such an unfavorable case requires sampling on a relatively dense grid and utilization of all available knowledge of types of mineralization. The evaluation procedure proposed consists of five consecutive phases: (1) dividing the area of interest into subareas of a relatively homogeneous geological nature; (2) processing by multivariate methods (factor analysis, in particular) without consideration of geographic relations; (3) a preliminary interpretation and search for a geochemical explanation of factors; (4) processing of individual factors in two-dimensional geographic space by directional and frequency linear filtering methods; (5) final interpretation and construction of a geochemical model. The procedure is illustrated by an example from a geochemical exploration survey in the vicinity of Pribram (Middle Bohemia).

  18. Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G.; Cutshall, N.H.


    This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  20. Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Satyawali


    Full Text Available Grain and bond growth for dry snow are determined by the distribution of temperature andtemperature gradient in the snow matrix. From the standpoint of particle approach and based oncubic packing structure, a bond growth model has been developed for TG metamorphism. The paper.highlights the importance of bond formation and its effect on snow viscosity and finally on the rateof settlement. This is very important for developing a numerical snow pack model if microstructureis considered to be a basic parameter. A few experiments have been carried out to validate bond formation under temperature gradient.

  1. The Geochemical Society(GS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seth M.Davis


    @@ Mission The Geochemical Society is an international nonprofit organization for scientists involved in the practice,study and teaching of geochemistry.0ur principal roles are to understand and meet the needs of our members so as to provide them with programs and services that will help them be better geochemists;to empower geochemists through information,education,relationships and resources that will enrich their professional development and careers;and to advance the thought and application of geochemistry.

  2. Interaction of density flow and geochemical processes on islands in the Okavanga Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Langer, T.; Prommer, H.


    This paper analyses the interactions of density driven flow and geochemical reactions under evapo-concentration. A multi-species hydrodynamic flow and transport simulation model (SEAWAT) is coupled to a batch reaction model (PHREEQC) to analyze densitydriven flow on islands in the Okavango Delta......, Botswana. Evapo-concentration on the islands leads to steadily increasing concentrations until the onset of density-driven flow against the evaporation-induced upward gradient. Lag times to the onset of density-driven flow are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions. Mineral precipitation and carbon...

  3. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)


    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  4. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) - Geochemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Soil, Mineral, and Concentrate Sample Media (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping,...

  5. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database. (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael


    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on geochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The following collection of papers was presented at a workshop on geochemical modeling that was sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Waste Management Program sponsored this conference based on their belief that geochemical modeling is particularly important to the radioactive waste disposal project because of the need to predict the consequences of long-term water-rock interactions at the proposed repository site. The papers included in this volume represent a subset of the papers presented at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference and cover a broad spectrum of detail and breadth in a subject that reflects the diverse research interests of the conference participants. These papers provide an insightful look into the current status of geochemical modeling and illustrate how various geochemical modeling codes have been applied to problems of geochemical interest. The emphasis of these papers includes traditional geochemical modeling studies of individual geochemical systems, the mathematical and theoretical development and refinement of new modeling capabilities, and enhancements of data bases on which the computations are based. The papers in this proceedings volume have been organized into the following four areas: Geochemical Model Development, Hydrothermal and Geothermal Systems, Sedimentary and Low Temperature Environments, and Data Base Development. The participants of this symposium and a complete list of the talks presented are listed in the appendices.

  7. High order compact schemes for gradient approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we propose three gradient recovery schemes of higher order for the linear interpolation. The first one is a weighted averaging method based on the gradients of the linear interpolation on the uniform mesh, the second is a geometric averaging method constructed from the gradients of two cubic interpolation on macro element, and the last one is a local least square method on the nodal patch with cubic polynomials. We prove that these schemes can approximate the gradient of the exact solution on the symmetry points with fourth order. In particular, for the uniform mesh, we show that these three schemes are the same on the considered points. The last scheme is more robust in general meshes. Consequently, we obtain the superconvergence results of the recovered gradient by using the aforementioned results and the supercloseness between the finite element solution and the linear interpolation of the exact solution. Finally, we provide several numerical experiments to illustrate the theoretical results.

  8. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)


    processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based.

  9. Macrofossils in Raraku Lake (Easter Island) integrated with sedimentary and geochemical records: towards a palaeoecological synthesis for the last 34,000 years (United States)

    Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Rull, V.; Sáez, A.; Margalef, O.; Giralt, S.; Pueyo, J. J.; Birks, H. H.; Birks, H. J. B.; Pla-Rabes, S.


    Macrofossil analysis of a composite 19 m long sediment core from Rano Raraku Lake (Easter Island) was related to litho-sedimentary and geochemical features of the sediment. Strong stratigraphical patterns are shown by indirect gradient analyses of the data. The good correspondence between the stratigraphical patterns derived from macrofossil (Correspondence Analysis) and sedimentary and geochemical data (Principal Component Analysis) shows that macrofossil associations provide sound palaeolimnological information in conjunction with sedimentary data. The main taphonomic factors influencing the macrofossil assemblages are run-off from the catchment, the littoral plant belt, and the depositional environment within the basin. Five main stages during the last 34,000 calibrated years BP (cal yr BP) are characterised from the lithological, geochemical, and macrofossil data. From 34 to 14.6 cal kyr BP (last glacial period) the sediments were largely derived from the catchment, indicating a high energy lake environment with much erosion and run-off bringing abundant plant trichomes, lichens, and mosses into the centre of Raraku Lake. During the early Holocene the infilling of the lake basin and warmer conditions favoured the growth of a littoral plant belt that obstructed terrigenous input. Cladoceran remains and Solanaceae seeds are indicative of reduced run-off and higher values of N and organic C indicate increased aquatic and catchment productivity. From 8.7 to 4.5 cal kyr BP a swamp occupied the entire basin. The increase of Cyperaceae seeds reflects this swamp development and, with oribatid mites and coleopteran remains, indicates a peaty environment and more anoxic conditions in Raraku. At around 4.5 cal kyr BP dry conditions prevented peat growth and there is a sedimentary hiatus. About 800 cal yr BP, peat deposition resumed. Finally, in the last few centuries, a small lake formed within the surrounding swamp. Evidence of human activity is recorded in these

  10. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard;


    and variations in water chemistry that are caused by large scale geochemical processes taking place at the timescale of thousands of years. The most important geochemical processes are ion exchange (Valreas and Aveiro) where freshwater solutes are displacing marine ions from the sediment surface, and carbonate...... dissolution (East Midlands, Valreas and Aveiro). Reactive transport models, employing the code PHREEQC, which included these geochemical processes and one-dimensional solute transport were able to duplicate the observed patterns in water quality. These models may provide a quantitative understanding...

  11. Gradients are shaping up. (United States)

    Bollenbach, Tobias; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp


    In animal embryos, morphogen gradients determine tissue patterning and morphogenesis. Shyer et al. provide evidence that, during vertebrate gut formation, tissue folding generates graded activity of signals required for subsequent steps of gut growth and differentiation, thereby revealing an intriguing link between tissue morphogenesis and morphogen gradient formation.

  12. Fast Distributed Gradient Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F


    The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.

  13. Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment by Partial Geochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sediments geochemical anomalies has been applied with success in .... pure exploration geological to environmental pollution studies as well as remote sensing ..... erosion of the amorphous phase to the sea in the form of suspension while ...

  14. Statistical Analysis Of Reconnaissance Geochemical Data From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical Analysis Of Reconnaissance Geochemical Data From Orle District, ... The univariate methods used include frequency distribution and cumulative ... The possible mineral potential of the area include base metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, etc.) ...

  15. The National Geochemical Survey - database and documentation (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in collaboration with other federal and state government agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting the National Geochemical Survey (NGS) to produce...

  16. The National Geochemical Survey - database and documentation (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in collaboration with other federal and state government agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting the National Geochemical Survey (NGS) to produce a...

  17. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinberg, J [comp.


    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  18. Geochemical processes at a fresh/seawater interface in a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Postma, Diederik Jan


    Chemical processes in a natural fresh-/seawater mixing zone were studied in a shallow sandy aquifer. The dominant redox-processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methanogenesis produces CO2, which causes calcite dissolution. The produced calcium induces ion exchange with sodium. The final...... result of these interactions between different types of geochemical processes is an anoxic groundwater enriched in bicarbonate and sodium....

  19. Organic geochemical constraints on paleoelevation (United States)

    Polissar, P. J.; Rowley, D. B.; Currie, B. S.; Freeman, K. H.


    The elevation history of the land surface is an important factor in the interpretation of past tectonic, climate and ecological processes. However, quantitative estimates of paleoelevation are difficult to produce and new techniques are needed. Organic geochemical approaches to quantifying paleoelevations provide a new perspective on this difficult task. The hydrogen isotopic composition of organic biomarker molecules synthesized by plants and algae is systematically related to the water used for growth. Organic molecules in ancient sediments can provide values for the isotopic composition of this water and thus elevation, provided the relationship between elevation and isotopic values is known. Molecular hydrogen isotope ratios from Cenozoic lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau demonstrate the utility of a biomarker approach. Terrestrial plant-wax D/H values on Neogene sediments from the Namling-Oiyug Basin provide new paleoelevation estimates that compare well with previous studies. Plant wax D/H ratios paired with lacustrine carbonate oxygen isotope values from the Lunpola and Hoh-Xil basins illustrate how paired isotope systems can unravel the isotopic composition of precipitation from evaporative enrichment of lake waters. A potentially fruitful avenue for future research is illustrated by D/H analyses on older sediments from the Namling-Oiyug Basin. These sediments—like many that could be useful for paleoaltimetry—have experienced significant burial and heating. As temperatures approach the oil window it becomes possible to exchange hydrogen in both the extractable organic molecules (bitumen) and the insoluble organic residue (kerogen). The extent to which this exchange alters the original isotopic composition will determine the usefulness of D/H analyses on thermally mature organic matter. The potential payoff and pitfalls of D/H analyses on heated sediments is illustrated with thermally immature and mature samples from the Namling-Oiyug Basin.

  20. Geochemical Origin of Biological Molecules (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule


    A model for the geochemical origin of biological molecules is presented. Rocks such as peridotites and basalts, which contain ferromagnesian minerals, evolve in the presence of water. Their hydrolysis is an exothermic reaction which generates heat and a release of H2 and of minerals with modified structures. The hydrogen reacts with the CO2 embedded inside the rock or with the CO2 of the environment to form CO in an hydrothermal process. With the N2 of the environment, and with an activation source arising from cosmic radiation, ferromagnesian rocks might evolve towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules, such as peptide like macromolecules which produce amino acids after acid hydrolysis. The reactions concerned are described. The production of hydrothermal CO is discussed in geological sites containing ferromagnesian silicate minerals and the low intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during Paleoarchaean Era is also discussed. It is concluded that excitation sources arising from cosmic radiation were much more abundant during Paleoarchaean Era and that macromolecular structures of biological relevance might consequently form during Archaean Eon, as a product of the chemical evolution of the rocks and of their mineral contents. This synthesis of abiotically formed biological molecules is consecutively discussed for meteorites and other planets such as Mars. This model for the geochemical origin of biological molecules has first been proposed in 2008 in the context of reactions involving catalysers such as kaolinite [Bassez 2008a] and then presented in conferences and articles [Bassez 2008b, 2009, 2012; Bassez et al. 2009a to 2012b]. BASSEZ M.P. 2008a Synthèse prébiotique dans les conditions hydrothermales, CNRIUT'08, Lyon 29-30/05/2008, Conf. and open access article: 29 mai 11h-12h40. BASSEZ M.P. 2008b Prebiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions, ISSOL'08, P2-6, Firenze-Italy, 24-29/08/2008. Poster at the

  1. Laser textured surface gradients (United States)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.


    This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.

  2. Second gradient poromechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sciarra, Giulio; Coussy, Olivier


    Second gradient theories have been developed in mechanics for treating different phenomena as capillarity in fluids, plasticity and friction in granular materials or shear band deformations. Here, there is an attempt of formulating a second gradient Biot like model for porous materials. In particular the interest is focused in describing the local dilatant behaviour of a porous material induced by pore opening elastic and capillary interaction phenomena among neighbouring pores and related micro-filtration phenomena by means of a continuum microstructured model. The main idea is to extend the classical macroscopic Biot model by including in the description second gradient effects. This is done by assuming that the surface contribution to the external work rate functional depends on the normal derivative of the velocity or equivalently assuming that the strain work rate functional depends on the porosity and strain gradients. According to classical thermodynamics suitable restrictions for stresses and second g...

  3. Geochemical Mapping——Evolution of Its Aims, Ideas and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xuejing


    The development of geochemical mapping progressed from local geochemical prospecting through regional geochemical exploration and regional geochemical mapping to national and global geochemical mapping. This paper discusses the evolution of aims, ideas and methodology of geochemical mapping in Western countries, Russia and China. The sophistication of geochemical mapping methodology will make great contributions to solving resources and environmental problems in the 21st century.

  4. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates. (United States)

    Atchley, Adam L; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M


    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb(2+)) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb(2+) concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb(2+) concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb(2+) concentrations are the same for all

  5. The geochemical atlas of Alaska, 2016 (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Granitto, Matthew; Denning, Paul D.; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.


    A rich legacy of geochemical data produced since the early 1960s covers the great expanse of Alaska; careful treatment of such data may provide significant and revealing geochemical maps that may be used for landscape geochemistry, mineral resource exploration, and geoenvironmental investigations over large areas. To maximize the spatial density and extent of data coverage for statewide mapping of element distributions, we compiled and integrated analyses of more than 175,000 sediment and soil samples from three major, separate sources: the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys geochemical databases. Various types of heterogeneity and deficiencies in these data presented major challenges to our development of coherently integrated datasets for modeling and mapping of element distributions. Researchers from many different organizations and disparate scientific studies collected samples that were analyzed using highly variable methods throughout a time period of more than 50 years, during which many changes in analytical techniques were developed and applied. Despite these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey has produced a new systematically integrated compilation of sediment and soil geochemical data with an average sample site density of approximately 1 locality per 10 square kilometers (km2) for the entire State of Alaska, although density varies considerably among different areas. From that compilation, we have modeled and mapped the distributions of 68 elements, thus creating an updated geochemical atlas for the State.

  6. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center


    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  7. Gradient-based compressive image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang CHEN‡; Zheng QIN


    We present a novel image fusion scheme based on gradient and scrambled block Hadamard ensemble (SBHE) sam-pling for compressive sensing imaging. First, source images are compressed by compressive sensing, to facilitate the transmission of the sensor. In the fusion phase, the image gradient is calculated to reflect the abundance of its contour information. By com-positing the gradient of each image, gradient-based weights are obtained, with which compressive sensing coefficients are achieved. Finally, inverse transformation is applied to the coefficients derived from fusion, and the fused image is obtained. Information entropy (IE), Xydeas’s and Piella’s metrics are applied as non-reference objective metrics to evaluate the fusion quality in line with different fusion schemes. In addition, different image fusion application scenarios are applied to explore the scenario adaptability of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the gradient-based scheme has the best per-formance, in terms of both subjective judgment and objective metrics. Furthermore, the gradient-based fusion scheme proposed in this paper can be applied in different fusion scenarios.

  8. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye


    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, two thermoclines were observed, one directly below the brine-seawater interface and a second about one meter below the first. At the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being either slightly (~2°C in 1997 or substantially (19°C in 1998 elevated above bottom water temperature. Geochemical samples were obtained using a device called the "brine trapper" and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined using standard techniques. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggests that the fluids are derived from different sources or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano than the brine pool. Substantial concentrations of methane and ammonium were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of methane and dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the surrounding environment.

  9. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye


    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  10. Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zhu, Linli


    The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting. PMID:25530752

  11. Natural Gradient Approach to Multichannel Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper we study the geometrical structures of FIR filters and their application to multichannel blind deconvolution.First we introduce a Lie group structure and a Riemannian structure on the manifolds of the FIR filters.Then we derive the natural gradients on the manifolds using the isometry of the Riemannian metric.Using the natural gradient,we present a novel learning algorithm for blind deconvolution based on the minimization of mutual information.Some properties of the learning algorithm,such as equivariance and stability are also studied.Finally,the simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao


    Full Text Available The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting.

  13. Uniform gradient expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giovannini


    Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  14. Uniform gradient expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)


    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  15. Gradient systems and mechanical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu


    All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.

  16. Groundwater sources and geochemical processes in a crystalline fault aquifer (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Aquilina, Luc; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Pauwels, Hélène; Labasque, Thierry; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Hochreutener, Rebecca


    The origin of water flowing in faults and fractures at great depth is poorly known in crystalline media. This paper describes a field study designed to characterize the geochemical compartmentalization of a deep aquifer system constituted by a graben structure where a permeable fault zone was identified. Analyses of the major chemical elements, trace elements, dissolved gases and stable water isotopes reveal the origin of dissolved components for each permeable domain and provide information on various water sources involved during different seasonal regimes. The geochemical response induced by performing a pumping test in the fault-zone is examined, in order to quantify mixing processes and contribution of different permeable domains to the flow. Reactive processes enhanced by the pumped fluxes are also identified and discussed. The fault zone presents different geochemical responses related to changes in hydraulic regime. They are interpreted as different water sources related to various permeable structures within the aquifer. During the low water regime, results suggest mixing of recent water with a clear contribution of older water of inter-glacial origin (recharge temperature around 7 °C), suggesting the involvement of water trapped in a local low-permeability matrix domain or the contribution of large scale circulation loops. During the high water level period, due to inversion of the hydraulic gradient between the major permeable fault zone and its surrounding domains, modern water predominantly flows down to the deep bedrock and ensures recharge at a local scale within the graben. Pumping in a permeable fault zone induces hydraulic connections with storage-reservoirs. The overlaid regolith domain ensures part of the flow rate for long term pumping (around 20% in the present case). During late-time pumping, orthogonal fluxes coming from the fractured domains surrounding the major fault zone are dominant. Storage in the connected fracture network within the

  17. Geochemical Interactions and Viral-Prokaryote Relationships in Freshwater Environments (United States)

    Kyle, J. E.; Ferris, G.


    Viral and prokaryotic abundances were surveyed throughout southern Ontario aquatic habitats to determine relationships with geochemical parameters in the natural environment. Surface water samples were collected from acid mine drainage in summer of 2007 and 2008 and from circum-neutral pH environments in October to November 2008. Site determination was based on collecting samples from various aquatic habitats (acid mine drainage, lakes, rivers, tributaries, wetlands) with differing bedrock geology (limestone and shale dominated vs granitic Canadian Shield) to obtain a range of geochemical conditions. At each site, measurements of temperature, pH, and Eh were conducted. Samples collected for microbial counts and electron imaging were preserved to a final concentration of 2.5 % (v/v) glutaraldehyde. Additional sample were filtered into 60 mL nalgene bottles and amber EPA certified 40 mL glass vials to determine chemical constituents and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively. Water was also collected to determine additional physiochemical parameters (dissolved total iron, ferric iron, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity). All samples were stored at 4 °C until analysis. Viral and prokaryotic abundance was determined by staining samples with SYBR Green I and examining with a epifluorescence microscope under blue excitation. Multiple regression analysis using stepwise backwards regression and general linear models revealed that viral abundance was the most influential predictor of prokaryotic abundance. Additional predictors include pH, sulfate, phosphate, and magnesium. The strength of the model was very strong with 90 % of the variability explained (R2 = 0.90, p multicollinearity with sulfate, iron was removed from the model (as sulfate acts more conservatively across the range of pH sampled, 2.5-9.0). Geochemical variables that have been reported to influence viral abundances under laboratory and field experiments (i.e. Ca2+, DOC

  18. Urban geochemical mapping : essential information for redevelopment


    Fordyce, Fiona; Ferguson, Alex; Shaw, Richard; Baldock, John


    Cost-effective fit-for-purpose redevelopment of brownfield sites requires both regional and local information on the physical and chemical states of the near-surface environment. The BGS G-BASE programme is providing baseline/benchmark geochemical data for both rural and urban areas based on the collection of stream sediment, stream water and soil samples.

  19. Metallogenetic and geochemical provinces : book review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    In November 1972 a symposium on metallogenetic and geochemical provinces was organized in Leoben by Prof. W.E. Petrascheck; the proceedings of this symposium have now appeared. The book is recommended to all those who want to combine their interest in economic geology with a somewhat wider

  20. Metallogenetic and geochemical provinces : book review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    In November 1972 a symposium on metallogenetic and geochemical provinces was organized in Leoben by Prof. W.E. Petrascheck; the proceedings of this symposium have now appeared. The book is recommended to all those who want to combine their interest in economic geology with a somewhat wider outlook i

  1. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.


    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  2. Geobiochemistry: Placing Biochemistry in Its Geochemical Context (United States)

    Shock, E.; Boyer, G. M.; Canovas, P. A., III; Prasad, A.; Dick, J. M.


    Goals of geobiochemistry include simultaneously evaluating the relative stabilities of microbial cells and minerals, and predicting how the composition of biomolecules can change in response to the progress of geochemical reactions. Recent developments in theoretical geochemistry make it possible to predict standard thermodynamic properties of proteins, nucleotides, lipids, and many metabolites including the constituents of the citric acid cycle, at all temperatures and pressures where life is known to occur, and beyond. Combining these predictions with constraints from geochemical data makes it possible to assess the relative stabilities of biomolecules. Resulting independent predictions of the environmental occurrence of homologous proteins and lipid side-chains can be compared with observations from metagenomic and metalipidomic data to quantify geochemical driving forces that shape the composition of biomolecules. In addition, the energetic costs of generating biomolecules from within a diverse range of habitable environments can be evaluated in terms of prevailing geochemical variables. Comparisons of geochemical bioenergetic calculations across habitats leads to the generalization that the availability of H2 determines the cost of autotrophic biosynthesis relative to the aquatic environment external to microbial cells, and that pH, temperature, pressure, and availability of C, N, P, and S are typically secondary. Increasingly reduced conditions, which are determined by reactions of water with mineral surfaces and mineral assemblages, allow many biosynthetic reactions to shift from costing energy to releasing energy. Protein and lipid synthesis, as well as the reverse citric acid cycle, become energy-releasing processes under these conditions. The resulting energy balances that determine habitability contrast dramatically with assumptions derived from oxic surface conditions, such as those where human biochemistry operates.

  3. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni


    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (

  4. Application of Fourier and wavelet approaches for identification of geochemical anomalies (United States)

    Shahi, Hossein; Ghavami, Reza; Kamkar Rouhani, Abolghasem; Roshandel Kahoo, Amin; Asadi Haroni, Hooshang


    The geochemical data can be transferred to other domains such as frequency and position-scale domains using Fourier transform (FT) and wavelet transform (WT). The investigations made in this paper show the analysis of geochemical data in frequency and position-scale domains can provide new exploratory information that may not be revealed in the spatial domain (SD). The geochemical data of Dalli porphyry deposit (Central Iran) have been examined in SD using principal component analysis (PCA), and as a result, Cu, Au and Mo have been identified as mineralization elements. In this study, to determine the mineralization pattern and identify the new exploration target in Dalli area, FT and WT have been performed on surface geochemical data and then, the obtained data have been analyzed using PCA separately. The results of this analysis on soil geochemical data in frequency domain (FD) have desirably identified the mineralization elements of Au, Cu, Mo and S. In next step, PCA has also been performed on approximate component in one level of position-scale domain, and then, a new index has been presented based on wavelet coefficients, and consequently, significant results have been obtained by PCA of the index. The results of this index have desirably identified the mineralization elements of Au, Cu and Mo unlike the approximate component. Finally, the elements of Au, Cu and Mo have been classified clearly using the combination of mineralization factors extracted from FT and WT. The geochemical distribution maps obtained from FD and SD have been depicted. Information obtained from the exploration drillings such as trenches and boreholes in the study area confirm the analysis results of FT and WT.

  5. Constrained length minimum inductance gradient coil design. (United States)

    Chronik, B A; Rutt, B K


    A gradient coil design algorithm capable of controlling the position of the homogeneous region of interest (ROI) with respect to the current-carrying wires is required for many advanced imaging and spectroscopy applications. A modified minimum inductance target field method that allows the placement of a set of constraints on the final current density is presented. This constrained current minimum inductance method is derived in the context of previous target field methods. Complete details are shown and all equations required for implementation of the algorithm are given. The method has been implemented on computer and applied to the design of both a 1:1 aspect ratio (length:diameter) central ROI and a 2:1 aspect ratio edge ROI gradient coil. The 1:1 design demonstrates that a general analytic method can be used to easily obtain very short gradient coil designs for use with specialized magnet systems. The edge gradient design demonstrates that designs that allow imaging of the neck region with a head sized gradient coil can be obtained, as well as other applications requiring edge-of-cylinder regions of uniformity.

  6. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Yasuho [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan)


    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  7. A geochemical examination of humidity cell tests (United States)

    Maest, Ann; Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    Humidity cell tests (HCTs) are long-term (20 to >300 weeks) leach tests that are considered by some to be the among the most reliable geochemical characterization methods for estimating the leachate quality of mined materials. A number of modifications have been added to the original HCT method, but the interpretation of test results varies widely. We suggest that the HCTs represent an underutilized source of geochemical data, with a year-long test generating approximately 2500 individual chemical data points. The HCT concentration peaks and valleys can be thought of as a “chromatogram” of reactions that may occur in the field, whereby peaks in concentrations are associated with different geochemical processes, including sulfate salt dissolution, sulfide oxidation, and dissolution of rock-forming minerals, some of which can neutralize acid. Some of these reactions occur simultaneously, some do not, and geochemical modeling can be used to help distinguish the dominant processes. Our detailed examination, including speciation and inverse modeling, of HCTs from three projects with different geology and mineralization shows that rapid sulfide oxidation dominates over a limited period of time that starts between 40 and 200 weeks of testing. The applicability of laboratory tests results to predicting field leachate concentrations, loads, or rates of reaction has not been adequately demonstrated, although early flush releases and rapid sulfide oxidation rates in HCTs should have some relevance to field conditions. Knowledge of possible maximum solute concentrations is needed to design effective treatment and mitigation approaches. Early flush and maximum sulfide oxidation results from HCTs should be retained and used in environmental models. Factors that complicate the use of HCTs include: sample representation, time for microbial oxidizers to grow, sample storage before testing, geochemical reactions that add or remove constituents, and the HCT results chosen for use

  8. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D


    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  9. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification (United States)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.


    generated CO2 has been analyzed with respect to its stable carbon isotope composition by mass spectrometry. All samples exhibited a similar trend: The ^13C signatures of initially produced CO2 revealed to be relatively light and linearly increasing with temperature until approaching the bulk stable carbon isotope composition of the coal at a certain temperature, where the isotope signature kept virtually constant during further temperature increase. The temperature introducing the range of constant isotope compositions of the produced gas increased with coal rank. Additionally, all coal samples were treated by Rock Eval pyrolysis up to 550 ˚ C in order to investigate temperature dependent generation of CO and CO2. The results exhibited a linear decrease of the CO2/CO ratio at increasing temperature. Both experimental approaches demonstrated dependencies between the qualitative and the isotope composition of the generated syngas on the one hand and the applied combustion temperature on the other hand and, consequently, the principal applicability of the considered geochemical parameters as temperature proxies for coals of significantly different rank and origin. Although the investigated samples revealed similar trends, the absolute characteristics of the correlation functions (e.g. linear gradients) between geochemical parameters and combustion temperatures differed on an individual sample base, implying a significant additional dependence of the considered geochemical parameters on the coal composition. As a consequence, corresponding experimental approaches are currently continued and refined by involving multi component compound specific isotope analysis, high temperature Rock Eval pyrolysis as well as an enforced consideration of initial coal and oxidant compositions.

  10. Geochemical dynamics in selected Yellowstone hydrothermal features (United States)

    Druschel, G.; Kamyshny, A.; Findlay, A.; Nuzzio, D.


    Yellowstone National Park has a wide diversity of thermal features, and includes springs with a range of pH conditions that significantly impact sulfur speciation. We have utilized a combination of voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the intermediate sulfur chemistry of Cinder Pool, Evening Primrose, Ojo Caliente, Frying Pan, Azure, and Dragon thermal springs. These measurements additionally have demonstrated the geochemical dynamics inherent in these systems; significant variability in chemical speciation occur in many of these thermal features due to changes in gas supply rates, fluid discharge rates, and thermal differences that occur on second time scales. The dynamics of the geochemical settings shown may significantly impact how microorganisms interact with the sulfur forms in these systems.

  11. Seeking a geochemical identifier for authigenic carbonate. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Yu; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Yan-Yan


    Authigenic carbonate was recently invoked as a third major global carbon sink in addition to primary marine carbonate and organic carbon. Distinguishing the two carbonate sinks is fundamental to our understanding of Earth's carbon cycle and its role in regulating the evolution of atmospheric oxygen. Here, using microscale geochemical measurements of carbonates in Early Triassic strata, we show that the growth of authigenic carbonate follows a different trajectory from primary marine carbonate in a cross-plot of uranium concentration and carbon isotope composition. Thus, a combination of the two geochemical variables is able to distinguish between the two carbonate sinks. The temporal distribution of authigenic carbonates in the Early Triassic strata suggests that the increase in the extent of carbonate authigenesis acted as a negative feedback to the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  12. Reinforcement Learning by Value Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Fairbank, Michael


    The concept of the value-gradient is introduced and developed in the context of reinforcement learning. It is shown that by learning the value-gradients exploration or stochastic behaviour is no longer needed to find locally optimal trajectories. This is the main motivation for using value-gradients, and it is argued that learning value-gradients is the actual objective of any value-function learning algorithm for control problems. It is also argued that learning value-gradients is significantly more efficient than learning just the values, and this argument is supported in experiments by efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude, in several problem domains. Once value-gradients are introduced into learning, several analyses become possible. For example, a surprising equivalence between a value-gradient learning algorithm and a policy-gradient learning algorithm is proven, and this provides a robust convergence proof for control problems using a value function with a general function approximator.

  13. Geochemical Investigations of Respirable Particulate Matter


    Jurinski, Joseph Bernard Jr.


    GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER Joseph Bernard Jurinski (Abstract) Over the course of our lives we are exposed to airborne particulate matter in the workplace, home, and environment that results in the deposition of millions of particles in the lung. These exposures may result in disease if they are significant enough. The potential for harmful exposure depends in part on the dust's biodurability and the bioavailability of harmful constituents d...

  14. Geochemical data requirements for performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.; Stenhouse, M.J.


    This report reviews the geochemical data requirements and their application to the assessment of the performance of a geologic repository for radioactive wastes. It is concluded that information must be acquired on pH, redox reactions, inorganic and organic ligands in groundwater and colloids and processes such as precipitation, adsorption and diffusion and palaeohydrogeologic information in order to predict present hydrogeologic properties of potential repository sites. (UK).

  15. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba


    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  16. Reconnaissance soil geochemical survey of Gibraltar. (United States)

    Mesilio, Liesl; Farago, Margaret E; Thornton, Iain


    The extreme density of population of Gibraltar, situated at the southern tip of Spain, exerts considerable pressure on land use and thus future planning is of utmost importance. An initial reconnaissance soil geochemical survey of Gibraltar was based on 120 surface samples (0-15 cm) taken from a wide range of exposed, either bare soil or vegetated sites, to provide the optimum geographical distribution. The 'total' elemental concentrations of 26 elements (Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Al, La, Ti, V, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd, Pb, P, S, As) were determined by nitric/percholric acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis. The reconnaissance data shows that the spatial distribution of various elements depended on previous and present land use. Most elements (Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn excluded) exhibited relatively high concentrations in civilian and natural soils. Trends have been established for many elements, and concentrations exceeding guideline values have been found in certain areas of Gibraltar. This reconnaissance of Gibraltar is at present being followed by a more detailed baseline geochemical survey, which will establish the extent and magnitude of the variations in major and trace elements in soils and dusts, assess the impact of industrial, commercial and urban development on the geochemical landscape and to make recommendations concerning sustainable development.

  17. Geochemical engineering and materials program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE) was designated as lead agency in discharging the overall legislative mandate for federal R&D to assist the private sector in developing appropriate technology for exploiting geothermal energy resources. The Geochemical Engineering and Materials (GEM) Program was conceived, as part of DOE'S overall strategy, to address specific and plant-wide problems and uncertainties in the use of materials and in geochemical engineering. This program assists industry in the conduct of long-term,high-risk R&D needed to overcome the significant technical and economic GEM-related obstacles faced by developers and potential developers of this alternative energy source. The program focuses on: (1) Increasing the knowledge about the properties of materials and their performance under geothermal energy system conditions; (2) Developing and utilizing more reliable and/or cost-effective materials than previously available; and (3) Developing a greater understanding of and control over geochemical processes during fluid production and transport, energy conversion, and waste management. As a stand-alone program and as support to other DOE geothermal technology development programs, the GEM Program contributes to the feasibility of designing and operating efficient, reliable, and safe fluid handling and energy conversion systems.

  18. Modeling Low-temperature Geochemical Processes (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. K.


    Geochemical modeling has become a popular and useful tool for a wide number of applications from research on the fundamental processes of water-rock interactions to regulatory requirements and decisions regarding permits for industrial and hazardous wastes. In low-temperature environments, generally thought of as those in the temperature range of 0-100 °C and close to atmospheric pressure (1 atm=1.01325 bar=101,325 Pa), complex hydrobiogeochemical reactions participate in an array of interconnected processes that affect us, and that, in turn, we affect. Understanding these complex processes often requires tools that are sufficiently sophisticated to portray multicomponent, multiphase chemical reactions yet transparent enough to reveal the main driving forces. Geochemical models are such tools. The major processes that they are required to model include mineral dissolution and precipitation; aqueous inorganic speciation and complexation; solute adsorption and desorption; ion exchange; oxidation-reduction; or redox; transformations; gas uptake or production; organic matter speciation and complexation; evaporation; dilution; water mixing; reaction during fluid flow; reaction involving biotic interactions; and photoreaction. These processes occur in rain, snow, fog, dry atmosphere, soils, bedrock weathering, streams, rivers, lakes, groundwaters, estuaries, brines, and diagenetic environments. Geochemical modeling attempts to understand the redistribution of elements and compounds, through anthropogenic and natural means, for a large range of scale from nanometer to global. "Aqueous geochemistry" and "environmental geochemistry" are often used interchangeably with "low-temperature geochemistry" to emphasize hydrologic or environmental objectives.Recognition of the strategy or philosophy behind the use of geochemical modeling is not often discussed or explicitly described. Plummer (1984, 1992) and Parkhurst and Plummer (1993) compare and contrast two approaches for

  19. Objective computerized approaches for centralized geophysical and geochemical landscape project planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilyan Eugene Andreevich


    Full Text Available At present landscape design does not represent a scientific subject in strict sense, being a superposition of decorative and applied landscape art and the methods of graphic architectural planning. Serving interests of customers, it does not harmonize with the individual needs of the ground based on landscape geochemistry and ecology. Hence, it results in great number of grounds not consistent with each other according to geochemical criteria. In many cases total soil changing, isolation of natural hydrodynamic drainage, introduction of exotic plants interacting with their environment (including abiotic relations take place, it results in disequilibrium in the ground. Ecological system efficiency needs to be constantly artificially maintained, and that does not support its stability. In other words, without maintaining sufficient conditions, it will be influenced by succession with the course of time, as a particular case of potential gradient equalization. Hence, at present there is an acute problem to develop such a concept of landscape design, that, covering ecological requirements of customers, would be mass one, not producing gradient isolation effect and ecologically self-sustaining in given environment at the same time. It is evident, that to meet these requirements, this concept should not be the product of subjective vision of the author, but direct consequence of geophysical and geochemical landscape condition with theoretical development allowing calculation testing at any scale of geographical zoning.

  20. Unconventional gradient coil designs in magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Zhu, Minhua; Xia, Ling; Liu, Feng


    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the gradient coils are used to encode the spatial positions of protons by varying the magnetic field linearly across the imaging subject. With the latest development of MRI technique and new clinical and research applications, the gradient coil system requires increasingly innovative designs. In this paper, four unconventional gradient coil designs are reviewed: (1) local gradient coils; (2) new coil configurations with reduced peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS); (3) dedicated structures designed for hybrid systems (combining MRI with other medical devices); and (4) the full 3D coil designs. For the first type, the development of local gradient coils (mainly head coils) is discussed chronologically and divided into three stages: the "golden" stage in the 1990s, the "wane" stage in the 2000s, and the "revival" stage in the 2010s. For the second type, various designs for the reduction of PNS problems have been described, including local and whole-body gradient coil systems. For the third design, a dedicated gradient coil design for multi-modality combination is illustrated with an MRI-LINAC system. Finally, gradient systems with non-layered coil structure are described in the fourth design type. We hope that this review on unconventional gradient coil designs will be useful for the new development of MRI technology and emerging medical applications.

  1. Energy in density gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, J


    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

  2. Energy in density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kono, M., E-mail: [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  3. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (United States)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.

  4. The geochemical constraints on Earth's accretion and core formation (Invited) (United States)

    Rudge, J. F.; Kleine, T.; Bourdon, B.


