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Sample records for geochelone chelonoidis carbonaria

  1. Site fidelity and movement of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 (Testudinidae in cocoa plantations in southeastern Brazil

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    JF Borini

    Full Text Available Red-footed Tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonariaSpix, 1824 raised as pets and voluntarily handed over to environmental officers by their owners or apprehended by officers represent a large contingent of animals that overfill triage centres in Brazil. There is no consensus on the fate of these animals, and their numbers continue growing. In this study, we evaluated the movement patterns of C. carbonaria originating from triage centres in areas of cocoa plantations and forest remnants to define their home range and dispersion. After 120 days of quarantine and acclimatisation, eight C. carbonaria adults were released and monitored via radio telemetry for 10 months. The radio transmitters of two individuals presented problems, and consequently, it was not possible to track these individuals. Five individuals remained in an area of 7.75 ha 10 months after release, avoiding contact with humans after the first three months. The greatest problems were the proximity of individuals to inhabited areas in the first three months after release, the death of two individuals, and the escape of one individual. After the experiment, the animals were sent back to the triage centre. Our results suggest that a proportion of the animals in the triage centres are able to survive in natural conditions. Considering their survival and fidelity to the release site, the translocation of animals described herein should be considered partially successful. However, if this measure is adopted, it must be preceded by studies of the animals' origins and by a rigorous genetic, sanitary and behavioural analysis of each individual.

  2. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

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    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining contagious yawning in a species that is unlikely to show nonconscious mimicry and empathy but does respond to social stimuli: the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria. A demonstrator tortoise was conditioned to yawn when presented with a red square-shaped stimulus. Observer tortoises were exposed to three conditions: observation of conditioned yawn, non demonstration control, and stimulus only control. We measured the number of yawns for each observer animal in each condition. There was no difference between conditions. Experiment 2 therefore increased the number of conditioned yawns presented. Again, there was no significant difference between conditions. It seemed plausible that the tortoises did not view the conditioned yawn as a real yawn and therefore a final experiment was run using video recorded stimuli. The observer tortoises were presented with three conditions: real yawn, conditioned yawns and empty background. Again there was no significant difference between conditions. We therefore conclude that the red-footed tortoise does not yawn in response to observing a conspecific yawn. This suggests that contagious yawning is not the result of a fixed action pattern but may involve more complex social processes [Current Zoology 57 (4: 477–484, 2011].

  3. Karyotypic characterization of Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines: Emydidae) and Chelonoidis (Geochelone) donosobarrosi (Testudines: Testudinidae), two species of Cryptodiran turtles from Argentina.

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    Martinez, Pablo A; Boeris, Juan M; Sánchez, Julieta; Pastori, María C; Bolzán, Alejandro D; Ledesma, Mario A

    2009-12-01

    We describe for the first time the karyotypes of two species of Cryptodiran turtles from Argentina, namely, Trachemys dorbigni (Emydidae) and Chelonoidis (Geochelone) donosobarrosi (Testudinidae). The karyotype of T. dorbigni (2n = 50) consists of 13 pairs of macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of microchromosomes, whereas the karyotype of C. donosobarrosi (2n = 52) consists of 11 pairs of macrochromosomes and 15 pairs of microchromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a (TTAGGG)n telomeric probe showed that the chromosomes of these species have four telomeric signals, two at each end, indicating that none of the chromosomes of T. dorbigni and C. donosobarrosi are telocentric. The fact that no interstitial telomeric signals were observed after FISH, suggests that interstitial telomeric sequences did not have a major role in the chromosomal evolution of these species. Additional data will be needed to elucidate if interstitial telomeric sequences have a major role in the karyotypic evolution of Testudines.

  4. Origens e ramificações das artérias aortas esquerda e dorsal do jabuti (Geochelone carbonaria, Spix, 1824

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    Tânia Negreiros Faria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We worked with 6 tortoises, 3 females and 3 males of the species Geochelone carbonaria, in order to describe the main arteries, which vascularize the organs of the coelomic cavity. We observed that the left aorta lengthen three main branches in order to irrigate the organs of the animal's cranial area, before it joins the right aorta to form the dorsal aorta, which is in charge of the nutrition of the caudal area of the animal, through several branches coming irregularly in quantity and origin.

  5. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

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    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824, mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação aos ovos retidos, a presença de ovos com alterações de formato e de tamanho aumentado e hipercalcificação das cascas; em relação aos fatores predisponentes, foram analisados fatores ambientais, sinais nos pacientes relacionados à ocorrência de doença osteometabólica, presença de corpo estranho ou fezes ressecadas no trato gastrintestinal, bem como a associação da retenção de ovos com prolapso de oviduto. A utilização de técnicas radiográficas no diagnóstico definitivo da retenção de ovos e no direcionamento da sua resolução mostrou-se indispensável nos casos estudados. Quanto ao tratamento, duas condutas foram consideradas: a utilização de ocitócinos e a intervenção cirúrgica. Da análise dos fatores que favorecem a ocorrência da distocia, conclui-se que a manutenção dos animais em ambientes com substrato rígido foi decisiva.Egg retention is a disorder that affects the genital system of reptiles, with a great prevalence in chelonians. These work analyses fourteen cases of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 maintained as pets that had been attended in the Veterinary Clinic of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF between 1999 and 2003. Among the factors that contribute to the occurrence of this dystocia are aspects of the retained eggs such as shape abnormalities, size enlargement and thickened shells were analyzed, as well as poor environmental condition

  6. RETENCIÓN DE HUEVOS EN HEMBRA DE JABOTÍ-PIRANGA (Geochelone carbonaria - Spix, 1824 EN CAUTIVERIO

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    Fabiana Rodrigues da Silbeira, M.V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un Jabotí-Piranga adulto (Geochelone carbonaria, hembra, con peso de 3.5 kg ingresó por consulta en la escuela clínica “Dr. Cataldi Luiz de Souza”, del “Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos - Teresopolis, Río de Janeiro”, con historia de retención de huevos. En la evaluación clínica y radiológica, se encontró tres huevos en posiciones normales. Teniendo en cuenta la temporada de reproducción, se aconsejó la observación del animal. Después de un año, dicho animal regresó a la clínica por no haber todavía expulsado los huevos. Tras nuevo examen radiográfico se observó que los 3 huevos continuaban en la misma posición. A continuación, se aplicó 0.03 ml de oxitocina por vía subcutanea (10 UI x ml, en el apéndice anterior del animal. Tres horas después de la aplicación de la hormona, el animal expulsó los huevos naturalmente, sin la necesidad de una intervención quirúrgica, con lo que se puede sospechar de la eficacia de la aplicación de oxitocina para este procedimiento en jabotí Piranga.

  7. Pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria: aspectos clínicos, microbiológicos, radiológicos e terapêutica

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    Marcelo M. Silveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é uma doença respiratória comum na clínica de répteis. Agentes infecciosos são capazes de causar pneumonia primária em répteis mantidos em cativeiro, porém na maioria dos casos, são secundárias a problemas de manejo, higiene e nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria, e descrever o diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico, radiográfico e a conduta terapêutica. O animal apresentava sinais de distúrbios respiratórios e foi descrito durante a anamnese que houve um diagnostico anterior de pneumonia. Os achados radiográficos foram sugestivos de pneumonia/edema pulmonar. Baseado nos exames radiográficos e sinais clínicos apresentados iniciou-se o tratamento com administração de Cloranfenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM por 10 dias. Foram isoladas Klebsiella spp. e Citrobacter spp. da cultura bacteriana realizada da coleta de lavado endotraqueal. Ambas com perfil de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos testados. Instituiu-se protocolo terapêutico utilizando Gentamicina (5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após o segundo protocolo terapêutico notou-se melhora dos sinais clínicos do animal, porém foi observada a persistência de secreção nasal. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico, demonstrando discreta diminuição na opacidade do campo pulmonar direito e nenhuma alteração significativa no campo pulmonar esquerdo na projeção craniocaudal. Devido à permanência do sinal clínico apresentado, nova coleta de material endotraqueal foi realizada, e houve isolamento de Citrobacter spp. e Enterobacter spp. A partir dos resultados obtidos no antibiograma, instituiu-se novo protocolo com uso de amicacina (2,5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após antibioticoterapia, outro exame radiológico foi realizado, e demonstrou redução satisfatória do quadro pulmonar, e sinais clínicos.

  8. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

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    Wilkinson, A.; Sebanz, N.; Mandl, I.; Huber, L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between percept

  9. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, A.; Sebanz, N.; Mandl, I.; Huber, L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between

  10. THE BIOCLUB AS A STRATEGY FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE MORROCOY TORTOISE, GEOCHELONE CARBONARIA (SPIX 1824 IN CURUMANÍ-CESAR.

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    Mary Lorena Moyano Acevedo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the pedagogical implications generated from the implementation of educational strategy named Bioclub with respect to practices that have the population of the municipality of Curumaní in the department of Cesar (Colombia are presented regarding the Tortuga Morrocoy. Through the collection of information on the socioeconomic conditions of the community education strategy was designed on the premise of contextualized learning. In a second step Bioclub meetings where the community participated directly represented by students of San José College, to obtain data related practices concerning species and their biological and ecological survey were applied. Lastly, the practices of the community in relation to the turtle, the implications concerning the development of an educational strategy emphasizing the benefits that science club in the teaching-learning process in the construction of knowledge are characterized, and how this may generate a positive change in the attitudes of children in environmental stewardship and conservation of biodiversity in Colombia. Finally we developed a Conservation Primer built as a result of Bioclub involving aspects of their biology and ecology, as well as a guide aimed at sustainable farming, in order to try to minimize the negative impact of the practices of the community to species.

  11. Descriptions of three new carbonaria-group species of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy from China, with a key to the carbonaria-group species (Diptera, Fanniidae)

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    Wang, Ming-fu; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yu-wan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A historical review of the Fannia carbonaria-group is provided and three new species are described from China: Fannia fani Wang & Wu, sp. n., Fannia nitidiventris Wang & Zhang, sp. n. and Fannia submaculata Wang & Zhao, sp. n.. One species, Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934, is recorded for the first time from China. Illustrations of male terminalia of these four species and a taxonomic key to the males of known species in the group are given. The Fannia carbonaria-group now includes 30 species distributed in the Holarctic Region and northern part of the Oriental Region. PMID:28331411

  12. Cutaneous and renal geotrichosis in a giant tortoise (Geochelone elephantopus).

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    Ruiz, J M; Arteaga, E; Martinez, J; Rubio, E M; Torres, J M

    1980-03-01

    A case of cutaneous and renal geotrichosis in a giant tortoise, Geochelone elephantopus, at the Zoological Park of Barcelona is reported. Fungal hyphae and spores were seen in skin and kidney. Culture of these tissues yielded Geotrichum candidum. This fungus was isolated from the faeces of 5 other giant tortoises that were housed with the dead animal and from specimens of corn hydroponic culture which is part of their diet. Arthrospore suspensions of the 2 strains isolated from the dead animal's skin and kidney were experimentally inoculated into mice and turtles (Testudo horsfiedi) in order to determine the pathogenicity of G. candidum for animal tissues. Our results confirm its low pathogenicity.

  13. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

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    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight h...

  14. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises weremeasured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurementswere correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had t...

  15. Macromorfometría de juveniles de Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidaeen Costa Rica

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    Manuel Merchán

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se midieron 31 ejemplares de tortuga africana de espolones Geochelone sulcata para la realización de un estudio biométrico. Se consideraron 26 medidas morfológicas para cada individuo. Las tortugas tenían una edad de entre 5 y 34 meses, y ninguna había alcanzado la madurez sexual. Todas ellas habían nacido en cautiverio en La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica, donde son una especie introducida. La longitud recta del espaldar fue de 83.1 mm, la anchura recta del espaldar de 68.3 mm y la altura máxima media de 46.2 mm. Todas las medidas estaban correlacionadas entre sí, salvo la longitud de la cola y la distancia cloacal. El mayor coeficiente de alometría positiva correspondió a la variable Peso. El mayor coeficiente de alometría negativa correspondió a la anchura a nivel de los escudos gulares. Todas las variables se agruparon en dos componentes principales, la longitud de la cola y la distancia cloacal en el Factor 2 y el resto en el Factor 1. La falta de correlación de las medidas de la cola así como su inclusión en un factor aparte al resto de la muestra podría responder a un proceso incipiente de diferenciación sexualGross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae in Costa Rica. The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had the highest positive allometry coefficient. All the variables were joined in two Principal Components; tail length and cloacal distance in Factor 2 and the rest of them in Factor 1. Lack of correlation among tail measures and the other

  16. [Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica].

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    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2005-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had the highest positive allometry coefficient. All the variables were joined in two Principal Components; tail length and cloacal distance in Factor 2 and the rest of them in Factor 1. Lack of correlation among tail measures and the other variables as well as their inclusion in a different Factor could be related with an incipient development of sexual dimorphism characters.

  17. Status and distribution of the angonoka tortoise (Geochelone yniphora) of western Madagascar

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    Smith, Lora L.; Reid, Don; Robert, Bourou; Joby, Mahatoly; Clement, Sibo

    1999-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, field surveys were conducted in western Madagascar to assess the current status of the angonoka tortoise (Geochelone yniphora) in the wild. Tortoise presence was documented at 10 of 11 localities surveyed. These localities represent at least five populations, all within a 30-km radius of Baly Bay, near the town of Soalala. The populations occur on fragments of habitat ranging from Sada, where monthly surveys were conducted. The tortoise density on the c. 150 ha peninsula was 0.66 tortoises/ha. The remains of 22 dead juveniles were found on Cape Sada over the 2-year period. This evidence, combined with the low number of juveniles in intermediate size classes in the Cape Sada population suggests that juvenile mortality may be high.

  18. Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum from imported red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria).

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    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Avni, Zvi; King, Rony; Shkap, Varda

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of exotic ticks and pathogens through international animal trade (farm animals and pets) is a serious threat to public health and local fauna. Rapid and correct identification of potential threats is an important step on the way to conduct an efficient control of imported pests. In this report we describe the molecular identification of the neotropic tick Amblyomma rotundatum intercepted from red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria), imported to Israel from Florida, USA. Molecular analysis of the ticks conducted upon their identification, revealed that they were infected with Rickettsia bellii. Following their collection, the ticks were examined morphologically and five molecular markers were used to determine their taxonomic identity: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), cytochrome b (CytB), 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS-2). Molecular analysis indicated that all of the collected ticks were Amblyomma rotundatum. Using rickettsial gltA (citrate synthase) gene in real-time PCR analysis we found that approximately 25% of the intercepted ticks (8 of 33) were infected with Rickettsia bellii. It is concluded that accurate and timely identification of imported exotic ticks prevented their introduction to Israel, and that use of molecular tools may further improve the response to such potential threats.

  19. Identificación de Mycobacterium sp., en una población de tortugas morrocoy (Geochelone carbonaria en cautiverio y en su entorno, en un zoológico en la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Ángela Natalia Agudelo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En un Zoológico de la Sabana de Bogotá, se presentó alta mortalidad de aves por tuberculosis aviar, en un encierro en el cual habitaban dos clases de animales diferentes: reptiles y aves. Se buscó establecer la presencia del Mycobacterium sp, por medio de la identificación molecular (PCR-PRA, en una población de 19 tortugas Morrocoy en cautiverio en el Zoológico mencionado anteriormente. Se procedió a tuberculinizar a todas las tortugas, las cuales resultaron negativas y se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal y muestras ambientales (agua y suelo y se cultivaron en medios OK/MSTA, LJ y OK respectivamente realizando baciloscopia para cada una de las muestras. De la muestras de materia fecal sólo cuatro fueron positivas a baciloscopia y de nueve muestras ambientales (suelo (n=7, agua (n=2, cinco fueron positivas (suelo (n=4, agua (n=1; en cuanto al crecimiento fueron negativas todas las de materia fecal de las tortugas Morrocoy. De las muestras ambientales (suelo, agua crecieron cinco y una muestras respectivamente. Adicionalmente se obtuvo muestras de la necropsia de una tortuga Icotea, (tejido, orina y absceso y sólo hubo crecimiento de la muestra de absceso. De la muestra de absceso se identificó Mycobacterium gordonae tipo 3, de las de suelo se obtuvo Mycobacterium avium tipo 3 y en el de agua se obtuvo Mycobacterium fortuitum tipo 1. Los hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de una vigilancia continua, que permita la identificación de la presencia de micobacterias; por medio de pruebas de laboratorio apropiadas (baciloscopia, cultivo, pruebas bioquímicas y moleculares; ya que se debe evitar que las tortugas sigan siendo parte de un ciclo epidemiológico de transmisión como portadores sanos y el contacto con los humanos debe darse sólo cuando sea estrictamente necesario, aplicando normas de bioseguridad.

  20. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

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    Flavia C Massaro

    Full Text Available Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria. The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml, which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+ in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  1. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

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    Massaro, Flavia C; Brooks, Peter R; Wallace, Helen M; Nsengiyumva, Vianne; Narokai, Lorraine; Russell, Fraser D

    2013-01-01

    Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml), which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+) in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml) reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria) propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  2. Effect of Australian Propolis from Stingless Bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) on Pre-Contracted Human and Porcine Isolated Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Flavia C.; Brooks, Peter R.; Wallace, Helen M.; Nsengiyumva, Vianne; Narokai, Lorraine; Russell, Fraser D.