    There are now a wide range of geochemical observations that can be used to place constraints on Earth's first hundred million years. During this time the Earth accreted through collisions between numerous planetary embryos, and these collisions are thought to have caused significant melting and segregation of metal, forming the Earth's core. Information on the pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity conditions of core formation can be obtained from the abundances of siderophile elements in Earth's mantle and high pressure partitioning experiments. Timing information can be obtained from isotopic measurements, notably Hf-W and U-Pb. Here we present a simple geochemical box model that can be used to provide constraints on Earth's accretion and core formation. A key parameter in the model is the degree of equilibration during metal-silicate segregation. Existing models have shown that the siderophile element abundances are consistent with full equilibration in a deep magma ocean, with an increase in oxygen fugacity during accretion. Here we show that the siderophile element abundances are equally consistent with scenarios involving partial equilibration. The Hf-W isotopic observations constrain the degree of equilibration to be at least 36%. The timing constraints depend strongly on the degree of equilibration, but nevertheless bounds can be placed on the timing of Earth's accretion. With full equilibration, the Hf-W observations imply a rapid early accretion stage (at least 80% of Earth accreting within 35 Myr), but with partial equilibration accretion may be much more protracted. If Pb partitions into Earth’s core, the U-Pb observations can be used to constrain the late stages of accretion, and are consistent with the final 10% of Earth’s accretion occurring during the Moon-forming giant impact at ~4.45Ga.

  5. Geochemical patterns in the soils of Cyprus. (United States)

    Cohen, David R; Rutherford, Neil F; Morisseau, Eleni; Zissimos, Andreas M


    The soil geochemical atlas of Cyprus is a recent addition to the series of national to continental-scale geochemical mapping programmes implemented over the last two decades for environmental and resource applications. The study has been conducted at the high sampling density of 1 site per 1km(2), with multi-element and multi-method analysis performed on samples of top soil (0-25cm) and sub soil (50-75cm) from a grid of over 5350 sites across a major portion of Cyprus. Major and most trace elements display sharp concentration changes across the main geological boundaries but a high degree of spatial continuity and consistency of values within those boundaries. Some elements display one to two orders of magnitude difference in median concentrations between the soils developed over ultramafic or mafic units and those developed over sedimentary rocks or alluvial units. The ratio of aqua regia-extractable to total metal contents provides an indication of the general mineralogical host for a number of trace elements. The majority of soils are near-neutral to alkaline with the small proportion of areas with soil pHgeochemical values. Where the concentrations of some elements (including Pb, Hg and Sn) are indicative of contamination, the values are typically higher in the top soil samples in these areas. Variations in the concentration of elements with strong redox controls on mobility are linked to changes in sedimentary environment between deep and shallow marine conditions. Some element patterns can be related to the effects of urbanisation and sulphide mining operations; however the dominant control on soil geochemistry is the parent geology and regolith forming processes. The atlas demonstrates the effectiveness of high-density sampling in mapping local to regional-scale features of the geochemical landscape.

  6. A geomorphic-geochemical framework for quantifying the cycling of sediment-associated contaminants in fluvial systems (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Williams, Richard


    Recent high-profile contamination events linked to extreme floods have underlined the persistent environmental risk posed by legacy metals stored in fluvial systems worldwide. While we understand that the fate of sediment-associated metals is largely determined by the dynamics of the fluvial transport system, we still lack a process-based understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms that affect the physical and geochemical transfer of metals through catchments. This interdisciplinary project will exploit advances in geomorphic and geochemical analyses to develop a methodological approach and conceptual framework to answer key questions related to the dynamics and timescales of metal cycling in fluvial systems. The approach will be tested in two reaches of the mining-impacted Afon Twymyn, Wales. The main objectives are: (i) quantify the physical transport of sediment and metals over a range of river flows and model sediment pathways; (ii) establish the geochemical mobility and speciation of sediment-associated metals and how this is modified through the sediment pathways. To achieve these objectives a geomorphic-geochemical combined methodology will be applied. It includes: (i) Aerial imagery that will be acquired from UAV surveys pre- and post-high flows and transformed into high-resolution DEMs using Structure-from-Motion; (ii) suspended sediment flux will be estimated indirectly by field calibration with a logging turbidimeter; (iii) 2D hydraulic and sediment transport model (Delft3D) will be used to quantify the transport of sediment and associated metals and to map the source, pathway and sink of contaminated sediment; (iv) soil and sediment samples (including suspended sediment) will be collected pre- and post-high flows for geochemical (concentration, speciation) and mineralogical (XRD, SEM) analyses; (v) finally, a geochemical model (Geochemists Workbench) will be developed to generate hypotheses that explain observed geochemical change as a function

  7. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)


    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  8. Kriging - a challenge in geochemical mapping (United States)

    Stojdl, Jiri; Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan; Vachova, Tatina; Hosek, Michal


    Geochemists can easily provide datasets for contamination mapping thanks to recent advances in geographical information systems (GIS) and portable chemical-analytical instrumentation. Kriging is commonly used to visualise the results of such mapping. It is understandable, as kriging is a well-established method of spatial interpolation. It was created in 1950's for geochemical data processing to estimate the most likely distribution of gold based on samples from a few boreholes. However, kriging is based on the assumption of continuous spatial distribution of numeric data that is not realistic in environmental geochemistry. The use of kriging is correct when the data density is sufficient with respect to heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of the geochemical parameters. However, if anomalous geochemical values are focused in hotspots of which boundaries are insufficiently densely sampled, kriging could provide misleading maps with the real contours of hotspots blurred by data smoothing and levelling out individual (isolated) but relevant anomalous values. The data smoothing can thus it results in underestimation of geochemical extremes, which may in fact be of the greatest importance in mapping projects. In our study we characterised hotspots of contamination by uranium and zinc in the floodplain of the Ploučnice River. The first objective of our study was to compare three methods of sampling: random (based on stochastic generation of sampling points), systematic (square grid) and judgemental sampling (based on judgement stemming from principles of fluvial deposition) as the basis for pollution maps. The first detected problem in production of the maps was the reduction of the smoothing effect of kriging using appropriate function of empirical semivariogram and setting the variation of at microscales smaller than the sampling distances to minimum (the "nugget" parameter of semivariogram). Exact interpolators such as Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) or Radial

  9. A New Geochemical Classification of Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Changmou; L. Lynn Chyi


    The geochemical classification proposed by Goldschmidt was based on meteoritic analysis and elemental partition in blast furnace. There are many surprises when applied to the discussion of natural occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences in nature is, therefore, proposed for students learning geochemistry and geologists working in the field. Elements are classified into six groups including lithophile, oxyphile, siderophile, chalcophile, biophile, and atmophile elements. Five terms are taken from Goldshcmidt's original classification. Oxyphile is a new term.

  10. DNA-based methods of geochemical prospecting (United States)

    Ashby, Matthew


    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋剑波; 卢志明; 刘晓明; 刘宇陆


    The counter gradient transport phenomena on momentum, energy and passive scalar in turbulent flows were studied by use of the single response function for TSDIA. As a result, models that can describe qualitatively the phenomena are obtained. Then the results are simplified by use of the inertial range theory, and the results for lower degrees agree with results of predecessor. Finally the counter gradient-transport phenomena in channel flow and circular wake flow are analyzed.

  12. How to build stable geochemical reservoirs on Mars? (United States)

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris


    To explain the complex thermo-chemical processes needed for the formation of distinct and stable geochemical reservoirs early in the thermo-chemical evolution of Mars, most geochemical studies argue that fractional crystallization of a global magma ocean may reproduce the isotopic characteristic of the SNCs [1, 2]. However, geodynamical models show that such scenario is difficult to reconcile with other observations like late volcanic activity and crustal density values as obtained from gravity and topography modelling [3, 4]. The stable density gradient, which establishes after the mantle overturn has completed, inhibits thermal convection. Albeit capable to provide stable reservoirs, this scenario suggests a conductive mantle after the overturn which on the one hand fails to sample deep regions of the mantle and on the other hand is clearly at odds with the volcanic history of Mars. This is best explained by assuming a convective mantle and partial melting as the principal agents responsible for the generation and evolution of Martian volcanism. Therefore, in this work an alternative scenario for the formation of early stable geochemical reservoirs is presented similar to the model of [5]. We investigate the influence of partial melting on mantle dynamics, crustal formation, and volcanic outgassing of a one-plate planet using a 2D mantle convection code. When melt is extracted to form crust, the mantle material left behind is more buoyant than its parent material and depleted in radioactive heat sources. The extracted heat-producing elements are then enriched in the crust, which also has an insulating effect due to its lower thermal conductivity compared to the mantle. In addition, partial melting can influence the mantle rheology through the dehydration (water depletion) of the mantle material by volcanic outgassing. As a consequence, the viscosity of water-depleted regions increases more than two orders of magnitude compared to water-saturated rocks resulting

  13. The geochemical atlas of Italian soils (United States)

    De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Giaccio, Lucia; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo


    The geochemical Atlas of Italian agricultural and grazing land soils was carried out as part of GEMAS project whose objective was to characterize soils of rural areas of the whole Europe. Soil samples were collected at an average sampling density of 1 site per 2500 km2. Two different sample types were collected: (1) 121 agricultural soils (Ap) on regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm and (2) 121 grazing land soils (Gr) (land under permanent grass cover) to a depth of 10 cm. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to pH, TOC, total carbon and total sulphur, LOI, CEC, Sr-isotopes, Pb-isotopes, MIR-spectra. By means of a GIS software, georeferenced data of the Italian territory were used to produce the geochemical maps of all the analysed elements for both agricultural and grazing land soils. Specifically, for each element and sampling media a map reporting interpolated data and graduated dots was produced; univariate statistics and graphs were also associated to each map. The Atlas also contain: 5 maps for regional variability of factor scores of elemental associations resulting from R-mode factor analysis and 15 baseline and land use maps for some selected elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) following the Italian intervention criteria.

  14. Is formamide a geochemically plausible prebiotic solvent? (United States)

    Bada, Jeffrey L; Chalmers, John H; Cleaves, H James


    From a geochemical perspective, significant amounts of pure formamide (HCONH2) would have likely been rare on the early Earth. There may have been mixed formamide-water solutions, but even in the presence of catalyst, solutions with >20 weight% water in formamide would not have produced significant amounts of prebiotic compounds. It might be feasible to produce relatively pure formamide by a rare occurrence of freezing formamide/water mixtures at temperatures lower than formamide's freezing point (2.55 °C) but greater than the freezing point of water. Because of the high density of formamide ice it would have sunk and accumulated at the bottom of the solution. If the remaining water froze on the surface of this ice, and was then removed by a sublimation-ablation process, a small amount of pure formamide ice might have been produced. In addition a recent report suggested that ∼85 weight% formamide could be prepared by a geochemical type of fractional distillation process, offering another possible route for prebiotic formamide production.

  15. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Reid, J.C.


    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  16. Radio-geochemical methods at surface expiotation of oil and gas fields


    Sobolev, I. S.


    A review of the situation with radio-geochemical methods of searching oil and gas fields is presented. Potential reasons of radio-geochemical anomalies formation are considered, some approaches to interpretation of radio-geochemical datum are listed

  17. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, J W


    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...

  18. Geochemical Evidence for a Terrestrial Magma Ocean (United States)

    Agee, Carl B.


    The aftermath of phase separation and crystal-liquid fractionation in a magma ocean should leave a planet geochemically differentiated. Subsequent convective and other mixing processes may operate over time to obscure geochemical evidence of magma ocean differentiation. On the other hand, core formation is probably the most permanent, irreversible part of planetary differentiation. Hence the geochemical traces of core separation should be the most distinct remnants left behind in the mantle and crust, In the case of the Earth, core formation apparently coincided with a magma ocean that extended to a depth of approximately 1000 km. Evidence for this is found in high pressure element partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between liquid silicate and liquid iron alloy, and with the Ni-Co ratio and the abundance of Ni and Co in the Earth's upper mantle. A terrestrial magma ocean with a depth of 1000 km will solidify from the bottom up and first crystallize in the perovskite stability field. The largest effect of perovskite fractionation on major element distribution is to decrease the Si-Mg ratio in the silicate liquid and increase the Si-Mg ratio in the crystalline cumulate. Therefore, if a magma ocean with perovskite fractionation existed, then one could expect to observe an upper mantle with a lower than chondritic Si-Mg ratio. This is indeed observed in modern upper mantle peridotites. Although more experimental work is needed to fully understand the high-pressure behavior of trace element partitioning, it is likely that Hf is more compatible than Lu in perovskite-silicate liquid pairs. Thus, perovskite fractionation produces a molten mantle with a higher than chondritic Lu-Hf ratio. Arndt and Blichert-Toft measured Hf isotope compositions of Barberton komatiites that seem to require a source region with a long-lived, high Lu-Hf ratio. It is plausible that that these Barberton komatiites were generated within the majorite stability field by remelting a perovskite

  19. Influence of seasonal and geochemical changes on the geomicrobiology of an iron carbonate mineral water spring. (United States)

    Hegler, Florian; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Hanselmann, Kurt; Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas


    Fuschna Spring in the Swiss Alps (Engadin region) is a bicarbonate iron(II)-rich, pH-neutral mineral water spring that is dominated visually by dark green microbial mats at the side of the flow channel and orange iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in the flow channel. Gradients of O(2), dissolved iron(II), and bicarbonate establish in the water. Our goals were to identify the dominating biogeochemical processes and to determine to which extent changing geochemical conditions along the flow path and seasonal changes influence mineral identity, crystallinity, and microbial diversity. Geochemical analysis showed microoxic water at the spring outlet which became fully oxygenated within 2.3 m downstream. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed calcite (CaCO(3)) and ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)(3)] to be the dominant minerals which increased in crystallinity with increasing distance from the spring outlet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding pattern cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community composition shifted mainly with seasons and to a lesser extent along the flow path. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that microbial communities differ between the flow channel and the flanking microbial mat. Microbial community analysis in combination with most-probable-number analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the mat was dominated by cyanobacteria and the channel was dominated by microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers (1.97 × 10(7) ± 4.36 × 10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) using Gallionella-specific qPCR primers), while high numbers of Fe(III) reducers (10(9) cells/g) were identified in both the mat and the flow channel. Phototrophic and nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers were present as well, although in lower numbers (10(3) to 10(4) cells/g). In summary, our data suggest that mainly seasonal changes caused microbial community shifts, while geochemical gradients along the flow path influenced mineral crystallinity.

  20. Advances in geochemical research on nanometer materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Important advances have been made in the field of geochemistry since nanometer science and technology were introduced into the field of geoscience. The nanometer particulates have been discovered in naturally-occurring ore deposits, volcano-eruptive materials and geo-gases, and a more detailed exploration of the metallogenic mechanism of endogenic metallic ore deposits has been conducted. It is considered that some ore-forming metals may transport in the form of native particulates. Because they have very strong capabilities of adsorption, adsorption is always regarded as an important mechanism of metallogenesis under supergenic and low temperature conditions.Therefore, a new technology of ore exploration has also been developed. This paper attempts to review the new advances in geochemical research on nanometer materials, as well as its perspectivess.

  1. Geochemical Stratigraphy of Southern Parana' Lava Piles (United States)

    Marzoli, A.; De Min, A.; Marques, L. S.; Nardy, A.; Chiaradia, M.


    Basaltic lava flows of the Paranà Large Igneous Province exhibit significant regional and stratigraphic geochemical variations. While the most notable difference concerns the dominance of low-Ti (TiO2 Esmeralda low-Ti basalts (these latter being present both towards the base and the top of the sequence) in Paranà State, while in Santa Caterina State Gramado flows are interlayered with Urubici-type high-Ti basalts. The interlayering of distinct basaltic magma type requires near-synchronous eruption of chemically strongly different magma types generated from clearly heterogeneous mantle sources and erupted through separated magma plumbing systems, without apparent interaction (mixing) among the distinct basalts. In conclusion, the relative timing of low- and high-Ti magma types seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, as for example Esmeralda or Pitanga basalts, previously considered as quite late and postdating Gramado basalts, are indeed synchronous with them.

  2. Mechanisms and Geochemical Models of Core Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Rubie, David C


    The formation of the Earth's core is a consequence of planetary accretion and processes in the Earth's interior. The mechanical process of planetary differentiation is likely to occur in large, if not global, magma oceans created by the collisions of planetary embryos. Metal-silicate segregation in magma oceans occurs rapidly and efficiently unlike grain scale percolation according to laboratory experiments and calculations. Geochemical models of the core formation process as planetary accretion proceeds are becoming increasingly realistic. Single stage and continuous core formation models have evolved into multi-stage models that are couple to the output of dynamical models of the giant impact phase of planet formation. The models that are most successful in matching the chemical composition of the Earth's mantle, based on experimentally-derived element partition coefficients, show that the temperature and pressure of metal-silicate equilibration must increase as a function of time and mass accreted and so m...

  3. The geochemical record in rock glaciers (United States)

    Steig, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Potter, N.; Clark, D.H.


    A 9.5 m ice core was extracted from beneath the surficial debris cover of a rock glacier at Galena Creek, northwestern Wyoming. The core contains clean, bubble-rich ice with silty debris layers spaced at roughly 20 cm intervals. The debris layers are similar in appearance to those in typical alpine glaciers, reflecting concentration of debris by melting at the surface during the summer ablation season. Profiles of stable isotope concentrations and electrical conductivity measurements provide independent evidence for melting in association with debris layers. These observations are consistent with a glacial origin for the ice, substantiating the glacigenic model for rock glacier formation. The deuterium excess profile in the ice indicates that the total depth of meltwater infiltration is less than the thickness of one annual layer, suggesting that isotope values and other geochemical signatures are preserved at annual resolution. This finding demonstrates the potential for obtaining useful paleoclimate information from rock glacier ice.

  4. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)


    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  5. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.


    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. GEMAS: Geochemical Distribution of Thallium in European Soil (United States)

    Demetriades, Alecos; Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Mann, Alan; Kaminari, Maria


    Thallium concentrations are reported for the Vesuvius, Campi Felgrei and Mount Vulture); similar anomalous patterns are shown by Be, Pd and Pt. Most granitic intrusions are also marked by high Tl values (e.g., northern Portugal, Massif Central in France, and Bohemian Massif in Czechia). The median Tl concentration of Ap soil samples in the mobile metal ion (MMI®) partial extraction is 0.0006 mg/kg, and almost 50% of all samples report concentrations below detection. There is no pronounced difference between northern and southern Europe anymore, and the ice age limit of the last glaciation remains invisible. The main anomaly is related to the alkaline volcanic rocks in Italy. Many granitic intrusions are indicated by somewhat enhanced Tl concentrations (e.g., northern Portugal, north-western Spain, Massif Central in France, south-west England, and Bohemian Massif in Czechia). An interesting NE to SW anomalous pattern occurs in Scotland, partly following the Great Glen fault, and occurrences of granitic intrusions. Almost all of central Europe is marked by enhanced Tl values, and one wonders whether agriculture might have had an impact on this unusual pattern. Finally, the GEMAS data set defines the geochemical background variation of Tl in aqua regia and MMI® extraction for European agricultural and grazing land soil at the 2008 timeline.

  7. Experimental study on geochemical characteristic of methane hydrate formed in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Chen; Changling Liu; Yuguang Ye


    The natural occurrence of methane hydrates in marine sediments has been intensively studied over the past decades, and geochemical charac-teristic of hydrate is one of the most attractive research fields. In this paper, we discussed the geochemical anomaly during hydrate formation in porous media. By doing so, we also investigated the temperature influence on hydrate formation under isobaric condition. It turns out that sub-cooling is an important factor to dominate hydrate formation. Larger subcooling provides more powerful driving force for hydrate formation. During the geochemical anomaly research, six kinds of ions and the total dissolved salt (TDS) were measured before and after the experiment in different porous media. The result is that all kinds of ionic concentration increased after hydrate formation which can be defined as salting out effect mainly affected by gas consumption. But the variation ratio of different ions is not equal. Ca2+ seems to be the most significantly influenced one, and its variation ratio is up to 80%. Finally, we theoretically made a model to calculate the TDS variation, the result is in good accordance with measured one, especially when gas consumption is large.

  8. Editorial: Integrative Research on Organic Matter Cycling across Aquatic Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas D.


    The interface between freshwater and marine ecosystems provides a unique setting to examine the evolution of biogeochemical components derived from the landscape, inland waters, estuaries, and the ocean across distinct physiochemical gradients. A diverse body of work exploring this research topic is highlighted here with the goal of integrating our understanding of how organic matter (OM) is transported and transformed along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum and sparking interdisciplinary discussions on future research needs. The movement of water ultimately controls the transport and transformation of geochemical components as they move from land to sea, and, as such, contributions to this research topic will be described within the context of the hydrological cycle, starting with rainfall.

  9. Adaptive Photon Mapping Based on Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Meng Kang; Lu Wang; Yan-Ning Xu; Xiang-Xu Meng; Yuan-Jie Song


    Photon mapping can simulate some special effects efficiently such as shadows and caustics. Photon mapping runs in two phases: the photon map generating phase and the radiance estimation phase. In this paper, we focus on the bandwidth selection process in the second phase, as it can affect the final quality significantly. Poor results with noise arise if few photons are collected, while bias appears if a large number of photons are collected. In order to solve this issue, we propose an adaptive radiance estimation solution to obtain trade-offs between noise and bias by changing the number of neighboring photons and the shape of the collected area according to the radiance gradient. Our approach can be applied in both the direct and the indirect illumination computation. Finally, experimental results show that our approach can produce smoother quality while keeping the high frequency features perfectly compared with the original photon mapping algorithm.

  10. Gradient Domain Mesh Deformation - A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei Xu; Kun Zhou


    This survey reviews the recent development of gradient domain mesh deformation method. Different to other deformation methods, the gradient domain deformation method is a surface-based, variational optimization method. It directly encodes the geometric details in differential coordinates, which are also called Laplacian coordinates in literature. By preserving the Laplacian coordinates, the mesh details can be well preserved during deformation. Due to the locality of the Laplacian coordinates, the variational optimization problem can be casted into a sparse linear system. Fast sparse linear solver can be adopted to generate deformation result interactively, or even in real-time. The nonlinear nature of gradient domain mesh deformation leads to the development of two categories of deformation methods: linearization methods and nonlinear optimization methods. Basically, the linearization methods only need to solve the linear least-squares system once. They are fast, easy to understand and control, while the deformation result might be suboptimal. Nonlinear optimization methods can reach optimal solution of deformation energy function by iterative updating. Since the computation of nonlinear methods is expensive, reduced deformable models should be adopted to achieve interactive performance. The nonlinear optimization methods avoid the user burden to input transformation at deformation handles, and they can be extended to incorporate various nonlinear constraints, like volume constraint, skeleton constraint, and so on. We review representative methods and related approaches of each category comparatively and hope to help the user understand the motivation behind the algorithms. Finally, we discuss the relation between physical simulation and gradient domain mesh deformation to reveal why it can achieve physically plausible deformation result.

  11. Biodiversity of benthic microbial communities in bioturbated coastal sediments is controlled by geochemical microniches. (United States)

    Bertics, Victoria J; Ziebis, Wiebke


    We used a combination of field and laboratory approaches to address how the bioturbation activity of two crustaceans, the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the fiddler crab Uca crenulata, affects the microbial diversity in the seabed of a coastal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA). Detailed geochemical analyses, including oxygen microsensor measurements, were performed to characterize environmental parameters. We used a whole-assemblage fingerprinting approach (ARISA: amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to compare bacterial diversity along geochemical gradients and in relation to subsurface microniches. The two crustaceans have different burrowing behaviors. The ghost shrimp maintains complex, deep-reaching burrows and permanently lives subterranean, supplying its burrow with oxygen-rich water. In contrast, the fiddler crab constructs simpler, J-shaped burrows, which it does not inhabit permanently and does not actively ventilate. Our goal was to address how varying environmental parameters affect benthic microbial communities. An important question in benthic microbial ecology has been whether burrows support similar or unique communities compared with the sediment surface. Our results showed that sediment surface microbial communities are distinct from subsurface assemblages and that different burrow types support diverse bacterial taxa. Statistical comparisons by canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the availability of oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron) play a key role in determining the presence and abundance of different taxa. When geochemical parameters were alike, microbial communities associated with burrows showed significant similarity to sediment surface communities. Our study provides implications on the community structure of microbial communities in marine sediments and the factors controlling their distribution.

  12. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades


    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  13. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos


    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  14. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, John William


    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.

  15. Conjugate Gradient with Subspace Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Sahar


    In this paper we present a variant of the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in which we invoke a subspace minimization subproblem on each iteration. We call this algorithm CGSO for "conjugate gradient with subspace optimization". It is related to earlier work by Nemirovsky and Yudin. We apply the algorithm to solve unconstrained strictly convex problems. As with other CG algorithms, the update step on each iteration is a linear combination of the last gradient and last update. Unlike some other conjugate gradient methods, our algorithm attains a theoretical complexity bound of $O(\\sqrt{L/l} \\log(1/\\epsilon))$, where the ratio $L/l$ characterizes the strong convexity of the objective function. In practice, CGSO competes with other CG-type algorithms by incorporating some second order information in each iteration.

  16. Flame Propagation Through Concentration Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunyaIINO; MitsuakiTANABE; 等


    The experiment was carried out in homogeneous propane-air mixture and in several concentration gradient of mixture.Igniter is put on the upper side of the combustion chamber,In concentration gradient experiment.ixture was ignited from lean side.An experimental study was conducted in a combustion chamber.The combustion chamber has glass windows for optical measurements at any side.For the measurement of distribution of fuel concentration,infraed absorption method using 3.39μm He-Ne laser was used,and for the observation of proagating flams,Schlieren method was employed.As a measurment result of flame propagation velocity and flammable limit,for a mixture of an identical local equivalence ratio.flame propagation velocity in concentration gradient is faster than that in homogeneous mixture,and rich flammable limit in concentration gradient shows a tendency to be higher than that in homogeneous mixture.

  17. Long pendulums in gravitational gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suits, B H [Physics Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)


    Previous results for long pendulums above a spherical Earth are generalized for arbitrary non-uniform gravitational fields in the limit of small oscillation. As is the case for the previous results, gravitational gradients are multiplied by the length of the string even though the string is assumed massless. The effect is shown to arise from the constraint on the motion imposed by the string. The significance of these results for real gradients is discussed. (letters and comments)

  18. Low-gradient aortic stenosis. (United States)

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe


    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.

  19. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao


    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  20. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. (United States)

    Vrionis, Helen A; Anderson, Robert T; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; O'Neill, Kathleen R; Resch, Charles T; Peacock, Aaron D; Dayvault, Richard; White, David C; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R


    The geochemistry and microbiology of a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment that had undergone two seasons of acetate addition to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction was examined. There were distinct horizontal and vertical geochemical gradients that could be attributed in large part to the manner in which acetate was distributed in the aquifer, with more reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate occurring at greater depths and closer to the point of acetate injection. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes derived from sediments and groundwater indicated an enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the order Desulfobacterales in sediment and groundwater samples. These samples were collected nearest the injection gallery where microbially reducible Fe(III) oxides were highly depleted, groundwater sulfate concentrations were low, and increases in acid volatile sulfide were observed in the sediment. Further down-gradient, metal-reducing conditions were present as indicated by intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratios, lower acid volatile sulfide values, and increased abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the dissimilatory Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducing family Geobacteraceae. Maximal Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction correlated with maximal recovery of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene sequences in both groundwater and sediment; however, the sites at which these maxima occurred were spatially separated within the aquifer. The substantial microbial and geochemical heterogeneity at this site demonstrates that attempts should be made to deliver acetate in a more uniform manner and that closely spaced sampling intervals, horizontally and vertically, in both sediment and groundwater are necessary in order to obtain a more in-depth understanding of microbial processes and the relative contribution of attached and planktonic populations to in situ uranium bioremediation.

  1. Structure-geochemical zoning of Topolninsk gold-ore field (Gorny Altai) (United States)

    Timkin, T. V.; Lavrov, D. S.; Askanakova, O. Y.; Korotchenko, T. V.


    Geochemical zoning of prospective mineable gold-bearing skarns was carried out. The geochemical field abnormal structures of different hierarchy levels associated with gold- skarn formations were revealed. The interrelation between the structure of ore-geochemical fields and associated ring structures was studied. Complex structure-geochemical criteria for gold mineralization prospecting and evaluation were proposed.

  2. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling (United States)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.


    Laboratory alteration experiments were performed on mineralogical assemblages having the unaltered CR composition. The mineralogy of reaction products was compared to that of Renazzo and GRO 95577 and to predictions of geochemical modeling.

  3. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  4. Identification of Sediment Sources to Calumet River through Geochemical Fingerprinting (United States)


    Other Tracers for Dredged Material Fate” ERDC TR-17-1 ii Abstract Geochemical sedimentary markers provide a well-established methodology for...12 Principal component analysis...22 Principal component analysis (PCA

  5. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  6. Investigation of Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater In Port Harcourt City, ... Constituents of the heavy metals as shown in this study reveal that, in some ... Microbial analysis of the water samples to determine the presumptive ...

  7. Toxicity of major geochemical ions to freshwater species (United States)

    Extensive testing regarding the toxicity of major geochemical ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hyalella azteca, and Pimephales promelas will be presented. For C. dubia, tests of single salts and binary mixtures in various dilution waters demonstrated multiple mechanisms of toxicity an...

  8. Geochemistry of rock samples from the National Geochemical Database (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains geochemical data for rock samples collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of...

  9. Multifractal Simulation of Geochemical Map Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using a simple multifractal model based on the model De Wijs, various geochemical map patterns for element concentration values are being simulated. Each pattern is self-similar on the average in that a similar pattern can be derived by application of the multiplicative cascade model used to any small subarea on the pattern. In other experiments, the original, self-similar pattern is distorted by superimposing a 2-dimensional trend pattern and by mixing it with a constant concentration value model. It is investigated how such distortions change the multifractal spectrum estimated by means of the 3-step method of moments. Discrete and continuous frequency distribution models are derived for patterns that satisfy the model of De Wijs. These simulated patterns satisfy a discrete frequency distribution model that as upper bound has a continuous frequency distribution to which it approaches in form when the subdivisions of the multiplicative cascade model are repeated indefinitely. This limiting distribution is lognormal in the center and has Pareto tails. Potentially, this approach has important implications in mineral and oil resource evaluation.

  10. Geochemical Enirchment and Mineralization of Indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乾; 战新志; 等


    Indium occurs in a very dispersed manner in nature with enrichment of economic in terest rarely known.The highly dispersed nature of indium,among several other elements,has for a long time retarded our understanding of the regularities that control their mineralization,which in turn has hindered exploitation and application of these elements.Recent studies of ours show that no significant enrichment of indium can be recognized in various types of Pb-Zn sulphide deposits as well as in deposits of copper,iron and manganese,Indium Concentrations in ores of these deposits are generally below 10×10-6.In contrast,however,indium is found to be enriched to a significant extent in cassiterite-sulphide deposits and some tin-rich Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits.The average content of indium in these deposits can be over 100×10-6,and more than 90% of it is concentrated in sphalerite.Generally,these deposits may be considered as large paragenic deposits for indium and ,therefore,there must be some regularities that govern the geochemical enrichment of the so-called "dispersed element" indium.

  11. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella


    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  12. Geothermal prospecting by geochemical methods in the Quaternary volcanic province of Dhamar (central Yemen) (United States)

    Minissale, Angelo; Vaselli, Orlando; Mattash, Mohamed; Montegrossi, Giordano; Tassi, Franco; Ad-Dukhain, Abdulsalam; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Al-Sabri, Ali; Al-Kohlani, Taha


    This paper deals with geothermal prospecting carried out in the Quaternary volcanic field of Dhamar, which is located almost in the centre of the main Oligo-Miocene basaltic trap plateau of Yemen. By applying geochemical and thermometric techniques in domestic wells producing water from the shallow unconfined aquifer in the area, which is prevalently hosted inside the Quaternary volcano-clastic material, a closed thermal anomaly associated with the Quaternary volcanic activity was well delineated. Although the aquifer(s) has a Ca-Na-HCO3 composition, that is typical of shallow groundwater, there are several chemical anomalies in the hotter central area compared to typical aquifers: i) the pH is lower and, consequently, the calculated partial pressure of CO2 in solution is higher, ii) the electrical conductivity is higher, iii) the total salinity is higher and iv) the fluoride ion concentration is higher. Such chemical anomalies in the hotter part of the aquifer do not seem to be generated by the rising and/or mixing of deep hydrothermal components rising into the shallow aquifer, but rather produced by enhanced water-rock interaction processes resulting from the higher temperature of the aquifer and its greater acidity. By applying some speculative calculations, based on the likely temperature of rainfall in the area and the depth and temperature of individual wells, the local thermal gradients in the area have been calculated. The thermal gradient varies from less than the average Earth gradient at the periphery of the delimitated thermal anomaly, to more than 250 °C/km, within an extensive area (exceeding 200 km2) where the gradient is greater than 100/120 °C/km.

  13. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for geochemical background analysis. (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea


    A Visual Basic macro entitled BACKGROUND calculates geochemical background values of chemical parameters and estimates threshold values separating background data from anomalies. The macro uses two statistical methods, the iterative 2-sigma technique and the calculated distribution function, and integrates these model-based objective methods into a widely accessible platform (i.e., MS Excel). The macro offers the possibility for automated processing of geochemical data and enables an automated generation of background range and threshold values for chemical parameters.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R


    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.


    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  16. Microscopic Investigation of Electrochemical Gradients and Directed Transport in a Simulated Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent (United States)

    Möller, F. M.; Braun, D.; Kieß, M.; Keil, L.


    A prerequisite for the emergence of life on early earth are strong and sustained far-from-equilibrium conditions. Alkaline hydrothermal vent systems provide rich (geo-)chemical and physical gradients with striking resemblance to modern biology. Serpentinization reactions within the earth's crust led to strong gradients of pH, temperature, ionic composition and redox potential at the interface between the Hadean ocean and the hydrothermal effluent. Precipitation reactions further provided natural barriers of catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The strong redox potential between the CO2-rich Hadean ocean and the H2-bearing vent effluent across the catalytic precipitate has been hypothesized to trigger the first carbon-fixation reactions. However, only steep pH gradients make this reaction thermodynamically favorable. Here, we use a microfluidic replicate of a vent to access the steepness and stability of the pH gradient experimentally, and to investigate on the effect of the inorganic barrier. Using ratiometric fluorescence microscopy we find that the steepness and stability of the pH gradient is strongly enhanced by the ongoing precipitation. The pH gradient only relaxes when the flow of resources ceases. Furthermore, the ionic gradients are found to trigger the directed transport of colloids by diffusiophoresis, leading to interesting effects such as exclusion zone formation at the barrier and strong accumulation of colloids. The coupling of physical transport phenomena has been shown to invoke intricate feedback situations. In a series of experimental studies, we succeeded in implementing the accumulation, replication and selection of molecules by a thermal gradient across a micropore. These effects are essential requirements for the onset of early Darwinian evolution. The coupling of the effects observed in thermal and electrochemical gradients within our microscale laboratory experiments can yield insight into evolutionary scenarios for the earliest energy and carbon

  17. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  18. Ternary geochemical-tracing system in natural gas accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The establishment of geochemical-tracing system of gas generation and accumulation is helpful to re-elucidating the gas migration and accumulation in time and space. To deduce the complex process of gas accumulation, a ternary geochemical-tracing system is set up, according to stable isotope inheritance of source rocks, kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes, time-accumulating effect of noble gas isotopes, mantle-derived volatile inheritance, and organic molecule inheritance of light hydrocarbons and thermally kinetic fractionation in their generation, in combination with the previous achievements of gas geochemistry and geochemical parameters of gas-source correlation. There are tight interactions for the geochemical parameters with much information about parent inheritance and special biomarkers, in which they are confirmed each other, reciprocally associated and preferentially used for the requirement so that we can use these geochemical parameters to effectively demonstrate the sources of natural gas, sedimentary environments and thermal evolution of source rocks, migration and accumulation of natural gas, and rearrangement of natural gas reservoirs. It is necessary for the ternary geochemical-tracing system to predict the formation of high efficient gas reservoir and their distribution in time and space.

  19. The tectonic emplacement of Sumba in the Sunda-Banda Arc: paleomagnetic and geochemical evidence from the early Miocene Jawila volcanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Bergen, M.J. van


    The island of Sumba is a continental fragment in the fore-arc region near the transition between the Sunda Arc and Banda Arc in southeastern Indonesia. Paleomagnetic and geochemical evidence from the early Miocene volcanics of the Jawila Formation in western Sumba constrain the final drift stage

  20. The child health/family income gradient: Evidence from England. (United States)

    Currie, Alison; Shields, Michael A; Price, Stephen Wheatley


    Recent studies using Canadian and US data have documented a positive relationship between family income and child health, with the slope of the gradient being larger for older than younger children [Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C., 2002. Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. American Economic Review 92, 1308-1334; Currie, J., Stabile, M., 2003. Socioeconomic status and child health: why is the relationship stronger for older children? American Economic Review 93, 1813-1823]. In this paper we explore whether or not these findings hold for England, analysing a sample of over 13,000 children (and their parents) drawn from the Health Survey for England. While we find consistent and robust evidence of a significant family income gradient in child health, using the subjective general health status measure, the slope of the gradient is very small. Moreover, we find no evidence that the slope of the gradient increases with child age. Furthermore, we find no evidence of such a gradient with more objective measures, based on nurse examinations and blood test results. Together these results suggest that family income is not a major determinant of child health in England. Finally, we provide some evidence that nutrition and family lifestyle choices have an important role in determining child health and that child health is highly correlated within the family.