    2013-01-01

    Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml), which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca2+ in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca2+-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml) reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria) propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised. PMID:24260567

  3. Synovial fluid from an African spur-thighed tortoise (Geochelone sulcata).

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    Casimire-Etzioni, Athema L; Wellehan, James F X; Embury, Jennifer E; Terrell, Scott P; Raskin, Rose E

    2004-01-01

    A 4.5-year old, male African spur-thighed tortoise (Geochelone sulcata) was presented to the University of Florida Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia, constipation, dyspnea, and coughing up fluid or vomiting. Laboratory results included an inflammatory leukogram and a marked increase in plasma uric acid concentration. Synovial fluid from multiple joints was thick, chalky white, and opaque, with a grainy consistency. Microscopically, the fluid contained numerous brown, needle-like crystals consistent with urates (gout). Gross necropsy findings and histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of systemic gout, with urate deposition, gout tophi, and underlying necrosis in multiple organs, including kidneys, lung, and liver. Dehydration with concurrent renal insufficiency may have impaired urate excretion and led to a build-up of urates in the blood and tissues of this tortoise. A high protein diet also may have contributed to the development of gout. Cytologic evaluation of synovial fluid can be used as a quick and definitive tool to diagnose gout in tortoises.

  4. Cerumen of Australian stingless bees ( Tetragonula carbonaria): gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and potential anti-inflammatory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Flavia Carmelina; Brooks, Peter Richard; Wallace, Helen Margaret; Russell, Fraser Donald

    2011-04-01

    Cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. In Australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colony's health. While extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee ( Apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of Australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. In this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from Tetragonula carbonaria in South East Queensland, Australia were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and in vitro 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) cell-free assays. Extracts were tested against comparative (commercial tincture of A. mellifera propolis) and positive controls (Trolox and gallic acid). Distinct GC-MS fingerprints of a mixed diterpenic profile typical of native bee cerumen were obtained with pimaric acid (6.31 ± 0.97%, w/w), isopimaric acid (12.23 ± 3.03%, w/w), and gallic acid (5.79 ± 0.81%, w/w) tentatively identified as useful chemical markers. Characteristic flavonoids and prenylated phenolics found in honeybee propolis were absent. Cerumen extracts from T. carbonaria inhibited activity of 5-LOX, an enzyme known to catalyse production of proinflammatory mediators (IC50 19.97 ± 2.67 μg/ml, mean ± SEM, n = 4). Extracts had similar potency to Trolox (IC50 12.78 ± 1.82 μg/ml), but were less potent than honeybee propolis (IC50 5.90 ± 0.62 μg/ml) or gallic acid (IC50 5.62 ± 0.35 μg/ml, P medicinal properties of this stingless bee cerumen, which may herald a commercial potential for the Australian beekeeping industry.

  5. Chapiniella variabilis (Nematoda) parasitizing Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus (Testudinidae) in the state of Piauí.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Simone Mousinho; Leal, Anangela Ravena da Silva; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Mendonça, Ivete Lopes

    2017-03-16

    Chapiniella variabilis (Chapin, 1924), a strongylid nematode, was collected parasitizing the large intestine of the tortoises Chelonoidis carbonarius (Spix, 1824) (Cc) and C. denticulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Cd) in the Zoobotanical Park of the municipality of Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. The taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric features, using bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The present study adds new observations on the morphology, mainly relating to the mouth papillae, external and internal leaf-crown elements, excretory pore, deirids and male and female posterior end. The parasitic indices of prevalence (P), mean intensity (MI), mean abundance (MA) and range of infection (RI) of C. variabilis in these two tortoise species were: P = 100%, MI = 833.3, MA = 833.3, RI = 500-1,500 (Cc); P = 100%, MI = 472.2, MA = 472.2, RI = 333-500 (Cd). This record expands occurrences of C. variabilis to a new host, C. carbonarius, and to another state in Brazil, in the Neotropical region of South America. Adjustment to host management with the aim of improving hygiene and health conditions is suggested.

  6. Resources or landmarks: which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A

    2016-10-01

    To date, no study has investigated how landscape structural (visual) alterations affect navigation and thus homing success in stingless bees. We addressed this question in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria by performing marking, release and re-capture experiments in landscapes differing in habitat homogeneity (i.e., the proportion of elongated ground features typically considered prominent visual landmarks). We investigated how landscape affected the proportion of bees and nectar foragers returning to their hives as well as the earliest time bees and foragers returned. Undisturbed landscapes with few landmarks (that are conspicuous to the human eye) and large proportions of vegetation cover (natural forests) were classified visually/structurally homogeneous, and disturbed landscapes with many landmarks and fragmented or no extensive vegetation cover (gardens and plantations) visually/structurally heterogeneous. We found that proportions of successfully returning nectar foragers and earliest times first bees and foragers returned did not differ between landscapes. However, most bees returned in the visually/structurally most (forest) and least (garden) homogeneous landscape, suggesting that they use other than elongated ground features for navigation and that return speed is primarily driven by resource availability in a landscape.

  7. Influence of environmental humidity and dietary protein on pyramidal growth of carapaces in African spurred tortoises (Geochelone sulcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, C S; Iben, C

    2003-02-01

    The carapaces of captive-raised tortoises (terrestrial chelonians of the zoological family Testudinidae, often develop pyramidal-shaped osseous growth centrally within the horny plates. With very few exceptions (e.g. Geochelone elegans, Psammobates sp.), this conical growth pattern is considered to be pathologic. This very common defect is believed to be an important indicator of the quality of captive tortoise management. This study was designed to examine the effect of dietary protein level and environmental humidity on the degree of pyramidal growth in the carapaces. Fifty recently hatched African spurred tortoises (G. sulcata) were raised for 5 months under artificial conditions of varying environmental humidity and dietary protein content (14% vs. 19% vs. 30% crude protein in dry matter). Humps of the carapaces that developed and blood values of calcium, phosphorus and haematocrit were measured and compared among groups. Dry environmental conditions (24.3-57.8% and 30.6-74.8% relative humidity) produced taller humps than humid conditions (45-99% relative humidity). Hump formation differed significantly (p < or = 0.001) between these three groups kept under different humidity conditions. Variable dietary protein had a minor, positive impact on this pathological formation of humps (pyramidal growth syndrome, PGS). Analysis of blood (calcium, phosphorus and haematocrit) offered no further explanation as to the development of the humps.

  8. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, C F; Katouli, M; Grkovic, T; Vu, H; Quinn, R J; Heard, T A; Carvalho, C; Manley-Harris, M; Wallace, H M; Brooks, P

    2014-06-01

    Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts.

  9. NOTES ON CARBONARIA SPECIES GROUP OF GENUS FANNIA ROBINEAU-DESVOIDY (DIPTERA:FANNIIDAE), IN CHINA%中国厕蝇属炭色厕蝇种团记述(双翅目:厕蝇科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明福; 薛万琦; 苏立新

    2004-01-01

    炭色厕蝇种团Fannia carbonaria group是厕蝇属Fannia中的12个种团之一.该种团全世界已知20种,主要分布于全北界.报道了产自中国的该种团8个种的名录及分布,编制了该种团分种检索表,对其中2个新种 F.antilocera sp.nov.,F.tauricornis sp.nov.和1个国内新记录种F.imperatoria Nishina,2002分别予以记述.新种F. antilocera sp.nov.同小须厕蝇F.minutipalpis(Stein,1895)相近缘,但后者触角第三节长为宽的3倍,盾片具灰色粉被,后足股节后腹鬃列分布到基部2/3处,尾器明显不同等可予以区别.新种F.tauricornis sp.nov.同羊角厕蝇F.capricornis Xue,1996相近缘,但新种触角第三节长为宽的3倍,前缘基鳞黄色,足暗棕色;第一腹板具毛,侧尾叶后缘中部无角形突出,杆状突分为两个短突等即可区别;另与本亚种团的F.trigonfera Chillcott,1961,F.japonica japonica Nishida,1974,F.japonica amamiensis Nishida,1975亦相近,但新种肛尾叶外侧突横臂较长,侧尾叶后缘中部无角形突出,杆状突分为2个短突等亦可区别.新种模式标本和其它研究标本均保存于沈阳师范大学昆虫研究所昆虫标本室.%The present paper deals with the Fannia carbonaria species group (Diptera:Fannidae) in China. Eight species are recorded, 2 of them are described as new to science,i.e. F. antilocera sp. nov. and F. tauricornis sp. nov., and F. imperatoria Nishina 2002 is recorded for the first time in China. Fannia antilocera sp. nov. is most closely related to F.minutipalpis (Stein, 1895), but can be identified by the third antennal segment 2.5 times as long as broad, scutum with brownish-grey, hind femur with a row of pv setae only at basal half. F. tauricornis sp. nov. is very close to F. capricornis Xue, 1996, but is separated on the third antennal segment 3 times as long as wide, basicosta yellow, legs dark brown, the first sternite with hairs, surstylus without expansion on median dorsal; bacilliform process with 2short