  1. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey


    The geochemical concept of biosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky states the geological role of the living organisms in the course of their active chemical interaction with the inert matter (Vernadsky, 1926, 1960). Basing on this theory it is reasonable to suggest that coevolution of living organisms and their environment led to development of the dynamically stable biogeocenoses precisely adequate to their geochemical environment. Soil cover was treated by V.I. Vernadsky as a balanced bio-inert matter resulting from this interaction. Appearance of human mind and then a civilization led to global expansion of human beings, first able to survive in unfavorable geochemical conditions and then starting chemical transformation of the environment to satisfy the growing demands of mankind in food and energy. The residence in unfavorable environment and local contamination was followed by appearance of endemic diseases of plants, animals and man. Therefore zonal, regional and local chemical composition of the soil cover formed in natural conditions may be used for estimation of the optimum geochemical background, most adequate for the corresponding zonal biogeocenoses and species. Moreover, the natural geochemical background and technogenic fields have unequal spatial structure and this facilitates their identification that may be relatively easy realized in remediation strategy. On the assumption of the foregoing, the adequate methodical approach to remediation of technogenically affected areas should account of the interaction of the existing natural and the newly formed technogenic geochemical fields and include the following steps: 1) the study and mapping of geochemical structure of the natural geochemical background basing on soil maps; 2) the study of contaminants and mapping spatial distribution of technogenic releases; 3) construction of risk maps for the target risk groups with due regard to natural ecological threshold concentration in context of risk degree for

  2. Biogeochemical gradients and microbial communities in Winogradsky columns established with polluted wetland sediments. (United States)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Meite, Fatima; Imfeld, Gwenaël


    A Winogradsky column is a miniature ecosystem established with enriched sediments that can be used to study the relationship between biogeochemical gradients, microbial diversity and pollutant transformation. Biogeochemical processes and microbial communities changed with time and depth in Winogradsky columns incubated with heavy-metal-polluted wetland sediments for 520 days. 16S rRNA surveys were complemented by geochemical analyses, including heavy metal proportioning, to evaluate gradients in the mostly anoxic columns. Oxygen was depleted below the water-sediment interface (WSI), while NH4+, Fe2+, S2- and acetate increased by one order of magnitude at the bottom. Microbial niche differentiation occurred mainly by depth and from the light-exposed surface to the interior of the columns. Chemical gradients resulting from nutrient uptake by algae, and from iron and sulphate reduction mainly drove diversification. Heavy-metal proportioning did not significantly influence microbial diversity as Cu and Zn were immobilised at all depths. Proteobacteria were abundant in the top water and the WSI layers, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroida dominated down-core. Together with low diversity and richness of communities at the WSI and column bottom, changes in the bacterial community coincided with algal-derived carbon sources and cellulose fermentation, respectively. We expect this study to be the starting point for the use Winogradsky columns to study microbial and geochemical dynamics in polluted sediments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2) - Including "Best Value" Data Compilations for Geochemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Soil, Mineral, and Concentrate Sample Media (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2) contains new geochemical data compilations in which each geologic material sample has one "best value"...

  4. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D


    The Savannah River Site disposes of certain types of radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). The geochemical parameters describe transport processes for 38 elements (>90 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight disposal units (Slit Trenches, Engineered Trenches, Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, TRU-Pad-1, Naval Reactor Waste Pads, Components-in-Grout Trenches, and Saltstone Facility). This work builds upon well-documented work from previous PA calculations (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000). The new geochemical concepts introduced in this data package are: (1) In the past, solubility products were used only in a few conditions (element existing in a specific environmental setting). This has been expanded to >100 conditions. (2) Radionuclide chemistry in cementitious environments is described through the use of both the Kd and apparent solubility concentration limit. Furthermore, the solid phase is assumed to age during the assessment period (thousands of years), resulting in three main types of controlling

  5. Geochemical Modeling of Trivalent Chromium Migration in Saline-Sodic Soil during Lasagna Process: Impact on Soil Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu Lukman


    Full Text Available Trivalent Cr is one of the heavy metals that are difficult to be removed from soil using electrokinetic study because of its geochemical properties. High buffering capacity soil is expected to reduce the mobility of the trivalent Cr and subsequently reduce the remedial efficiency thereby complicating the remediation process. In this study, geochemical modeling and migration of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil (high buffering capacity and alkaline during integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation, called the Lasagna process, were investigated. The remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in addition to the impacts of the Lasagna process on the physicochemical properties of the soil was studied. Box-Behnken design was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil pH, electroosmotic volume, soil electrical conductivity, current, and remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene. Overall desirability of 0.715 was attained at the following optimal conditions: voltage gradient 0.36 V/cm; polarity reversal rate 17.63 hr; soil pH 10.0. Under these conditions, the expected trivalent Cr remedial efficiency is 64.75 %.

  6. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał


    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.

  7. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał


    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.

  8. Compilation of kinetic data for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, LLC., Denver, Colorado (United States); Savage, D. [Quintessa, Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works


    Kinetic data, including rate constants, reaction orders and activation energies, are compiled for 34 hydrolysis reactions involving feldspars, sheet silicates, zeolites, oxides, pyroxenes and amphiboles, and for similar reactions involving calcite and pyrite. The data are compatible with a rate law consistent with surface reaction control and transition-state theory, which is incorporated in the geochemical software package EQ3/6 and GWB. Kinetic data for the reactions noted above are strictly compatible with the transition-state rate law only under far-from-equilibrium conditions. It is possible that the data are conceptually consistent with this rate law under both far-from-equilibrium and near-to-equilibrium conditions, but this should be confirmed whenever possible through analysis of original experimental results. Due to limitations in the availability of kinetic data for mine-water reactions, and in order to simplify evaluations of geochemical models of groundwater evolution, it is convenient to assume local-equilibrium in such models whenever possible. To assess whether this assumption is reasonable, a modeling approach accounting for couple fluid flow and water-rock interaction is described that can be use to estimate spatial and temporal scale of local equilibrium. The approach is demonstrated for conditions involving groundwater flow in fractures at JNC's Kamaishi in-situ tests site, and is also used to estimate the travel time necessary for oxidizing surface waters to migrate to the level of a HLW repository in crystalline rock. The question of whether local equilibrium is a reasonable assumption must be addressed using an appropriate modeling approach. To be appropriate for conditions at the Kamaishi site using the modeling approach noted above, the fracture fill must closely approximate a porous mine, groundwater flow must be purely advective and diffusion of solutes across the fracture-host rock boundary must not occur. Moreover, the

  9. Development of thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Neyama, Atsushi [Computer Software Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000degC. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25degC) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25degC and l bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100degC at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and log K(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated using SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT model, and because primary

  10. Geochemical identification of projectiles in impact rocks (United States)

    Tagle, Roald; Hecht, Lutz


    The three major geochemical methods for impactor identification are evaluated with respect to their potential and limitations with regards to the precise detection and identification of meteoritic material in impactites. The identification of a projectile component in impactites can be achieved by determining certain isotopic and elemental ratios in contaminated impactites. The isotopic methods are based on Os and Cr isotopic ratios. Osmium isotopes are highly sensitive for the detection of minute amounts of extraterrestrial components of even isotopic method requires the relatively highest projectile contamination (several wt%) in order to detect an extraterrestrial component, but may allow the identification of three different groups of extraterrestrial materials, ordinary chondrites, an enstatite chondrites, and differentiated achondrites. A significant advantage of this method is its independence of the target lithology and post-impact alteration. The use of elemental ratios, including platinum group elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd), in combination with Ni and Cr represents a very powerful method for the detection and identification of projectiles in terrestrial and lunar impactites. For most projectile types, this method is almost independent of the target composition, especially if PGE ratios are considered. This holds true even in cases of terrestrial target lithologies with a high component of upper mantle material. The identification of the projectile is achieved by comparison of the "projectile elemental ratio" derived from the slope of the mixing line (target-projectile) with the elemental ratio in the different types of possible projectiles (e.g., chondrites). However, this requires a set of impactite samples of various degree of projectile contamination.

  11. Petroleum geochemical proxies for reservoir engineering parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, B. [Petroleum Reservoir Group (PRG), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lager, A. [NRG: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Potter, D.K.; Buckman, J.O. [Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Larter, S.R. [Petroleum Reservoir Group (PRG), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); NRG: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)


    The prediction of fluid flow behaviour in petroleum reservoirs is influenced by the physical and chemical processes active in interacting crude oil/brine/rock systems. It is usually not possible to assess these complex systems directly so proxies for molecular scale behaviour are needed. By their very nature, polar non-hydrocarbons are sensitive to fluid-rock interactions, and if properly exploited they may be utilised as proxies for describing reservoir engineering properties (e.g. wettability) that are also sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. We have identified a group of aromatic oxygen (alkylphenols and alkylfluorenones) and aromatic nitrogen (alkylcarbazoles) compounds present in petroleum that appear to respond to variations in fluid-rock properties. Here we describe the chemical and physical changes in a series of core samples obtained from North Sea reservoirs. A number of petrophysical parameters displayed strong correlations with polar non-hydrocarbon occurrence. For example, deflections in gamma ray logs in response to clay content in a coarsening upwards sandstone unit also showed similar deflections from a number of geochemical logs. A core-flood experiment was designed to monitor the chemical and physical changes during oil migration in a siltstone core. Following completion of the core-flood experiment, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) analysis of core samples indicated hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface tendencies grading throughout the core. The distributions of polar non-hydrocarbons (e.g. C{sub 0}-C{sub 3}-phenols) appear to correspond closely to the observed wettability alteration. The results confirm the potential for developing proxies for fluid-rock interactions through monitoring the surface active compounds present in the polar non-hydrocarbon fraction of petroleum. (author)

  12. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter (United States)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.


    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  13. Geochemical Treasure Hunt for Primary School Children (United States)

    Tesmer, Maja; Frick, Daniel; Gerrits, Ruben; des GFZ-GeoWunderWerkstatt, Schülerlabor


    How can you inspire school children for geochemistry, and scientific exploratory urge? The key is to raise their curiosity and make learning new things a hands-on experience. The Fellows of the European Marie Curie Initial Training Network IsoNose designed and established a "Geochemical Treasure Hunt" to excite children for scientific investigations. This workshop explains primary school children the research and scientific methods of isotopic geochemistry, and their use to understand processes on the Earth's surface. From obtaining 'samples', performing various experiments, the school children gather clues leading them to the hidden treasure on the Telegrafenberg (campus of the GFZ Potsdam). The course was designed for school children to learn hands-on the meaning of elements, atoms and isotopes. In small groups the children conduct experiments of simplified methods being indispensable to any isotope geochemist. However, prior to working in any laboratory environment, a security briefing is necessary. For the course, two stages were implemented; firstly the use of harmful substances and dangerous equipment was minimised, and secondly children were equipped with size-matched personal protective equipment (lab coats, gloves, and safety googles). The purification of elements prior to isotopic analysis was visualised using colour chromatography. However, instead of using delicate mass spectrometers for the isotope ratio measurements, the pupils applied flame spectroscopy to analyse their dissolved and purified mineral solutions. Depending on the specific element present, a different colour was observed in the flame. The children plotted their colours of the flame spectroscopy onto a map and by interpreting the emerging colour patterns they localized the treasure on the map. In small teams they swarmed out on the Telegrafenberg to recover the hidden treasure. The project leading to this outreach activity has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie

  14. Algorithm for image fusion via gradient correlation and difference statistics (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Li-juan; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Mao, Ningjie


    In order to overcome the shortcoming of traditional image fusion based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT), a novel image fusion algorithm based on gradient correlation and difference statistics is proposed in this paper. The source images are decomposed into low-frequency coefficients and high-frequency coefficients by DWT: the former are fused by a local gradient correlation based scheme to extract the local feature information in source images; the latter are fused by a neighbor difference statistics based scheme to reserve the conspicuous edge information. Finally, the fused image is reconstructed by inverse DWT. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than other methods in reserving details.

  15. A Descent Gradient Method and Its Global Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-kui


    Y Liu and C Storey(1992) proposed the famous LS conjugate gradient method which has good numerical results. However, the LS method has very weak convergence under the Wolfe-type line search. In this paper, we give a new descent gradient method based on the LS method. It can guarantee the sufficient descent property at each iteration and the global convergence under the strong Wolfe line search. Finally, we also present extensive preliminary numerical experiments to show the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing with the famous PRP+ method.

  16. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garikipati, Krishna. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Ostien, Jakob T.


    In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.

  17. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  18. Geothermal exploration in Trans-Pecos, Texas/New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.; Taylor, B.; Miklas, M.P. Jr.


    Interest in alternative energy has encouraged the investigation of possible geothermal resources in Trans Pecos, Texas/New Mexico in an area of extensive Cenozoic volcanism with several hot springs. Geochemical analysis of groundwater samples resulted in the definition of two major areas of geothermal interest: the Hueco Bolson in northeastern El Paso County, and the Presidio Bolson. Regional temperature gradient measurements also supported the existence of anomalies in these places, and showed another smaller anomaly in the Finlay Mountains, Hudspeth County. Detailed geophysical and geochemical studies were conducted on these three targets.

  19. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils


    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independe...... of the small-scale structure of the Earth’s lithospheric field....

  20. Surface gradients under electrochemical control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, Sven Olle


    Gradients are systems in which the physicochemical properties of a solution and/or surface change gradually in space and/or time. They are used for a myriad of technological and biological applications, for example for high-throughput screening, or for the investigation of biological systems. The de

  1. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin


    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  2. GOCE level 2 gravity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.


    Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi

  3. Reinforcement Learning Through Gradient Descent (United States)


    Reinforcement learning is often done using parameterized function approximators to store value functions. Algorithms are typically developed for...practice of existing types of algorithms, the gradient descent approach makes it possible to create entirely new classes of reinforcement learning algorithms

  4. Gradient elution in counter-current chromatography: a new layout for an old path. (United States)

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Sumner, Neil; Colclough, Nicola; Sutherland, Ian


    Gradient elution in CCC is a powerful tool, which needs further systematic development to become robust and easy to use. The first attempt to build a correlation between gradient elution profile and distribution ratio (K(D)) values for model mixtures containing typical representatives of pharmaceutical compounds is presented in this paper. The three step estimation of the solvent system composition of a heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) series is described. The estimation is based on simple measurements of initial and final stationary phase retention for gradient elution run, calculating gradient distribution ratio and correlating it with static K(D) against HEMWat number.

  5. Hydrologic Regulation of Global Geochemical Cycles (United States)

    Maher, K.


    understand the processes controlling marine isotopic weathering processes, the need to integrate solute and solid transport into Earth system models, and the need to understand the role of extreme physical and temporal heterogeneities in moderating geochemical fluxes.

  6. Geochemical Mapping of 4 Vesta Begins (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Feldman, William C.; Forni, Olivier; Joy, Steven P.; Lawrence, David J.; LeCorre, Lucille; Mafi, Joseph N.; McCord, Thomas B.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Middlefehldt, David W.; Polanskey, Carol; Rayman, Marc; Raymond, Carol A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Reedy, Robert C.; Russell, Christopher T.; Titus, Timothy N.; Toplis, Mike J.


    LAMO, including GRaND s sensitivity to different elements and geochemical processes.

  7. Human impact gradient on mammalian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Munguía


    Full Text Available Drastic changes have been caused by human influence in natural landscapes, which may exert an intensive effect on species loss. However, species loss from human pressure is not random but depends on a series of environmentally associated factors. Linking species traits to environmental attributes may allow us to detect the ecological impacts of habitat so that meaningful habitat degradation gradients can be identified. The relationships between environmental factors and species traits provide the basis for identifying those biological traits that make species more sensitive to disturbance. These relationships are also helpful to detect the geographic distribution of latent risk to reveal areas where biodiversity is threatened. Here, we identify a “Human Impact Gradient for Biodiversity (HIGB” based on a three-table ordination method (RLQ analysis and fourth-corner analysis to identify key species traits that are associated with environmental gradient. Species distribution and environmental geographic data were gathered nationwide to analyze 68 localities, which represent 27% of Mexico’s surface, including 211 species of mammals. Nine environmental variables (including biophysical, geophysical and land-use impacts were analyzed by using the Geographic Information System. Three types of species’ traits were evaluated: locomotion, trophic habit and body size. We identified a human impact gradient, which was mainly determined by the percentage of the area that was covered by seedlings, the plant richness, the understory coverage percentage and the human settlement index. The most important species traits that are associated with non-human-impacted sites were carnivores, frugivores–herbivores and a body size that was greater than 17.8 kg; 25 species were selected by the decision criteria framework for species that were sensitive to degradation based on ecological function information. Conversely, granivores, fossorial and semifossorial

  8. Analytical gradients for excitation energies from frozen-density embedding. (United States)

    Kovyrshin, Arseny; Neugebauer, Johannes


    The formulation of analytical excitation-energy gradients from time-dependent density functional theory within the frozen-density embedding framework is presented. In addition to a comprehensive mathematical derivation, we discuss details of the numerical implementation in the Slater-function based Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program. Particular emphasis is put on the consistency in the use of approximations for the evaluation of second- and third-order non-additive kinetic-energy and exchange-correlation functional derivatives appearing in the final expression for the excitation-energy gradient. We test the implementation for different chemical systems in which molecular excited-state potential-energy curves are affected by another subsystem. It is demonstrated that the analytical implementation for the evaluation of excitation-energy gradients yields results in close agreement with data from numerical differentiation. In addition, we show that our analytical results are numerically more stable and thus preferable over the numerical ones.

  9. Adjustment of geochemical background by robust multivariate statistics (United States)

    Zhou, D.


    Conventional analyses of exploration geochemical data assume that the background is a constant or slowly changing value, equivalent to a plane or a smoothly curved surface. However, it is better to regard the geochemical background as a rugged surface, varying with changes in geology and environment. This rugged surface can be estimated from observed geological, geochemical and environmental properties by using multivariate statistics. A method of background adjustment was developed and applied to groundwater and stream sediment reconnaissance data collected from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Source-rock lithology appears to be a dominant factor controlling the chemical composition of groundwater or stream sediments. The most efficacious adjustment procedure is to regress uranium concentration on selected geochemical and environmental variables for each lithologic unit, and then to delineate anomalies by a common threshold set as a multiple of the standard deviation of the combined residuals. Robust versions of regression and RQ-mode principal components analysis techniques were used rather than ordinary techniques to guard against distortion caused by outliers Anomalies delineated by this background adjustment procedure correspond with uranium prospects much better than do anomalies delineated by conventional procedures. The procedure should be applicable to geochemical exploration at different scales for other metals. ?? 1985.

  10. Retention modeling in combined pH/organic solvent gradient reversed-phase HPLC. (United States)

    Zisi, Ch; Fasoula, S; Nikitas, P; Pappa-Louisi, A


    An approach for retention modeling of double pH/organic solvent gradient data easily generated by automatically mixing two mobile phases with different pH and organic content according to a linear pump program is proposed. This approach is based on retention models arising from the evaluation of the retention data of a set of 17 OPA derivatives of amino acids obtained in 27 combined pH/organic solvent gradient runs performed between fixed initial pH/organic modifier values but different final ones and for different gradient duration. The derived general model is a ninth parameter equation easily manageable through a linear least-squares fitting but it requires eighteen initial pH/organic modifier gradient experiments for a satisfactory retention prediction in various double gradients of the same kind with those used in the fitting procedure. Two simplified versions of the general model, which were parameterized based on six only initial pH/organic modifier gradients, were also proposed, when one of the final double gradient conditions, pH or organic content was kept constant. The full and the simplified models allowed us to predict the experimental retention data in simultaneous pH/organic solvent double gradient mode very satisfactorily without the solution of the fundamental equation of gradient elution.

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  12. Geochemical and GIS study of the Zarshuran Gold mine in Iran (United States)

    Sedighi, Tahereh; Sedighi, Ahmad


    Geochemical and GIS study of the Zarshuran Gold mine in Iran Sedighi Tahere 1 Sedighi Ahmad 2 (1) Geological survey of Iran ,GIS branch (2) Shabeke Pars Enginearing Company Zarshuran Gold mine is located in the north of Takab , in West of Azarbayejan Provinc There are four Gold ore types in Zarshuran ; black gouge ,Carbonate tectonized and breccia mineralized ,Massive Jasperiod and Marble and sanded. Refractory ore off Zarshuran are Gold and co-paragenetic ore like;Arsenopyrite and Orpiment. Geographic information system (GIS) has been used to determine the Gold potential of this area. By the GIS system there are different stages with contains, Gathering of all available data, Application of the integration model and the Data processing. By mineralization and Geochemical studies it is indicated that only small fraction of free Gold (21%) is present in the cyanide-soluble salpho-arsenic compound. Major Gold distribution in orpiment, regular and Arsenian Pyrite (32%) oxides, carbonates and labile sulphides (18%) and sulphides pyrite and arsenopyrite (22%). We used several information layers of the geological layer , ore deposit layer , geochemical layer , heavy mineral layer airborn Geophysical layer and remote sensing layer . Also we used from geological maps of this area. By using of the ARCGIS software , we identified the mining potentials for Gold and finally determined the Gold mining area. In this project we used the methods of simple overlay and Fuzzy logic were used. In this presentation, the authors have outlined a strategy to take up Gold mining and refractory and undersetting of the potential for refractory Gold ores in Zarshuran area ,and these results might be used for the other similar gold mines studies.

  13. Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Solano, Federico; Kilburn, James E.; Fey, David L.


    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1,600 square kilometers, 4,857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Sampling and analytical protocols were developed at a workshop in 2003, and pilot studies were conducted from 2004 to 2007 to test and refine these recommended protocols. The final sampling protocol for the national-scale survey included, at each site, a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a deeper sample from the soil C horizon or, if the top of the C horizon was at a depth greater than 1 meter, from a depth of approximately 80–100 centimeters. The elements by methods that yield the total or near-total elemental content. The major mineralogical components in the samples from the soil A and C horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling in the conterminous United States was completed in 2010, with chemical and mineralogical analyses completed in May 2013. The resulting dataset provides an estimate of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical elements and minerals in soils of the conterminous United States and represents a baseline for soil geochemistry and mineralogy against which future changes may be recognized and quantified. This report (1) describes the sampling, sample preparation, and analytical methods used; (2) gives details of the quality control protocols used to monitor the quality of chemical and mineralogical analyses over approximately six years; and (3) makes available the soil geochemical and mineralogical data in downloadable tables.

  14. Relation of Isotope Geochemical Steep Zones with Geophysical Fields and Tectonics in the Junction Area of the Cathaysian, Yangtze and Indochina Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Through lead isotope geochemical mapping in the Yunnan-Guizhou area geochemical steep zones (GSZ) have been established, which clearly reveal the junction relationship of the Cathaysian, Yangtze and Indo-China plates. GSZ are closey related to gravity Moho gradient zones and lithospheric thickness. The GSZ between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates is consistent with the Shizong-Mile tectonic belt, where island arc basalts are well developed. The Yangtze-Indo-China GSZ is parallel to the Jingdong-Mojiang volcanic belt in rift-island arc environments. The evidence of geology, geophysics and geochemistry all indicates that Cathaysia was subducted towards the Yangtze plate and that the Yangtze plate was underthrust beneath the Indo-China, which took place from the Early Carboniferous to the Early Triassic.

  15. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients (United States)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey


    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  16. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  17. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....

  18. Thermo-hydro-geochemical modelling of the bentonite buffer. LOT A2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David (Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and waste management company (SKB) is conducting a series of long term buffer material (LOT) tests at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) to test the behaviour of the bentonite buffer under conditions similar to those expected in a KBS-3 deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste (HLNW). In the present work a numerical model is developed to simulate (i) the thermo-hydraulic, (ii) transport and (iii) geochemical processes that have been observed in the LOT A2 test parcel. The LOT A2 test lasted approximately 6 years, and consists of a 4 m long vertical borehole drilled in diorite rock, from the ground of the Aespoe HRL tunnel. The borehole is composed of a central heater, maintained at 130 deg C in the lower 2 m of the borehole, a copper tube surrounding the heater and a 100 mm thick ring of pre-compacted Wyoming MX-80 bentonite around the copper tube /Karnland et al. 2009/. The numerical model developed here is a 1D axis-symmetric model that simulates the water saturation of the bentonite under a constant thermal gradient; the transport of solutes; and, the geochemical reactions observed in the bentonite blocks. Two cases have been modelled, one considering the highest temperature reached by the bentonite (at 3 m depth in the borehole, where temperatures of 130 and 85 deg C have been recorded near the copper tube and near the granitic host rock, respectively) and the other case assuming a constant temperature of 25 deg C, representing the upper part of borehole, where the bentonite has not been heated. In the LOT A2 test, the initial partially saturated bentonite becomes progressively water saturated, due to the injection of Aespoe granitic groundwater at granite - bentonite interface. The transport of solutes during the bentonite water saturation stage is believed to be controlled by water uptake from the surrounding groundwater to the wetting front and, additionally, in the case of heated bentonite, by a cyclic evaporation

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Retention/Release in Geochemical Processes in Soil - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert W.


    Effective, remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over a long period of time. Studies on reaction of Cr(VI) with iron-rich clays indicated that structural iron (II) in these surfaces is capable of reducing chromate to chromium (III). We found that iron (II) either found naturally or produced by treatment of clay with sodium dithionite, effectively reduced Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Thus, in situ remediation of chromium combines reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) and immobilization of chromium on mineral surfaces. During this study, lead sorption on a kaolin surface was found to be a rapid and a pH dependant process in which lead sorption significantly increased with the amount of phosphate on the clay surface. This study verifies that methylmercury cation remains intact when it binds to humic acids, forming a monodentate complex with some sub-population of humic thiol ligands .

  20. Development of organic geochemical and isotope techniques for hydrocarbon exploration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, E.; Hufnagel, H.; Jacob, H.; Kock, J.; Stahl, W.; Teschener, M.; Wehner, H.


    Sedimentary organic matters was characterized by correlating microscopic and chemical data. Techniques for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations were developed using the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopic composition of oils, extracts and kerogens is given. The C12/C13 ratios of methane from different natural gases were corellated with the maturity of their source rocks. The C12/C13 ratios of methane from cuttings were also determined. Results show that pyrolysis chromatograms reflect the type of organic matter. Fluorescence of dinoflagellates is directly related to maturity. Bitumens are classified by fluorescence microscopy. Correlation of crude oils is performed using chromatograms of the aromatic fraction of crudes. Gas-source rock correlation is feasible by a systematic correlation of delta values of methane and the maturity of the source organic matter. Isotope analyses of head-space gases are developed for active exploration. (ESA)

  1. Cooperative geochemical investigation of geothermal resources in the Imperial Valley and Yuma areas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, T.B.


    Preliminary studies indicate that the Imperial Valley has a large geothermal potential. In order to delineate additional geothermal systems a chemical and isotopic investigation of samples from water wells, springs, and geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley and Yuma areas was conducted. Na, K, and Ca concentrations of nearly 200 well water, spring water, hot spring, and geothermal fluid samples from the Imperial Valley area were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fournier and Truesdell's function was determined for each water sample. Suspected geothermal areas are identified. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope abundances were determined in order to determine and to identify the source of the water in the Mesa geothermal system. (JGB)

  2. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of secondary uranium ore formation. Final Report - Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States); Bennett, D.G.; Read, D. [W.S. Atkins Science and Technology, Epsom Surrey, (United Kingdom)


    The purpose of the present study was to establish how the uranyl phosphate zone at the Koongarra site was formed. The overall approach taken in the present study employed theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations and models that permit investigation and reconstruction of the kinds of waters that could produce the uranyl phosphate zone. These calculations have used the geological and mineralogical data for the Koongarra weathered zone (Volumes 2, 8, and 9 of this series), to constrain the initial compositions and reactions undergone by groundwater during the formation of the uranyl phosphate zone. In carrying out these calculations the present-day analyses of Koongarra waters are used only as a guide to the possible initial composition of the fluids associated with the formation of the phosphate zone. Aqueous speciation, saturation state and chemical mass transfer calculations were carried out using the computer programs EQ3NR and EQ6 (Wolery, 1983; Wolery et al., 1984) and a thermodynamic database generated at The Johns Hopkins University over the last eight years which is tabulated in the Appendix 1 to Volume 12 of this series. Despite uncertainties in the thermodynamic characterisation of species, all the above calculations suggest that the uranyl phosphate zone at Koongarra has not formed from present-day groundwaters (Volume 12 of this series). The present-day groundwaters in the weathered zone (eg. at 13 m depth) appear to be undersaturated with respect to saleeite. Furthermore, as present-day groundwaters descend below the water table they rapidly lose their atmospheric oxygen imprint, as is typical of most groundwaters, and become even more reducing in character. Under these circumstances, the groundwaters become more undersaturated with respect to saleeite than the shallow groundwaters. Because much of the phosphate zone is currently below the water table, under saturated zone conditions, it is suggested in the present study that the uranyl phosphate zone must have formed in the geologic past under unsaturated zone conditions

  3. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.


    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  4. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  5. Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses (United States)


    optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer

  6. Multilayer coating for high gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Takayuki


    The multilayer coating for high gradients is reviewed. Not only the S-I-S structure, but also the S-S bilayer structure are also treated. This is an incomplete manuscript of an invited article which will be submitted to a journal. I have uploaded this version in order to help the understanding on my talk at the TESLA Technology Collaboration meeting at Saclay, France.

  7. Aspects of geochemical evolution of the SKB near field in the frame of SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David (Amphos 21, Barcelona (Spain))


    The concept for the final disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) developed by the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) entails a multi-barrier system that surrounds the HLNW, which is also known as the near-field. In the near-field, the buffer is initially subject to a high thermal gradient induced by the heat generated by the radioactive decay of the HLNW. During this period, the buffer is also subject to a hydrodynamic pressure induced by the surrounding water saturated rock massif which progressively leads to the saturation of the buffer. After saturation and cooling of the near-field, the interaction of groundwater with the bentonite buffer may result in an evolving distribution of some aqueous species in the bentonite porewater, as well as the redistribution of accessory minerals and the cation exchanger composition in the montmorillonite interlayer. The distribution of aqueous and solid species in the buffer can affect, directly or indirectly, some of the relevant safety function indicators defined by. In this context, the work developed by Arcos et al is revisited in the present work and, based on new data from SKB, additional models are developed for the SR-Site Safety Assessment. The work presented here represents an update of the model conducted within the SR-Can exercise and, therefore, similar simulation cases are developed. Three aspects must be considered regarding the geochemical evolution of the near field: (1) the effect of the thermal period; (2) the processes during the saturation of bentonite; and, (3) the interaction of the water-saturated bentonite with the local groundwater. In this numerical exercise, two types of bentonite are analysed: the MX-80 and the Deponit CA-N. The effect of the thermal period and the water saturation are analysed in a series of one-dimensional radial-symmetric simulations performed using TOUGHREACT which is a reactive transport code that accounts for variably saturated multi-phase flow under non

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake


    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  9. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  10. Future of gradient index optics (United States)

    Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank


    First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.

  11. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra


    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the ΛCDM paradigm, the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the order of 10-37 G over the typical comoving scales ranging between 1 and 10 Mpc. While the obtained results seem to be irrelevant for seeding a reasonable galactic dynamo action, they demonstrate how the proposed fully inhomogeneous treatment can be used for the systematic scrutiny of pre-decoupling plasmas beyond the conventional perturbative expansions.

  12. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  13. Methane related changes in prokaryotic activity along geochemical profiles in sediments of Lake Kinneret (Israel) (United States)

    Bar Or, I.; Ben-Dov, E.; Kushmaro, A.; Eckert, W.; Sivan, O.


    Microbial methane oxidation process (methanotrophy) is the primary control on the emission of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. In terrestrial environments, aerobic methanotrophic bacteria are mainly responsible for oxidizing the methane. In marine sediments the coupling of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate reduction, often by a consortium of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria, was found to consume almost all the upward diffusing methane. Recently, we showed geochemical evidence for AOM driven by iron reduction in Lake Kinneret (LK) (Israel) deep sediments and suggested that this process can be an important global methane sink. The goal of the present study was to link the geochemical gradients found in the porewater (chemical and isotope profiles) with possible changes in microbial community structure. Specifically, we examined the possible shift in the microbial community in the deep iron-driven AOM zone and its similarity to known sulfate driven AOM populations. Screening of archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota as the dominant phyla in the sediment. Thaumarchaeota, which belongs to the family of copper containing membrane-bound monooxgenases, increased with depth while Euryarchaeota decreased. This may indicate the involvement of Thaumarchaeota, which were discovered to be ammonia oxidizers but whose activity could also be linked to methane, in AOM in the deep sediment. ANMEs sequences were not found in the clone libraries, suggesting that iron-driven AOM is not through sulfate. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequences displayed shifts in community diversity with depth. Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi increased with depth, which could be connected with their different dissimilatory anaerobic processes. The observed changes in microbial community structure suggest possible direct and indirect mechanisms for iron-driven AOM in deep sediments.

  14. Geochemical Enhancement Of Enhanced Geothermal System Reservoirs: An Integrated Field And Geochemical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph N. Moore


    The geochemical effects of injecting fluids into geothermal reservoirs are poorly understood and may be significantly underestimated. Decreased performance of injection wells has been observed in several geothermal fields after only a few years of service, but the reasons for these declines has not been established. This study had three primary objectives: 1) determine the cause(s) of the loss of injectivity; 2) utilize these observations to constrain numerical models of water-rock interactions; and 3) develop injection strategies for mitigating and reversing the potential effects of these interactions. In this study rock samples from original and redrilled injection wells at Coso and the Salton Sea geothermal fields, CA, were used to characterize the mineral and geochemical changes that occurred as a result of injection. The study documented the presence of mineral scales and at both fields in the reservoir rocks adjacent to the injection wells. At the Salton Sea, the scales consist of alternating layers of fluorite and barite, accompanied by minor anhydrite, amorphous silica and copper arsenic sulfides. Amorphous silica and traces of calcite were deposited at Coso. The formation of silica scale at Coso provides an example of the effects of untreated (unacidified) injectate on the reservoir rocks. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the scale deposits. The silica scale in the reservoir rocks at Coso was initially deposited as spheres of opal-A 1-2 micrometers in diameter. As the deposits matured, the spheres coalesced to form larger spheres up to 10 micrometer in diameter. Further maturation and infilling of the spaces between spheres resulted in the formation of plates and sheets that substantially reduce the original porosity and permeability of the fractures. Peripheral to the silica deposits, fluid inclusions with high water/gas ratios provide a subtle record of interactions between the injectate and reservoir rocks

  15. Gradient Gene Algorithm: a Fast Optimization Method to MST Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The extension of Minimum Spanning Tree(MST) problem is an NP hardproblem which does not exit a polynomial time algorithm. In this paper, a fast optimizat ion method on MST problem--the Gradient Gene Algorithm is introduced. Compar ed with other evolutionary algorithms on MST problem, it is more advanced: firstly, very simple and easy to realize; then, efficient and accurate; finally general on other combination optimization problems.

  16. On the structure of gradient Yamabe solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Huai-Dong; Zhang, Yingying


    We show that every complete nontrivial gradient Yamabe soliton admits a special global warped product structure with a one-dimensional base. Based on this, we prove a general classification theorem for complete nontrivial locally conformally flat gradient Yamabe solitons.

  17. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.


    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...

  18. Geochemical simulation of fluid rock interactions to predict flowback water compostions during hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilke, Franziska D. H.


    Black shales are a heterogeneous mixture of minerals, organic matter and formation water and little is actually known about the fluid-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and their effects on composition of flowback and produced water. Geochemical simulations have been performed based on the analyses of "real" flowback water samples and artificial stimulation fluids from lab experiments with the aim to set up a chemical process model for shale gas reservoirs. Prediction of flowback water compositions for potential or already chosen sites requires validated and parameterized geochemical models. For the software "Geochemist's Workbench" (GWB) data bases are adapted and amended based on a literature review. Evaluation of the system has been performed in comparison with the results from laboratory experiments. Parameterization was done in regard to field data provided. Finally, reaction path models are applied for quantitative information about the mobility of compounds in specific settings. Our work leads to quantitative estimates of reservoir compounds in the flowback based on calibrations by laboratory experiments. Such information is crucial for the assessment of environmental impacts as well as to estimate human- and ecotoxicological effects of the flowback waters from a variety of natural gas shales. With a comprehensive knowledge about potential composition and mobility of flowback water, selection of water treatment techniques will become easier.

  19. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.


    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  20. Gradient Flow Convolutive Blind Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Nielsen, Chinton Møller


    Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use of a circ......Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use...

  1. An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both? (United States)

    Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T


    There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health.

  2. Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.


    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain

  3. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  4. Numerical modeling of geochemical variations caused by crustal relamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras


    Geochemical consequences of composite diapirs formed in subduction zones have been studied using a thermomechanical numerical model of an ocean-continent subduction zone. This model includes dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous fluid transport, partial melting, and melt emplacement. Subduction of

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key word: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin. INTRODUCTION .... The geochemical analysis of the metals shows a high Ti ..... smectite evolved into an illite, or because the initial source is not .... Pinheiro LM, Kopf A, Boetius A (2006): Microbial methane turnover at.

  6. The Characteristics and Working Conditions of Several Geochemical Softwares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua


    <正>During the development of geosciences and environmental science, it is difficult to give many quantitative indicators by experiment. It can be given only by means of the geochemical simulation software. So a number of research institutions and commercial companies develop a variety of such software. They have respective advantages as regards the different simulated.

  7. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.


    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...

  8. Population gradients in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Galaxy Catalogue: the role of merging (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.


    We investigate the role of the environment on the colour and stellar population gradients in a local sample of ˜3500 central and ˜1150 satellite Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) early-type galaxies. The environment is parametrized in terms of the number of satellite galaxies, Ngal, in each group. For central galaxies, we find that both optical colour and mass-to-light (M/L) ratio gradients are shallower in central galaxies residing in denser environments (higher Ngal). This trend is driven by metallicity gradients, while age gradients appear to be less dependent on the environment and to have a larger scatter. On the other hand, satellites do not show any differences in terms of the environment. The same results are found if galaxies are classified by central age, and both central and satellite galaxies have shallower gradients if they are older and steeper gradients if younger, satellites being independent of ages. In central galaxies, we show that the observed trends can be explained with the occurrence of dry mergings, which are more numerous in denser environments and producing shallower colour gradients because of more uniform metallicity distributions due to the mixing of stellar populations, while no final clues about merging occurrence can be obtained for satellites. Finally, we discuss all systematics on stellar population fitting and their impact on the final results.

  9. Isotopic Clues on Factors Controlling Geochemical Fluxes From Large Watersheds in Eastern Canada (United States)

    Rosa, E.; Helie, J.; Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Gaillardet, J.


    A monitoring and monthly sampling program of the Nelson, Ottawa, St. Lawrence, La Grande and Great Whale rivers was started in September 2007. It provides information on the seasonality and sources of geochemical fluxes into the Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic from watersheds covering more than 2.6 106 km2 of the eastern Canadian boreal domain. Measurements of pH and alkalinity, analyses of major ions, strontium and dissolved silica, 2H and 18O of water, concentrations and isotopic properties of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (13C) and uranium (234U/238U) were performed. Lithology more than latitudinal climatic gradients controls the river geochemistry. Rivers draining silicate terrains show lower dissolved U concentrations but greater 234U/238U disequilibria than rivers draining carbonates (average of 1.38 vs. 1.23). Groundwater supplies might exert some control on these U- isotope signatures. No clear seasonality is observed in 234U/238U ratios, but U concentrations are correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in most rivers. Rivers draining carbonates present higher total dissolved carbon concentrations and higher 13C-contents in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in response to the dissolution of soil carbonates. DOC/DIC ratios above 2.4 are observed in rivers draining silicates; their lower 13C-DIC content directly reflects the organic matter oxidation in soils. Total dissolved solids are one order of magnitude or more greater in rivers draining carbonates, showing the strong difference in chemical weathering rates according to the geological setting. The stability in chemical fluxes and water isotopic compositions in the La Grande River, which hosts hydroelectric reservoirs covering more than 12 000 km2, indicates that it is the most buffered hydrological system among the investigated watersheds. Seasonal fluctuations are observed elsewhere, with maximum geochemical fluxes during the spring snowmelt. 2H-18O content of river water

  10. Well sediments: a medium for geochemical prospecting, an example from the Nisa region, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, S.P.; Dekkers, M.J.; Janssen, M.A.; Commandeur, J.


    Vriend, S.P., Dekkers, M.J.. Janssen, M.A. and Commandeur, J., 1991. Well sediments: a medium for geochemical prospecting, an example from the Nisa region. Portugal. In: A.W. Rose and P.M. Taufen I Editors). Geochemical Exploration ! 989. J. Geochem. Expior., 4 ! : ! 5 I- 167. Tile potential of well

  11. Stringy bounces and gradient instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Bouncing solutions are obtained from a generally covariant action characterized by a potential which is a nonlocal functional of the dilaton field at two separated space-time points. Gradient instabilities are shown to arise in this context but they are argued to be nongeneric. After performing a gauge-invariant and frame-invariant derivation of the evolution equations of the fluctuations, a heuristic criterium for the avoidance of pathological instabilities is proposed and corroborated by a number of explicit examples that turn out to be compatible with a quasi-flat spectrum of curvature inhomogeneities for typical wavelengths larger than the Hubble radius.

  12. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch


    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons.

  13. Geochemical Mapping: With Special Emphasis on Analytical Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xuejing; CHENG Hangxin; LIU Dawen


    More than 40 national and regional geochemical mapping projects in the world carried out from 1973 to 1988 do not conform to common standards. In particular they have many analytical deficiencies. In the period 1988 to 1992, the International Geochemical Mapping project (Project 259 of UNESCO's IGCP Program) prepared recommendations designed to standardize geochemical mapping methods. The analytical requirements are an essential component of the overall recommendations. They included the following: 71 elements should be analyzed in future mapping projects; the detection limits of trace and ultratrace elements must be lower than the corresponding crustal abundances; and the Chinese GSD and Canadian STSD standard sample series should be used for the correlation of global data. A proposal was also made to collect 5000 composite samples, at very low sampling densities to cover the whole Earth's land surface. In 1997 an IUGS Working Group on Global Geochemical Baselines was formed to continue the work which began with IGCP 259. From 1997 up to now, new progress has been made especially in China and FOREGS countries under the aegis of this working group, including the study of suitable sampling media, development of a multi-element analytical system, new proficiency test for selection of competent laboratories and role of wide-spaced mapping in mineral exploration. One of the major problems awaiting solution has been the inability of many laboratories to meet the IGCP recommendations to generate high quality geochemical maps. Fortunately several laboratories in China and Europe have demonstrated an ability to meet the requirements and they will be well placed to render technical assistance to other countries.

  14. Validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.; Deutsch, W.J.


    As part of the Geochemical Modeling and Nuclide/Rock/Groundwater Interactions Studies Program, a study was conducted to partially validate the WATEQ4 aqueous speciation-solubility geochemical model for uranium. The solubility controls determined with the WATEQ4 geochemical model were in excellent agreement with those laboratory studies in which the solids schoepite (UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/ . H/sub 2/O), UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/, and rutherfordine ((UO/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) were identified as actual solubility controls for uranium. The results of modeling solution analyses from laboratory studies of uranyl phosphate solids, however, identified possible errors in the characterization of solids in the original solubility experiments. As part of this study, significant deficiencies in the WATEQ4 thermodynamic data base for uranium solutes and solids were corrected. Revisions included recalculation of selected uranium reactions. Additionally, thermodynamic data for the hydroxyl complexes of U(VI), including anionic (VI) species, were evaluated (to the extent permitted by the available data). Vanadium reactions were also added to the thermodynamic data base because uranium-vanadium solids can exist in natural ground-water systems. This study is only a partial validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model because the available laboratory solubility studies do not cover the range of solid phases, alkaline pH values, and concentrations of inorganic complexing ligands needed to evaluate the potential solubility of uranium in ground waters associated with various proposed nuclear waste repositories. Further validation of this or other geochemical models for uranium will require careful determinations of uraninite solubility over the pH range of 7 to 10 under highly reducing conditions and of uranyl hydroxide and phosphate solubilities over the pH range of 7 to 10 under oxygenated conditions.

  15. Testing fundamentals: The chemical state of geochemical tracers in biominerals. (United States)

    Branson, O.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Read, E.; Elderfield, H.


    The use of many carbonate-derived geochemical proxies is underpinned by the assumption that tracer elements are incorporated 'ideally' as impurities the mineral lattice, following relatively straightforward kinetic and thermodynamic drives. This allows comparison to inorganic precipitation experiments, and provides a systematic starting point from which to translate geochemical tracers to environmental records. Biomineral carbonates are a prominent source of geochemical proxy material, and are far from an ideal inorganic system. They are structurally and compositionally heterogeneous mineral-organic composites, produced in tightly controlled biological environments, possibly via non-classical crystal growth mechanisms. Biominerals offer numerous opportunities for tracers to be incorporated in a 'non-ideal' state. For instance, tracers could be hosted within the organic component of the structure, in interstitial micro-domains of a separate mineral phase, or in localized high-impurity clusters. If a proxy element is hosted in a non-ideal state, our understanding of its incorporation and preservation is flawed, and the theoretical basis behind the proxies derived from it must be reevaluated. Thus far, the assumption of ideal tracer incorporation has remained largely untested, owing to the spatial resolution and sensitivity limits of available techniques. Developments in high-resolution, high-sensitivity X-ray spectroscopy at Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopes (STXMs) have allowed us to measure trace element coordination in foraminiferal calcite, at length-scales relevant to biomineralisation processes and tracer incorporation. This instrument has allowed us to test the fundamental assumptions behind several geochemical proxy elements. We present a summary of four STXM studies, assessing the chemical state and distribution of Mg (Branson et al, 2014), B (Branson et al, 2015), S and Na (unpub.), and highlight the implications of these data for the use of these

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University


    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  17. Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis. (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Revathi; Zhang, Xin


    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have long been attributed to influence morphogenesis in embryonic development. Signaling by FGF morphogen encodes positional identity of tissues by creating a concentration gradient over the developing embryo. Various mechanisms that influence the development of such gradient have been elucidated in the recent past. These mechanisms of FGF gradient formation present either as an extracellular control over FGF ligand diffusion or as a subcellular control of FGF propagation and signaling. In this review, we describe our current understanding of FGF as a morphogen, the extracellular control of FGF gradient formation by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and mechanisms of intracellular regulation of FGF signaling that influence gradient formation.

  18. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.


    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.

  19. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.


    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  20. Petrological, organic geochemical and geochemical characteristics of coal from the Soko mine, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivotic, Dragana; Simic, Vladimir [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Djusina 7, 11000 Belgrade (RS); Wehner, Herman; Scheeder, Georg; Vidal, Angelika [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Cvetkovic, Olga; Sajnovic, Aleksandra [Center of Chemistry, IChTM, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (RS); Jovancicevic, Branimir [Center of Chemistry, IChTM, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (RS); Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (RS); Grzetic, Ivan [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (RS); Ercegovac, Marko [Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35,11000 Belgrade (RS)


    A petrological, organic geochemical and geochemical study was performed on coal samples from the Soko Mine, Soko Banja basin, Serbia. Ten coal and two carbonaceous clay samples were collected from fresh, working faces in the underground brown coal mine from different parts of the main coal seam. The Lower Miocene, low-rank coal of the Soko Mine is a typical humic coal with huminite concentrations of up to 76.2 vol.%, liptinite less than 14 vol.% and inertinite less than 11 vol.%. Ulminite is the most abundant maceral with variable amounts of densinite and clay minerals. Sporinite and resinite are the most common macerals of the liptinite group. Inertodetrinite is the most abundant maceral of the inertinite group. The mineral-bituminous groundmass identified in some coal samples, and carbonaceous marly clay, indicate sub-aquatic origin and strong bacterial decomposition. The mean random huminite reflectance (ulminite B) for the main coal seam is 0.40 {+-} 0.05% Rr, which is typical for an immature to early mature stage of organic matter. The extract yields from the coal of the Soko Banja basin ranges from 9413 to 14,096 ppm, in which alkanes constituted 1.0-20.1%, aromatics 1.3-14.7%, asphaltenes 28.1-76.2% and resins 20.2-43.5%. The saturated hydrocarbon fractions included n-C{sub 15} to n-C{sub 32}, with an odd carbon number that predominate in almost all the samples. The contents of n-C{sub 27} and n-C{sub 29} alkanes are extremely high in some samples, as a contribution of epicuticular waxes from higher plants. Acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons are minor constituents in the aliphatic fraction, and the pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio varies between 0.56 and 3.13, which implies anaerobic to oxic conditions during sedimentation. The most abundant diterpanes were abietane, dehydroabietane and 16{alpha}(H)-phyllocladane. In samples from the upper part of the coal seam, diterpanes are the dominant constituents of the alkane fraction. Polycyclic alkanes of the triterpane

  1. A second gradient formulation for a 2D fabric sheet with inextensible fibres (United States)

    Placidi, Luca; Greco, Leopoldo; Bucci, Sara; Turco, Emilio; Rizzi, Nicola Luigi


    We present numerical simulations of rectangular woven fabrics made of two, initially orthogonal, families of inextensible fibres. We consider an energy functional which includes both first and second gradients of the displacement. The energy density is expressed in terms of the angles between the fibres directions, using trigonometric functions and their gradients. In particular, we focus on an energy density depending on the squared tangent of the shear angle, which automatically satisfies some natural properties of the energy. The numerical results show that final configurations obtained by the second gradient energies are smoother than the first gradient ones. Moreover, we show that if a second gradient energy is considered, the shear energy is better uniformly distributed.

  2. Wnt Secretion and Gradient Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Katanaev


    Full Text Available Concentration gradients formed by the lipid-modified morphogens of the Wnt family are known for their pivotal roles during embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt morphogens are also implicated in a variety of human diseases, especially cancer. Therefore, the signaling cascades triggered by Wnts have received considerable attention during recent decades. However, how Wnts are secreted and how concentration gradients are formed remains poorly understood. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has provided important advances in this area. For instance, we have previously shown that the lipid raft-associated reggie/flotillin proteins influence Wnt secretion and spreading in Drosophila. Our work supports the notion that producing cells secrete Wnt molecules in at least two pools: a poorly diffusible one and a reggie/flotillin-dependent highly diffusible pool which allows morphogen spreading over long distances away from its source of production. Here we revise the current views of Wnt secretion and spreading, and propose two models for the role of the reggie/flotillin proteins in these processes: (i reggies/flotillins regulate the basolateral endocytosis of the poorly diffusible, membrane-bound Wnt pool, which is then sorted and secreted to apical compartments for long-range diffusion, and (ii lipid rafts organized by reggies/flotillins serve as “dating points” where extracellular Wnt transiently interacts with lipoprotein receptors to allow its capture and further spreading via lipoprotein particles. We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies.

  3. A three-term conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search (United States)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa


    Recently, numerous studies have been concerned in conjugate gradient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization method. In this paper, a three-term conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization which always satisfies sufficient descent direction and namely as Three-Term Rivaie-Mustafa-Ismail-Leong (TTRMIL). Under standard conditions, TTRMIL method is proved to be globally convergent under strong-Wolfe line search. Finally, numerical results are provided for the purpose of comparison.

  4. Geochemical pattern of soils in Bobovdol valley, Bulgaria. Assessment of Cd and Co contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Nikova


    Full Text Available The chemical composition of soils spread in the Bobov dol valley was studied in order to reveal the natural and anthropogenic patterns of Cd and Co spatial distribution. A sampling procedure based on the irregular grid of points and validated analytical methods were used in the field and laboratory studies. It is found that Cd content varies from 0.21 to 0.90 mg kg-1 in studied soils and the average value of 0.55 mg kg-1 coincides with concentration demarcating soil pollution (0.5 mg kg-1. Co content ranges from 2.22 to 15.76 mg kg-1 and in 70 % of sampled points exceeds the natural background content of 7.8 mg kg-1 found in local rocks. Still, Cd enrichment of studied soils is more significant than Co’s with coefficient of Clarke concentration of 3.67. Hence, the secondary deposition of studied elements as a result of the Bobov dol Thermal power plant air emissions is verified by results obtained. The spatial distribution of Cd and Co is featured with an altitudinal gradient in deposition and a trend of quantitative depletion in the South of Plant. Soil organic matter and pH have no influence on the content and spatial distribution of studied elements. Elements iron affinity governs their geochemical linkage in soils although cobalt occurs allied with aluminum and titanium.

  5. Multi-element geochemical mapping in Southern China. (United States)

    Cheng, Zhizhong; Xie, Xuejing; Yao, Wensheng; Feng, Jizhou; Zhang, Qin; Fang, Jindong


    The 76-element Geochemical Mapping (76 GEM) Project was undertaken in southwestern China in 2000 and in southeastern China in 2008. In this project, 5244 composite samples of stream sediment at a density of one composite sample for each 1:50,000-scale map sheet were prepared from sample archives of the China Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) Project, which have been available since 1978. The 76 elements were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the present study, a new quality-control method known as the visualized standard map method was applied to the results of the 76 GEM project. Mean value and background value, which indicate the average concentration of the 76 elements in southern China, were derived from statistical data. Moreover, geochemical maps were compiled to demonstrate the distribution of the 76 elements in southern China.

  6. Environmental Status and geochemical assessment Sediments of Lake Skadar, Montenegro. (United States)

    Kastratović, Vlatko; Jaćimović, Željko; Bigović, Miljan; Đurović, Dijana; Krivokapić, Slađana


    The environmental mobility and geochemical partitioning of ten metals were examined in sediments collected from the six locations around Lake Skadar in Montenegro. A three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the distribution of the metals in various substrates of lacustrine sediments, and the concentrations were measured in the liquid extract by ICP-OES. The largest portion of the total amount of cadmium, strontium and manganese can be found in sediment bound to the hydrated iron and manganese oxides; cobalt, lead, copper and nickel in the oxidizable fraction and the highest portion of chromium, vanadium and zinc are in the residual fraction. The most mobilized and potentially mobile metals are strontium, cadmium and cobalt while the most immobilized metals are chromium, vanadium and zinc. Based on geochemical parameters, an assessment of sediment contamination by the investigated metals was performed and the results showed potential risks ranging from "no risk" to "low risk" to the environment.

  7. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant (United States)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.


    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  8. Geochemical and Mineralogical Proxies for characterizing Tsunami and Paleotsunami Deposits (United States)

    Löwhagen, L.; Jankaew, K.; Kylander, M. E.; Skelton, A.; Wohlfarth, B.


    In this study we show how geochemistry and mineralogy can be used to correlate between previously dated tsunami and paleotsunami deposits in western Thailand. We do this based on cores from three parallel swales along a transect from the shoreline inland. Stratigraphy, together with geochemical and mineralogical analyses was used to correlate between tsunami and paleotsunami layers at these sites. Using element biplots (Ti-Zr, Ti-Y and Zr-Y) and mineralogical constraints, source signatures of each of the tsunami and paleotsunami layers were used to correlate between sand layers representing the 2004 tsunami and sand layers representing at least three paleotsunamis. Based on our correlations between these swales, we predict different inundation distances and directions for these paleotsunamis. Our study shows that a combination of geochemical and mineralogical analysis provides a powerful tool for correlation between tsunami and paleotsunami layers.

  9. Geochemical barriers for environment protection and recovery of nonferrous metals. (United States)

    Chanturiya, Valentine; Masloboev, Vladimir; Makarov, Dmitriy; Nesterov, Dmitriy; Bajurova, Julia; Svetlov, Anton; Men'shikov, Yuriy


    A study of natural minerals, ore tailings and their products as materials for artificial geochemical barriers is presented. In particular, it focuses on interaction between calcite and dolomite and sulfate solutions containing nickel, copper and iron under static conditions. Calcite of -0.1 mm fraction has been shown to perform well as a barrier when added to water phases of tailing dumps and natural reservoirs. Experiments under dynamic conditions have revealed a high potential of thermally activated copper-nickel tailings as barriers. After a 500-day precipitating period on a geochemical barrier, the contents of nickel and copper in ore dressing tailings were found to increase 12- and 28-fold, respectively. An effective sorbent of copper, iron and nickel ions is a brucite-based product of hydrochloric acid treatment of vermiculite ore tailings. Its sorption capacity can be essentially increased through thermal activation.

  10. Geochemical Constraints for Mechanisms of Planetary Differentiation and Volatile Depletion


    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet Kaur


    The evolution of the terrestrial planets involved a range of complex processes, including accretion, core formation, post-core formation accretion, mantle differentiation and volatile depletion. The earliest processes of accretion and core formation have largely been overprinted on Earth and Mars, but can be investigated using geochemical measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Highly siderophile elements (HSE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Re, Au) preferentially partition into metal phases an...

  11. Geochemical signatures of tsunami deposits - what do they tell us? (United States)

    Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James R.


    In the last two and half decades, but even more since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), there has been a significant increase in the amount of literature dealing with recent, historical and palaeotsunamis. Much has been written and debated about the diagnostic criteria of historical and palaeotsunami deposits. Most of the diagnostic criteria or proxies used reflect the expertise of the researchers involved and thus tend to be biased towards sedimentology, stratigraphy and micropalaeontology, with some reference to geomorphology, archaeology, anthropology and palynology. It should however be noted that all criteria have never been reported from one site, and neither are they all found in one single deposit. Thus, the lack of one or more proxies should not be taken as unique evidence to refute the tsunamigenic origin of a specific deposit. Although geochemical signatures have long been used as indicators for palaeosalinity in sedimentary sequences, there appears to have been some reluctance to use them to help in the identification of historical and palaeotsunami deposits. Like other proxies, geochemistry alone may not provide a definite answer to the origin of a deposit. Furthermore, poor preservation due to environmental conditions or as a result of post-diagenetic processes, might complicate the interpretation of geochemical signatures left by tsunami inundation. Similar taphonomic problems are also faced for microfossil proxies. However, geochemistry provides another piece to the puzzle, and together with other proxies, it can help identify palaeotsunami deposits. Geochemical signatures can also provide clues about the landward limit of runup of a tsunami, beyond the area of sediment deposition. This was recently documented following the 2004 IOT and the 2009 South Pacific tsunami. A summary of examples of geochemical signatures recorded in interstitial water and sediment of recent, historical and palaeotsunami deposits is presented.

  12. Biomimetic Gradient Polymers with Enhanced Damping Capacities. (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Huan; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Beichen; Cao, Yuan; Lu, Shengjun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian


    Designing gradient structures, mimicking biological materials, such as pummelo peels and tendon, is a promising strategy for developing advanced materials with superior energy damping capacities. Here a facile and effective approach for fabricating polymers with composition gradients at millimeter length scale is presented. The gradient thiol-ene polymers (TEPs) are created by the use of density difference of ternary thiol-ene-ene precursors and the subsequent photo-crosslinking via thiol-ene reaction. The compositional gradients are analyzed via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), compressive modulus testing, atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation, and swelling measurements. In contrast to homogeneous TEPs networks, the resultant gradient polymer shows a broader effective damping temperature range combining with good mechanical properties. The present result provides an effective route toward high damping materials by the fabrication of gradient structures.

  13. Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...... in the presence of conventional material hardening. Furthermore, it is shown that dissipative gradient effects can lead to both an increase and a decrease in the dissipation per load cycle depending on the magnitude of the dissipative length parameter, whereas energetic gradient effects lead to decreasing...... dissipation for increasing energetic length parameter. For dissipative gradient effects it is found that dissipation has a maximum value for some none zero value of the material length parameter, which depends on the magnitude of the deformation cycles....

  14. Mathematics of Experimentally Generated Chemoattractant Gradients. (United States)

    Postma, Marten; van Haastert, Peter J M


    Many eukaryotic cells move in the direction of a chemical gradient. Several assays have been developed to measure this chemotactic response, but no complete mathematical models of the spatial and temporal gradients are available to describe the fundamental principles of chemotaxis. Here we provide analytical solutions for the gradients formed by release of chemoattractant from a point source by passive diffusion or forced flow (micropipettes) and gradients formed by laminar diffusion in a Zigmond chamber. The results show that gradients delivered with a micropipette are formed nearly instantaneously, are very steep close to the pipette, and have a steepness that is strongly dependent on the distance from the pipette. In contrast, gradients in a Zigmond chamber are formed more slowly, are nearly independent of the distance from the source, and resemble the temporal and spatial properties of the natural cAMP wave that Dictyostelium cells experience during cell aggregation.

  15. Systematic interpolation method predicts protein chromatographic elution with salt gradients, pH gradients and combined salt/pH gradients. (United States)

    Creasy, Arch; Barker, Gregory; Carta, Giorgio


    A methodology is presented to predict protein elution behavior from an ion exchange column using both individual or combined pH and salt gradients based on high-throughput batch isotherm data. The buffer compositions are first optimized to generate linear pH gradients from pH 5.5 to 7 with defined concentrations of sodium chloride. Next, high-throughput batch isotherm data are collected for a monoclonal antibody on the cation exchange resin POROS XS over a range of protein concentrations, salt concentrations, and solution pH. Finally, a previously developed empirical interpolation (EI) method is extended to describe protein binding as a function of the protein and salt concentration and solution pH without using an explicit isotherm model. The interpolated isotherm data are then used with a lumped kinetic model to predict the protein elution behavior. Experimental results obtained for laboratory scale columns show excellent agreement with the predicted elution curves for both individual or combined pH and salt gradients at protein loads up to 45 mg/mL of column. Numerical studies show that the model predictions are robust as long as the isotherm data cover the range of mobile phase compositions where the protein actually elutes from the column.

  16. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Sridhar D


    Full Text Available Abstract The geochemical discriminate diagrams help to distinguish the volcanics recovered from different tectonic settings but these diagrams tend to group the ocean floor basalts (OFB under one class i.e., as mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB. Hence, a method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB, enriched (E-MORB and ocean island basalts (OIB. We have applied Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ to identify the inherent geochemical signatures present in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB basalts. A range of N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB dataset was used for training and testing of the network. Although the identification of the characters as N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB is completely dependent upon the training data set for the LVQ, but to a significant extent this method is found to be successful in identifying the characters within the CIOB basalts. The study helped to geochemically delineate the CIOB basalts as N-MORB with perceptible imprints of E-MORB and OIB characteristics in the form of moderately enriched rare earth and incompatible elements. Apart from the fact that the magmatic processes are difficult to be deciphered, the architecture performs satisfactorily.

  17. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using Artificial Neural Network. (United States)

    Das, Pranab; Iyer, Sridhar D


    The geochemical discriminate diagrams help to distinguish the volcanics recovered from different tectonic settings but these diagrams tend to group the ocean floor basalts (OFB) under one class i.e., as mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB). Hence, a method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB), enriched (E-MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB). We have applied Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) to identify the inherent geochemical signatures present in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) basalts. A range of N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB dataset was used for training and testing of the network. Although the identification of the characters as N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB is completely dependent upon the training data set for the LVQ, but to a significant extent this method is found to be successful in identifying the characters within the CIOB basalts. The study helped to geochemically delineate the CIOB basalts as N-MORB with perceptible imprints of E-MORB and OIB characteristics in the form of moderately enriched rare earth and incompatible elements. Apart from the fact that the magmatic processes are difficult to be deciphered, the architecture performs satisfactorily.

  18. Fault controlled geochemical properties in Lahendong geothermal reservoir Indonesia (United States)

    Brehme, Maren; Deon, Fiorenza; Haase, Christoph; Wiegand, Bettina; Kamah, Yustin; Sauter, Martin; Regenspurg, Simona


    Rock and fluid geochemical data from Lahendong, Indonesia, were analyzed to evaluate the influence of fault zones on reservoir properties. It was found that these properties depend on fault-permeability controlled fluid flow. Results from measurements of spring and well water as well as rocks and their hydraulic properties were combined with hydrochemical numerical modeling. The models show that the geothermal field consists of two geochemically distinct reservoir sections. One section is characterized by acidic water, considerable gas discharge and high geothermal-power productivity—all related to increased fault zone permeability. The other section is characterized by neutral water and lower productivity. Increased fluid flow in the highly fractured and permeable areas enhances chemical reaction rates. This results in strong alteration of their surrounding rocks. Numerical models of reactions between water and rock at Lahendong indicate the main alteration products are clay minerals. A geochemical conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and permeability and their distribution within the area. Our conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and fault-zone permeability within the Lahendong area. Further mapping of fault-related permeability would support sustainable energy exploitation by avoiding low-productive wells or the production of highly corroding waters, both there and elsewhere in the world.

  19. Geochemical influences and mercury methylation of a dental wastewater microbiome. (United States)

    Rani, Asha; Rockne, Karl J; Drummond, James; Al-Hinai, Muntasar; Ranjan, Ravi


    The microbiome of dental clinic wastewater and its impact on mercury methylation remains largely unknown. Waste generated during dental procedures enters the sewer system and contributes a significant fraction of the total mercury (tHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) load to wastewater treatment facilities. Investigating the influence of geochemical factors and microbiome structure is a critical step linking the methylating microorganisms in dental wastewater (DWW) ecosystems. DWW samples from a dental clinic were collected over eight weeks and analyzed for geochemical parameters, tHg, MeHg and bacterio-toxic heavy metals. We employed bacterial fingerprinting and pyrosequencing for microbiome analysis. High concentrations of tHg, MeHg and heavy metals were detected in DWW. The microbiome was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and many unclassified bacteria. Significant correlations were found between the bacterial community, Hg levels and geochemical factors including pH and the predicted total amount (not fraction) of neutral Hg-sulfide species. The most prevalent known methylators included Desulfobulbus propionicus, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio magneticus and Geobacter sulfurreducens. This study is the first to investigate the impact of high loads of Hg, MeHg and other heavy metals on the dental clinic wastewater microbiome, and illuminates the role of many known and unknown sulfate-reducing bacteria in Hg methylation.

  20. Identifying paleotsunami deposits in Thailand using geochemical analyses (United States)

    Löwhagen, Linda; Jankaew, Kruawun; Kylander, Malin; Wohlfarth, Barbara


    Paleotsunami research has received considerable attention following the devastating Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. Specific questions involve the magnitude, frequency and impact of past tsunamis. Phra Thong Island in the eastern Andaman Sea is an ideal location to study paleotsunami deposits in great detail (Jankaew et al., 2008). Apart from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami layer, three more distinct tsunami layers, separated by soil horizons have been identified and dated (Jankaew et al., 2008). In a collaborative project between Stockholm University and Chulalongkorn University, four sites on Phra Thong Island were chosen for detailed geochemical studies and additional AMS 14C dating. Paleotsunami deposits at these sites can be seen as more or less distinct sand layers embedded between the peaty soils. Here we report the initial results of XRF core scanning and loss on ignition analysis, which are supplemented by new 14C dates. The XRF data sets show a good correlation between synchronous tsunami layers along a coast-inland transect. The geochemistry moreover suggests a change in source area for the oldest tsunami layer. Further work will focus on a detailed geochemical characterization of the tsunami and soil layers, and on the influence of soil processes on the geochemical record. Reference: Jankaew, K; Atwater, B; Sawai, Y; Choowong, M; Charoentitirat, T; Martin, M; Prendergast, A, 2008. Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand. Nature 455, 1228-1231.

  1. Gradient-Diffusion Methods for Simulating Decoherence by NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Havel, T F; Viola, L; Cory, D G; Havel, Timothy F.; Sharf, Yehuda; Viola, Lorenza; Cory, David G.


    Theoretical techniques are developed for designing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments to simulate a variety of adiabatic decoherence (aka T_2 relaxation) processes, using sequences of pulsed field gradients and diffusion periods. To this end an efficient Hadamard product formalism is introduced and used to derive Lindblad master equations from NMR pulse sequences for both collective and independent phase damping on any number of spins. The Kraus operator sum form is shown to be related to the Hadamard form by diagonalization, and explicit Lindblad and Kraus operators given for arbitrary correlations between two spins. Finally, gradient-diffusion methods are outlined for more complex forms of decoherence, including the three-axis collective model.

  2. A Review on Functionally Gradient Materials (FGMs) and Their Applications (United States)

    Bhavar, Valmik; Kattire, Prakash; Thakare, Sandeep; patil, Sachin; Singh, RKP, Dr.


    Functionally gradient materials (FGM) are innovative materials in which final properties varies gradually with dimensions. It is the recent development in traditional composite materials which retains their strengths and eliminates their weaknesses. It can be formed by varying chemical composition, microstructure or design attributes from one end to other as per requirement. This feature allows FGM to have best material properties in required quantities only where it is needed. Though there are several methods available for manufacturing FGMs, additive based metal deposition (by laser, electron beam, plasma etc.) technologies are reaping particular interest owing to their recent developments. This paper presents evolution, current status and challenges of functionally gradient materials (FGMs). Various manufacturing processes of different types of FGMs are also presented. In addition, applications of FGMs in various fields including aerospace, defence, mining, power and tools manufacturing sectors are discussed in detail.

  3. Nonchaotic stagnant motion in a marginal quasiperiodic gradient system. (United States)

    Mitsui, Takahito


    A one-dimensional dynamical system with a marginal quasiperiodic gradient is presented as a mathematical extension of a nonuniform oscillator. The system exhibits a nonchaotic stagnant motion, which is reminiscent of intermittent chaos. In fact, the density function of residence times near stagnation points obeys an inverse-square law, due to a mechanism similar to type-I intermittency. However, unlike intermittent chaos, in which the alternation between long stagnant phases and rapid moving phases occurs in a random manner, here the alternation occurs in a quasiperiodic manner. In particular, in the case of a gradient with the golden ratio, the renewal of the largest residence time occurs at positions corresponding to the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, the asymptotic long-time behavior, in the form of a nested logarithm, is theoretically derived. Compared with the Pomeau-Manneville intermittency, a significant difference in the relaxation property of the long-time average of the dynamical variable is found.

  4. Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems


    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J.M.A.


    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that precisely correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Han...

  5. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado. (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S


    Electron donor amendment for bioremediation often results in precipitation of secondary minerals and the growth of biomass, both of which can potentially change flow paths and the efficacy of bioremediation. Quantitative estimation of precipitate and biomass distribution has remained challenging, partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of natural porous media and the scarcity of field data. In this work, we examine the effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on the spatial distributions of mineral precipitates and biomass accumulated during a biostimulation field experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Field bromide breakthrough data were used to infer a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity through inverse transport modeling, while the solid phase Fe(III) content was determined by assuming a negative correlation with hydraulic conductivity. Validated by field aqueous geochemical data, reactive transport modeling was used to explicitly keep track of the growth of the biomass and to estimate the spatial distribution of precipitates and biomass. The results show that the maximum mineral precipitation and biomass accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the injection wells, occupying up to 5.4vol.% of the pore space, and is dominated by reaction products of sulfate reduction. Accumulation near the injection wells is not strongly affected by heterogeneities present in the system due to the ubiquitous presence of sulfate in the groundwater. However, accumulation in the down-gradient regions is dominated by the iron-reducing reaction products, whose spatial patterns are strongly controlled by both physical and geochemical heterogeneities. Heterogeneities can lead to localized large accumulation of mineral precipitates and biomass, increasing the possibility of pore clogging. Although ignoring the heterogeneities of the system can lead to adequate prediction of the average behavior of sulfate-reducing related products, it can also lead to an

  6. Wireless SAW Based Temperature Gradient Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Photonics proposes design and development of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature gradient sensor for instrumentation of thermal protection systems...

  7. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    the tangent moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that is at odds with what is expected from a strain gradient theory......By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter....... The findings raise questions about the physical acceptability of this class of strain gradient theories....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青泉; 陈力; 李家春


    The main factors influencing soil erosion include the net rain excess, the water depth, the velocity, the shear stress of overland flows , and the erosion-resisting capacity of soil. The laws of these factors varying with the slope gradient were investigated by using the kinematic wave theory. Furthermore, the critical slope gradient of erosion was driven. The analysis shows that the critical slope gradient of soil erosion is dependent on grain size , soil bulk density , surface roughness, runoff length, net rain excess, and the friction coefficient of soil, etc. The critical slope gradient has been estimated theoretically with its range between 41. 5 °~ 50°.

  9. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka


    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  10. Adaptive Multiscale Modeling of Geochemical Impacts on Fracture Evolution (United States)

    Molins, S.; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Deng, H.


    Understanding fracture evolution is essential for many subsurface energy applications, including subsurface storage, shale gas production, fracking, CO2 sequestration, and geothermal energy extraction. Geochemical processes in particular play a significant role in the evolution of fractures through dissolution-driven widening, fines migration, and/or fracture sealing due to precipitation. One obstacle to understanding and exploiting geochemical fracture evolution is that it is a multiscale process. However, current geochemical modeling of fractures cannot capture this multi-scale nature of geochemical and mechanical impacts on fracture evolution, and is limited to either a continuum or pore-scale representation. Conventional continuum-scale models treat fractures as preferential flow paths, with their permeability evolving as a function (often, a cubic law) of the fracture aperture. This approach has the limitation that it oversimplifies flow within the fracture in its omission of pore scale effects while also assuming well-mixed conditions. More recently, pore-scale models along with advanced characterization techniques have allowed for accurate simulations of flow and reactive transport within the pore space (Molins et al., 2014, 2015). However, these models, even with high performance computing, are currently limited in their ability to treat tractable domain sizes (Steefel et al., 2013). Thus, there is a critical need to develop an adaptive modeling capability that can account for separate properties and processes, emergent and otherwise, in the fracture and the rock matrix at different spatial scales. Here we present an adaptive modeling capability that treats geochemical impacts on fracture evolution within a single multiscale framework. Model development makes use of the high performance simulation capability, Chombo-Crunch, leveraged by high resolution characterization and experiments. The modeling framework is based on the adaptive capability in Chombo

  11. Principles of landscape-geochemical studies in the zones contaminated by technogenical radionuclides for ecological and geochemical mapping (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey


    Efficiency of landscape-geochemical approach was proved to be helpful in spatial and temporal evaluation of the Chernobyl radionuclide distribution in the environment. The peculiarity of such approach is in hierarchical consideration of factors responsible for radionuclide redistribution and behavior in a system of inter-incorporated landscape-geochemical structures of the local and regional scales with due regard to the density of the initial fallout and patterns of radionuclide migration in soil-water-plant systems. The approach has been applied in the studies of distribution of Cs-137, Sr-90 and some other radionuclides in soils and vegetation cover and in evaluation of contribution of the stable iodine supply in soils to spatial variation of risk of thyroid cancer in areas subjected to radioiodine contamination after the Chernobyl accident. The main feature of the proposed approach is simultaneous consideration of two types of spatial heterogeneities: firstly, the inhomogeneity of external radiation exposure due to a complex structure of the contamination field, and, secondly, the landscape geochemical heterogeneity of the affected area, so that the resultant effect of radionuclide impact could significantly vary in space. The main idea of risk assessment in this respect was to reproduce as accurately as possible the result of interference of two surfaces in the form of risk map. The approach, although it demands to overcome a number of methodological difficulties, allows to solve the problems associated with spatially adequate protection of the affected population and optimization of the use of contaminated areas. In general it can serve the basis for development of the idea of the two-level structure of modern radiobiogeochemical provinces formed by superposition of the natural geochemical structures and the fields of technogenic contamination accompanied by the corresponding peculiar and integral biological reactions.