  10. Description of Eimeria motelo sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from the yellow footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (Chelonia: Testudinidae, and replacement of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Hurková

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria motelo sp. n. is described from faeces of the yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.. Oocysts are irregularly ellipsoidal or cylindrical, with slightly expressed lobed protrusions and irregularities at the poles, possibly caused by wrinkling of the oocyst wall, 17 (15-19 × 9.4 (8.5-11 µm, shape index (length/width being 1.81 (1.45-2. The oocyst wall is smooth, single-layered, 0.5 µm thick with no micropyle. There are no polar bodies. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8.9 (7.5-10 × 4.4 (4-5 µm, shape index 2.03 (1.7-2.5. A sporocyst residuum is present, composed of many granules of irregular size. The sporozoites are elongate, lying lengthwise in the sporocysts. Comparison with other species of the genus Eimeria parasitising members of family Testudinidae indicates that the presently described coccidium represents a new species. The name of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 is found to be preoccupied by a homonym, Eimeria carinii Pinto 1928 given to a coccidium from Rattus norvegicus. Therefore, it is replaced by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.

  11. Distribution of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Camilo Montes Corea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded inthe Cañas River, department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side of the SierraNevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria was recorded in a wetland in Santa Marta. We recorded a female M. dahli in thevillage of Monterrubio, municipality of Sabanas de San Angel, department of Magdalena. Three of the four species includedin this account are listed in some category of threat. The lack of knowledge of the biology and distribution of these species could be considered a threat to them because ignorance precludes the establishment of their true conservation status and hinders the development of management plans required for their protection.DISTRIBUCIÓN DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALESDEL CARIBE COLOMBIANOEste estudio revisa la distribución para el Caribe colombiano de las especies Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli y Chelonoidis carbonaria y nuevas localidades en la distribución de dichas especies para la región. La especie K. scorpioides es registrada por primera vez en la cuenca del río Manzanares, en Santa Marta, Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris fue registrada en el río Cañas, La Guajira, constituyéndose en el primer registro para la especie en un riachuelo de la cara norte de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria fue registrada en un humedal ubicado en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Se registró una hembra de M. dahli en el corregimiento Monterrubio, municipio Sabana de San Ángel, Magdalena. Tres de las cuatro especies incluidas en esta revisión se encuentran en alguna

  12. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  13. 9 CFR 93.701 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States from New Zealand. (c) No person may import leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis), African spurred tortoise (Geochelone sulcata), or Bell's hingeback tortoise (Kinixys belliana) into the...

  14. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, from carapace keratitis of a Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra microphyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, D A; Marín, Y; Thompson, E H; Wickes, B L; Fu, J; García, D; Swinford, A; de Maar, T; Guarro, J

    2013-02-01

    A new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, recovered from carapace keratitis in a Galapagos tortoise residing in a south Texas zoological collection, is characterized and described. The presence of a pale peridium composed of textura epidermoidea surrounded by scarce Hülle cell-like chlamydospores, and the characteristic reticulate ascospores with an equatorial rim separates it from other genera within the Onygenales. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the analysis of D1/D2 sequences demonstrates that this fungus represents a new lineage within that order. As D1/D2 and ITS sequence data also shows a further separation of Aphanoascus spp. into two monophyletic groups, we propose to retain the generic name Keratinophyton for species whose ascospores are pitted and display a conspicuous equatorial rim, and thereby propose new combinations in this genus for four Aphanoascus species.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of honey from the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria determined by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorn, K L; Khor, Y-Y; Sweetman, E; Tan, F; Heard, T A; Hammer, K A

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of 11 samples of stingless bee honey compared to medicinal, table and artificial honeys. Activity was assessed by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill viability assays. By agar dilution, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges were 4% to >10% (w/v) for Gram-positive bacteria, 6% to >16% (w/v) for Gram-negative bacteria and 6% to >10% (w/v) for Candida spp. By broth microdilution, all organisms with the exception of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were inhibited at bee honeys ranged from 7.1% to 16.0% and were 11.7% for medicinal honey and 26.5% for table honey. Treatment of organisms with 20% (w/v) stingless bee honey for 60 min resulted in decreases of 1-3 log for Staphylococcus aureus, >3 log for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and honey resulted in decreases of bee honey has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity although activity against Candida was limited. Stingless bee honey samples varied in activity and the basis for this remains to be determined. Stingless bee honey had similar activity to medicinal honey and may therefore have a role as a medicinal agent.

  16. Aproximación al conocimiento del morrocoy Geochelone denticulata (Testudinata: Testudinidae en tres sectores cercanos en la amazonía nororiental colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Duque Jimena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de campo fue realizado desde abril hasta agosto de 2004, durante la transición verano-invierno
    e invierno como tal, en los siguientes sitios: a Estación Biológica Mosiro Itajura (Caparú, E.B.C., departamento
    del Vaupés, b Resguardo indígena de Camaritagua en cercanías al corregimiento de La Pedrera, departamento del Amazonas y c Isla Baranoa, sobre el río Caquetá, perteneciente al corregimiento de La Pedrera, departamento del Amazonas, sectores con diferente grado de conservación. Con el fin de aportar al conocimiento de G. denticulata (Testudinata: Testudinidae se recopiló información sobre la historia natural y ecología de la especie, a través de la metodología de transectos lineales y para confirmar la presencia de esta tortuga en los sectores muestreados, se utilizaron ocasionalmente alternativas metodológicas como la búsqueda libre diurna con remoción de hojarasca, búsqueda libre nocturna, trampas de caída, búsqueda con perros cazadores e información de pobladores. Se registró G. denticulata en la isla Baranoa donde se visualizaron y marcaron nueve tortugas, seis mediante el uso de transectos lineales, dos con la ayuda de perros cazadores y uno con búsqueda libre diurna; en los otros dos sectores no se encontró ningún individuo. Se obtuvo información sobre algunos aspectos biológicos de la especie a través de observaciones directas de los individuos encontrados y registros verbales. Adicionalmente, se midieron diez carapax y seis caparazones de tortugas mantenidas en cautiverio para su consumo posterior, que hacen parte de un grupo de 44 morrocoyes adultos que fueron extraídas de la isla por un solo cazador durante los meses de mayo a agosto exceptuando julio, mes en el que la isla se inunda. Se calculó la densidad estimada de la población encontrada en la isla, se hicieron medidas morfológicas de la población total, dieta y tipos de refugio utilizados por G. denticulata en las zonas estudiadas. A partir de los encuentros obtenidos en la isla se calculó una densidad estimada de 15,9 ind/km2. La población total presentó una mayor proporción de juveniles, seguida de hembras y un número
    escaso de machos, las hembras no mostraron diferencias significativas en tamaño con relación a los machos. Se registra una familia y un género nuevo de plantas dentro de la dieta de G. denticulata. Se encontró una mayor frecuencia en el uso de refugios de exposición parcial o total y se observó una alta capacidad de camuflaje, favorecida por el color y el tamaño de los individuos. La alteración del hábitat y la cacería, parecen no ser factores limitantes en la presencia de G. denticulata en isla Baranoa; en la E.B.C. y en el resguardo de Camaritagua G. denticulata parece estar en densidades muy bajas. 