  12. Past and present records of gas hydrate geochemical signatures in a terrigenous materials dominated active margin, southwest of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.; Lim, Y.C. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Inst. of Oceanography; Wang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (China). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Chen, Y.G.; Yang, T.F. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Geosciences; Wang, Y.; Chung, S.H. [Central Geological Survey., Taipei (China). MOEA


    A 25 meter-long piston core extracted from a continental margin with active tectonic activities in the South China Sea was analyzed. The aim of the study was to investigate temporal variations in the geochemical signatures of gas hydrates. Samples from the core were used to analyze pore water dissolved minerals and gases. The study showed that changes in the deposition environment played a major role in shaping the location. Three distinct geochemical processes were identified in the core sample. High concentrations of dissolved sulfides, high levels of methane and pyrite and low levels of calcium and sulfates were found in pore water samples taken from the first 10 metres of the core. High concentrations of iron oxide in the middle section of the core suggested that the middle sediments were deposited in an oxic environment, while the upper and lower sections of the core were deposited in anoxic conditions caused by rapid methane oxidation. Lower concentrations of pyrite were seen in core sediments from the second 15 to 20 metres of the core. However, levels of pyrite and again increased to concentration levels of 400 {mu}mol per gram in the final 20 to 25 meters of the core. Maximum levels of chloride occurred at 20 meters. Authigenic carbonate nodules were also found in sediments below 20 meters. The stable isotopic carbon composition of the carbonates varied rapidly in in the final 10 meters of the core. It was concluded that varying methane seeps in the past caused the geochemical variations observed in the core sample. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Reproducibility of Geochemical and Climate Signatures in Montastrea annularis (United States)

    Smith, J. M.; Quinn, T. M.; Halley, R. B.


    Geochemical variations in modern and fossil coral skeletons (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, δ 18O, δ 13C) are increasingly being used to reconstruct climate variability in tropical ocean-atmosphere system on interannual to centennial timescales. Coral-based climate studies are usually carried out using a single coral core from a reef, or a collection of cores covering different time intervals from the same reef site. Cross checking or replication - the generation of multiple climate time series from a single locality - is not a standard operating procedure in coral paleoclimatology because of the expense of generating additional geochemical time series. Quantitative assessment of intra-reef geochemical variability in multiple coral cores from the same reef is needed to verify the fidelity of climate reconstructions based on geochemical variations from a single coral. We perform such an assessment using the geochemical signals derived from two Montastrea annularis corals (LK1 and LK23) recovered in 2002 from Looe Key reef, Florida USA (24.5° N, 81.4° W). Looe Key is located in the central portion of the Florida Keys and has an hourly in situ seawater temperature record extending back to 1990. We extended this in situ SST record further back in time by splicing in HadISST 1.1 data extracted from the appropriate 1° by 1° grid point. Paired geochemical measurements of Sr/Ca, δ 18O and δ 13C were made by sampling coral LK1 and LK23 along their respective major growth axes. Geochemical variations versus depth were converted to monthly resolved time series extending from 2002-1966. The two ˜37 year coral time series replicate well in terms of both phasing and mean perspective: (δ 18O LK1, -3.90+/-0.28 ‰ , 1σ ; LK23, -3.93+/-0.31 ‰ , 1σ ), δ 13C (LK1, -0.80+/-0.68 ‰ , 1σ ; LK23, -0.72+/-0.59 ‰ , 1σ ) and Sr/Ca (LK1, 9.208+/-0.080 mmol/mol, 1σ ; LK23, 9.226+/-0.082 mmol/mol, 1σ ). Coral Sr/Ca-SST estimates of mean SST over the period 2002-1966 for LK1 (27.25+/-2.00

  14. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers. (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  15. Quality assurance and quality control of geochemical data—A primer for the research scientist (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.


    interpreting results. This primer has been developed to provide basic information and guidance about developing QA/QC protocols for geochemical studies. It is not intended to be a comprehensive guide but rather an introduction to key concepts tied to a list of relevant references for further reading. The guidelines are presented in stepwise order beginning with presampling considerations and continuing through final data interpretation. The goal of this primer is to outline basic QA/QC practices that scientists can use before, during, and after chemical analysis to ensure the validity of the data they collect with the goal of providing defendable results and conclusions.

  16. Gemas: Geochemical mapping of the agricultural and grasing land soils of Europe (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Demetriades, Alecos; Matschullat, Jörg; Gemas Project Team


    Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil (GEMAS) is a cooperative project between the Geochemistry Expert Group of EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux. During 2008 and until early 2009, a total of 2108 samples of agricultural (ploughed land, 0-20 cm, Ap-samples) and 2023 samples of grazing land (0-10 cm, Gr samples)) soil were collected at a density of 1 site/2500 km2 each from 33 European countries, covering an area of 5,600,000 km2. All samples were analysed for 52 chemical elements following an aqua regia extraction, 42 elements by XRF (total), and soil properties, like CEC, TOC, pH (CaCl2), following tight external quality control procedures. In addition, the Ap soil samples were analysed for 57 elements in a mobile metal ion (MMI®) extraction, Pb isotopes, magnetic susceptibility and total C, N and S. The results demonstrate that robust geochemical maps of Europe can be constructed based on low density sampling, the two independent sample materials, Ap and Gr, show very comparable distribution patterns across Europe. At the European scale, element distribution patterns are governed by natural processes, most often a combination of geology and climate. The geochemical maps reflect most of the known metal mining districts in Europe. In addition, a number of new anomalies emerge that may indicate mineral potential. The size of some anomalies is such that they can only be detected when mapping at the continental scale. For some elements completely new geological settings are detected. An anthropogenic impact at a much more local scale is discernible in the immediate vicinity of some major European cities (e.g., London, Paris) and some metal smelters. The impact of agriculture is visible for Cu (vineyard soils) and for some further elements only in the mobile metal ion (MMI) extraction. For several trace elements deficiency issues are a larger threat to plant, animal and finally human health at the European scale than toxicity. Taking the famous step

  17. Statistical analysis of iron geochemical data suggests limited late Proterozoic oxygenation (United States)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Wolock, Charles J.; Morgan, Alex S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Kunzmann, Marcus; Halverson, Galen P.; MacDonald, Francis A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Johnston, David T.


    Sedimentary rocks deposited across the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition record extreme climate fluctuations, a potential rise in atmospheric oxygen or re-organization of the seafloor redox landscape, and the initial diversification of animals. It is widely assumed that the inferred redox change facilitated the observed trends in biodiversity. Establishing this palaeoenvironmental context, however, requires that changes in marine redox structure be tracked by means of geochemical proxies and translated into estimates of atmospheric oxygen. Iron-based proxies are among the most effective tools for tracking the redox chemistry of ancient oceans. These proxies are inherently local, but have global implications when analysed collectively and statistically. Here we analyse about 4,700 iron-speciation measurements from shales 2,300 to 360 million years old. Our statistical analyses suggest that subsurface water masses in mid-Proterozoic oceans were predominantly anoxic and ferruginous (depleted in dissolved oxygen and iron-bearing), but with a tendency towards euxinia (sulfide-bearing) that is not observed in the Neoproterozoic era. Analyses further indicate that early animals did not experience appreciable benthic sulfide stress. Finally, unlike proxies based on redox-sensitive trace-metal abundances, iron geochemical data do not show a statistically significant change in oxygen content through the Ediacaran and Cambrian periods, sharply constraining the magnitude of the end-Proterozoic oxygen increase. Indeed, this re-analysis of trace-metal data is consistent with oxygenation continuing well into the Palaeozoic era. Therefore, if changing redox conditions facilitated animal diversification, it did so through a limited rise in oxygen past critical functional and ecological thresholds, as is seen in modern oxygen minimum zone benthic animal communities.

  18. Investigation of the geochemical evolution of groundwater under agricultural land: A case study in northeastern Mexico (United States)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen


    Zona Citrícola is an important area for Mexico due to its citriculture activity. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to the Sierra Madre Oriental, this valley hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flows to supply drinking water to the adjacent metropolitan area of Monterrey. Recent studies examining the groundwater quality of the study area urge the mitigation of groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. Correlation was used to identify associations among various geochemical constituents. Factor analysis was applied to identify the water's chemical characteristics that were responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed in combination with a post-hoc analysis of variance to partition the water samples into hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed and constrained using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling the water's chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The primary reactions contributing to salinity were the following: (1) water-rock interactions, including the weathering of evaporitic rocks and dedolomitization; (2) dissolution of soil gas carbon dioxide; and (3) input from animal/human wastewater and manure in combination with by denitrification processes. Contributions from silicate weathering to salinity ranged from less important to insignificant. The findings suggest that it may not be cost-effective to regulate manure application to mitigate groundwater pollution.

  19. 数据立方梯度挖掘的研究%The Research of the Cube Gradient Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉葆; 冯玉才; 王元珍; 冯剑琳


    With the rapid development of data warehouse and OLAP techniques, the researchers begin to pay atten-tion to the data mining in the data cube. Recently, Dr. T. Imielinski etc. firstly presented the problem of the cubegradient mining that is a generalization of association rule in data cube. In this paper, we firstly introduce the relatedconcepts of data cube and condensed cube with an emphasis. Then we introduce some interesting problems related tothe cube gradient mining including: constrained cube gradient mining and the query language of cube gradient. Final-ly, we introduce several issues on the combination of cube gradient and the condensed cube, that is, the cube gradientmining in the materialized data cube and the integration of cube gradient mining and cube browse.

  20. Newton's method in the context of gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Neuberger


    Full Text Available This paper gives a common theoretical treatment for gradient and Newton type methods for general classes of problems. First, for Euler-Lagrange equations Newton's method is characterized as an (asymptotically optimal variable steepest descent method. Second, Sobolev gradient type minimization is developed for general problems using a continuous Newton method which takes into account a "boundary condition" operator.

  1. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC. (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.


    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRADIENT ANALYSIS OF ROCKY SHORE SAMPL~S FROM FALSE BAY ... could be applied to marine studies and it showed quantitatively that the fauna varied with changes ... tigator and the computational facilities at his disposal. ... the major environmental gradients affecting distribution in a more complex situation with.

  3. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC. (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.


    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  4. Density Gradient Stabilization of Electron Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence in a Spherical Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y; Mazzucato, E; Guttenfelder, W; Bell, R E; Domier, C W; LeBlanc, B P; Lee, K C; Luhmann Jr, N C; Smith, D R


    In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k⊥ρs ≤10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.

  5. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in the active layer of Arctic tundra (United States)

    Herndon, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Mann, B.; Graham, D. E.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.


    soils near the permafrost boundary, where pore waters were depleted but soils were enriched with aromatic organic moieties. The geochemical depth gradients we document for tundra soils influence organic matter degradation and are pertinent for understanding C dynamics as thaw depth and duration increase in high-latitude soils.

  6. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski


    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  7. A new family of conjugate gradient methods (United States)

    Shi, Zhen-Jun; Guo, Jinhua


    In this paper we develop a new class of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization problems. A new nonmonotone line search technique is proposed to guarantee the global convergence of these conjugate gradient methods under some mild conditions. In particular, Polak-Ribiére-Polyak and Liu-Storey conjugate gradient methods are special cases of the new class of conjugate gradient methods. By estimating the local Lipschitz constant of the derivative of objective functions, we can find an adequate step size and substantially decrease the function evaluations at each iteration. Numerical results show that these new conjugate gradient methods are effective in minimizing large-scale non-convex non-quadratic functions.

  8. Semi-Supervised Additive Logistic Regression: A Gradient Descent Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper describes a semi-supervised regularized method for additive logistic regression. The graph regularization term of the combined functions is added to the original cost functional used in AdaBoost. This term constrains the learned function to be smooth on a graph. Then the gradient solution is computed with the advantage that the regularization parameter can be adaptively selected. Finally, the function step-size of each iteration can be computed using Newton-Raphson iteration. Experiments on benchmark data sets show that the algorithm gives better results than existing methods.

  9. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo


    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  10. Evolution of Geochemical Variations Along the Central American Volcanic Front (United States)

    Saginor, I. S.; Gazel, E.; Condie, C.; Carr, M. J.


    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma shows that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab, however our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  11. Constraining fault interpretation through tomographic velocity gradients: application to northern Cascadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramachandran


    Full Text Available Spatial gradients of tomographic velocities are seldom used in interpretation of subsurface fault structures. This study shows that spatial velocity gradients can be used effectively in identifying subsurface discontinuities in the horizontal and vertical directions. Three-dimensional velocity models constructed through tomographic inversion of active source and/or earthquake traveltime data are generally built from an initial 1-D velocity model that varies only with depth. Regularized tomographic inversion algorithms impose constraints on the roughness of the model that help to stabilize the inversion process. Final velocity models obtained from regularized tomographic inversions have smooth three-dimensional structures that are required by the data. Final velocity models are usually analyzed and interpreted either as a perturbation velocity model or as an absolute velocity model. Compared to perturbation velocity model, absolute velocity models have an advantage of providing constraints on lithology. Both velocity models lack the ability to provide sharp constraints on subsurface faults. An interpretational approach utilizing spatial velocity gradients applied to northern Cascadia shows that subsurface faults that are not clearly interpretable from velocity model plots can be identified by sharp contrasts in velocity gradient plots. This interpretation resulted in inferring the locations of the Tacoma, Seattle, Southern Whidbey Island, and Darrington Devil's Mountain faults much more clearly. The Coast Range Boundary fault, previously hypothesized on the basis of sedimentological and tectonic observations, is inferred clearly from the gradient plots. Many of the fault locations imaged from gradient data correlate with earthquake hypocenters, indicating their seismogenic nature.

  12. Improving the gradient in least-squares reverse time migration (United States)

    Liu, Qiancheng


    Least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is a linearized inversion technique used for estimating high-wavenumber reflectivity. However, due to the redundant overlay of the band-limited source wavelet, the gradient based on the cross-correlated imaging principle suffers from a loss of wavenumber information. We first prepare the residuals between observed and demigrated data by deconvolving with the amplitude spectrum of the source wavelet, and then migrate the preprocessed residuals by using the cross-correlation imaging principle. In this way, a gradient that preserves the spectral signature of data residuals is obtained. The computational cost of source-wavelet removal is negligible compared to that of wavefield simulation. The two-dimensional Marmousi model containing complex geology structures is considered to test our scheme. Numerical examples show that our improved gradient in LSRTM has a better convergence behavior and promises inverted results of higher resolution. Finally, we attempt to update the background velocity with our inverted velocity perturbations to approach the true velocity.

  13. Bio-potential amplifier for potential gradient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Andrea N; Spinelli, Enrique M; Muravchik, Carlos H [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)


    This work proposes a bio-potential amplifier suitable for measurements from an electric potential gradient sensor, in electro-encephalography (EEG). The sensor is an array made by three electrodes placed on the vertices of an equilateral triangle of reduced size. Measuring the gradient requires small separation between electrodes hence, very low amplitude signals, of a few {mu}V, are obtained. Therefore, it is important to minimize amplifier noise and electromagnetic interference effects. In the proposed scheme, the first stage is a passive and balanced ac-coupling network adapted to the gradient configuration and the second stage is an 80 dB gain amplifier. The implementation requires a reduced number of components. Therefore, the circuit can be mounted just above the electrodes (active electrodes). The proposed amplifier was built and tested. It achieves a CMRR of 125dB at 50 Hz and an equivalent input noise voltage of 0,3{mu}V RMS in the band 0.5 - 500 Hz. Finally, some preliminary results in the detection of occipital alpha rhythm are presented.

  14. Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes (United States)

    Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre


    The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

  15. Leveling data in geochemical mapping: scope of application, pros and cons of existing methods (United States)

    Pereira, Benoît; Vandeuren, Aubry; Sonnet, Philippe


    Geochemical mapping successfully met a range of needs from mineral exploration to environmental management. In Europe and around the world numerous geochemical datasets already exist. These datasets may originate from geochemical mapping projects or from the collection of sample analyses requested by environmental protection regulatory bodies. Combining datasets can be highly beneficial for establishing geochemical maps with increased resolution and/or coverage area. However this practice requires assessing the equivalence between datasets and, if needed, applying data leveling to remove possible biases between datasets. In the literature, several procedures for assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data are proposed. Daneshfar & Cameron (1998) proposed a method for the leveling of two adjacent datasets while Pereira et al. (2016) proposed two methods for the leveling of datasets that contain records located within the same geographical area. Each discussed method requires its own set of assumptions (underlying populations of data, spatial distribution of data, etc.). Here we propose to discuss the scope of application, pros, cons and practical recommendations for each method. This work is illustrated with several case studies in Wallonia (Southern Belgium) and in Europe involving trace element geochemical datasets. References: Daneshfar, B. & Cameron, E. (1998), Leveling geochemical data between map sheets, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 63(3), 189-201. Pereira, B.; Vandeuren, A.; Govaerts, B. B. & Sonnet, P. (2016), Assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data in geochemical mapping, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 168, 36-48.

  16. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan (United States)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu


    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  17. Geochemical explorations for gold deposits at Goldfield, Nevada (United States)

    Ashley, Roger P.; Keith, William J.


    The main problem in geochemical exploration for gold ore bodies in the 40 km2 hydrothermally altered area at Goldfield is to decide which of the many silicified ledges exposed are most likely to yield deposits with additional subsurface exploration. We conclude that the most efficient way to search for exploration targets is to collect rock samples from the ledges and analyze for the following elements in decreasing order of priority: gold, lead and silver, bismuth, and mercury. These elements form relict hypogene aureoles restricted to the ledges and are not appreciably redistributed during supergene leaching.

  18. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using artificial neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, P.; Iyer, S.D.

    -MORB, E or P-MORB and T-MORB, respectively) or as OIB [5-7]. The discrimination diagrams provide a broad picture of the type of basalts but it is difficult to determine the basic characters that are involved in the geochemical classification of OFB based... classifications for each input pattern of the form. Some instances where LVQ architecture has being extensively used are for pattern recognition and seafloor classification [9] and character- isation of the seafloor sediments [10]. In this commu- nication we use...

  19. This year`s model: Geochemical modeling and groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuchfeld, H.A.; Simmons, S.P.; Jesionek, K.S. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)]|[GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Romito, A.A. [Browning-Ferris Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    It has been determined that landfill gas migration is a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater. This can occur through: direct partitioning of migrating gas constituents into the groundwater; alteration of the physiochemical properties of the groundwater; and by indirect means (such as migration of landfill gas condensate and vadose zone water contaminated by landfill gas). This article examines the use of geochemical modeling as a useful tool for differentiating the effects of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill gas versus leachate on groundwater quality at MSW landfill sites.

  20. Geochemical association of plutonium in marine sediments from Palomares (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.P. [Dept. de Geoquimica e Impacto Ambiental, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gasco, C. [Dept. de Geoquimica e Impacto Ambiental, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Pujol, L. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)


    The geochemical association of plutonium in sediments from the marine ecosystem of Palomares has been studied. A sequential leaching technique using selective extractants has been employed to determine the percentages of Pu in the following forms: (a) readily available, (b) exchangeable and adsorbed to specific sites, (c) associated with organic matter, (d) sesquioxides, (e) residual. Plutonium was found to be associated mainly with phases (c), (d) and (e), and therefore, appears to be relatively immobile and not readily available to bottom feeding biota. The effect of different source terms on Pu distribution is also discussed. (orig.)

  1. A New Geochemical Reaction Model for Groundwater Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Through a survey of the literature on geology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, this paper presents a hydrogeochemical model for the groundwater system in a dross-dumping area of the Shandong Aluminium Plant. It is considered that the groundwater-bearing medium is a mineral aggregate and that the interactions between groundwater and the groundwater-bearing medium can be described as a series of geochemical reactions. On that basis, the principle of minimum energy and the equations of mass balance, electron balance and electric neutrality are applied to construct a linear programming mathematical model for the calculation of mass transfer between water and rock with the simplex method.

  2. Geochemical Precursors to Volcanic Activity at Mount St. Helens, USA (United States)

    Berlo, Kim; Blundy, Jon; Turner, Simon; Cashman, Kathy; Hawkesworth, Chris; Black, Stuart


    The importance of the interplay between degassing and crystallization before and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 is well established. Here, we show that degassing occurred over a period of decades to days before eruptions and that the manner of degassing, as deduced from geochemical signatures within the magma, was characteristic of the eruptive style. Trace element (lithium) and short-lived radioactive isotope (lead-210 and radium-226) data show that ascending magma stalled within the conduit, leading to the accumulation of volatiles and the formation of lead-210 excesses, which signals the presence of degassing magma at depth.

  3. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...... precipitation has formed limited freshwater reservoirs in a generally saline area, which need to be sustainably managed. We will present initial results from the geophysical and geochemical surveys conducted over the past few years. We will interpret these findings in terms of the geologic history of Southern...

  4. Geochemical variability of copper and iron in Oman margin sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    : Microchem. J.: 91(1); 2009; 111-117 Geochemical variability of copper and iron in Oman Margin sediments R. ALAGARSAMY * Chemical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C... in the upper 100 mm. The Mn 5 distribution in core 12687#8 (Fig. 3d) showed a similar distribution to that observed for copper. As determined by sequential leaching, however, there was no detectable non-detrital Mn observed in core 12687#10 (only Mn 5...

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Sinian Manganese Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sinian is one of the main periods of the formation of manganese deposits in China. Sinian manganese deposits are mainly hosted in carbon-rich black shale and siliceous shale formed during the Sinian interglacial period. The composition of manganese ore is simple. The main ore mineral is manganiferous carbonates. The grade of manganese ore is about 16- 25%, with Mn/Fe>5 and P/Mn=0.006- 0.14. Based on the tectonic setting and geological and geochemical characteristics of manganese deposits, this paper discusses the process of migration and concentration of manganese and ore-forming conditions of Sinian manganese deposits in China.

  6. Intracellular chemical gradients: morphing principle in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Robert G


    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in computational biology allow systematic investigations to ascertain whether internal chemical gradients can be maintained in bacteria – an open question at the resolution limit of fluorescence microscopy. While it was previously believed that the small bacterial cell size and fast diffusion in the cytoplasm effectively remove any such gradient, a new computational study published in BMC Biophysics supports the emerging view that gradients can exist. The study arose from the recent observation that phosphorylated CtrA forms a gradient prior to cell division in Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium known for its complicated cell cycle. Tropini et al. (2012 postulate that such gradients can provide an internal chemical compass, directing protein localization, cell division and cell development. More specifically, they describe biochemical and physical constraints on the formation of such gradients and explore a number of existing bacterial cell morphologies. These chemical gradients may limit in vitro analyses, and may ensure timing control and robustness to fluctuations during critical stages in cell development.

  7. Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics. (United States)

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel


    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets.

  8. Microstructure and phase transformation behavior of Mo-MoSi2 gradient material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Yi Zhang; Yun-Gang Li; Yong-Hong Qi; Xue-Feng Shi


    Mo-MoSi2 gradient coating on Mo substrate was prepared by siliconizing process,using the polysilicon as silicon atoms.The gradient layer was analyzed by the experimental results,theoretical analysis,and thermodynamic calculation.The silicon,molybdenum content of gradient coating shows a gradual change regulation.The reaction between silicon and molybdenum is most likely to generate Mo5Si3,then MoSi2,finally Mo3Si,but when the silicon content is excessive,the Mo5Si3 and Mo3Si will react with silicon and generate MoSi2.The gradient layer is mainly constituted by Si and MoSi2,only about 1/10 gradient layer is constituted by Mo5Si3 and Mo3Si,and the stable existences of Mo5Si3 and Mo3Si are mainly determined by the silicon content.Along the Mo substrate to the surface of the coating,the phase compo sition of gradient coating changes as follows:Mo → transition layer,Mo (main phase) + Mo3Si + Mo5Si3 →intermediate layer,and MoSi2 (main phase)+ Mo5Si3 + Si → surface layer MoSi2 (main phase)+ Si,and the experimental temperature has no effect on phase composition of gradient coating.

  9. Characterization of peak capacity of microbore liquid chromatography columns using gradient kinetic plots. (United States)

    Hetzel, Terence; Blaesing, Christina; Jaeger, Martin; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C


    The performance of micro-liquid chromatography columns with an inner diameter of 0.3mm was investigated on a dedicated micro-LC system for gradient elution. Core-shell as well as fully porous particle packed columns were compared on the basis of peak capacity and gradient kinetic plot limits. The results for peak capacity showed the superior performance of columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles compared to 3.0μm fully porous and 2.7μm core-shell particles within a range of different gradient time to column void time ratios. For ultra-fast chromatography a maximum peak capacity of 16 can be obtained using a 30s gradient for the sub-2μm fully porous particle packed column. A maximum peak capacity of 121 can be achieved using a 5min gradient. In addition, the influence of an alternative detector cell on the basis of optical waveguide technology and contributing less to system variance was investigated showing an increased peak capacity for all applied gradient time/column void time ratios. Finally, the influence of pressure was evaluated indicating increased peak capacity for maximum performance whereas a limited benefit for ultra-fast chromatography with gradient times below 30s was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imprints of natural selection along environmental gradients in phenology-related genes of Quercus petraea. (United States)

    Alberto, Florian J; Derory, Jérémy; Boury, Christophe; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Kremer, Antoine


    We explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in candidate genes for bud burst from Quercus petraea populations sampled along gradients of latitude and altitude in Western Europe. SNP diversity was monitored for 106 candidate genes, in 758 individuals from 32 natural populations. We investigated whether SNP variation reflected the clinal pattern of bud burst observed in common garden experiments. We used different methods to detect imprints of natural selection (FST outlier, clinal variation at allelic frequencies, association tests) and compared the results obtained for the two gradients. FST outlier SNPs were found in 15 genes, 5 of which were common to both gradients. The type of selection differed between the two gradients (directional or balancing) for 3 of these 5. Clinal variations were observed for six SNPs, and one cline was conserved across both gradients. Association tests between the phenotypic or breeding values of trees and SNP genotypes identified 14 significant associations, involving 12 genes. The results of outlier detection on the basis of population differentiation or clinal variation were not very consistent with the results of association tests. The discrepancies between these approaches may reflect the different hierarchical levels of selection considered (inter- and intrapopulation selection). Finally, we obtained evidence for convergent selection (similar for gradients) and clinal variation for a few genes, suggesting that comparisons between parallel gradients could be used to screen for major candidate genes responding to natural selection in trees.

  11. The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings. (United States)

    Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele


    A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not.

  12. Study on the sound absorption mechanism in gradient water-soluble polymer solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuansheng; YANG Xue; ZHU Jinhua; YAO Shuren


    Attention was paid to the study on the sound absorption mechanism of watersoluble polymer during dissolving. A specially designed water-soluble polymer coating was synthesized in our lab. The sound attenuation property was measured in sound tube. The results showed that the sound attenuation of the gradient polymer solution was larger than that of the uniform. Depending on the experimental result and the theory of sound wave propagation in layered medium, a mechanism of gradient water-soluble polymer solution was developed. This mechanism can be described as follows: a water-soluble polymer coating formed a concentration gradient layer when it was dissolved in water. This gradient layer led to multiple reflection and absorption of sound. Finally the sound energy was transferred into heat.

  13. A hybrid two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  14. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution and residence time at the Haestholmen site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Luukkonen, A. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Leino- Forsman, H.; Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    An understanding of the geochemical evolution of groundwater is an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the geological final disposal of radioactive waste. The performance of technical barriers and migration of possibly released radionuclides depend on the geochemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions that control chemical conditions in groundwater. The objective of this study is to interpret the processes and factors that control the hydrogeochemistry, such as pH and redox conditions. A model of the hydrogeochemical progress in different parts of the crystalline bedrock at Haestholmen has been created and the significance of geochemical reactions and groundwater mixing along different flow paths calculated. Long term hydrodynamics have also been evaluated. The interpretation and modelling are based on water samples (64 altogether) obtained from precipitation, the Baltic Sea, the soil layer, shallow wells in the bedrock, and 14 deep boreholes in the bedrock for which a comprehensive data set on dissolved chemical species and isotopes was available. Some analyses of dissolved gases and their isotopic measurements were also utilised. The data covers the bedrock at Haestholmen to a depth of 1000 m. The results from groundwater chemistry, isotopes, petrography, hydrogeology of the site, geomicrobial studies, and PCA and speciation calculations were used to evaluate evolutionary processes at the site. The geochemical interpretation of water-rock interaction, isotope-chemical evolution ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 34}S) and mixing of palaeo-water types were approached by mass-balance calculations (NETPATH). Reaction-path calculations (EQ3/6) were used to verify the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction models obtained. The interpretation and calculation of hydrochemical data from Haestholmen suggest that changes in external conditions, such as glaciation

  15. A Resistivity Gradient Piezoelectric FGM Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A resistivity gradient actuator based on lead zirconate titanate ceramics was successfully developed and the bending deflections up to 140 μm were obtained. The actuator material was a matrix of PZT ceramic into which smooth gradient of piezoelectric activity was introduced. The application of an electric field then causes the actuator to bend due to differential strains induced by the piezoelectric effect. The resistivity gradient of the actuator was achieved by doping PZT with suitable donor and acceptor dopants. PZT powder was modified and synthesized by using two stage powder fabrication method. The actuator was fabricated by uniaxial pressing followed by isostatic pressing with two layers of different resistivities.

  16. Discussion of liquid threshold pressure gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiukun Wang


    The correct interpretation is that there are two flow regimes: nonlinear flow regime (non-Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradients are low, and linear flow regime (Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradient is intermediate or high. The nonlinear flow regime starts from the origin point. As the pressure gradient is increased, the curve becomes a straight line demonstrating the linear flow regime. We have verified our views by first analyzing the causes of non-Darcy flow, and then systematically analyzed typical experimental data and correlations in the literature. We conclude that TPG does not exist. We also use several counter examples to support our conclusion.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi; Sui Aifen; Niu Xinxin; Yang Yixian


    The spatial Least Significant Bit (LSB) steganography results in the alteration of the smooth characteristics between adjoining pixels of the raw image. The relation between the length of embedded message and the gradient energy is theoretically analyzed, and then a steganalysis and detection method, named Gradient Energy-Flipping Rate (GEFR) detection is proposed. Based on the analysis of the variation of the gradient energy, which results from the LSB steganography in color and grayscale image, the secret message embedded in the target image is detected, and the length of the embedded message is estimated. The method is proved effective and accurate by simulation (detection rate reaches 0.01bit per pixel).

  18. Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Cardone, V F; Capaccioli, M; Jetzer, P; Molinaro, R


    We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.

  19. Strain gradient effects in surface roughening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.


    A thin aluminium sheet comprising of large polycrystals is pulled in uniaxial tension and the resulting surface profile is measured in a scanning electron microscope. The surface profile near the grain boundaries reveals a local deformation pattern of width of a few micrometres and is strong...... evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...

  20. Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity. (United States)

    Schluter, Dolph; Pennell, Matthew W


    Global patterns of biodiversity are influenced by spatial and environmental variations in the rate at which new species form. We relate variations in speciation rates to six key patterns of biodiversity worldwide, including the species-area relationship, latitudinal gradients in species and genetic diversity, and between-habitat differences in species richness. Although they sometimes mirror biodiversity patterns, recent rates of speciation, at the tip of the tree of life, are often highest where species richness is low. Speciation gradients therefore shape, but are also shaped by, biodiversity gradients and are often more useful for predicting future patterns of biodiversity than for interpreting the past.

  1. Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Cardone, V. F.; Capaccioli, M.; Jetzer, P.; Molinaro, R.

    We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.

  2. Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface. (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping


    We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.

  3. Bioactive polyacrylamide hydrogels with gradients in mechanical stiffness. (United States)

    Diederich, Vincent E G; Studer, Peter; Kern, Anita; Lattuada, Marco; Storti, Giuseppe; Sharma, Ram I; Snedeker, Jess G; Morbidelli, Massimo


    We propose a novel, single step method for the production of polyacrylamide hydrogels with a gradient in mechanical properties. In contrast to already existing techniques such as UV photo-polymerization with photomasks (limited penetration depth) or microfluidic gradient mixers (complex microfluidic chip), this technique is not suffering such limitations. Young's modulus of the hydrogels was varied by changing the total monomer concentration of the hydrogel precursor solution. Using programmable syringe pumps, the total monomer concentration in the solution fed to the hydrogel mold was varied from 16 wt% down to 5 wt% over the feeding time to obtain a gradient in compliance ranging from 150 kPa down to 20 kPa over a length of 10 mm down to 2.5 mm. Polymerization was achieved with the dual initiation system composed of ammonium persulfate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, which were both fed through separate capillaries to avoid premature polymerization. Functionalized with the model ligand collagen I, the substrates were bioactive and supported the attachment of human foreskin fibroblasts (around 30% of the cells seeded attached after 1 h). A kinetic morphology study on homogeneous hydrogels of different stiffness's indicated that fibroblasts tend to spread to their final size within 2 h on stiff substrates, while the spreading time was much longer (ca. 4-5 h) on soft substrates. These trends were confirmed on hydrogels with compliance gradients, showing well spread fibroblasts on the stiff end of the hydrogel after 2 h, while the cells on the soft end still had small area and rounded morphology.

  4. The atomistic representation of first strain-gradient elastic tensors (United States)

    Admal, Nikhil Chandra; Marian, Jaime; Po, Giacomo


    We derive the atomistic representations of the elastic tensors appearing in the linearized theory of first strain-gradient elasticity for an arbitrary multi-lattice. In addition to the classical second-Piola) stress and elastic moduli tensors, these include the rank-three double-stress tensor, the rank-five tensor of mixed elastic moduli, and the rank-six tensor of strain-gradient elastic moduli. The atomistic representations are closed-form analytical expressions in terms of the first and second derivatives of the interatomic potential with respect to interatomic distances, and dyadic products of relative atomic positions. Moreover, all expressions are local, in the sense that they depend only on the atomic neighborhood of a lattice site. Our results emanate from the condition of energetic equivalence between continuum and atomistic representations of a crystal, when the kinematics of the latter is governed by the Cauchy-Born rule. Using the derived expressions, we prove that the odd-order tensors vanish if the lattice basis admits central-symmetry. The analytical expressions are implemented as a KIM compliant algorithm to compute the strain gradient elastic tensors for various materials. Numerical results are presented to compare representative interatomic potentials used in the literature for cubic crystals, including simple lattices (fcc Al and Cu and bcc Fe and W) and multi-lattices (diamond-cubic Si). We observe that central potentials exhibit generalized Cauchy relations for the rank-six tensor of strain-gradient elastic moduli. In addition, this tensor is found to be indefinite for many potentials. We discuss the relationship between indefiniteness and material stability. Finally, the atomistic representations are specialized to central potentials in simple lattices. These expressions are used with analytical potentials to study the sensitivity of the elastic tensors to the choice of the cutoff radius.

  5. Telescoping ore targets by geochemical exploration at multiple scales in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Platinum has been one of the highly needed mineral resources in China.The geochemical exploration at two survey scales was applied in telescoping ore targets for the first time in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province that was delineated using Pt data from flood plain sediments with extra-low sampling density.Our study was based on the delineations and assessments of both regional and local Pt anomalies using the Pt data by analyzing with C-OES the composite samples with two sampling densities.The composite samples were obtained by recomposing at two sampling densities the original stream sediment samples collected by the National Geochemical Mapping Project.Semivariograms were used to quantitatively describe the variability of Pt anomalies and further analyze the factors controlling the variability.Pt resource potentials of both the regional Pt anomalies and the local Pt anomalies in the study area were estimated based on the geochemical block methods,respectively.It comes to the conclusions as follows.(1) From the regional to local Pt anomaly,the factors controlling their variability from the deep seated faults-basalts turn into the basalts-branch faults,which suggest that Semivariograms could identify the geological factors controlling the variability of the Pt anomalies identified by the Pt data from the stream sediments with different sampling densities.(2) There exist two types of Pt anomalies in the study area.One is those displaying at sampling densities,and its average Pt concentration significantly increases with sampling density increasing.The other is getting weaker and/or disappears with sampling density increasing.This shows that TOTGEMS could gradu-ally eliminate non-ore anomalies and keep ore anomalies.(3) The average Pt concentration of the local Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from stream sediments with sampling density of one composite per 16 km2 is twice as much as that of the regional Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from

  6. Resolving the Multi-scale Behavior of Geochemical Weathering in the Critical Zone Using High Resolution Hydro-geochemical Models (United States)

    Pandey, S.; Rajaram, H.


    This work investigates hydrologic and geochemical interactions in the Critical Zone (CZ) using high-resolution reactive transport modeling. Reactive transport models can be used to predict the response of geochemical weathering and solute fluxes in the CZ to changes in a dynamic environment, such as those pertaining to human activities and climate change in recent years. The scales of hydrology and geochemistry in the CZ range from days to eons in time and centimeters to kilometers in space. Here, we present results of a multi-dimensional, multi-scale hydro-geochemical model to investigate the role of subsurface heterogeneity on the formation of mineral weathering fronts in the CZ, which requires consideration of many of these spatio-temporal scales. The model is implemented using the reactive transport code PFLOTRAN, an open source subsurface flow and reactive transport code that utilizes parallelization over multiple processing nodes and provides a strong framework for simulating weathering in the CZ. The model is set up to simulate weathering dynamics in the mountainous catchments representative of the Colorado Front Range. Model parameters were constrained based on hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical observations from the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BcCZO). Simulations were performed in fractured rock systems and compared with systems of heterogeneous and homogeneous permeability fields. Tracer simulations revealed that the mean residence time of solutes was drastically accelerated as fracture density increased. In simulations that include mineral reactions, distinct signatures of transport limitations on weathering arose when discrete flow paths were included. This transport limitation was related to both advective and diffusive processes in the highly heterogeneous systems (i.e. fractured media and correlated random permeability fields with σlnk > 3). The well-known time-dependence of mineral weathering rates was found to be the most

  7. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles (United States)

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.


    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  8. Geochemical response to hydrologic change along land-sea interfaces (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Yu, X.; LeMonte, J. J.; Sparks, D. L.; Kim, K. H.; Heiss, J.; Ullman, W. J.; Guimond, J. A.; Seyfferth, A.


    Coastal groundwater-surface water interfaces are hotspots of geochemical activity, where reactants contributed by different sources come in contact. Reactions that occur along these land-sea boundaries have important effects on fluxes and cycling of carbon, nutrients, and contaminants. Hydrologic perturbations can alter interactions by promoting mixing, changing redox state, and altering subsurface residence times during which reactions may occur. We present examples from field and modeling investigations along the Delaware coastline that illustrate the impacts of hydrologic fluctuations on geochemical conditions and fluxes in different coastal environments. Along the highly populated Wilmington coastline, soils are contaminated with heavy metals from legacy industrial practices. We show with continuous redox monitoring and sampling over tidal to seasonal timescales that arsenic is mobilized and immobilized in response to hydrologic change. Along a beach, modeling and long-term monitoring show the influence of tidal to seasonal changes in the mixing zone between discharging fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal beach aquifer and associated impacts on biogeochemical reactivity and denitrification. In a saltmarsh, hydrologic changes alter carbon dynamics, with implications for the discharge of dissolved organic carbon to the ocean and export of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Understanding the impacts of hydrologic changes on both long and short timescales is essential for improving our ability to predict the global biogeochemical impacts of a changing climate.

  9. Evolution of geochemical conditions in SFL 3-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Engkvist, I. [Barsebaeck Kraft AB (Sweden)


    The evolution of geochemical conditions in the repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5, and in the vicinity of the repository are important when predicting the retention of radionuclides and the long-term stability of engineered barriers. In this study the initial conditions at different repository sites at 300 - 400 m depth, the influence of repository construction and operation, the expected conditions after repository closure and saturation, and the evolution in a long-term perspective are discussed. Groundwaters that are found at these depths have near-neutral pH and are reducing in character, but the composition can vary from saline to non-saline water. The water chemistry in the near-field will mainly be influenced by the composition of the groundwater and by the large amounts of cementitious material that can be found in the repository. Disturbances caused during construction and operation are not expected to be permanent. Studies of old concrete indicate that leaching of concrete is a slow process. The geochemical conditions in the repository are therefore expected to be stable and prevail for hundreds of thousand years. However, the evolution of the surrounding environment may influence the conditions in long-term perspective.

  10. Geochemical mapping of New Mexico, USA, using stream sediment data (United States)

    Zumlot, Taisser; Goodell, Philip; Howari, Fares


    The spatial analysis of geochemical data has several environmental and geological applications. The present study investigated the regional distribution of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, V, and Zn elements in stream sediment samples from New Mexico State. These elements were studied in order to integrate them with geological and environmental characteristics of the area. Data are used from 27,798 samples that were originally collected during the national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) program in the 1970s. The original data are available as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-492. The study used a variety of data processing and filtering techniques that included univariate, bivariate, factor analyses and spatial analyses to transform the data into a useable format. Principal component analysis and GIS techniques are applied to classify the elements and to identify geochemical signatures, either natural or anthropogenic. The study found that the distribution of the investigated elements is mainly controlled by the bed rock chemistry. For example, along the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament a strong association between Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Sc, Ti, V and Zn was observed and indicates that elements distribution in the area controlled by the mafic factor. The rare earth elements (REE) factor which is consists of Ce, La and U, also has strong, localized, clusters in the felsic centers in New Mexico.

  11. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.


    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  12. Geochemical Evidence of Microbially-Mediated Subglacial Mineral Weathering (United States)

    Montross, S. N.; Skidmore, M. L.


    Interactions between dilute meltwater and fine-grained, freshly comminuted debris at the bed of temperate glaciers liberate significant solute. The proportions of solute produced in the subglacial environment via biotic and abiotic processes remains unknown, however, this work suggests the biotic contribution is substantial. Laboratory analyses of microbiological and geochemical properties of sediment and meltwater from the Haut Glacier d'Arolla (HGA) indicates that a metabolically active microbial community exists in water-saturated sediments at the ice-bedrock interface. Basal sediment slurries and meltwater were incubated in the laboratory for 100 days under near in situ subglacial conditions. Relative proportions of solute produced via abiotic v. biotic mineral weathering were analyzed by comparing the evolved aqueous chemistry of biologically active "live" sediment slurries with sterilized controls. Aqueous chemical analyses indicate an increase in solute produced from mineral weathering coupled with nitrate depletion in the biologically active slurries compared with the killed controls. These results infer that microbial activity at HGA is likely an important contributor to chemical weathering associated solute fluxes from the glaciated catchment. Due to the magnitude of past glaciations throughout geologic time (e.g., Neoproterozoic and Late-Pleistocene), and evidence that subglacial microbial activity impacts mineral weathering, greater consideration needs to be given to cold temperature biogeochemical weathering and its impact on global geochemical cycles.

  13. Delayed geochemical hazard: Concept, digital model and case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; FENG Liu; Jacques Yvon


    Delayed Geochemical Hazard (DGH briefly) presents the whole process of a kind of serious ecological and environmental hazard caused by sudden reactivation and sharp release of long-term accumulated pollutant from stable species to active ones in soil or sediment system due to the change of physical-chemical conditions (such as temperature, pH, Eh, moisture, the concentrations of organic matters, etc.) or the decrease of environment capacity. The characteristics of DGH are discussed. The process of a typical DGH can be expressed as a nonlinear polynomial. The points where the derivative functions of the first and second orders of the polynomial reach zero, minimum and maximum are keys for risk assessment and harzard pridication.The process and mechanism of the hazard is due to the transform of pollutant among different species principally. The concepts of "total releasable content of pollutant", TRCP, and "total concentration of active specie", TCAS, are necessarily defined to describe the mechanism of DGH. The possibility of the temporal and spatial propagation is discussed. Case study shows that there exists a transform mechanism of "gradual release" and "chain reaction" among the species of the exchangeable and the bounds to carbonate, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter, thus causing the delayed geochemical hazard.

  14. Soil Lysimeter Excavation for Coupled Hydrological, Geochemical, and Microbiological Investigations. (United States)

    Sengupta, Aditi; Wang, Yadi; Meira Neto, Antonio A; Matos, Katarena A; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Rob; Neilson, Julie W; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon; Troch, Peter A


    Studying co-evolution of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the subsurface of natural landscapes can enhance the understanding of coupled Earth-system processes. Such knowledge is imperative in improving predictions of hydro-biogeochemical cycles, especially under climate change scenarios. We present an experimental method, designed to capture sub-surface heterogeneity of an initially homogeneous soil system. This method is based on destructive sampling of a soil lysimeter designed to simulate a small-scale hillslope. A weighing lysimeter of one cubic meter capacity was divided into sections (voxels) and was excavated layer-by-layer, with sub samples being collected from each voxel. The excavation procedure was aimed at detecting the incipient heterogeneity of the system by focusing on the spatial assessment of hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological properties of the soil. Representative results of a few physicochemical variables tested show the development of heterogeneity. Additional work to test interactions between hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological signatures is planned to interpret the observed patterns. Our study also demonstrates the possibility of carrying out similar excavations in order to observe and quantify different aspects of soil-development under varying environmental conditions and scale.

  15. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality (United States)

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.


    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Date Creek Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, T.R.; Tieman, D.J.; Grimes, J.G.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Pritz, P.M.


    Results of the Date Creek Basin detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are reported for 239 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on stream sediment geochemical data, significant concentrations of uranium are restricted to the Anderson Mine area. The 84th percentile concentrations of U-FL, U-NT, and U-FL/U-NT combined with low thorium/U-NT values reflect increased mobility and enrichment of uranium in the carbonate host rocks of that area. Elements characteristically associated with the uranium mineralization include lithium and arsenic. No well defined diffusion halos suggesting outliers of similar uranium mineralization were observed from the stream sediment data in other areas of the Date Creek Basin. Significant concentrations of U-FL or U-NT found outside the mine area are generally coincident with low U-FL/U-NT values and high concentrations of zirconium, titanium, and phosphorus. This suggests that the uranium is related to a resistate mineral assemblage derived from surrounding crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  17. Hydrological and geochemical investigations of selenium behavior at Kesterson Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Zawislanski, P.; Yee, A.W.; Daggett, J.S.; Oldfather, J.M.; Tsao, L.; Johannis, P.W.


    From 1985 to the present we have studied the behavior of selenium in various habitats and environments at Kesterson reservoir, shifting emphasis as remedial actions altered the physical setting. Investigations have evaluated the efficacy of several remedial alternatives, from innovative techniques relying on the complex geochemical behavior of selenium alternatives, from innovative techniques relying on the complex geochemical behavior of selenium in aquatic environments to conventional excavation schemes. Results of these studies supported two cost-effective remedial measures; drain water deliveries were terminated in 1986 and, in 1988, 1 million cubic yards of soil were imported and used to fill the low lying areas of the former Kesterson Reservoir. To date, these two actions appear to have eliminated the aquatic habitat that caused waterfowl death and deformity at Kesterson from the early 1980's to 1987. Biological, surface water and groundwater monitoring data collected by the USBR indicate that Kesterson is now a much safer environment than in past years when drainage water containing 300{mu}g/l of selenium was delivered to the Reservoir. The continued presence of a large inventory of selenium within the upper portions of unfilled areas of Kesterson Reservoir and immediately below the fill material requires that a continued awareness of the status of this inventory be maintained and improved upon. 83 refs., 130 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchán, D., E-mail: [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); Auqué, L.F.; Acero, P.; Gimeno, M.J. [University of Zaragoza — Department of Earth Sciences (Geochemical Modelling Group), C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Causapé, J. [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain)


    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO{sub 3}, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO{sub 3}, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process

  19. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.


    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a cruc

  20. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias


    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  1. Full Gradient Solution to Adaptive Hybrid Control (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Schiller, Noah H.; Fuller, Chris


    This paper focuses on the adaptation mechanisms in adaptive hybrid controllers. Most adaptive hybrid controllers update two filters individually according to the filtered reference least mean squares (FxLMS) algorithm. Because this algorithm was derived for feedforward control, it does not take into account the presence of a feedback loop in the gradient calculation. This paper provides a derivation of the proper weight vector gradient for hybrid (or feedback) controllers that takes into account the presence of feedback. In this formulation, a single weight vector is updated rather than two individually. An internal model structure is assumed for the feedback part of the controller. The full gradient is equivalent to that used in the standard FxLMS algorithm with the addition of a recursive term that is a function of the modeling error. Some simulations are provided to highlight the advantages of using the full gradient in the weight vector update rather than the approximation.

  2. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter the t...... the tangential moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that appears to be unphysical.......By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter...

  3. Improving GOCE cross-track gravity gradients (United States)

    Siemes, Christian


    The GOCE gravity gradiometer measured highly accurate gravity gradients along the orbit during GOCE's mission lifetime from March 17, 2009, to November 11, 2013. These measurements contain unique information on the gravity field at a spatial resolution of 80 km half wavelength, which is not provided to the same accuracy level by any other satellite mission now and in the foreseeable future. Unfortunately, the gravity gradient in cross-track direction is heavily perturbed in the regions around the geomagnetic poles. We show in this paper that the perturbing effect can be modeled accurately as a quadratic function of the non-gravitational acceleration of the satellite in cross-track direction. Most importantly, we can remove the perturbation from the cross-track gravity gradient to a great extent, which significantly improves the accuracy of the latter and offers opportunities for better scientific exploitation of the GOCE gravity gradient data set.

  4. Optimizing sampling approaches along ecological gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Andreas; Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel


    1. Natural scientists and especially ecologists use manipulative experiments or field observations along gradients to differentiate patterns driven by processes from those caused by random noise. A well-conceived sampling design is essential for identifying, analysing and reporting underlying...

  5. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.


    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  6. Artificial photosynthesis: Light-activated calcium gradients (United States)

    Thompson, David H.


    Photosynthetic organisms use light to create chemical gradients across bilayer membranes that drive energetically unfavourable reactions. Synthetic systems that accomplish the same feat may find uses in a variety of biological and non-biological applications.

  7. CMB Anisotropies from a Gradient Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad


    A pure gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect at linear level. We confirm this by showing that its contribution to the dipolar power asymmetry of CMB anisotropies vanishes, if Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To this end, the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit is extended to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. At second order, a gradient mode generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce a quadrupole moment. For instance in a matter-dominated model it is equal to 5/18 times the square of the linear gradient part. This quadrupole can be cancelled by superposing a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a non-linear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  8. Controls on the geochemical evolution of Prairie Pothole Region lakes and wetlands over decadal time scales (United States)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher; Mushet, David M.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Rover, Jennifer


    One hundred sixty-seven Prairie Pothole lakes, ponds and wetlands (largely lakes) previously analyzed chemically during the late 1960’s and early to mid-1970’s were resampled and reanalyzed in 2011–2012. The two sampling periods differed climatically. The earlier sampling took place during normal to slightly dry conditions, whereas the latter occurred during and immediately following exceptionally wet conditions. As reported previously in Mushet et al. (2015), the dominant effect was expansion of the area of these lakes and dilution of their major ions. However, within that context, there were significant differences in the evolutionary pathways of major ions. To establish these pathways, we employed the inverse modeling computer code NetpathXL. This code takes the initial and final lake composition and, using mass balance constrained by the composition of diluting waters, and input and output of phases, calculates plausible geochemical evolution pathways. Despite the fact that in most cases major ions decreased, a subset of the lakes had an increase in SO42−. This distinction is significant because SO42− is the dominant anion in a majority of Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and lakes. For lakes with decreasing SO42−, the proportion of original lake water required for mass balance was subordinate to rainwater and/or overland flow. In contrast, lakes with increasing SO42− between the two sampling episodes tended to be dominated by original lake water. This suite of lakes tended to be smaller and have lower initial SO42−concentrations such that inputs of sulfur from dissolution of the minerals gypsum or pyrite had a significant impact on the final sulfur concentration given the lower dilution factors. Thus, our study provides context for how Prairie Pothole Region water bodies evolve geochemically as climate changes. Because wetland geochemistry in turn controls the ecology of these water bodies, this research contributes to the prediction of the

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China. (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin


    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  10. Combined geophysical, geochemical and geological investigations of geothermal reservoir characteristics in Lower Saxony, Germany (United States)

    Hahne, B.; Thomas, R.


    The North German basin provides a significant geothermal potential, although temperature gradients are moderate. However, deep drilling up to several thousand meters is required to reach temperatures high enough for efficient generation of geothermal heat and electric power. In these depths we have not much information yet about relevant physical properties like porosity or permeability of the rock formations. Therefore the costs of developing a geothermal reservoir and the risk of missing the optimum drilling location are high. The collaborative research association "Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling" (gebo) unites several universities and research institutes in Lower Saxony, Germany. It aims at a significant increase of economic efficiency by introducing innovative technology and high tech materials resisting temperatures up to 200 °C in the drilling process. Furthermore, a better understanding of the geothermal reservoir is essential. gebo is structured into four main fields: Drilling Technology, Materials, Technical Systems and Geosystem. Here, we show the combined work of the Geosystem group, which focuses on the exploration of geological fault zones as a potential geothermal reservoir as well as on modeling the stress field, heat transport, coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes, geochemical interactions and prediction of the long-term behavior of the reservoir. First results include combined seismic and geoelectric images of the Leinetalgraben fault system, a comparison of seismic images from P- and S-wave measurements, mechanical properties of North German rocks from field and laboratory measurements as well as from drill cores, seismological characterization of stimulated reservoirs, a thermodynamic "gebo" database for modeling hydrogeochemical processes in North German formation waters with high salinity and at high temperatures, stress models for specific sites in northern Germany, and modeling results of permeability and heat transport

  11. Pressure Gradient Evolution and Substorm Onset (United States)

    Zhonghua, Y.; Pu, Z.; Cao, X.; Nishimura, T.; Zhang, H.; Fu, S.; Xie, L.; Guo, R.


    Near-Earth current disruption (NECD) and substorm current wedge (SCW) formation are two related key phenomena for substorm onset. They are believed to be in close association with evolution of pressure gradient near the inner edge of plasma sheet. In the past, a few attempts have been made to investigate the pressure gradient in the late growth phase based on one- or two-spacecraft observations (e.g. , Korth et al., 1991; Pu et al., 1992; Shiokawa et al., 1998; Xing et al., 2010, 2011,etc). In this paper, with linearization assumption in the inner-probe region, we use THEMIS three-probe measurements to estimate the pressure gradient near the inner edge of the equatorward and duskward (dawnward) plasma sheet where pressure gradient in the Z-direction is almost vanished. We therefore can roughly get the two-dimensional pressure gradient in the X- and Y-direction simultaneously. Our observations indicate that the pressure gradients in both the X- and Y-direction enhance right after (within one minute) substorm onset. The enhanced pressure gradient in the Y-direction is duskward (dawnward) when the probes are in the duskside (dawnside) of the enhanced earthward flow in the growth phase. The enhanced dawn-dusk pressure gradients can drive downward field-aligned current (FAC) on the dawnside and upward FAC on the duskside, thus make contributions to the NECD and formation of SCW. THEMIS in situ data and all-sky auroral images for two events are presented, followed by a brief discussion.

  12. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń


    Full Text Available For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  13. The local power of the gradient test

    CERN Document Server

    Lemonte, Artur


    The asymptotic expansion of the distribution of the gradient test statistic is derived for a composite hypothesis under a sequence of Pitman alternative hypotheses converging to the null hypothesis at rate $n^{-1/2}$, $n$ being the sample size. Comparisons of the local powers of the gradient, likelihood ratio, Wald and score tests reveal no uniform superiority property. The power performance of all four criteria in one-parameter exponential family is examined.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dake Yi; Tzu Chiang Wang; Shaohua Chen


    A new strain gradient theory which is based on energy nonlocal model is proposed in this paper, and the theory is applied to investigate the size effects in thin metallic wire torsion, ultra-thin beam bending and micro-indentation of polycrystalline copper. First, an energy nonlocal model is suggested. Second, based on the model, a new strain gradient theory is derived. Third, the new theory is applied to analyze three representative experiments.

  15. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC


    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  16. Interplay between transport barriers and density gradient (United States)

    Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.


    The present paper addresses two critical issues of zonal flows: the evidence of control parameters of their driving term, namely the Reynolds stress, and how they back-react on turbulence and transport. Kinetic nonlinear simulations are performed with the GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., J. Comput. Phys. (to be published)], which models the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability in the four-dimensional drift-kinetic regime. First, the numerical results show that the gradient of the guiding center density, related to the general potential vorticity, is stabilizing both linearly, by increasing the instability threshold, and nonlinearly, by activating zonal flows. Accordingly, the Reynolds stress is found to scale like LΩ-2 in the quasilinear regime, LΩ being the gradient length of the guiding center density. Second, the local temperature gradient appears to increase linearly with the curvature of the zonal flows, regardless of its sign. Such behavior agrees qualitatively with a perturbative theory. Indeed, while linear eigenmodes are localized at the maximum of the temperature gradient in the absence of zonal flows, they tend to be expelled if both exhibit a maximum at the same location. In this case, the reduction mechanism of the turbulent transport results from the ability of large zonal flow curvatures to render strong temperature gradients stable with respect to perturbations.

  17. Gradient sensing by a bistable regulatory motif enhances signal amplification but decreases accuracy in individual cells (United States)

    Sharma, Rati; Roberts, Elijah


    Many vital eukaryotic cellular functions require the cell to respond to a directional gradient of a signaling molecule. The first two steps in any eukaryotic chemotactic/chemotropic pathway are gradient detection and cell polarization. Like many processes, such chemotactic and chemotropic decisions are made using a relatively small number of molecules and are thus susceptible to internal and external fluctuations during signal transduction. Large cell-to-cell variations in the magnitude and direction of a response are therefore possible and do, in fact, occur in natural systems. In this work we use three-dimensional probabilistic modeling of a simple gradient sensing pathway to study the capacity for individual cells to accurately determine the direction of a gradient, despite fluctuations. We include a stochastic external gradient in our simulations using a novel gradient boundary condition modeling a point emitter a short distance away. We compare and contrast three different variants of the pathway, one monostable and two bistable. The simulation data show that an architecture combining bistability with spatial positive feedback permits the cell to both accurately detect and internally amplify an external gradient. We observe strong polarization in all individual cells, but in a distribution of directions centered on the gradient. Polarization accuracy in our study was strongly dependent upon a spatial positive feedback term that allows the pathway to trade accuracy for polarization strength. Finally, we show that additional feedback links providing information about the gradient to multiple levels in the pathway can help the cell to refine initial inaccuracy in the polarization direction.

  18. Mapping saline water intrusion into the coastal aquifer with geophysical and geochemical techniques: the University of Lagos campus case (Nigeria). (United States)

    Ayolabi, Elijah A; Folorunso, Adetayo F; Odukoya, Abiodun M; Adeniran, Adelere E


    Saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer, a phenomenon brought by the flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers originally caused by groundwater extraction near the coast, has long been recognised as a major concern around the world. In this study, we employed geophysical and geochemical techniques to map and provide evidences that the coastal aquifers in the study area have been intruded by saltwater from the adjacent Lagos lagoon. The resistivity data were acquired with an electrode spacing (a) that vary between 1.6 to 8 m, and expansion factor n of 30. The depth inverted models obtained from inversion of the fifteen resistivity data obtained in the area revealed significant impact of the lagoon water on the aquifers indicated as low resistivity usually below 7 Ωm. A combination of four different electrode arrays - Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipole-dipole and pole-dipole, with at least three deployed at each site ( except for three traverses - traverses 13, 14 and 15), yield better horizontal and vertical resolution, having depth range of 36-226 m with 1.6-8 m electrode spacing used. The delineated geoelectric layers were juxtaposed with logs from both boreholes located within the campus. Evidence from geochemical study of borehole and the lagoon water samples corroborated the ERT result. Progressive decrease in total dissolved solute (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) from the lagoon to the coastal aquifer buttresses gradual encroachment of the inland aquifers by the intruding lagoon water. In addition, similar trend was observed in heavy metal distribution Pollution Index (PI) plot suggesting possible underground flow of water from the lagoon to the aquifers. From this study, we deduced that excessive groundwater extraction and possibly the reduction of groundwater gradients which allows saline-water to displace fresh water in the aquifer of the investigated area are responsible for the saline water intrusion observed.

  19. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith


    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  20. Geochemical evaluation of CO2 injection and containment in a depleted gas field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, T.J.; Koenen, M.; Wasch, L.J.; Bergen, F. van


    The short- and long-term geochemical impact of CO2 injection into a depleted gas reservoir (DGR) is investigated using reservoir/geochemical modeling with TOUGH2/TOUGHREACT and 1D kinetic diffusion modeling with PHREEQC (caprock/well-cement). Simulations of CO2 injection into the reservoir predict d

  1. Geochemistry@BGS : a guide to geochemical data at the British Geological Survey


    Johnson, C C


    This report reviews the main activities in the British Geological Survey (and previously as the Institute of Geological Sciences) that have generated geochemical data. Included are; the mineral reconnaissance programme; regional geochemical mapping; groundwater geochemistry; marine and estuarine surveys; environmental geochemistry and health; radiometric surveys; isotopic geochemistry; lithogeochemical investigations; organic geochemistry laboratories; and many international activities involv...

  2. Reactive surface area in geochemical models - Lessons learned from a natural analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.; Wasch, L.J.


    Many uncertainties exist in geochemical modeling. Mineral reactive surface area is one of the uncertain parameters. QEMSCAN analyses are performed on sandstone samples from a Dutch CO2 natural analogue to determine reactive surface areas. Geochemical modeling is performed using QEMSCAN surface areas

  3. Relations of petrographical and geochemical parameters in the middle Miocene Lavanttal lignite (Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A. [Department Angewandte Geowissenschaften und Geophysik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Mineralogisch-Petrologisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Reischenbacher, D.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Gratzer, R. [Department Angewandte Geowissenschaften und Geophysik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Luecke, A. [Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere V: Sedimentaere Systeme (ICG V), Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Puettmann, W. [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Chemistry, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)


    Samples from two lignite seams (Lower Seam, Upper Seam) of the Lavanttal basin (Austria) and additional xylite were investigated for variations in maceral composition, petrography-based facies indicators, bulk geochemical parameters, and molecular composition of hydrocarbons. Both seams originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a transgressive setting. The final drowning of the mire is indicated by sapropelic shales. Whereas the sapropelic shale overlying the Lower Seam was deposited in a freshwater lake, the sapropelic shale above the Upper Seam represents a brackish lake. Numerous relationships are found between petrography-based facies indicators and the geochemical composition of organic matter. The contents of macerals of the liptinite group are positively correlated with soluble organic matter (SOM) yields and hydrogen index (HI). Consistent with maceral composition and high HI values, enhanced proportions of short-chain n-alkanes, which are predominantly found in algae and microorganisms, are obtained from samples of the sapropelic shales. The final drowning of the mire is reflected by decreasing pristane/phytane ratios, due to the rise in (ground)water table and the establishment of anaerobic conditions, as well as by decreasing ratios of diasterenes/sterenes, indicating increasing pH values in the mire. The degree of gelification of plant tissue (gelification index) is governed by the microbial activity in the mire, as indicated by the hopanes concentration. The differences in floral assemblage during the formation of the Lavanttal lignite seams are reflected by major differences in tissue preservation. Preservation of plant tissue (TPI) in the Lavanttal lignite is obviously controlled by the presence/absence of decay-resistant gymnosperms in the peat-forming vegetation, and additionally influenced by the relative contribution of wood to coal formation. The results provide evidence that valuable information for coal facies characterization could

  4. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater from Velenje Basin, Slovenia (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; Mori, Nataša; Verbovšek, Timotej


    The Velenje Basin in Slovenia is one of the largest actively mined coal basins in central Europe, producing around 4 million tons of lignite per year. Large amounts of groundwater are extracted from aquifers to facilitate underground mining of coal, and coal seam gas outbursts are a serious mine safety concern. This study analyses the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater to provide a general understanding of hydrogeological and geochemical processes in groundwater. Thirty-eight groundwater samples were taken from dewatering objects in the mine and at the surface in years 2014-2015. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by hydrogen carbonate, calcium, magnesium and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the range from -19.3 to -2.8‰ indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium, and silicon, and has high alkalinity, with isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the range of -14.4 to +4.6‰ . Based on isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon values in all aquifers (Pliocene and Triassic), influencing processes are the dissolution of carbonate minerals and dissolution of organic matter, and additionally methanogenesis in the Pliocene aquifers. Based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) we can conclude that following different types of groundwater in Velenje Basin could be distinguished based on geochemical and isotopic data: Triassic aquifers with higher pH and lower conductivity and chloride, Pliocene, Pliocene 1 and Pliocene 2 aquifers with lower pH and higher conductivity and chloride contents, and Pliocene 3 and Pliocene 2, 3 aquifers with the highest pH and lowest conductivity and chloride contents. Major dissolved gas component in groundwater are carbon dioxide, nitrogen and methane. Concentrations of dissolved gases dewatering Triassic strata are low

  5. Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions (United States)

    Thorstenson, D.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.


    Theory is derived from the work of Urey (Urey H. C. [1947] The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances. J. Chem. Soc. 562-581) to calculate equilibrium constants commonly used in geochemical equilibrium and reaction-transport models for reactions of individual isotopic species. Urey showed that equilibrium constants of isotope exchange reactions for molecules that contain two or more atoms of the same element in equivalent positions are related to isotope fractionation factors by ?? = (Kex)1/n, where n is the number of atoms exchanged. This relation is extended to include species containing multiple isotopes, for example 13C16O18O and 1H2H18O. The equilibrium constants of the isotope exchange reactions can be expressed as ratios of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions. Knowledge of the equilibrium constant for the dominant isotopic species can then be used to calculate the individual isotope equilibrium constants. Individual isotope equilibrium constants are calculated for the reaction CO2g = CO2aq for all species that can be formed from 12C, 13C, 16O, and 18O; for the reaction between 12C18 O2aq and 1H218Ol; and among the various 1H, 2H, 16O, and 18O species of H2O. This is a subset of a larger number of equilibrium constants calculated elsewhere (Thorstenson D. C. and Parkhurst D. L. [2002] Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for implementation in geochemical models. Water-Resources Investigation Report 02-4172. U.S. Geological Survey). Activity coefficients, activity-concentration conventions for the isotopic variants of H2O in the solvent 1H216Ol, and salt effects on isotope fractionation have been included in the derivations. The effects of nonideality are small because of the chemical similarity of different isotopic species of the same molecule or ion. The temperature dependence of the individual isotope equilibrium constants can be calculated from the temperature dependence of the fractionation

  6. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence. (United States)

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J


    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors.

  7. Irreducible decomposition of strain gradient tensor in isotropic strain gradient elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Markus


    In isotropic strain gradient elasticity, we decompose the strain gradient tensor into its irreducible pieces under the n-dimensional orthogonal group O(n). Using the Young tableau method for traceless tensors, four irreducible pieces (n>2), which are canonical, are obtained. In three dimensions, the strain gradient tensor can be decomposed into four irreducible pieces with 7+5+3+3 independent components whereas in two dimensions, the strain gradient tensor can be decomposed into three irreducible pieces with 2+2+2 independent components. The knowledge of these irreducible pieces is extremely useful when setting up constitutive relations and strain energy.

  8. Improving the accuracy of pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion experiments: Correction for gradient non-uniformity (United States)

    Connell, Mark A.; Bowyer, Paul J.; Adam Bone, P.; Davis, Adrian L.; Swanson, Alistair G.; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.


    Pulsed field gradient NMR is a well-established technique for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients. However, a significant source of systematic error exists in the spatial variation of the applied pulsed field gradient. Non-uniform pulsed field gradients cause the decay of peak amplitudes to deviate from the expected exponential dependence on gradient squared. This has two undesirable effects: the apparent diffusion coefficient will deviate from the true value to an extent determined by the choice of experimental parameters, and the error estimated by the nonlinear least squares fitting will contain a significant systematic contribution. In particular, the apparent diffusion coefficient determined by exponential fitting of the diffusional attenuation of NMR signals will depend both on the exact pulse widths used and on the range of gradient amplitudes chosen. These problems can be partially compensated for if experimental attenuation data are fitted to a function corrected for the measured spatial dependence of the gradient and signal strength. This study describes a general alternative to existing methods for the calibration of NMR diffusion measurements. The dominant longitudinal variation of the pulsed field gradient amplitude and the signal strength are mapped by measuring pulsed field gradient echoes in the presence of a weak read gradient. These data are then used to construct a predicted signal decay function for the whole sample, which is parameterised as the exponential of a power series. Results are presented which compare diffusion coefficients obtained using the new calibration method with previous literature values.

  9. Lake Bogoria hot springs (Kenya): geochemical features and geothermal implications (United States)

    Cioni, R.; Fanelli, G.; Guidi, M.; Kinyariro, J. K.; Marini, L.


    Many boiling springs and fumaroles are present along the shores of Lake Bogoria, which is a closed-basin alkaline saline lake typical of African Rifts. Two different geothermal waters, both of Na-HCO 3 type have been recognized. The first, discharged by the boiling springs located along the western shores of the lake, comes from a shallow steam-heated thermal aquifer. Its temperature is close to 100°C, as indicated by chalcedony solubility, while the chloride content of these waters is slightly higher than 200 mg L -1. The second, recognizable in the southernmost boiling springs, is representative of a deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. The occurrence of mixing and boiling processes complicates the interpretation of geochemical data. Nevertheless, a chloride content of about 660 mg L -1, an equilibrium temperature close to 170°C and a high carbon dioxide partial pressure, at least 10-20 bar, have been estimated for the deep geothermal reservoir.

  10. The effect of scale on the interpretation of geochemical anomalies (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Eppinger, R.G.; Turner, R.L.; Shiquan, S.


    The purpose of geochemical surveys changes with scale. Regional surveys identify areas where mineral deposits are most likely to occur, whereas intermediate surveys identify and prioritize specific targets. At detailed scales specific deposit models may be applied and deposits delineated. The interpretation of regional geochemical surveys must take into account scale-dependent difference in the nature and objectives of this type of survey. Overinterpretation of regional data should be resisted, as should recommendations to restrict intermediate or detailed follow-up surveys to the search for specific deposit types or to a too limited suite of elements. Regional surveys identify metallogenic provinces within which a variety of deposit types and metals are most likely to be found. At intermediate scale, these regional provinces often dissipate into discrete clusters of anomalous areas. At detailed scale, individual anomalous areas reflect local conditions of mineralization and may seem unrelated to each other. Four examples from arid environments illustrate the dramatic change in patterns of anomalies between regional and more detailed surveys. On the Arabian Shield, a broad regional anomaly reflects the distribution of highly differentiated anorogenic granites. A particularly prominent part of the regional anomaly includes, in addition to the usual elements related to the granites, the assemblage of Mo, W and Sn. Initial interpretation suggested potential for granite-related, stockwork Mo deposits. Detailed work identified three separate sources for the anomaly: a metal-rich granite, a silicified and stockwork-veined area with scheelite and molybdenite, and scheelite/powellite concentrations in skarn deposits adjacent to a ring-dike complex. Regional geochemical, geophysical and remote-sensing data in the Sonoran Desert, Mexico, define a series of linear features interpreted to reflect fundamental, northeast-trending fractures in the crust that served as the prime

  11. The Earth's heterogeneous mantle a geophysical, geodynamical, and geochemical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir


    This book highlights and discusses recent developments that have contributed to an improved understanding of observed mantle heterogeneities and their relation to the thermo-chemical state of Earth's mantle, which ultimately holds the key to unlocking the secrets of the evolution of our planet. This series of topical reviews and original contributions address 4 themes. Theme 1 covers topics in geophysics, including global and regional seismic tomography, electrical conductivity and seismic imaging of mantle discontinuities and heterogeneities in the upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle. Theme 2 addresses geochemical views of the mantle including lithospheric evolution from analysis of mantle xenoliths, composition of the deep Earth and the effect of water on subduction-zone processes. Theme 3 discusses geodynamical perspectives on the global thermo-chemical structure of the deep mantle. Theme 4 covers application of mineral physics data and phase equilibrium computations to infer the regional-scale ...

  12. A Simplified View of the Geochemical Diversity Surrounding Home Plate (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, R.


    The Home Plate feature (Fig. 1) within the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills consists of layered rocks and has been interpreted as an accumulation of pyroclastic deposits [1]. Samples analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer within 25 meters of the eastern margin of Home Plate exhibit a strikingly diverse range of geochemical compositions, including the highest levels of Mg, Si, K, Zn, and Ni measured at Gusev Crater. This wide range of chemical variability across the 40+ samples analyzed on and near Home Plate can be represented by contributions from only six primary components. This reconstruction is not reflected in the M ssbauer mineralogy suggesting that significant alteration of the contributing components has occurred.

  13. Geochemical implications of brine leakage into freshwater aquifers. (United States)

    Wunsch, Assaf; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E


    CO(2) injection into deep saline formations as a way to mitigate climate change raises concerns that leakage of saline waters from the injection formations will impact water quality of overlying aquifers, especially underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). This paper aims to characterize the geochemical composition of deep brines, with a focus on constituents that pose a human health risk and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A statistical analysis of the NATCARB brine database, combined with simple mixing model calculations, show total dissolved solids and concentrations of chloride, boron, arsenic, sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese may exceed plant tolerance or regulatory levels. Twelve agricultural crops evaluated for decreased productivity in the event of brine leakage would experience some yield reduction due to increased TDS at brine-USDW ratios of United States are almost three times higher than public and domestic withdrawals.

  14. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health. (United States)

    Tourtelot, H.A.


    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes. -Author

  15. Geochemical processes during five years of aquifer storage recovery. (United States)

    Herczeg, Andrew L; Rattray, Karen J; Dillon, Peter J; Pavelic, Paul; Barry, Karen E


    A key factor in the long-term viability of aquifer storage recovery (ASR) is the extent of mineral solution interaction between two dissimilar water types and consequent impact on water quality and aquifer stability. We collected geochemical and isotopic data from three observation wells located 25, 65, and 325 m from an injection well at an experimental ASR site located in a karstic, confined carbonate aquifer in South Australia. The experiment involved five major injection cycles of a total of 2.5 x 10(5) m3 of storm water (total dissolved solids [TDS] approximately 150 mg/L) into the brackish (TDS approximately 2400 mg/L) aquifer. Approximately 60% of the mixture was pumped out during the fifth year of the experiment. The major effect on water quality within a 25 m radius of the injection well following injection of storm water was carbonate dissolution (35 +/- 6 g of CaCO3 dissolved/m3 of aquifer) and sulfide mineral oxidation (50 +/- 10 g as FeS2/m3 after one injection). < 0.005% of the total aquifer carbonate matrix was dissolved during each injection event, and approximately 0.2% of the total reduced sulfur. Increasing amounts of ambient ground water was entrained into the injected mixture during each of the storage periods. High 14C(DIC) activities and slightly more negative delta13C(DIC) values measured immediately after injection events show that substantial CO2(aq) is produced by oxidation of organic matter associated with injectant. There were no detectable geochemical reactions while pumping during the recovery phase in the fifth year of the experiment.

  16. WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.


    Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, 0//sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs.

  17. Integrated Geochemical-Petrographic Insights on Neoproterozoic Ocean Oxygenation (United States)

    Hood, A.; Planavsky, N.; Wallace, M. W.; Wang, X.; Gueguen, B.