  17. Aptamer Selection Express: A Rapid Single-Step Selection of Double Stranded DNA Capture Elements (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Mortality in cattle and other ruminants: excess of 70% – Has been found in African spurred tortoises ( Geochelone sulcata ) and leopard tortoises... Geochelone pardalis) – Is now in Caribbean Islands • Antigua • Guadeloupe • Marie Galante • Perhaps Cuba • Viper Plague, a mimic of heartwater, and

  18. Industrial melanism in the peppered moth is not associated with genetic variation in canonical melanisation gene candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E van't Hof

    Full Text Available Industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia is an iconic case study of ecological genetics but the molecular identity of the gene determining the difference between the typical and melanic (carbonaria morphs is entirely unknown. We applied the candidate gene approach to look for associations between genetic polymorphisms within sixteen a priori melanisation gene candidates and the carbonaria morph. The genes were isolated and sequence characterised in B. betularia using degenerate PCR and from whole-transcriptome sequence. The list of candidates contains all the genes previously implicated in melanisation pattern differences in other insects, including aaNAT, DOPA-decarboxylase, ebony, tan, tyrosine hydroxylase, yellow and yellow2 (yellow-fa. Co-segregation of candidate gene alleles and carbonaria morph was tested in 73 offspring of a carbonaria male-typical female backcross. Surprisingly, none of the sixteen candidate genes was in close linkage with the locus controlling the carbonaria-typical polymorphism. Our study demonstrates that the 'carbonaria gene' is not a structural variant of a canonical melanisation pathway gene, neither is it a cis-regulatory element of these enzyme-coding genes. The implication is either that we have failed to characterize an unknown enzyme-coding gene in the melanisation pathway, or more likely, that the 'carbonaria gene' is a higher level trans-acting factor which regulates the spatial expression of one or more of the melanisation candidates in this study to alter the pattern of melanin production.

  19. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm

  20. 77 FR 14035 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Yankton, SD, for the purpose of scientific research. This notification covers activities to be conducted... Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra) from Galapagos, Ecuador, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species through scientific research. This notification covers activities to be conducted by...

  1. Postfire macromycetes from deciduous wood in the Chrzanów forest inspectorate (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dyląg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the studies of postfire macromycetes in a burnt forest near Chrzanów. Fifty one species of fungi and three species of Myxomycetes were found in the investigated area. Pholiota carbonaria was the most abundantly fructifying fungus. Its seasonal frequency was observed on 8 sample plots (1m x 1m over two subsequent years: 1993 and 1994. Gradual overgrowth of the plots by mosses. flowering plants and other fungi was also observed.

  2. Algunas observaciones en sangre de la tortuga terrestre argentina

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    Troiano, Juan Carlos

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las observaciones hechas en sangre de 30 ejemplares de tortuga terrestre argentina (Geochelone chilensis, discutiendo la técnica adecuada para toma de muestras de sangre. Además, se evalúan parámetros de química hemática y se detalla la morfología de las diferentes series celulares, comparando las datos obtenidos con especies exóticas afines. It is described the observations made in blood from 30 specimens of argentine terrestrial turtle (Geochelone chilensis, discussing the adecuate technique from blood sampling. Moreover it is evaluated blood chemistry parameters and it is detailed the morphology of the diferents cells series, compared the dates with related exotic species.

  3. Variation in growth of herbivorous tortoises: causes and consequences for reproduction and health management

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles have very flexible growth rates, depending on living conditions - in particular dietary resources. Here, I demonstrate a difference in the growth rates of captive specimens, as compared to literature data for free-ranging ones, in Leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis), African spurred tortoises (G. sulcata), Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni) and Spur-thighed tortoises (T. graeca). Such high growth rates are traditionally thought to be linked to health problems. In the case of ...

  4. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  5. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

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    Jairo Quintana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  6. Giant fossil tortoise and freshwater chelid turtle remains from the middle Miocene, Quebrada Honda, Bolivia: Evidence for lower paleoelevations for the southern Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A.; Anaya, Federico; Croft, Darin A.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the first Miocene turtle remains from Bolivia, which were collected from the late middle Miocene (13.18-13.03 Ma) of Quebrada Honda, southern Bolivia. This material includes a large scapula-acromion and fragmentary shell elements conferred to the genus Chelonoidis (Testudinidae), and a left xiphiplastron from a pleurodire or side-necked turtle, conferred to Acanthochelys (Chelidae). The occurrence of a giant tortoise and a freshwater turtle suggests that the paleoelevation of the region when the fossils were deposited was lower than has been estimated by stable isotope proxies, with a maximum elevation probably less than 1000 m. At a greater elevation, cool temperatures would have been beyond the tolerable physiological limits for these turtles and other giant ectotherm reptiles.

  7. Exploring conservation discourses in the Galapagos Islands: A case study of the Galapagos giant tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Capistros, Francisco; Hugé, Jean; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-10-01

    Conservation discourses change rapidly both at global and local scales. To be able to capture these shifts and the relationships between humans and nature, we focused on a local and iconic conservation case: the Galapagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). We used the Q methodology to contextualize conservation for science and decision making and to explore the multidimensionality of the conservation concept in Galapagos. The results indicate four prevailing discourses: (1) Multi-actor governance; (2) giant tortoise and ecosystems conservation; (3) community governance; and (4) market and tourism centred. These findings allow us to identify foreseeable points of disagreement, as well as areas of consensus, and to discuss the implication of the findings to address socio-ecological conservation and sustainability challenges. This can help the different involved stakeholders (managers, scientists and local communities) to the design and apply contextualized conservation actions and policies to contribute to a better sustainable management of the archipelago.

  8. First chelonian eggs and carapace fragments from the Pliocene of Rhodes, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller-Töwe, Inken J.; Kjeldahl-Vallon, Tina A.; Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Well-preserved fossil eggs and eggshell fragments from the Pliocene Apolakkia Formation of Rhodes (Greece) are described. The eggs were found in-situ in a clutch. They are sub-spherical with lengths of 53-60 mm and widths of about 40 mm. All eggs are diagenetically compressed and their original...... diameters are estimated at 45-50 mm. The eggshells are 0.3-0.5 mm thick, partly recrystallized, but widely still aragonitic. They consist of needle-like crystals that form individual shell units. A few pores are preserved between these shell units. This shell-structure allows assignment to chelonian eggs...... in the oofamily Testudoolithidae and the oogenus Testudolithus. The external morphology, microstructure and mineralogical composition of the eggshells show close resemblance to eggs of the extant tortoise Geochelone elephantopus. Together with a small association of turtle carapace fragments from the same...

  9. Comparison of chemistry analytes between 2 portable, commercially available analyzers and a conventional laboratory analyzer in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Stephanie L; Flatland, Bente; Schumacher, Juergen P; Clarke Iii, Elsburgh O; Fry, Michael M

    2010-12-01

    Advantages of handheld and small bench-top biochemical analyzers include requirements for smaller sample volume and practicality for use in the field or in practices, but little has been published on the performance of these instruments compared with standard reference methods in analysis of reptilian blood. The aim of this study was to compare reptilian blood biochemical values obtained using the Abaxis VetScan Classic bench-top analyzer and a Heska i-STAT handheld analyzer with values obtained using a Roche Hitachi 911 chemical analyzer. Reptiles, including 14 bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), 4 blue-tongued skinks (Tiliqua gigas), 8 Burmese star tortoises (Geochelone platynota), 10 Indian star tortoises (Geochelone elegans), 5 red-tailed boas (Boa constrictor), and 5 Northern pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus), were manually restrained, and a single blood sample was obtained and divided for analysis. Results for concentrations of albumin, bile acids, calcium, glucose, phosphates, potassium, sodium, total protein, and uric acid and activities of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase obtained from the VetScan Classic and Hitachi 911 were compared. Results for concentrations of chloride, glucose, potassium, and sodium obtained from the i-STAT and Hitachi 911 were compared. Compared with results from the Hitachi 911, those from the VetScan Classic and i-STAT had variable correlations, and constant or proportional bias was found for many analytes. Bile acid data could not be evaluated because results for 44 of 45 samples fell below the lower linearity limit of the VetScan Classic. Although the 2 portable instruments might provide measurements with clinical utility, there were significant differences compared with the reference analyzer, and development of analyzer-specific reference intervals is recommended. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon Novos relatos de carrapatos em Rondônia, Amazônia ocidental brasileira

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    Marcelo Bahia Labruna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female, and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 nymphs and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph. Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs, and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae. The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species.O presente estudo relata novos achados de carrapatos provenientes do Município de Vilhena, Sudeste do Estado de Rondônia, na região Norte do Brasil. Carrapatos colhidos de uma capivara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 fêmea e Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Carrapatos colhidos de uma águia harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 ninfas e Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 ninfa. Carrapatos colhidos de um jabuti, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 fêmeas, 2 ninfas e Amblyomma sp. (2 larvas. O presente achado de A. romitii é o primeiro no Estado de Rondônia, representando o achado mais

  11. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  12. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent.