    Novel isotope systems have the potential to provide new insights into biogeochemical cycling in Earth's evolving oceans. However, much recent paleo-redox work has been done without extensive consideration of sample preservation or paleoenvironmental setting. Neoproterozoic reef complexes from South Australia provide a perfect setting to test geochemical redox proxies (e.g. uranium isotopes and trace metal chemistry) within a well-defined sedimentological and petrographic context. These reefs developed significant frameworks over ~1km of steep platform relief from the seafloor, and contain a variety of carbonate components including primary dolomite marine cements. Analysis of a variety of components within these reefs reveals significant variation in uranium isotope composition and trace metal chemistry between components, even within a single sample. Marine cements, which precipitated directly from seawater, have much lower contamination element concentrations (e.g. Al, Zr, Th) than depositional micrites, and appear to represent the best archive of ancient ocean conditions. These cements have high levels of Fe, Mn in shallow and deep reef facies (e.g. 2-3wt% Fe), but only Fe-oxide inclusions in peritidal settings. This distribution suggests ferruginous conditions under a surficial chemocline in this Neoproterozoic seawater. Uranium isotopes from pristine marine cements have relatively heavy values compared to modern seawater (median = -0.22 δ238U). These values are essentially unfractionated from riverine inputs, which we interpret as tracking extensive near quantitative low-T reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by abundant soluble iron in seawater. Depositional components and late stage cements have a much lighter and more variable U isotope compositions (-0.71 to -0.08 δ238U). This work highlights the need for fundamental petrographic constraints on the preservation of depositional geochemical signatures in the future use and development of sedimentary redox proxies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens R.VALEUR; Steen LOMHOLT; Christian KNUDSEN


    A fixed link (tunnel and bridge,in total 16 km) was constructed between Sweden and Denmark during 1995-2000.As part of the work,approximately 16 million tonnes of seabed materials (limestone and clay till) were dredged,and about 0.6 million tonnes of these were spilled in the water.Modelling of the spreading and sedimentation of the spilled sediments took place as part of the environmental monitoring of the construction activities.In order to verify the results of the numerical modelling of sediment spreading and sedimentation,a new method with the purpose of distinguishing between the spilled sediments and the naturally occurring sediments was developed.Because the spilled sediments tend to accumulate at the seabed in areas with natural sediments of the same size,it is difficult to separate these based purely on the physical properties.The new method is based on the geo-chemical differences between the natural sediment in the area and the spill.The basic properties used are the higher content of calcium carbonate material in the spill as compared to the natural sediments and the higher Ca/Sr ratio in the spill compared to shell fragments dominating the natural calcium carbonate deposition in the area.The reason for these differences is that carbonate derived from recent shell debris can be discriminated from Danien limestone,which is the material in which the majority of the dredging took place,on the basis of the Ca/Sr ratio being 488 in Danien Limestone and 237 in shell debris.The geochemical recognition of the origin of the sediments proved useful in separating the spilled from the naturally occurring sediments.Without this separation,validation of the modelling of accumulation of spilled sediments would not have been possible.The method has general validity and can be used in many situations where the origin ora given sediment is sought.

  19. Experimental study on neptunium migration under in situ geochemical conditions (United States)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T. T.


    Results are reported for migration experiments performed with Np under in situ geochemical conditions over a range of groundwater flow rates in columns of crushed rock in a specially designed facility at the 240-level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. This laboratory is situated in an intrusive granitic rock formation, the Lac du Bonnet batholith. Highly altered granitic rock and groundwater were obtained from a major subhorizontal fracture zone at a depth of 250 m in the URL. The granite was wet-crushed and wet-sieved with groundwater from this fracture zone. The 180-850-μm size fraction was selected and packed in 20-cm long, 2.54-cm in diameter Teflon™-lined stainless steel columns. Approximately 30-ml vols of groundwater containing 3HHO and 237Np were injected into the columns at flow rates of 0.3, 1, and 3 ml/h, followed by elution with groundwater, obtained from the subhorizontal fracture, at the same flow rates, for a period of 95 days. Elution profiles for 3HHO were obtained, but no 237Np was detected in the eluted groundwater. After terminating the migration experiments, the columns were frozen, the column material was removed and cut into twenty 1-cm thick sections and each section was analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Profiles of 237Np were obtained for the three columns. A one-dimensional transport model was fitted to the 3HHO breakthrough curves to obtain flow parameters for this experiment. These flow parameters were in turn applied to the 237Np concentration profiles in the columns to produce sorption and dispersion coefficients for Np. The results show a strong dependence of retardation factors ( Rf) on flow rate. The decrease in the retarded velocity of the neptunium ( Vn) varied over one order of magnitude under the geochemical conditions for these experiments.

  20. Arsenic: geochemical distribution and health risk in Italy (United States)

    Zuzolo, Daniela; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Catani, Vittorio; Dinelli, Enrico; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo; De Vivo, Benedetto


    Characterization of risks to human health is determinant for risk management and population surveillance. This study represent the first work at national scale for Italy about arsenic occurrence, distribution and health impact. We analyzed the As geochemical distribution in different environmental matrices on the whole Italian territory, and assessed both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for different exposure routes and age groups. The results demonstrate that, in Italy, arsenic is present in significant concentrations both in water (up to 27.2 µg/L) and soils (up to 70 mg/kg). Its presence is mainly controlled by geological processes and locally reflects the industrial history of the Country. The population of the Central Italy, where high content of arsenic in the analyzed samples is due to the presence of alkaline volcanics, are the most exposed to the health risk. Based on the results of our work, it is clear that the consumption of tap water for potable use is the most impactful route for As daily exposure and play an important role in governing potential cancer and non-cancer risks for the considered population. It is interesting to observe that the Incremental Life Cancer Risk through water ingestion show that almost 80% of data falls above the internationally accepted benchmark value of 1 x 10-5. Moreover it was demonstrated that childhood is the most susceptible age stage to As exposure. Geochemical mapping provided a useful tool to spatially analyze and represent data and to highlight the most critic areas and the most exposed population to arsenic at national scale. In conclusion, this study improve knowledge about As occurrence for an entire Country, recognizing an health emerging problem. It might be a good starting point to support the urgently needed policy actions, in order to prevent and reduce the health risk. Moreover, the performed method in this case study research is potentially generalizable and applicable in other countries.

  1. Using Intact Iron Microbial Mats to Gain Insights Into Mat Ecology and Geochemical Niche at the Microbial Scale (United States)

    Glazer, B. T.; Chan, C. S. Y.; Mcallister, S.; Leavitt, A.; Emerson, D.


    Microbial mats are formed by microorganisms working in coordinated symbiosis, often benefitting the community by controlling the local geochemical or physical environment. Thus, the ecology of the mat depends on the individual roles of microbes organized into niches within a larger architecture. Chemolithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) form distinctive Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals which constitute the building blocks of the mat. However, the majority of our progress has been in understanding the overall community structure. Understanding the physical mat structure on the microbial scale is important to unraveling FeOB evolution, the biogeochemistry and ecology of Fe-rich habitats, and ultimately interpreting FeOB biosignatures in the rock record. Mats in freshwater and marine environments contain strikingly similar biomineral morphologies, yet they are formed by phylogenetically distinct microorganisms. This suggests that the overall architecture and underlying genetics of freshwater and marine mats has evolved to serve particular roles specific to Fe oxidation. Thus, we conducted a comparative study of Fe seep freshwater mats and marine hydrothermal mats. We have developed a new approach to sampling Fe mats in order to preserve the delicate structure for analysis by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Our analyses of these intact mats show that freshwater and marine mats are similarly initiated by a single type of structure-former. These ecosystem engineers form either a hollow sheath or a twisted stalk biomineral during mat formation, with a highly directional structure. These microbes appear to be the vanguard organisms that anchor the community within oxygen/Fe(II) gradients, further allowing for community succession in the mat interior as evidenced by other mineralized morphologies. Patterns in biomineral thickness and directionality were indicative of redox gradients and temporal changes in the geochemical environment. These observations show that

  2. Coralline algae (Rhodophyta) in a changing world: integrating ecological, physiological, and geochemical responses to global change. (United States)

    McCoy, Sophie J; Kamenos, Nicholas A


    Coralline algae are globally distributed benthic primary producers that secrete calcium carbonate skeletons. In the context of ocean acidification, they have received much recent attention due to the potential vulnerability of their high-Mg calcite skeletons and their many important ecological roles. Herein, we summarize what is known about coralline algal ecology and physiology, providing context to understand their responses to global climate change. We review the impacts of these changes, including ocean acidification, rising temperatures, and pollution, on coralline algal growth and calcification. We also assess the ongoing use of coralline algae as marine climate proxies via calibration of skeletal morphology and geochemistry to environmental conditions. Finally, we indicate critical gaps in our understanding of coralline algal calcification and physiology and highlight key areas for future research. These include analytical areas that recently have become more accessible, such as resolving phylogenetic relationships at all taxonomic ranks, elucidating the genes regulating algal photosynthesis and calcification, and calibrating skeletal geochemical metrics, as well as research directions that are broadly applicable to global change ecology, such as the importance of community-scale and long-term experiments in stress response.

  3. Assessment of geochemical evolution of groundwater in a mountainous area under agricultural land (United States)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pasten-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen


    Zona Citricola is an important area to Mexico for its citriculture. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to Sierra Madre Occidental, this mountainouos valley hosts an aquifer system which represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flow to supply drinking water to an adjacent metropolitan area. The objective of this study was to characterize groundwater chemistry of this area and to assess the evolution. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to decipher various underlying natural and anthropogenic processes creating distinct water classes: (1) dissolution of evaporates, (2) surface organic waste or wastewater, and (3) silicate weathering and clay formation. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed for partitioning the water samples into four hydrochemical groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling water chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The main responsible reactions were: (1) dissolution of rock salts, (2) release of soil gas carbon dioxide, (3) dedolomitization,(4) albite weathering reactions with corresponding precipitation of silica and clay minerals, and (5) input from animal/human waste and manure, accompanied by denitrification processes. The hydrochemical groups could be related to lithological formations.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement Fractures after Geomechanical Stress and Geochemical Reactions Using X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging. (United States)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Jung, Hun Bok; Kuprat, Andrew P; Beck, Anthon N; Varga, Tamas; Fernandez, Carlos A; Um, Wooyong


    X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging combined with three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling technique was used to study the effect of geochemical and geomechanical processes on fracture permeability in composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core samples. The effect of fluid density and viscosity and two different pressure gradient conditions on fracture permeability was numerically studied by using fluids with varying density and viscosity and simulating two different pressure gradient conditions. After the application of geomechanical stress but before CO2-reaction, CFD revealed fluid flow increase, which resulted in increased fracture permeability. After CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed preferential precipitation of calcium carbonate within the fractures in the cement matrix and less precipitation in fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. CFD estimated changes in flow profile and differences in absolute values of flow velocity due to different pressure gradients. CFD was able to highlight the profound effect of fluid viscosity on velocity profile and fracture permeability. This study demonstrates the applicability of XMT imaging and CFD as powerful tools for characterizing the hydraulic properties of fractures in a number of applications like geologic carbon sequestration and storage, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production, and enhanced geothermal systems.

  5. On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are invest......In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields...... are investigated. Differences and similarities between the two approaches within continuum SGP modeling are highlighted and discussed. Local strain hardening promoted by geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the vicinity of the crack leads to much higher stresses, relative to classical plasticity...... predictions. These differences increase significantly when large strains are taken into account, as a consequence of the contribution of strain gradients to the work hardening of the material. The magnitude of stress elevation at the crack tip and the distance ahead of the crack where GNDs significantly alter...

  6. Digital Image Watermarking Based On Gradient Direction Quantization and Denoising Using Guided Image Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is the art of hiding of information or data in documents, where the embedded information or data can be extracted to resist copyright violation or to verify the uniqueness of a document which leads to security. Protecting the digital content has become a major issue for content owners and service providers. Watermarking using gradient direction quantization is based on the uniform quantization of the direction of gradient vectors, which is called gradient direction watermarking (GDWM. In GDWM, the watermark bits are embedded by quantizing the angles of significant gradient vectors at multiple wavelet scales. The proposed scheme has the advantages of increased invisibility and robustness to amplitude scaling effects. The DWT coefficients are modified to quantize the gradient direction based on the on the derived relationship between the changes in the coefficients and the change in the gradient direction. In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. It is derived from a local linear model that computes the filtering output using the content of guidance image, which can be the input image itself or any other different image. The guided filter naturally has a fast and non approximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Finally, we show simulation results of denoising method using guided image filtering over bilateral filtering

  7. Full gradient stabilized cut finite element methods for surface partial differential equations (United States)

    Burman, Erik; Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.; Massing, André; Zahedi, Sara


    We propose and analyze a new stabilized cut finite element method for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a closed surface. The new stabilization term provides control of the full $\\mathbb{R}^3$ gradient on the active mesh consisting of the elements that intersect the surface. Compared to face stabilization, based on controlling the jumps in the normal gradient across faces between elements in the active mesh, the full gradient stabilization is easier to implement and does not significantly increase the number of nonzero elements in the mass and stiffness matrices. The full gradient stabilization term may be combined with a variational formulation of the Laplace-Beltrami operator based on tangential or full gradients and we present a simple and unified analysis that covers both cases. The full gradient stabilization term gives rise to a consistency error which, however, is of optimal order for piecewise linear elements, and we obtain optimal order a priori error estimates in the energy and $L^2$ norms as well as an optimal bound of the condition number. Finally, we present detailed numerical examples where we in particular study the sensitivity of the condition number and error on the stabilization parameter.

  8. Dynamics and sources of last glacial aeolian deposition in southwest France derived from dune patterns, grain-size gradients and geochemistry, and reconstruction of efficient wind directions (United States)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Sima, Adriana; Chery, Philippe; Queffelec, Alain; Rousseau, Denis-Didier


    Dune pattern, grain-size gradients and geochemistry were used to investigate the sources and dynamics of aeolian deposition during the last glacial in southwest France. The coversands form widespread fields of low-amplitude ridges (zibars), whereas Younger Dryas parabolic dunes mainly concentrate in corridors and along rivers. Spatial modelling of grain-size gradients combined with geochemical analysis points to a genetic relationship between coversands and loess, the latter resulting primarily from dust produced by aeolian abrasion of the coversands. The alluvium of the Garonne river provided also significant amounts of dust at a more local scale. The geochemical composition of loess shows much lower scattering than that of coversands, due to stronger homogenisation during transport in the atmosphere. Overall, sandy loess and loess deposits decrease in thickness away from the coversands. Dune orientation and grain-size gradients suggest that the efficient winds blew respectively from the W to the NW during the glacial, and the W-SW during the Younger Dryas. A comparison between the wind directions derived from the proxy data and those provided by palaeoclimatic simulations suggests a change of the main transport season. Ground surface conditions and their evolution throughout the year, i.e. the length of the season with snow and frozen or moist topsoil, and the seasonal distribution of wind speeds able to cause deflation are thought to have been the main factors that controlled the transport season in the study area.

  9. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients (United States)

    Snover, Melissa; Adams, Michael J.; Ashton, Donald T.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.


    Counter-gradient growth, where growth per unit temperature increases as temperature decreases, can reduce the variation in ectothermic growth rates across environmental gradients. Understanding how ectothermic species respond to changing temperatures is essential to their conservation and management due to human-altered habitats and changing climates.

  10. Collective chemotaxis through noisy multicellular gradient sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Varennes, Julien; Mugler, Andrew


    Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue occurs in many biological processes such as morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Clusters of migratory cells in these systems are capable of responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell length. Multicellular systems are extremely sensitive to their environment and while the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, how this information leads to coherent migration remains poorly understood. We develop a computational model of multicellular sensing and migration in which groups of cells collectively measure noisy chemical gradients. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells polarization to model migratory behavior. Through the use of numerical simulations, we find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias, but larger clusters also induce more drag on collective motion. The trade-off between these...

  11. Time Rate Gradient Effects and Negative Mass (United States)

    Miksch, Edmond


    The Harvard tower Experiment and tests with accurate atomic clocks show that a clock at a high elevation indicates more elapsed time than a clock at a low elevation, both clocks properly measuring time at their locations. This fact mandates that Newton's first law of motion be rewritten to cite impulse balance rather than force balance. Time rate gradient effects explain how the weight of a precisely vertical and precisely uniform electric field or a precisely vertical and precisely uniform magnetic field is supported in a precisely unidirectional gravitational field. Time rate gradient effects also explain how the weight of a unidirectional gravitational field is reacted. It is confirmed that the mass density of the gravitational field is negative.;;

  12. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  13. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.


    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  14. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.


    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  15. Adaptive Thermostats for Noisy Gradient Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leimkuhler, Benedict


    We study numerical methods for sampling probability measures in high dimensions where the underlying model is only approximately identified with a gradient system. Extended stochastic dynamical methods are discussed which have application to multiscale models, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and Bayesian sampling techniques arising in emerging machine learning applications. In addition to providing a more comprehensive discussion of the foundations of these methods, we propose a new numerical method for the Adaptive Langevin/stochastic gradient Nos\\'e-Hoover thermostat that achieves a dramatic improvement in numerical efficiency over the most popular stochastic gradient methods reported in the literature. We also demonstrate that the newly-established method inherits a superconvergence property (fourth order convergence to the invariant measure for configurational quantities) recently demonstrated in the setting of Langevin dynamics. Our findings are verified by numerical experiments.

  16. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    and used as starting point for analysis based on image processing. On obtained maps, locations of known subduction zones were represented with characteristic elongated patterns and cross-sections. Cross sections of well-known subduction zones were used as input patterns for pattern recognition method....... Few pattern recognition methods were tested on all 6 gravity gradient tensor components represented as global scale maps with resolution of 100km (corresponds to the resolution of the GOCE satellite data). By adjusting pattern recognition methods’ features and optimizing various input patterns......, the best method was applied. That is a combination of methods based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) and MSER (Maximally Stable Extremal Regions) algorithms provided in MATLAB’s Computer Vision System Toolbox. Based on 6 gravity gradient components, the global gradient anomaly maps were produced...

  17. Transverse gradient in Apple-type undulators (United States)

    Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.


    Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751

  18. Preparation of gradient polyacrylate brushes in microchannels. (United States)

    Lee, Seongyeol; Youm, Sang Gil; Song, Yeari; Yi, Whikum; Sohn, Daewon


    Gradient poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) confined within a microfluidic system on a silicon wafer. For ATRP, surface initiator, 11-((2-bromo, 2-methyl) propionyloxy) undecyltrichlorosilane (BUC), was synthesized, and allowed to self-assemble in a monolayer on the Si wafer, as analyzed by XPS to confirm the presence of an ester group of BUC. A solution containing 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, Cu catalyst, and bipyridin was allowed to flow in a microchannel and polymerize, resulting in the brushes with a gradient of thickness on the Si wafer. Using ellipsometry and ATR-IR, we verified the gradients of well established brushes on the Si wafer. AFM and contact angle data showed that wettability of the brushes did not exhibit a linear relationship with hydrophilicity.

  19. Inversion gradients for acoustic VTI wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir


    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a generalized pseudospectral operator based on a separable approximation for the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified image-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for a data-domain objective function that can more easily incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are similar to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations but the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show the potential advantages of the modified image-power objective function in estimating the anellipticity parameter η.

  20. Kriging analysis of geochemical data obtained by sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (United States)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Pitarević Svedružić, Lovorka; Prohić, Esad; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan


    Field examination and laboratory analysis were performed to establish whether nonsanitary landfill Bastijunski brig has a negative influence on Vransko Lake, situated only 1500 m away. Vransko Lake is Croatia's largest natural lake, and it is a part of the Nature Park and ornithological reserve, which indicates its high biodiversity. Therefore it is necessary to understand the environmental processes and complex sediment/water interface. Lake sediments are considered to be a good "sinkhole'and are often the final recipients of anthropogenic and natural pollutants through adsorption onto the organic or clay fraction in sediments. Geochemical investigation were obtained throughout more than 50 lake sediments cores situated in different parts of the lake Speciation of heavy metals by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia were used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in different fractions. With such approach it is possible to determine which element will be extracted from sediment/soil in a different environmental conditions and can be valuable tool for interpretation of the mobile fraction of the elements, considered bioavailability, that present threat to biota in a case of a contaminant concentration magnification. All sediment and soil samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. More accurate interpretation of data is an advantage of BCR sequential extraction procedure while high number of the data together with point data type could be considered as a drawback. Due to high amount of data, graphical presentation is advisable while interpolation tool is a first choice for point type of data, as it makes predictions for defined area based on the measurements. Distribution maps of analysed elements were obtained by kriging as a geostatistical method and

  1. Feature extraction for magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films using gradient feature segmentation (United States)

    Quanqing, Zhu; Xinsai, Wang; Xuecheng, Zou; Haihua, Li; Xiaofei, Yang


    In this paper, we present a method to realize feature extraction on low contrast magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films. The method is based on the following three steps: first, Lee-filtering method is adopted to realize pre-filtering and noise reduction; this is followed by gradient feature segmentation, which separates the object area from the background area; finally the common linking method is adopted and the characteristic parameters of magnetic domain are calculated. We describe these steps with particular emphasis on the gradient feature segmentation. The results show that this method has advantages over other traditional ones for feature extraction of low contrast images.

  2. A hybrid two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Huang, Jiahao; Liu, Quan


    We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  3. Landscape and bio- geochemical strategy for monitoring transformation and reclamation of the soil mining sites (United States)

    Korobova, Elena


    Sites of active or abandoned mining represent areas of considerable technogenic impact and need scientifically ground organization of their monitoring and reclamation. The strategy of monitoring and reclamation depends on the scale and character of the physical, chemical and biological consequences of the disturbances. The geochemical studies for monitoring and rehabilitation of the career-dump complexes should methodically account of formation of the particular new landforms and the changes in circulation of the remobilized elements of the soil cover. However, the general strategy should account of both the initial and transformed landscape geochemical structure of the area with due regard to the natural and new content of chemical elements in the environmental components. For example the tailings and waste rocks present new geochemical fields with specifically different concentration of chemical elements that cause formation of new geochemical barriers and landscapes. The way of colonization of the newly formed landscapes depends upon the new geochemical features of the technogenic environment and the adaptive ability of local and intrusive flora. The newly formed biogeochemical anomalies need organization of permanent monitoring not only within the anomaly itself but also of its impact zones. Spatial landscape geochemical monitoring combined with bio-geochemical criteria of threshold concentrations seems to be a helpful tool for decision making on reclamation and operation of the soil mining sites to provide a long-term ecologically sustainable development of the impact zone as a whole.

  4. Modelling geochemical and microbial consumption of dissolved oxygen after backfilling a high level radiactive waste repository. (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Bonilla, Mercedes


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) left in the voids of buffer and backfill materials of a deep geological high level radioactive waste (HLW) repository could cause canister corrosion. Available data from laboratory and in situ experiments indicate that microbes play a substantial role in controlling redox conditions near a HLW repository. This paper presents the application of a coupled hydro-bio-geochemical model to evaluate geochemical and microbial consumption of DO in bentonite porewater after backfilling of a HLW repository designed according to the Swedish reference concept. In addition to geochemical reactions, the model accounts for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) respiration and methane oxidation. Parameters for microbial processes were derived from calibration of the REX in situ experiment carried out at the Aspö underground laboratory. The role of geochemical and microbial processes in consuming DO is evaluated for several scenarios. Numerical results show that both geochemical and microbial processes are relevant for DO consumption. However, the time needed to consume the DO trapped in the bentonite buffer decreases dramatically from several hundreds of years when only geochemical processes are considered to a few weeks when both geochemical reactions and microbially-mediated DOC respiration and methane oxidation are taken into account simultaneously.

  5. Critical gradient response of the Weiland model (United States)

    Asp, E.; Weiland, J.; Garbet, X.; Parail, V.; Strand, P.; JET EFDA contributors, the


    The success the Weiland model has had in reproducing modulation experiments prompted this in-depth investigation into its behaviour as a critical gradient model (CGM). The critical gradient properties of the Weiland model is examined analytically and numerically and compared with the empirical CGM commonly used in experiment. A simplified Weiland CGM is derived in which the height-above-threshold dependence is not necessarily linear. Simultaneously, the validity of the empirical CGM was examined. It is shown that an effective threshold, which is higher than the instability threshold, can be obtained if pinches influence the diffusivity.

  6. Design of spherical symmetric gradient index lenses (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; González, Juan C.; Santamaría, Asunción


    Spherical symmetric refractive index distributions also known as Gradient Index lenses such as the Maxwell-Fish-Eye (MFE), the Luneburg or the Eaton lenses have always played an important role in Optics. The recent development of the technique called Transformation Optics has renewed the interest in these gradient index lenses. For instance, Perfect Imaging within the Wave Optics framework has recently been proved using the MFE distribution. We review here the design problem of these lenses, classify them in two groups (Luneburg moveable-limits and fixed-limits type), and establish a new design techniques for each type of problem.

  7. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.


    We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved by compar......We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved...

  8. Multiplicative Noise Removal using Gradient and Laplacian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Lei Pan Zhen-kuan


    The variational methods for nmltiplicative noise removal have been received considerable attention in recent years.The traditional models based only on gradient result in staircase effect usually.So a hybrid high-order model based on gradient and Laphcian is proposed for mulfiplicative denoising.In order to avoid the shortcomings of explicit scheme in stability,the Gauss-seidel semi-implicit scheme is adopted.Experiments show that the proposed model can avoid staircase effect during removing multiplicative noise while preserving or enhancing edges.

  9. Gradient Elasticity Formulations for Micro/Nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Sun


    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on illustrating how to extend the second author’s gradient theory of elasticity to shells. Three formulations are presented based on the implicit gradient elasticity constitutive relation 1 -ld2∇2σij=Cijkl(1-ls2∇2εkl and its two approximations 1+ls2∇2-ld2∇2σij=Cijklεkl and σij=Cijkl(1+ld2∇2-ls2∇2εkl.

  10. Effects of Density Gradients on Braneworld Stars (United States)

    Ovalle, Jorge

    During the last few years the braneworld consequences on general relativity have been studied with great interest. The implications in both, cosmological and astrophysics scenarios, have been considered for many authors. However there are some aspects of braneworld consequences which have not been clearly elucidated yet. For instance, the role played for density gradients in the astrophysics scenario is not clear so far, leaving thus the study of braneworld stars as one of the most difficult scenarios. Here it is shown an approach which allows the study of density gradients and their consequences through the Weyl fluid produced inside a stellar distributions. Some general aspects are discussed in detail.

  11. Stress Field Analyses of Functionally Gradient Ceramic Tool by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The cutting properties of the functionally gradient ceramic cutting tools relate closely to the gradient distribution. A cutting model of the functionally gradient ceramic tool is firstly designed in the present paper. The optimum of gradient distribution is obtained by way of the FEM analyses.

  12. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.


    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  13. Geochemical-Sequence Stratigraphy and Its Application Prospects in Lake Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美俊; 纪云龙; 胡礼国


    As a useful approach for hydrocarbon exploration, the sequence stratigraphy has been commonly accepted. The concepts of sequence and parasequence provide a state-of-the-artframework for studying the distribution and characters of depositional system, and analyzing the occurrence, distribution, characteristics of source, reservoir and seal-play elements. The newly-de-veloped geochemical-sequence stratigraphy focuses mainly on the occurrence, distribution and characters of source rocks and reservoir hydrocarbons within a chronostratigraphic framework.Integrated with sequence stratigraphy, geochemistry can be used to study the source rock potential within a sequence stratigraphic framework and to describe the characteristics of hydrocarbons accumulated in reservoirs, which were predicted by way of sequence stratigraphy. The concept of geochemical-sequence stratigraphy was proposed by Peters et al. (2000). Constructing a reliable sequence stratigraphic framework is the basis of geochemical-sequence stratigraphic study although it is not the main goal. High-resolution biomarker analysis is critical to the construction of a geochemical-sequence stratigraphic model. The geochemical-stratigraphic study involves mainly: ( 1 ) the distribution and geochemical characteristics of source rocks within a sequence chronostratigraphic framework; (2) the geochemical features of source rocks with relative sea (lake)-level change; (3) to predict if these reservoirs bear hydrocarbons and their geochemical features; (4) to be used to construct the time-stratigraphic framework. This paper also summarizes the lake basin types, and introduces their facies associations, source potential and organic geochemical features. At the end, the authors offer some suggestions about how to carry out geo chemical-sequence stratigraphic study in lacustrine strata.

  14. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne


    , called the solution concentration limit, a constant value. In future geochemical data packages, they will determine whether a more rigorous measure of solubility is necessary or warranted based on the dose predictions emanating from the ILAW 2001 PA and reviewers' comments. The K{sub d}s and solution concentration limits for each contaminant are direct inputs to subsurface flow and transport codes used to predict the performance of the ILAW system. In addition to the best-estimate K{sub d}s, a reasonable conservative value and a range are provided. They assume that K{sub d} values are log normally distributed over the cited ranges. Currently, they do not give estimates for the range in solubility limits or their uncertainty. However, they supply different values for both the K{sub d}s and solution concentration limits for different spatial zones in the ILAW system and supply time-varying K{sub d}s for the concrete zone, should the final repository design include concrete vaults or cement amendments to buffer the system pH.

  15. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution and residence time at the Kivetty site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Luukkonen, A. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Leino-Forsman, H.; Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    An understanding of the geochemical evolution of groundwater is an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the final disposal of radioactive waste into the bedrock. The performance of technical barriers and migration of possibly released radionuclides depend on chemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions which control chemical conditions in groundwater. The objective of this study is to interpret the processes and factors which control the hydrogeochemistry, such as pH and redox conditions. A model of the hydrogeochemical progress in different parts of the bedrock at Kivetty has been created and the significance of chemical reactions along different flowpaths calculated. Long term hydrodynamics have also been evaluated. The interpretation and modelling are based on groundwater samples (38 altogether) obtained from the soil layer, shallow wells in the bedrock, and five deep multi-packered boreholes (KRI-KR5) in the bedrock for which a comprehensive data set on dissolved chemical species and isotopes was available. Some analyses of dissolved gases and their isotopic measurements were also utilised. The data covers the bedrock at Kivetty to a depth of 850m. The results from groundwater chemistry, isotopes, petrography, hydrogeology of the site, geomicrobial studies, and PCA and speciation calculations were used in the evaluation of evolutionary processes at the site. The geochemical interpretation of water-rock interaction, isotope-chemical evolution and C-14 age calculations of groundwater was given a mass-balance approach (NETPATH). Reaction-path calculations (EQ3/6) were used to verify the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction models obtained. The hydrogeochemistry of Kivetty is characterised by evolution from low-saline-carbonate-rich recharge water towards Na-Ca-Cl-type water. The salinity remains low. The most important changes in the chemistry of the

  16. Geochemical and isotopic investigations on the thermal and mineral underground waters from the Republic of Moldova (United States)

    Nisi, Barbara; Bogdevich, Oleg; Vaselli, Orlando; Nicoara, Igor; Tassi, Franco; Culighin, Elena; Mogorici, Cristina; Jeleapov, Victor; Mussi, Mario


    geochemical point of view, the Moldavian waters showed neutral to alkaline pH, Total Dissolved Solids between 515 and 75,846 mg/L and mostly negative Eh values. They displayed a relatively high variability in terms of composition, being classified as Ca(Mg)-HCO3(SO4), Na-Cl and Na-HCO3. In the mineralized waters from the Baden-Sarmatian aquifer, trace element distribution revealed significant anomalies for F-, I- and Br- (up to 13.2, 23.7 and 140.5 mg L-1, respectively). Moreover, high values of As and Ni were found in the Dubasari waters (up to 13.8 μg L-1 and 43 μg L-1, respectively). Dissolved gases were mainly dominated by N2 (from 0.16 to 0.78 mmol/L), while CO2 and CH4 were between 0.02 and 0.66 mmol/L and 0.00005 and 0.44 mmol/L, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios were ranging from -15.8 to -0.9 ‰ (V-SMOW) and from -104.5 to -32.8 ‰ (V-SMOW), respectively, suggesting a meteoric source slightly modified by prolonged water-rock interactions. Carbon isotopes in dissolved CO2 were very variable (13δ-CO2from -25.2 to +2.8 ), the most positive values being associated with the waters collected from the oil field in the southernmost part of the country. Finally, water ages by using tritium units (presently in progress) will be used to trace the flow of the youngest waters.

  17. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne


    , called the solution concentration limit, a constant value. In future geochemical data packages, they will determine whether a more rigorous measure of solubility is necessary or warranted based on the dose predictions emanating from the ILAW 2001 PA and reviewers' comments. The K{sub d}s and solution concentration limits for each contaminant are direct inputs to subsurface flow and transport codes used to predict the performance of the ILAW system. In addition to the best-estimate K{sub d}s, a reasonable conservative value and a range are provided. They assume that K{sub d} values are log normally distributed over the cited ranges. Currently, they do not give estimates for the range in solubility limits or their uncertainty. However, they supply different values for both the K{sub d}s and solution concentration limits for different spatial zones in the ILAW system and supply time-varying K{sub d}s for the concrete zone, should the final repository design include concrete vaults or cement amendments to buffer the system pH.

  18. An interactive code (NETPATH) for modeling NET geochemical reactions along a flow PATH, version 2.0 (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Prestemon, Eric C.; Parkhurst, David L.


    NETPATH is an interactive Fortran 77 computer program used to interpret net geochemical mass-balance reactions between an initial and final water along a hydrologic flow path. Alternatively, NETPATH computes the mixing proportions of two to five initial waters and net geochemical reactions that can account for the observed composition of a final water. The program utilizes previously defined chemical and isotopic data for waters from a hydrochemical system. For a set of mineral and (or) gas phases hypothesized to be the reactive phases in the system, NETPATH calculates the mass transfers in every possible combination of the selected phases that accounts for the observed changes in the selected chemical and (or) isotopic compositions observed along the flow path. The calculations are of use in interpreting geochemical reactions, mixing proportions, evaporation and (or) dilution of waters, and mineral mass transfer in the chemical and isotopic evolution of natural and environmental waters. Rayleigh distillation calculations are applied to each mass-balance model that satisfies the constraints to predict carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and strontium isotopic compositions at the end point, including radiocarbon dating. DB is an interactive Fortran 77 computer program used to enter analytical data into NETPATH, and calculate the distribution of species in aqueous solution. This report describes the types of problems that can be solved, the methods used to solve problems, and the features available in the program to facilitate these solutions. Examples are presented to demonstrate most of the applications and features of NETPATH. The codes DB and NETPATH can be executed in the UNIX or DOS1 environment. This report replaces U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4078, by Plummer and others, which described the original release of NETPATH, version 1.0 (dated December, 1991), and documents revisions and enhancements that are included in version 2.0. 1 The

  19. pplication of Fractal Technique for Analysis of Geophysical - Geochemical Databases in Tekieh Pb-Zn Ore Deposit (SE of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mehrnia


    should emphasize on self-organized distribution of Pb-Zn anomalies to introduce a new set of nonlinear distributions in order to find the confidence regression coefficients between the variables. As the final results, fractal analysis of available databases represented new target areas with better mineralization aggregations than linear analysis of the anomalous regions according to micrographs. It means that surficial mineralization processes could be extended in depth and enriched next to altered host units because of a nonlinear but self-organized distribution of geochemical- geophysical anomalies in Tekieh ore deposit region. References Annells, R.N., Arthurton, R.S., Bazley, R.A.B., Davies, R.G., Hamedi, M.A.R. and Rahimzadeh, F.R., 1985. Geological Map of Shazand- Khomein. Scale: 1:100000, Cartographic Department of Geological Survey of Iran. Calagari, A.A., 2010. Principles of geophysical explorations. University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 485 pp. Jafari, H., 2007. Using geoelectrical techniques for Zn-Pb explorations in Haft-Emarat district, Tekieh region (South East of Arak. Kimya Kavan Tosee Novin Company, Tehran, 206 pp. Mandelbrot, B., 2005. Fractal Geometry of Nature. W.H Freeman & Company, New York, 468 pp. Mehrnia, S.R.,2013. Application of fractal geometry for recognizing the pattern of textural zoning in epithermal deposits: (case study: Shikhdarabad Au-Cu indices East- Azerbaijan province. Journal of Economic Geology, 5(1: 23-36. (in Persian Momenzadeh, M. and Ziseman, H., 1981. Lead – Zinc re mineralization potentials in Malayer – Esfahan district. Journal of Ore Deposit, 3(1: 88-101. Salehi, L., 2004. Geochemistry of REE content in Tekieh Pb-Zn ore deposit. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 181 pp. Torkashvand, S., Mehrnia, S.R. and Moghaddasi, S.J., 2009. Co-Processing of the geophysical parameters for Tekieh Zn-Pb ore deposits (south east of Arak. 4th PNU Geological National Conference, Payam Noor University of Mashhad, Mashhad

  20. Improving large-scale groundwater models by considering fossil gradients (United States)

    Schulz, Stephan; Walther, Marc; Michelsen, Nils; Rausch, Randolf; Dirks, Heiko; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf; Kolditz, Olaf; Schüth, Christoph


    Due to limited availability of surface water, many arid to semi-arid countries rely on their groundwater resources. Despite the quasi-absence of present day replenishment, some of these groundwater bodies contain large amounts of water, which was recharged during pluvial periods of the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. These mostly fossil, non-renewable resources require different management schemes compared to those which are usually applied in renewable systems. Fossil groundwater is a finite resource and its withdrawal implies mining of aquifer storage reserves. Although they receive almost no recharge, some of them show notable hydraulic gradients and a flow towards their discharge areas, even without pumping. As a result, these systems have more discharge than recharge and hence are not in steady state, which makes their modelling, in particular the calibration, very challenging. In this study, we introduce a new calibration approach, composed of four steps: (i) estimating the fossil discharge component, (ii) determining the origin of fossil discharge, (iii) fitting the hydraulic conductivity with a pseudo steady-state model, and (iv) fitting the storage capacity with a transient model by reconstructing head drawdown induced by pumping activities. Finally, we test the relevance of our approach and evaluated the effect of considering or ignoring fossil gradients on aquifer parameterization for the Upper Mega Aquifer (UMA) on the Arabian Peninsula.