  13. Diversity of black Aspergilli isolated from raisins in Argentina: Polyphasic approach to species identification and development of SCAR markers for Aspergillus ibericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj Merlera, G; Muñoz, S; Coelho, I; Cavaglieri, L R; Torres, A M; Reynoso, M M

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is a heterogeneous fungal group including some ochratoxin A producer species that usually contaminate raisins. The section contains the Series Carbonaria which includes the toxigenic species Aspergillus carbonarius and nontoxigenic Aspergillus ibericus that are phenotypically undistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from raisins and to develop a specific genetic marker to distinguish A. ibericus from A. carbonarius. The species most frequently found in raisins in this study were Aspergillus tubingensis (35.4%) and A. carbonarius (32.3%), followed by Aspergillus luchuensis (10.7%), Aspergillus japonicus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger (6.2%), Aspergillus welwitschiae (4.6%) and A. ibericus (3.1%). Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting profiles of major Aspergillus section Nigri members, a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was identified. Primers were designed based on the conserved regions of the SCAR marker and were utilized in a PCR for simultaneous identification of A. carbonarius and A. ibericus. The detection level of the SCAR-PCR was found to be 0.01 ng of purified DNA. The present SCAR-PCR is rapid and less cumbersome than conventional identification techniques and could be a supplementary strategy and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis.

  14. Seven new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from South America with the proposal of three new genera

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described - Cerambycinae, Sydacini: Sydax flechtmanni sp. nov. from Brazil (São Paulo; Eburiini: Ebrodacrys biffipradorum sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima; - Lamiinae, Pteropliini: Ataxia piauiensis sp. nov. from Brazil (Piuaí; Calliini: Amucallia carbonaria sp. nov. from French Guiana; A. citrina sp. nov. from Guiana. Also in Lamiinae, two new genera of Onciderini are proposed. Ubytyra gen. nov., type species U. tuberosa sp. nov. from Peru (Junin e Japi gen. nov., type species J. duartei sp. nov., from Brazil (São Paulo; Ubytyra gen. nov. can be distinguished by the sides of prothorax with long central spine rounded at apex, and this new feature among Onciderini is discussed. Japi gen. nov., is characterized by a fringe of long hairs on the inner side of antennomere III, present only in species from North and Central America, and gender comparison of these species is done and discussed. In Hemilophini, Pseudotacocha gen. nov., type species P. magnifica sp. nov. from Peru (Cuzco, are described. The new genera can be distinguished by eyes well developed, elytra with two carinae and the apices outer with short spine; a comparison with related genera is done.

  15. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

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    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  16. Fission and fusion in island taxa--serendipity, or something to be expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Brent C; Faria, Christiana M A

    2014-11-01

    A well-used metaphor for oceanic islands is that they act as 'natural laboratories' for the study of evolution. But how can islands or archipelagos be considered analogues of laboratories for understanding the evolutionary process itself? It is not necessarily the case that just because two or more related species occur on an island or archipelago, somehow, this can help us understand more about their evolutionary history. But in some cases, it can. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Garrick et al. () use population-level sampling within closely related taxa of Galapagos giant tortoises to reveal a complex demographic history of the species Chelonoidis becki - a species endemic to Isabela Island, and geographically restricted to Wolf Volcano. Using microsatellite genotyping and mitochondrial DNA sequencing, they provide a strong case for C. becki being derived from C. darwini from the neighbouring island of Santiago. But the interest here is that colonization did not happen only once. Garrick et al. () reveal C. becki to be the product of a double colonization event, and their data reveal these two founding lineages to be now fusing back into one. Their results are compelling and add to a limited literature describing the evolutionary consequences of double colonization events. Here, we look at the broader implications of the findings of Garrick et al. () and suggest genomic admixture among multiple founding populations may be a characteristic feature within insular taxa.

  17. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  18. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  19. DETECTION OF INTRANUCLEAR COCCIDIOSIS IN TORTOISES IN EUROPE AND CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, Ekaterina; Dietz, Janosch; Heckers, Kim O; Marschang, Rachel E

    2017-06-01

    Intranuclear coccidiosis of tortoises (TINC) has been described in association with systemic disease in various species of tortoises. TINC has been detected in numerous tortoises from the United States, but there are only a few reports from tropical tortoises in Germany and no reports from Asia. Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, samples from 1,011 tortoises were screened for the presence of TINC. Samples originated from animals kept in captivity in Europe and in China. Coccidia were detected in a total of 27 chelonians (2.7%), including the first description of TINC in a marginated tortoise ( Testudo marginata ), Hermann's tortoise ( Testudo hermanni ), African spurred tortoise (Centrochelys sulcata), and yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulatus). The highest percentage of positive animals was found in radiated tortoises ( Astrochelys radiata ). Although the percentage of positive animals was relatively low, this study demonstrates the global distribution of TINC in captive chelonians as well as expanding the known host range for these pathogens.

  20. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVII. Ticks of tortoises and other reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven species Amblyomma marmoreum was most prevalent and numerous on leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis; Amblyomma nuttalli was present only on Bell's hinged tortoises, Kinixys belliana; and most Amblyomma sylvaticum were collected from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata. Amblyomma exornatum (formerly Aponomma exornatum was only recovered from monitor lizards, Varanus spp.; most Amblyomma latum (formerly Aponomma latum were from snakes; and a single nymph of Amblyomma transversale (formerly Aponomma transversale was collected from a southern African python, Python natalensis. All 30 Namaqualand speckled padloper tortoises, Homopus signatus signatus, examined were infested with O. compactus. The seasonal occurrence of A. sylvaticum and the geographic distribution of this tick and of A. marmoreum, A. nuttalli, A. exornatum, A. latum and O. compactus are illustrated.

  1. Fourteen new generic and ten new specific synonymies in Pholcidae (Araneae), and transfer of Mystes Bristowe to Filistatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A; Colmenares, Pío A; Ramirez, Martin J

    2014-08-08

    Between 1998 and 2011, the Venezuelan arachnologist Manuel Ángel González-Sponga (GS) published a series of taxonomic papers devoted to the Pholcidae of Venezuela. Of his 22 new genera, 20 were monotypic when described, suggesting a high percentage of synonyms. We studied his descriptions and as far as accessible his type specimens and propose the following new generic synonymies: Autana GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Ayomania GS, 2005 and Venezuela Koçak & Kemal, 2008 (new replacement names for Falconia GS, 2003) = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Carbonaria GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Caruaya GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Coroia GS, 2005 = Artema Walckenaer, 1837; Maimire GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Moraia GS, 2011 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Nasuta GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Portena GS, 2011 = Metagonia Simon, 1893; Rioparaguanus GS, 2005 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Tonoro GS, 2009 = Litoporus Simon, 1893; Sanluisi GS, 2003 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893. Three of the type species are also specific synonyms: Autana autanensis GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar aurantiacus (Mello-Leitão, 1930); Coroia magna GS, 2005 = Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837; Tonoro multispinae GS, 2009 = Litoporus uncatus (Simon, 1893). Six species that González-Sponga described under Blechroscelis (a genus previously synonymized with Priscula Simon, 1893) are all synonyms of Mesabolivar eberhardi Huber, 2000 (B. acuoso GS, 2011; B. araguanus GS, 2011; B. blechroscelis GS, 2011; B. copeyensis GS, 2011; B. cordillerano GS, 2011; B. andinensis GS, 2011). In addition, and unrelated to González-Sponga's work, we synonymize the Central Asian monotypic genus Ceratopholcus Spassky, 1934 with Crossopriza Simon, 1893; we synonymize the Chinese species Pholcus acerosus Peng & Zhang, 2011 with Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907 and remove the Malaysian monotypic genus Mystes Bristowe, 1938, previously thought to be the only East Asian representative of the subfamily Ninetinae, to the

  2. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  3. Illegal Trade of Tortoises (Testudinata in Colombia: A Network Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felber Jair Arroyave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of wildlife is important for supporting the economic and demographic growth in emerging countries. Nevertheless, the products of wildlife usually come from illegal trade to supply fur, wild meat and pet markets. Illegal trade puts great pressure over wild populations and threats some endangered species. In Colombia, the trade of wildlife is important because of thevolumes traded and the cultural and economic connotation of some products. We describe the spatial structure of illegal trade of wildlife at departmental level for the five most traded genera of Colombian tortoises (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis and Rhinoclemmys. This study is based on thereports of seizures between 2005 and 2009 compiled by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo of Colombia. Weapply Network Analysis to study and evidence that the illegal trade network of tortoises includes international markets and supplies the Andean region. The Caribbean, Pacific and Orinoquia regions are the principal suppliers. Quindio, Santander, Antioquia and Putumayo are the biggest jobbers and consumers of wild tortoises. We propose sociocultural and cohercitive actions to fragment the trade network andtheir illegal market as well as promoting the conservation and sustainable use of tortoises.TRÁFICO ILEGAL DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALES (TESTUDINATA EN COLOMBIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDEEL ANÁLISIS DE REDESEl uso de productos extraídos o provenientes de la fauna silvestre es relevante para el desarrollo económico y el bienestar social en muchos lugares del mundo. Sin embargo, frecuentemente la fauna silvestre entra en los circuitos de tráfico ilegal para abastecer los mercados de mascotas y productos como pieles, plumas, “carne de monte”, entre otros. El tráfico ilegal genera enormes presiones sobre las especies sujetas a extracción y es una de las principales amenazas para estas. En Colombia, el tráfico de tortugas es de importancia debido a los vol

  4. Animal movement in the absence of predation: environmental drivers of movement strategies in a partial migration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Fredy; Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Animal movement strategies including migration, dispersal, nomadism, and residency are shaped by broad-scale spatial-temporal structuring of the environment, including factors such as the degrees of spatial variation, seasonality and inter-annual predictability. Animal movement strategies, in turn, interact with the characteristics of individuals and the local distribution of resources to determine local patterns of resource selection with complex and poorly understood implications for animal fitness. Here we present a multi-scale investigation of animal movement strategies and resource selection. We consider the degree to which spatial variation, seasonality, and inter-annual predictability in resources drive migration patterns among different taxa and how movement strategies in turn shape local resource selection patterns. We focus on adult Galapagos giant tortoises Chelonoidis spp. as a model system since they display many movement strategies and evolved in the absence of predators of adults. Specifically, our analysis is based on 63 individuals among four taxa tracked on three islands over six years and almost 106 tortoise re-locations. Tortoises displayed a continuum of movement strategies from migration to sedentarism that were linked to the spatio-temporal scale and predictability of resource distributions. Movement strategies shaped patterns of resource selection. Specifically, migratory individuals displayed stronger selection toward areas where resources were more predictable among years than did non-migratory individuals, which indicates a selective advantage for migrants in seasonally structured, more predictable environments. Our analytical framework combines large-scale predictions for movement strategies, based on environmental structuring, with finer-scale analysis of space-use. Integrating different organizational levels of analysis provides a deeper understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics at play in the emergence and maintenance of

  5. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B; Frair, Jacqueline L; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour - giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) - to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex. Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  6. TRÁFICO ILEGAL DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALES (TESTUDINATA EN COLOMBIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE EL ANÁLISIS DE REDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELBER JAIR ARROYAVE BERMUDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de productos extraídos o provenientes de la fauna silvestre es relevante para el desarrollo económico y el bienestar social en muchos lugares del mundo. Sin embargo, frecuentemente la fauna silvestre entra en los circuitos de tráfico ilegal para abastecer los mercados de mascotas y productos como pieles, plumas, “carne de monte”, entre otros. El tráfico ilegal genera enormes presiones sobre las especies sujetas a extracción y es una de las principales amenazas para estas. En Colombia, el tráfico de tortugas es de importancia debido a los volúmenes explotados y al significado que tienen sus productos para las comunidades. Mediante el Análisis de Redes se caracterizó espacialmente, a nivel de Departamento, el tráfico de los cinco géneros de testudíneos continentales de Colombia más traficados (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis y Rhinoclemmys, tomando como base los registros de incautación y decomiso recopilados por el Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible entre los años 2005 y 2009. Se encontró que la red de tráfico ilegal de testudíneos está articulada con mercados internacionales y propende por abastecer mercados del interior del país (región Andina, siendo los Departamentos de las costas Caribe y Pacífica, y de la Orinoquía, los principales extractores de especímenes. Se identificaron los Departamentos de Quindío, Santander, Antioquia y Putumayo como intermediarios y consumidores. Finalmente, se proponen medidas socioculturales y coercitivas como mecanismos de desarticulación de las redes de tráfico ilegal, siendo dichas acciones un soporte para la conservación y el uso sostenible de los recursos naturales.

  7. Are tortoises important seed dispersers in Amazonian forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerozolimski, Adriano; Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Martins, Marcio

    2009-09-01

    According to most studies on seed dispersal in tropical forests, mammals and birds are considered the main dispersal agents and the role played by other animal groups remains poorly explored. We investigate qualitative and quantitative components of the role played by the tortoise Chelonoidis denticulata in seed dispersal in southeastern Amazon, and the influence of seasonal variation in tortoise movement patterns on resulting seed shadows. Seed shadows produced by this tortoise were estimated by combining information on seed passage times through their digestive tract, which varied from 3 to 17 days, with a robust dataset on movements obtained from 18 adult C. denticulata monitored with radio transmitters and spoon-and-line tracking devices. A total of 4,206 seeds were found in 94 collected feces, belonging to 50 seed morphotypes of, at least, 25 plant genera. Very low rates of damage to the external structure of the ingested seeds were observed. Additionally, results of germination trials suggested that passage of seeds through C. denticulata's digestive tract does not seem to negatively affect seed germination. The estimated seed shadows are likely to contribute significantly to the dispersal of seeds away from parent plants. During the dry season seeds were dispersed, on average, 174.1 m away from the location of fruit ingestion; during the rainy season, this mean dispersal distance increased to 276.7 m. Our results suggest that C. denticulata plays an important role in seed dispersal in Amazonian forests and highlight the influence of seasonal changes in movements on the resulting seed shadows.

  8. Social, biological, and environmental drivers of the hunting and trade of the endangered yellow-footed tortoise in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Q. Morcatty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chelonians constitute an important source of food and income for the inhabitants of tropical forests. We assessed the social, biological, and environmental factors affecting the hunting and trade of the endangered yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata in rural and urban areas in the Amazon and estimated the sustainability of tortoise use. We also discuss possible conservation alternatives that are compatible with the needs of local inhabitants. We monitored tortoise hunting and trade for 12 years in 10 traditional communities that exploit different habitat types in the Brazilian Amazon and collected data on the tortoise trade in two urban markets for six years. In upland forests, tortoise hunting mainly occurred during the dry season; in whitewater flooded forests, hunting mainly occurred during the flood season. The tortoise trade was carried out nearly entirely by whitewater flooded forest users and was intimately related to fishing, the main economic activity in these communities. Furthermore, the tortoise trade was encouraged in whitewater flooded forests because this environment yielded significantly heavier tortoises than upland forests, and we observed a strong relationship between trade probability and tortoise size. The tortoise trade was found to primarily supply nearby urban centers, generating high monetary gain. Female tortoises suffered greater hunting pressure and were more valued in the bushmeat market. The productivity of tortoise hunting in the monitored communities severely decreased with time. In addition, the price per kilogram of tortoise greatly increased in the urban market. Given this unsustainable scenario, policies regulating tortoise hunting in the Amazon are needed. These policies must be adapted to the different patterns of tortoise use by rural communities while maintaining the culture and food sovereignty of the local inhabitants.

  9. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  10. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  11. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  12. Herbivorous reptiles and body mass: effects on food intake, digesta retention, digestibility and gut capacity, and a comparison with mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Ragna; Hummel, Jürgen; Müller, Dennis W H; Bauert, Martin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the allometric scaling between gut capacity (with body mass, BM¹·⁰⁰) and food intake (with BM⁰·⁷⁵) should theoretically result in a scaling of digesta retention time with BM⁰·²⁵ and therefore a higher digestive efficiency in larger herbivores. This concept is an important part of the so-called 'Jarman-Bell principle' (JBP) that explains niche differentiation along a body size gradient in terms of digestive physiology. Empirical data in herbivorous mammals, however, do not confirm the scaling of retention time, or of digestive efficiency, with body mass. Here, we test these concepts in herbivorous reptiles, adding data of an experiment that measured food intake, digesta retention, digestibility and gut capacity in 23 tortoises (Testudo graeca, T. hermanni , Geochelone nigra, G. sulcata, Dipsochelys dussumieri) across a large BM range (0.5-180 kg) to a literature data collection. While dry matter gut fill scaled to BM¹·⁰⁷ and dry matter intake to BM⁰·⁷⁶, digesta mean retention time (MRT) scaled to BM⁰·¹⁷; the scaling exponent was not significantly different from zero for species > 1 kg. Food intake level was a major determinant of MRT across reptiles and mammals. In contrast to dietary fibre level, BM was not a significant contributor to dry matter digestibility in a General Linear Model. Digestibility coefficients in reptiles depended on diet nutrient composition in a similar way as described in mammals. Although food intake is generally lower and digesta retention longer in reptiles than in mammals, digestive functions scale in a similar way in both clades, indicating universal principles in herbivore digestive physiology. The reasons why the theoretically derived JBP has little empirical support remain to be investigated. Until then, the JBP should not be evoked to explain niche differentiation along a body size axis in terms of digestive physiology.