  1. Geochemical Modeling of Carbon Sequestration, MMV, and EOR in the Illinois Basin (United States)

    Berger, P.M.; Roy, W.R.; Mehnert, E.


    The Illinois State Geologic Survey is conducting several ongoing CO2 sequestration projects that require geochemical models to gain an understanding of the processes occurring in the subsurface. The ISGS has collected brine and freshwater samples associated with an enhanced oil recovery project in the Loudon oil field. Geochemical modeling allows us to understand reactions with carbonate and silicate minerals in the reservoir, and the effects they have had on brine composition. For the Illinois Basin Decatur project, geochemical models should allow predictions of the reactions that will take place before CO2 injection begins. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geochemical characteristics of Dongsheng sandstone-type uranium deposit, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuzhuang; LIU Chiyang; DAI Shifeng; QIN Peng


    Generally, sandstone-type uranium deposits can be divided into three zones according to their redox conditions: oxidized zone, ore zone and reduced zone. The Dongsheng uranium deposit belongs to this type. In order to study its geochemical characteristics, 11 samples were taken from the three zones of the Dongsheng uranium deposit. Five samples of them were collected from the oxidized zone, four samples from the ore zone and two samples from the reduced zone. These samples were analyzed using organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of GC traces and ICP-MASS indicate that the three zones show different organic and inorganic geochemical characteristics.

  3. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling (United States)

    Petrilakova, Aneta; Balintova, Magdalena; Holub, Marian


    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia) with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  4. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrilakova Aneta


    Full Text Available Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  5. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.


    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  6. Gradient-Based Approach for Fine Registration of Panorama Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Chen


    This paper studies the application of gradient-based motion detection techniques (i.e., optical flow methods) for registration of adjacent images taken using a hand-held camera for the purposes of building a panorama. A general 8-parameter model or a more compact 3-parameter model is commonly used for transformation estimation. However, both models are approximations to the real situation when viewpoint position is not absolutely fixed but includes a small translation, and thus distortion and blurring are sometimes present in the final registration results. This paper proposes a new 5-parameter model that shows better result and has less strict requirement on good choice of unknown initial parameters. An analysis of disparity recovery range and its enlargement using Gaussian filter is also given.

  7. Enhancement of laser cooling by the use of magnetic gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, A; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Wunderlich, C, E-mail: [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)


    We present a laser cooling scheme for trapped ions and atoms using a combination of laser couplings and a magnetic gradient field. In a Schrieffer-Wolff transformed picture, this setup cancels the carrier and blue sideband terms completely (up to first order in the Lamb-Dicke parameter), resulting in an improved cooling behaviour compared to standard cooling schemes in the Lamb-Dicke regime (e.g. sideband cooling) and allowing cooling to the vibrational ground state. A condition for optimal cooling rates is presented and the cooling behaviour for different Lamb-Dicke parameters and spontaneous decay rates is discussed. Cooling rates of one order of magnitude less than the trapping frequency are achieved using the new cooling method. Furthermore, the scheme exhibits fast rates and low final populations, even for significant deviations from the optimal parameters, and provides good cooling rates also in the multi-particle case.

  8. The gradient flow coupling in the Schroedinger functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Patrick [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC


    We study the perturbative behavior of the Yang-Mills gradient flow in the Schroedinger Functional, both in the continuum and on the lattice. The energy density of the flow field is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the size of the finite volume box. From our perturbative computation we estimate the size of cutoff effects of this coupling to leading order in perturbation theory. On a set of N{sub f}=2 gauge field ensembles in a physical volume of L{proportional_to}0.4 fm we finally demonstrate the suitability of the coupling for a precise continuum limit due to modest cutoff effects and high statistical precision.

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibrium in electric field gradients. (United States)

    Samin, Sela; Tsori, Yoav


    We investigate the vapor-liquid coexistence of polar and nonpolar fluids in the presence of a nonuniform electric field. We find that a large enough electric field can nucleate a gas bubble from the liquid phase or a liquid droplet from the vapor phase. The surface tension of the vapor-liquid interface is determined within squared-gradient theory. When the surface potential (charge) is controlled, the surface tension increases (decreases) compared to the zero-field interface. The effect of the electric field on the fluid phase diagram depends strongly on the constitutive relation for the dielectric constant. Finally, we show that gas bubbles can be nucleated far from the bounding surfaces.

  10. Diffusion and surface alloying of gradient nanostructured metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbo Wang


    Full Text Available Gradient nanostructures (GNSs have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples. Accordingly, different surface alloying processes, such as nitriding and chromizing, have been modified significantly, and some diffusion-related properties have been enhanced. Finally, the perspectives on current research in this field are discussed.

  11. Annular beam with segmented phase gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Cheng


    Full Text Available An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.

  12. Marine submicron aerosol gradients, sources and sinks (United States)

    Ceburnis, Darius; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Martucci, Giovanni; Giulianelli, Lara; O'Dowd, Colin D.


    Aerosol principal sources and sinks over eastern North Atlantic waters were studied through the deployment of an aerosol chemistry gradient sampling system. The chemical gradients of primary and secondary aerosol components - specifically, sea salt (SS), water-insoluble organic matter (WIOM), water-soluble organic matter (WSOM), nitrate, ammonium, oxalate, amines, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) - were examined in great detail. Sea salt fluxes were estimated by the boundary layer box model and ranged from 0.3 to 3.5 ng m-2 s-1 over the wind speed range of 5-12 m s-1 and compared well with the derived fluxes from existing sea salt source parameterisations. The observed seasonal pattern of sea salt gradients was mainly driven by wind stress in addition to the yet unquantified effect of marine OM modifying fractional contributions of SS and OM in sea spray. WIOM gradients were a complex combination of rising and waning biological activity, especially in the flux footprint area, and wind-driven primary sea spray production supporting the coupling of recently developed sea spray and marine OM parameterisations.

  13. Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Janečka, Adam


    Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.

  14. Gradient realization of nonlinear control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortes monforte, J.; Cortés, J.; Crouch, P.E.; Astolfi, A.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Gordillo, F.


    We investigate necessary and su?cient conditions under which a nonlinear afine control system with outputs can be written as a gradient control system corresponding to some pseudo-Riemannian metric defined on the state space. The results rely on a suitable notion of compatibility of the system with

  15. Convergence of approximations of monotone gradient systems


    Zambotti, Lorenzo


    We consider stochastic differential equations in a Hilbert space, perturbed by the gradient of a convex potential. We investigate the problem of convergence of a sequence of such processes. We propose applications of this method to reflecting O.U. processes in infinite dimension, to stochastic partial differential equations with reflection of Cahn-Hilliard type and to interface models.

  16. Velocity gradients and microturbulence in Cepheids. (United States)

    Karp, A. H.


    Variations of the microturbulent velocity with phase and height in the atmosphere have been reported in classical Cepheids. It is shown that these effects can be understood in terms of variations of the velocity gradient in the atmospheres of these stars.

  17. On the Vertical Gradient in CO2 (United States)

    Stine, A. R.; Fung, I. Y.


    Attempts to constrain surface fluxes of carbon from atmospheric measurements of carbon dioxide have primarily focused on surface boundary layer measurements, because information about surface fluxes is least diluted close to the locations where the fluxes occur. However, errors in model ventilation of air in the vertical can be misinterpreted as local surface fluxes. Satellites which measure column integrated CO2 are expected to represent a major advance in part because they observe the entire atmospheric column. Recent work has highlighted the fact that vertical gradients in carbon concentrations can give us information about where vertical mixing errors are likely to be misinterpreted as local surface fluxes, but passive tracer evidence suggests that models that capture vertical profiles on the ocean do poorly on the land (and vice versa), suggesting that the problem of correctly treating vertical mixing in inverse studies is more fundamental than picking the "best" model. We consider observations of the vertical gradient in CO2 from aircrafts and from a comparison of satellites that observe in the near infrared (which observe the column integrated CO2 field) and the thermal infrared (which observe the upper troposphere). We evaluate the feasibility of using these satellites for determining the vertical gradient in CO2. We examine how observations of the vertical gradient of CO2 allow us to differentiate the imprint of vertical mixing and the imprint in surface fluxes on the observed field of atmospheric CO2.

  18. Gradient based filtering of digital elevation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Andersen, Rune Carbuhn

    We present a filtering method for digital terrain models (DTMs). The method is based on mathematical morphological filtering within gradient (slope) defined domains. The intention with the filtering procedure is to improbé the cartographic quality of height contours generated from a DTM based on ...... in the landscape are washed out and misrepresented....

  19. Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo


    Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...

  20. Gradient computation for VTI acoustic wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir


    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a pseudospectral operator that employes a separable approximation of the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified stack-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for the data-domain objective function, which can incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are compared to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations. Whereas the kernels computed with the two wave-equation operators are similar, the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show that the modified stack-power objective function produces cleaner gradients than the more conventional DSO operator.

  1. A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds. (United States)

    Smith, Brian Tilston; Seeholzer, Glenn F; Harvey, Michael G; Cuervo, Andrés M; Brumfield, Robb T


    High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments. Here, we scale comparative phylogeography up to the hemisphere level and examine whether the processes driving latitudinal differences in species diversity are also evident within species. We collected genetic data for 210 New World bird species distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient and estimated a suite of metrics characterizing phylogeographic history. We found that lower latitude species had, on average, greater phylogeographic diversity than higher latitude species and that intraspecific diversity showed evidence of greater persistence in the tropics. Factors associated with species ecologies, life histories, and habitats explained little of the variation in phylogeographic structure across the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that the latitudinal gradient in species richness originates, at least partly, from population-level processes within species and are consistent with hypotheses implicating age and environmental stability in the formation of diversity gradients. Comparative phylogeographic analyses scaled up to large geographic regions and hundreds of species can show connections between population-level processes and broad-scale species-richness patterns.

  2. Annular beam with segmented phase gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shubo; Wu, Liang [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tao, Shaohua, E-mail: [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)


    An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.

  3. Gradient based filtering of digital elevation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Andersen, Rune Carbuhn

    We present a filtering method for digital terrain models (DTMs). The method is based on mathematical morphological filtering within gradient (slope) defined domains. The intention with the filtering procedure is to improbé the cartographic quality of height contours generated from a DTM based...

  4. Subspace learning from image gradient orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja


    We introduce the notion of subspace learning from image gradient orientations for appearance-based object recognition. As image data is typically noisy and noise is substantially different from Gaussian, traditional subspace learning from pixel intensities fails very often to estimate reliably the l

  5. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye


    ]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  6. Proton gradients at the origin of life. (United States)

    Lane, Nick


    Chemiosmotic coupling - the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes to drive metabolism - is as universally conserved as the genetic code. As argued previously in these pages, such deep conservation suggests that ion gradients arose early in evolution, and might have played a role in the origin of life. Alkaline hydrothermal vents harbour pH gradients of similar polarity and magnitude to those employed by modern cells, one of many properties that make them attractive models for life's origin. Their congruence with the physiology of anaerobic autotrophs that use the acetyl CoA pathway to fix CO2 gives the alkaline vent model broad appeal to biologists. Recently, however, a paper by Baz Jackson criticized the hypothesis, concluding that natural pH gradients were unlikely to have played any role in the origin of life. Unfortunately, Jackson mainly criticized his own interpretations of the theory, not what the literature says. This counterpoint is intended to set the record straight. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Analysis of magnetic gradients to study gravitropism. (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H; John, Susan; Scherp, Peter; Povinelli, Daniel; Mopper, Susan


    Gravitropism typically is generated by dense particles that respond to gravity. Experimental stimulation by high-gradient magnetic fields provides a new approach to selectively manipulate the gravisensing system. The movement of corn, wheat, and potato starch grains in suspension was examined with videomicroscopy during parabolic flights that generated 20 to 25 s of weightlessness. During weightlessness, a magnetic gradient was generated by inserting a wedge into a uniform, external magnetic field that caused repulsion of starch grains. The resultant velocity of movement was compared with the velocity of sedimentation under 1 g conditions. The high-gradient magnetic fields repelled the starch grains and generated a force of at least 0.6 g. Different wedge shapes significantly affected starch velocity and directionality of movement. Magnetic gradients are able to move diamagnetic compounds under weightless or microgravity conditions and serve as directional stimulus during seed germination in low-gravity environments. Further work can determine whether gravity sensing is based on force or contact between amyloplasts and statocyte membrane system.

  8. CMB anisotropies from a gradient mode (United States)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    A linear gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect on short distance physics. We confirm this by showing that if there was such a gradient mode extending across the whole observable Universe, it would not cause any hemispherical asymmetry in the power of CMB anisotropies, as long as Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To study the effect of the long wavelength mode on short wavelength modes, we generalize the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. Next, we consider effects that are of second order in the long mode. A gradient mode Φ = qṡx generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce an observable quadrupole moment. For instance, in a matter-dominated model it is equal to Q = 5(qṡx)2/18. This quadrupole can be canceled by superposition of a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a nonlinear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  9. Geochemical characterization of tubular alteration features in subseafloor basalt glass (United States)

    Knowles, Emily; Staudigel, Hubert; Templeton, Alexis


    There are numerous indications that subseafloor basalts may currently host a huge quantity of active microbial cells and contain biosignatures of ancient life in the form of physical and chemical basalt glass alteration. Unfortunately, technological challenges prevent us from observing the formation and mineralization of these alteration features in situ, or reproducing tubular basalt alteration processes in the laboratory. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical traces retained in mineralized tubules is currently the best approach for deciphering a record of glass alteration. We have used a number of high-resolution spectroscopic and microscopic methods to probe the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tubular alteration features in basalt glasses obtained from a suite of subseafloor drill cores that covers a range of different collection locations and ages. By combining three different synchrotron-based X-ray measurements - X-ray fluorescence microprobe mapping, XANES spectroscopy, and μ-XRD - with focused ion beam milling and transmission electron microscopy, we have spatially resolved the major and trace element distributions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, determined the coordination chemistry of Fe, Mn and Ti at the micron-scale, and constrained the secondary minerals within these features. The tubular alteration features are characterized by strong losses of Fe2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ compared to fresh glass, oxidation of the residual Fe, and the accumulation of Ti and Cu. The predominant phases infilling the alteration regions are Fe3+-bearing silicates dominated by 2:1 clays, with secondary Fe- and Ti-oxides, and a partially oxidized Mn-silicate phase. These geochemical patterns observed within the tubular alteration features are comparable across a diverse suite of samples formed over the past 5-100 Ma, which shows that the microscale mineralization processes are common and consistent throughout the ocean basins and

  10. The geochemical evolution of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano (United States)

    Paone, A.


    This work integrates new geochemical data with the numerous published analyses on rocks from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano. New quantitative models for the evolution of magma source regions and magma at different depths are proposed. The origin of the Somma-Vesuvius parental magma is modeled as 0.05-0.1 melt fractions of a MORB-type source composed of 54% olivine, 30% orthopyroxene, 10% clinopyroxene, 1% garnet, and 4% amphibole, and 1-5% sediment introduced through the adjacent arc system. The excess concentrations of Rb, Ba, K, and Sr are attributed to a subduction-related fluid phase. Major and trace element concentrations, coupled with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures suggest that the bulk composition of sediments being subducted below southern Italy is similar to that of the carbonate rich sediment columns described by Plank and Langmuir (1998) and Vroon et al. (1995). Furthermore, it appears that the sediment contribution was introduced as a partial melt, which would account for some geochemical patterns, such as 143Nd/144Nd versus Th/Ce. The EC-AFC model ( Spera and Bohrson, 2001) is then used to track the evolution of Somma-Vesuvius magmas. The results are consistent with the melting of crustal Hercynian basement at depths of 12 and >20 km ( De Natale et al., 2001). Such a model is also consistent with the thermal model of Annen and Sparks (2002) for the evolution of magmatic provinces. Here, magmas from the upper mantle form a melt intrusion and storage zone at 12 to >20 km allowing for crustal melting to take place. At Vesuvius, Plinian eruptions involve the first magma withdrawn from a deep magma reservoir. Interplinian eruptions involve reduced volumes of magma stored over a larger depth range until the volcanic activity stops. This suggests that little magma is left in the melt intrusion and storage zone. A new cycle is started by a Plinian event when new magma rises from the upper mantle and is emplaced in the lower crust.

  11. Hydrologic setting and geochemical characterization of free-phase hydrocarbons in the alluvial aquifer at Mandan, North Dakota, November 2000 (United States)

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Putnam, Larry D.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Chaplin, Brain P.; Schaap, Bryan D.


    Free-phase hydrocarbons are present in the alluvial aquifer at Mandan, North Dakota. A large contaminant body of the hydrocarbons [light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL)] floats on the water table about 20 feet below land surface. The main LNAPL body is about 6 feet thick, and the areal extent is about 657,000 square feet. A study was conducted to describe the hydrologic setting and characterize the geochemical composition of the free-phase hydrocarbons in the alluvial aquifer. Most of the study area is underlain by alluvium of the Heart River Valley that ranges in thickness from about 25 to 109 feet. The alluvium can be divided into three stratigraphic units--silty clay, silty sand, and sand--and is underlain by shales and sandstones. Monitoring wells were installed prior to this study, to an average depth of about 29 feet. Regional ground-water flow in the Heart River aquifer generally may be from west-northwest to east-southeast and is influenced by hydraulic connections to the river. Hydraulic connections also are probable between the aquifer and the Missouri River. Ground-water flow across the north boundary of the aquifer is minimal because of adjacent shales and sandstones of relatively low permeability. Recharge occurs from infiltration of precipitation and is spatially variable depending on the thickness of overlying clays and silts. Although the general water-table gradient may be from west-northwest to east-southeast, the flow directions can vary depending on the river stage and recharge events. Any movement of the LNAPL is influenced by the gradients created by changes in water-level altitudes. LNAPL samples were collected from monitoring wells using dedicated bailers. The samples were transferred to glass containers, stored in the dark, and refrigerated before shipment for analysis by a variety of analytical techniques. For comparison purposes, reference-fuel samples provided by the refinery in Mandan also were analyzed. These reference-fuel samples

  12. GPS, GNSS, and Ionospheric Density Gradients (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; O'Hanlon, B.; Humphreys, T. E.


    Ionospheric density and density gradients affect GNSS signals in two ways. They can introduce ranging errors or irregularities that form on the density gradients producing scintillation. Here we focus on the issue of ranging errors. There are two approaches to mitigating ranging errors produced by ionospheric density gradients which can be 20-30 m during major magnetic storms. The first approach is to use a reference receiver(s) to determine the ionospheric contribution to ranging errors. The ranging error is then transmitted to the user for correction within the mobile receiver. This approach is frequently referred to as differential GPS and, when multiple reference receivers are used, the system is referred to as an augmentation system. This approach is vulnerable to ionospheric gradients depending on the reference receiver spacing(s) and latency in applying the correction within the mobile receiver. The second approach is to transmit navigation signals at two frequencies and then use the relative delay between the two signals to both estimate the ranging error and calculate the correct range. Currently the dual frequency technique is used by US military receivers with an encryption key and some civilian receivers which must be stationary and average over times long compared to those required for navigation. However, the technology of space based radio navigation is changing. GPS will soon be a system with three frequencies and multiple codes. Furthermore Europe, Russia, and China are developing independent systems to complement and compete with GPS while India and Japan are developing local systems to enhance GPS performance in their regions. In this talk we address two questions. How do density gradients affect augmentation systems including the social consequences and will the new GPS/GNSS systems with multiple civilian frequencies be able to remove ionospheric errors. The answers are not at all clear.

  13. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map (United States)

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen


    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  14. Cross-Diffusion Systems with Excluded-Volume Effects and Asymptotic Gradient Flow Structures (United States)

    Bruna, Maria; Burger, Martin; Ranetbauer, Helene; Wolfram, Marie-Therese


    In this paper, we discuss the analysis of a cross-diffusion PDE system for a mixture of hard spheres, which was derived in Bruna and Chapman (J Chem Phys 137:204116-1-204116-16, 2012a) from a stochastic system of interacting Brownian particles using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The resulting cross-diffusion system is valid in the limit of small volume fraction of particles. While the system has a gradient flow structure in the symmetric case of all particles having the same size and diffusivity, this is not valid in general. We discuss local stability and global existence for the symmetric case using the gradient flow structure and entropy variable techniques. For the general case, we introduce the concept of an asymptotic gradient flow structure and show how it can be used to study the behavior close to equilibrium. Finally, we illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical simulations.

  15. Coupled cluster investigation of Sternheimer shieldings and electric field gradient polarizabilities (United States)

    Coriani, Sonia; Halkier, Asger; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen; Christiansen, Ove; Rizzo, Antonio


    A coupled cluster (CC) investigation is presented for the (generalized) Sternheimer shieldings and the electric field gradient (EFG) polarizabilities which describe the effect of external electric fields and field gradients on the electric field gradient at the nuclei. Calculations are performed for the linear molecules N2, CO, HF, C2H2, HCl, HCN, and HNC. Correlation effects are monitored by employing a hierarchy of CC models consisting of CCS, CC2, CCSD, and CC3. The effect of tight basis functions and core correlation is investigated by carrying out CCSD calculations with core-valence basis sets. Accurate theoretical estimates for EFGs, Sternheimer shieldings, and EFG polarizabilities are given and the effects of vibrational corrections are discussed. Our final estimates for the considered EFG properties can be used, for example, in simulations of electric field effects on the EFG at the nuclei in interacting molecules.

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  17. The Role of Volcanic Sour Gas on the Alteration of Martian Basalt: Insights from Geochemical Modeling (United States)

    Berger, G.; Treguier, E.; D'Uston, C.; Pinet, P.; Toplis, M. J.


    We assess the chemical constraints of the alteration of basaltic material by a cold aqueous phase under atmospheric sour gas containing SO3. Secondary chemistry and mineralogy are calculated by a geochemical simulator and compared to MER data.

  18. Geochemical and geostatistical evaluation, Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit, Fremont and Custer Counties, Colorado (United States)

    Weiland, E.F.; Connors, R.A.; Robinson, M.L.; Lindemann, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.


    A mineral assessment of the Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit was undertaken by Barringer Resources Inc., under the terms of contract YA-553-CTO-100 with the Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office. The study was based on a geochemical-geostatistical survey in which 700 stream sediment samples were collected and analyzed for 25 elements. Geochemical results were interpreted by statistical processing which included factor, discriminant, multiple regression and characteristic analysis. The major deposit types evaluated were massive sulfide-base metal, sedimentary and magmatic uranium, thorium vein, magmatic segregation, and carbonatite related deposits. Results of the single element data and multivariate geostatistical analysis indicate that limited potential exists for base metal mineralization near the Horseshoe, El Plomo, and Green Mountain Mines. Thirty areas are considered to be anomalous with regard to one or more of the geochemical parameters evaluated during this study. The evaluation of carbonatite related mineralization was restricted due to the lack of geochemical data specific to this environment.


    Given the complexity of the various, simultaneous (and competing) equilibrium reactions governing the speciation of ionic species in aquatic systems, EPA has developed and distributed the geochemical speciation model MINTEQA2 (Brown and Allison, 1987, Allison et al., 1991; Hydrog...

  20. Oil samples and geochemical analyses of Afghanistan and adjacent areas (oilafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains points that describe the location of oil samples collected in Afghanistan and adjacent areas, and the results of organic geochemical analysis.

  1. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent? (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William


    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  2. Some geochemical characteristics of the Pachuca Obsidian Region: a strategy for interpreting artifact groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neivens, M.; Harbottle, G.; Kimberlin, J.


    Obsidian research has revealed geochemical anomalies. Neutron activation analysis was used to analyze the samples. Correlations were made between element pairs (Sc and Fe, Ba and Co). Tests were made for homogeneity. 5 figures. (DLC)

  3. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are...

  4. Geochemical Characterization of Groundwater in a Volcanic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Bellia


    Full Text Available A geochemical investigation was undertaken at Mt. Etna Volcano to better define groundwater characteristics of its aquifers. Results indicate that the Na–Mg ± Ca–HCO3− ± (SO42− or Cl− type accounts for more than 80% of the groundwater composition in the volcano. The remaining 20% is characterized by elevated Ca2+. Waters along coastal areas are enriched in SO42− or Cl−, mainly due to mixing with seawater and anthropogenic effects. The majority of the samples showed values between −4‰ to −9‰ for δ18O and −19‰ to −53‰ for δ2H, suggesting that precipitation is the predominant source of recharge to the aquifers, especially in the west of the study area. The analysis of δ13C and pCO2 shows values 1 to 3 times higher than those expected for waters in equilibrium with the atmosphere, suggesting a partial gas contribution from deep sources. The diffusion of gasses is likely to be controlled by tectonic structures in the volcano. The ascent of deep brines is also reflected in the CO2 enrichment (up to 2.2 bars and enriched δ2H/δ18O compositions observed in the salt mounts of Paternò.

  5. Geochemical Energy for Catabolism and Anabolism in Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Amend, J. P.; McCollom, T. M.; Bach, W.


    Chemically reduced deep-sea vent fluids mixed with oxidized seawater can generate redox disequilibria that serve as energy sources for chemolithoautotrophic (catabolism) and biomass synthesis (anabolism) reactions. Numerical models can be used to evaluate Gibbs energies of such processes on the early Earth and in present-day systems. Here, geochemical data from compositionally diverse vent fluids (Lost City, Rainbow, Logatchev, TAG, 21 °N EPR) are combined with several seawater chemistries to yield a wide range of mixed hydrothermal solutions; this is the starting point for our thermodynamic calculations. In ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, such as Rainbow or Lost City, aerobic chemolithotrophic catabolisms (oxidation of H2, FeII, CH4) are the most energy-yielding at low temperatures (catabolic reaction energetics can then be used to put constraints on the amount of primary biomass production. Under putative early Earth conditions, for example, the net chemoautotrophic synthesis of cellular building blocks is thermodynamically most favorable at moderate temperatures (~50°C), where the energy contributions from HCO3- and H+ in cool seawater coupled to the reducing power in hot vent fluid are optimized. At these conditions, and counter to conventional wisdom, the synthesis of amino acids may even yield small amounts of energy.

  6. Novorossiysk agglomeration landscapes and cement production: geochemical impact assessment (United States)

    Alekseenko, A. V.; Pashkevich, M. A.


    The article deals with assessing the environmental impact of marl mining and cement production in Novorossiysk city (Krasnodar krai, Russia). The existing methods of studying the environmental effects caused by the cement industry have been reviewed. Soil and aquatic vegetation sampling has been carried out and the gross concentration of metals in the samples has been defined. The research has been conducted in the certified and accredited laboratory using emission spectral analysis. The external control has been carried out via X-ray fluorescence analysis. Based on the collected data, main chemical pollutants in soil cover and water area near the cement plant have been identified. The contaminants released by urban enterprises and motor vehicle emissions, as well as fugitive dust from dumps and the cement factory, lead to multi-element lithogeochemical anomaly at geochemical barriers in soils. Accumulation of pollutants in soil depends on the type of land use and the area relief. The most contaminated aquatic landscapes have been identified in the inner bay. According to this information, the technical proposals can be prepared for environmental safety management in strongly polluted city areas, as well as for the reclamation design in the areas currently experiencing the negative impact of cement production.

  7. Review of five successful microbial geochemical surface surveys in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munnecke, D.M. [Environmental BioTechnologies Inc., San Carlos, CA (United States)


    The development of a new surface geochemical survey technology to detect hydrocarbon microseeps was discussed. Microbial Exploration Technology (MET) was developed by Environmental BioTechnologies Inc., of San Carlos, California. It is used to determine the near surface soil`s metabolic activity towards metabolism of gaseous hydrocarbons. After several years of testing, the technology was commercialized in Canada in 1996. Since then, more than 3 million acres of land in Canada have been surveyed using MET. Surveys are conducted by collecting soil samples in a quarter by quarter mile grid pattern. The samples are then sent to California for analysis. One of the unique characteristics of MET is that it provides a contour map indicating the percent probability of drilling success. This paper presented the following five MET surveys as examples of what types of results can be obtained from the surveys: (1) Flinton Survey (T11 R6 W2), (2) Elcott Survey (T1-2 R1-3 W2), (3) Silverton Survey (T3 R32 W1), (4) Swift Current Block (T13-15 R10-R13 W3), and (5) Border Block (T1-2 R12-14 W3). Each example demonstrates that MET can be very supportive for oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities. It was suggested that running MET surveys before seismic surveys helps in determining where seismic surveys should be conducted to reduce overall exploration costs by 30 to 60 per cent, while improving drilling success. 6 figs.

  8. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun


    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.

  9. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras) (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca


    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  10. Lagrangian simulation of mixing and reactions in complex geochemical systems (United States)

    Engdahl, Nicholas B.; Benson, David A.; Bolster, Diogo


    Simulations of detailed geochemical systems have traditionally been restricted to Eulerian reactive transport algorithms. This note introduces a Lagrangian method for modeling multicomponent reaction systems. The approach uses standard random walk-based methods for the particle motion steps but allows the particles to interact with each other by exchanging mass of their various chemical species. The colocation density of each particle pair is used to calculate the mass transfer rate, which creates a local disequilibrium that is then relaxed back toward equilibrium using the reaction engine PhreeqcRM. The mass exchange is the only step where the particles interact and the remaining transport and reaction steps are entirely independent for each particle. Several validation examples are presented, which reproduce well-known analytical solutions. These are followed by two demonstration examples of a competitive decay chain and an acid-mine drainage system. The source code, entitled Complex Reaction on Particles (CRP), and files needed to run these examples are hosted openly on GitHub (, so as to enable interested readers to readily apply this approach with minimal modifications.

  11. Microbiological and geochemical characterization of fluvially deposited sulfidic mine tailings (United States)

    Wielinga; Lucy; Moore; Seastone; Gannon


    The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated.

  12. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [Uniiversity of Nevada, Las Vegas; Haber, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas


    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Eugene D.; Calvin, Kevin


    In recent years the search for life-forms at the earliest periods of geological time has been continued not only at the morphological level but also at the molecular level. This has been possible as a result of the increase in the biochemical knowledge and with the advent of analytical techniques that are capable of describing the intimate molecular architecture of individual molecules in acute detail. The fundamental premises upon which this organic geochemical approach rest are the following: that certain molecules, possessing a characteristic structural skeleton, show a reasonable stability to degradation over long periods of geological time; that their structural specificity can be understood in terms of known biosynthetic sequences; and that their formation by any non-biological means is of negligible probability. In this manuscript it is proposed to critically re-examine these premises and to establish criteria whereby one can differentiate molecules derived from biological systems from those that have their origin in non-biological processes. The importance of establishing such criteria lies in the significance these criteria have in determining whether life exists, or has existed, on other planets. Within the very near future it may be possible to provide an initial answer to this question when the first lunar samples are returned to the earth for analysis.

  14. Geochemical characteristics of Early Cretaceous source rocks in Boli Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei Gao; Fuhong Gao; Fu Fan; Yueqiao Zhang


    The Early Cretaceous deposits are composed of important source rocks in Boli Basin. The types of the source rocks include black mudstones and coal (with carbonaceous mudstone). By the organic geochemical analysis methods, the authors discussed the organic petrological characters, abundance of organic matter, degree of maturity and the type of source rocks. The main micro-component of black mudstone is exinite or vitrinite, and the content of vitrinite is high in coal. The weathering of the outcrop is very serious. The abundance of organic matter in source rock reaches the poor to better rank. The major kerogens in mudstone are type-Ⅲ, type-Ⅱ2 and some type-Ⅱ1; the organic type of coal is type-Ⅲ. The thermal evolution of the source rocks in every structural unit is very different, from low-maturity to over-maturity. The depositional environment is reductive, which is good for the preservation of organic matter. The organic matter in source rocks is mainly from aquatic organisms and terrigenous input.

  15. A geochemical and mineralogical approach to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmi, I. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra; Hunziker, J.C. [UNIL BFSH-2 CH, Institut de Mineralogie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Panichi, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, International Institute for Geothermal Research, Ghezzano, PI (Italy)


    Chemical pollution of the biospheric environment by human activity has become a problem of regional and global scale. There is no doubt that the contribution of geochemistry and mineralogy in defining the extent of this problem and estimating its long-term effects on life-forms is fundamental. Most of the environmental pollution problems arise from human activity associated with the exploitation and utilisation of the Earth's resources, involving minerals and fluids in some way. These problems include waste generated by mining activity, industrial, domestic, and nuclear waste. Particular problems can arise form the use of minerals and rocks in buildings and monuments. The relationship between minerals and human health represents a special case. Minerals can, on the one hand, create a problem; but, on the other hand, due to their peculiar structural properties of potentially hazardous and also useful minerals, capable of adsorbing or neutralizing any toxic, acid and undesirable components. Geochemistry can make important contributions in defining background concentrations, in mapping and accounting for dispersion patterns, in understanding the chemical interaction of pollutants with natural dissolved constituents and mineral matter, in estimating residence times and the extent to which geochemical processes will remove pollutants from the environment.

  16. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo


    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  17. Tracing the geochemical evolution of alkaline Lake Van, Turkey (United States)

    Kwiecien, Ola; Viehberg, Finn; Plessen, Birgit; Litt, Thomas; Tillman Meyer, Felix


    Terminal Lake Van, the world's largest soda basin, is characterised by Na-CO3-Cl water chemistry (Reimer et al., 2008), salinity of ~22 ‰ and high pH of ~9.7. The sedimentary record of the lake goes ca. 600 ka back and documents major climatic events over that period (Stockhecke et al., 2014). Alas, the longevity of the basin does not mean that it persisted unchanged over such a long time. Information collected within the ICDP PALEOVAN project clearly suggests that upon its birth the chemistry of early Lake Van was very different from its modern alkaline equivalent. Here we document, by means of proxy data, the changes in water chemistry in a transforming basin. Results of lithological (Stockhecke et al., 2014) and micropaleontological (ostracod, gastropod and diatom assemblages) analysis, combined with geochemical data (δ18O, δ13C, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) obtained from the biogenic and authigenic carbonate fraction imply, that early Lake Van was a relatively shallow, fresh-to-brackish and, most probably, open basin. Sedimentological information points to tectonic factors rather than climatic changes responsible for closing the lake ca. 430 ka ago. Reimer, A., Landmann, G., Kempe, S., 2008. Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Hydrochemistry and History. Aquat. Geochemistry 15, 195-222. Stockhecke, M., Sturm, M., Brunner, I., Schmincke, H.-U., Sumita, M., Kipfer, R., Cukur, D., Kwiecien, O., Anselmetti, F.S., 2014. Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years. Sedimentology.

  18. Geochemical factors controlling free Cu ion concentrations in river water (United States)

    Rozan, Tim F.; Benoit, Gaboury


    Copper speciation was determined monthly at seven sites on four rivers in southern New England to understand which geochemical factors control free metal ion concentrations in river water. Samples were conventionally filtered (stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to quantify natural organic complexation and cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) to measure directly both Cu sulfide complexes and total EDTA concentrations. The results showed both dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfide complexation dominate Cu speciation and control the concentrations of free ion. Free Cu2+ was calculated to be in the subnanomolar range for the majority of the year. Only in the winter months, when concentrations of DOM and metal sulfides complexes were at a minimum were free metal ions directly measurable by DPASV at low nanomolar concentrations. The extent of sulfide complexation appears to be dominated by the size of headwater marshes (upstream sampling sites) and by the amount of sewage treatment plant effluent (downstream sites). DOM complexation was related to the organic matter composition and followed model organic ligands. Indirect evidence suggests variations in river water pH and Ca2+ (metal competition) has only a minor role in Cu complexation. Measured concentrations of total EDTA suggest this synthetic ligand can control Cu speciation in some highly developed watersheds; however, competition from Ni (and possibly Fe) limits the extent of this complexation.

  19. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunping [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)], E-mail:; Jaffe, Rudolf [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)


    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C{sub 23} and C{sub 25} relative to C{sub 29} and C{sub 31}n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C{sub 32} 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C{sub 32} bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions.

  20. Geochemical effects of electro-osmosis in clays

    KAUST Repository

    Loch, J. P. Gustav


    Geochemical effects of electro-osmosis in bentonite clay are studied in the laboratory, where a 6 mm thick bentonite layer is subjected to direct current. Acidification and alkalization near anode and cathode are expected, possibly causing mineral deterioration, ion mobilization and precipitation of new solids. Afterwards the clay is analysed by XRF and anolyte and catholyte are analysed by ICP-MS. In addition, as a preliminary experiment treated bentonite is analysed by high resolution μ-XRF. Electro-osmotic flow is observed. Due to its carbonate content the bentonite is pH-buffering. Alkalization in the catholyte is substantial. Ca, Na and Sr are significantly removed from the clay and accumulate in the catholyte. Recovery in the catholyte accounts for a small fraction of the element-loss from the clay. The rest will have precipitated in undetected solid phases. μ-XRF indicates the loss of Ca-content throughout the bentonite layer. © The Author(s) 2010.