  13. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria varies among sites in Galapagos reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Hong, Pei-Ying; Bedon, Lenin Cruz; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    Increased overlap between humans and wildlife populations has increased the risk for novel disease emergence. Detecting contacts with a high risk for transmission of pathogens requires the identification of dependable measures of microbial exchange. We evaluated antibiotic resistance as a molecular marker for the intensity of human-wildlife microbial connectivity in the Galápagos Islands. We isolated Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the feces of land iguanas (Conolophus sp.), marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra), and seawater, and tested these bacteria with the use of the disk diffusion method for resistance to 10 antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found in reptile feces from two tourism sites (Isla Plaza Sur and La Galapaguera on Isla San Cristóbal) and from seawater close to a public use beach near Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on Isla San Cristóbal. No resistance was detected at two protected beaches on more isolated islands (El Miedo on Isla Santa Fe and Cape Douglas on Isla Fernandina) and at a coastal tourism site (La Lobería on Isla San Cristóbal). Eighteen E. coli isolates from three locations, all sites relatively proximate to a port town, were resistant to ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline, and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, only five S. enterica isolates showed a mild decrease in susceptibility to doxycycline and tetracycline from these same sites (i.e., an intermediate resistance phenotype), but no clinical resistance was detected in this bacterial species. These findings suggest that reptiles living in closer proximity to humans potentially have higher exposure to bacteria of human origin; however, it is not clear from this study to what extent this potential exposure translates to ongoing exchange of bacterial strains or genetic traits. Resistance patterns and bacterial exchange in this system warrant further investigation to understand better how human associations

  14. 华南泥盆纪遗迹化石及遗迹相%The Devonian trace fossils and ichnofacies from South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 龚一鸣; 马会珍

    2011-01-01

    通过对华南泥盆系6条剖面(四川北川甘溪、广西横县六景、广西桂林杨堤、贵州独山大河口—白虎坡、贵州贵阳乌当、四川广元后高坪)的遗迹沉积学系统研究,鉴定和描述遗迹化石15属24种,包括Arenicolites carbonaria,Arenicolites isp.,Chondrites cf.intricatus,Chondrites fenxiangensis,Chondrites filifalx,Chondrites isp.,Chondrites maqianensis,Circulichnis isp.,Dushanichnus dahekouensis,Diplocraterion parallelum,Rusophycus lungrmenshanensis,?Helminthopsis isp.,Palaeophycus tubularis,Palaeophycus curvatus,Phycodes palmatus,Planolites beverleyensis,Planolites isp.,Planolites kwangsiensis,Rosselia socialis,Rhizocorallium jenense,Rhizocorallium isp.,Skolithos linearis,Thalassinoides isp.,Zoophycos isp..根据遗迹化石之间的共生组合关系、实体化石特征和其他相标志,识别出4种遗迹相:Skolithos,Rhizocorallium,Cruziana和Zoophycos遗迹相.Skolithos遗迹相主要发育于浪控型海岸体系、潮控型海岸体系和障壁岛—潟湖沉积体系的高能沉积区;Rhizocorallium遗迹相主要发育于潮控型海岸体系和障壁岛—潟湖沉积体系的低能沉积区;Cruziana遗迹相发育在浅海陆棚、具有丰富的生物及食物的砂泥岩和灰岩为主的低能沉积区;Zoophycos遗迹相沿泥岩和泥灰岩发育的滨外沉积区分布.华南泥盆纪遗迹相从早泥盆世到晚泥盆世的演替规律是从Skolithos遗迹相→Rhizocorallium遗迹相→Cruziana遗迹相→Zoophycos遗迹相→Rhizocorallium遗迹相.早泥盆世晚期以后华南泥盆纪同时期的遗迹相自西南向东北的空间变化规律则表现为Zoophycos遗迹相→Cruziana遗迹相→Rhizocorallium遗迹相→Skolithos遗迹相.

  15. The phylogeny of Mediterranean tortoises and their close relativesbased on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museumspecimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parham, James F.; Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Feldman, Chris R.; Turkozan, Oguz; Polymeni, Rosa; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-04-29

    As part of an ongoing project to generate a mitochondrial database for terrestrial tortoises based on museum specimens, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 10 species and a {approx}14 kb sequence from an eleventh species are reported. The sampling of the present study emphasizes Mediterranean tortoises (genus Testudo and their close relatives). Our new sequences are aligned, along with those of two testudinoid turtles from GenBank, Chrysemys picta and Mauremys reevesii, yielding an alignment of 14,858 positions, of which 3,238 are parsimony informative. We develop a phylogenetic taxonomy for Testudo and related species based on well-supported, diagnosable clades. Several well-supported nodes are recovered, including the monophyly of a restricted Testudo, T. kleinmanni + T. marginata (the Chersus clade), and the placement of the enigmatic African pancake tortoise (Malacochersustornieri) within the predominantly Palearctic greater Testudo group (Testudona tax. nov.). Despite the large amount of sequence reported, there is low statistical support for some nodes within Testudona and Sowe do not propose names for those groups. A preliminary and conservative estimation of divergence times implies a late Miocene diversification for the testudonan clade (6-12 million years ago), matching their first appearance in the fossil record. The multi-continental distribution of testudonan turtles can be explained by the establishment of permanent connections between Europe, Africa, and Asia at this time. The arrival of testudonan turtles to Africa occurred after one or more initial tortoise invasions gave rise to the diverse (>25 species) 'Geochelone complex.'Two unusual genomic features are reported for the mtDNA of one tortoise, M. tornieri: (1) nad4 has a shift of reading frame that we suggest is resolved by translational frameshifting of the mRNA on the ribosome during protein synthesis and (2) there are two copies of the control region and trnF, with the

  16. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  17. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2015-12-29

    The discriminative potentials of biogeography, vocalization, morphology, cytogenetics, hemoglobin, and molecular profiling of cytochrome b as taxonomic techniques for differentiating Brazilian tortoises were evaluated in this study. In Brazil, two species of tortoises are described, Chelonoidis carbonarius and Chelonoidis denticulatus. However, in the present study, some animals that were initially recognized based on morphological characters and coloring did not correspond to the typical pattern of C. carbonarius; these animals were classified as morphotypes 1 and 2. It was proposed that these morphotypes are differentiated species, and they should not be considered as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Tortoises analyzed were provided by the National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA); the Emilio Goeldi Museum, PA; municipal zoos in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and Araçatuba, SP; and the Reginaldo Uvo Leone breeding farm for Wild and Exotic Animals, Tabapuã, SP. Based on the data obtained using biogeographic evaluation of specimens in the literature, it was found that C. carbonarius is distributed in the Northeast Region of Brazil, and no animal of this pattern was observed in the investigated collections. On the other hand, C. denticulatus is found in all the states of the Legal Amazonia. In addition, isolated individual records of this species exist in the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and in the Midwest Region composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul. In the Northeast Region, C. denticulatus occurs in the State of Bahia. Morphotype 1 has a wider geographical distribution than C. carbonarius, possibly because of several distribution reports associated with C. carbonarius, indicating erroneous association of morphotype 1 as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Morphotype 2 is found only in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí. These biogeographic data indicate that the

  18. Rodrigues Island: Hope thrives at the François Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve

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    David A. Burney

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From this hilltop porch at sunrise, above the limestone landscape of Plaine Corail on the southwestern corner of Rodrigues Island in the middle of the Indian Ocean, I am looking out over a patchwork of small subsistence farms, awakening livestock, a sleepy airport, and a vast reef-bounded lagoon, bigger than the island itself – and something else. Something that warms the cockles of my heart. Something I have been writing and dreaming about for decades, a kind of project that gives me hope for conservation in an otherwise dark hour. Nestled in the midst of all these human landscapes is a truly prehistoric scene, the Francois Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve. On this remarkable 19 hectares, Reserve Manager Aurele Anquetil André and his dedicated staff of young Rodriguans have planted over 130,000 native trees and shrubs, some virtually extinct in the wild and many quite rare otherwise, in just five years. Nearly all have survived, and with only limited maintenance despite the huge challenges posed by invasive weeds on all remote Indo - Pacific islands. Giant tortoises, over 1,000 of them, lumber about doing the work. Fenced in and well - fed on the invasive plants that compete with the natives, introduced Aldabra Tortoises (Aldabrachelys gigantea weighing up to 200 kg crop the invasive plants, and smaller Radiated Tortoises of Madagascar (Geochelone radiata pull up the weed seedlings. Remarkably – and I had to see this for myself – they don’t touch the native plants, which co - evolved with the extinct tortoise fauna (Cylindraspis spp. that disappeared in the late eighteenth century after French colonists shipped over 280,000 of them to Reunion and other places for butchery. These plants have defenses against tortoises and browsing birds. Notable in the latter category was the extinct Solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria a giant pigeon endemic to Rodrigues that was even larger than the Dodo, the famous extinct denizen of Mauritius