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Sample records for geobacteraceae citrate synthase

  1. Dynamics of meso and thermo citrate synthases with implicit solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, J. M. M.

    The dynamics of hydration of meso and thermo citrate synthases has been investigated using the EEF1 methodology implemented with the CHARMM program. The native enzymes are composed of two identical subunits, each divided into a small and large domain. The dynamics behavior of both enzymes at 30°C and 60°C has been compared. The results of simulations show that during the hydration process, each subunit follows a different pathway of hydration, in spite of the identical sequence. The hydrated structures were compared with the crystalline structure, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of each residue along the trajectory was calculated. The regions with larger and smaller mobility were identified. In particular, helices belonging to the small domain are more mobile than those of the large domain. In contrast, the residues that constitute the active site show a much lower displacement compared with the crystalline structure. Hydration free energy calculations point out that Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase (TCS) is more stable than chicken citrate synthase (CCS), at high temperatures. Such result has been ascribed to the higher number of superficial charges in the thermophilic homologue, which stabilizes the enzyme, while the mesophilic homologue denatures. These results are in accord with the experimental found that TCS keeps activity at temperatures farther apart from the catalysis regular temperature than the CCS.

  2. Human METTL12 is a mitochondrial methyltransferase that modifies citrate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2017-06-01

    The protein methylome in mammalian mitochondria has been little studied until recently. Here, we describe that lysine-368 of human citrate synthase is methylated and that the modifying enzyme, localized in the mitochondrial matrix, is methyltransferase-like protein 12 (METTL12), a member of the family of 7β-strand methyltransferases. Lysine-368 is near the active site of citrate synthase, but removal of methylation has no effect on its activity. In mitochondria, it is possible that some or all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, including citrate synthase, are organized in metabolons to facilitate the channelling of substrates between participating enzymes. Thus, possible roles for the methylation of Lys-368 are in controlling substrate channelling itself, or in influencing protein-protein interactions in the metabolon. © 2017 The Authors FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Crystal Structures of Two Isozymes of Citrate Synthase from Sulfolobus tokodaii Strain 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Murakami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to high temperatures in thermophilic CSs. The crystal structures of ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS were determined at 2.0 Å and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural comparison reveals that both of them are dimeric enzymes composed of two identical subunits, and these dimeric structures are quite similar to those of citrate synthases from archaea and eubacteria. ST0587-CS has, however, 55 ion pairs within whole dimer structure, while having only 36 in ST1805-CS. Although the number and distributions of ion pairs are distinct from each other, intersubunit ion pairs between two domains of each isozyme are identical especially in interterminal region. Because the location and number of ion pairs are in a trend with other CSs from thermophilic microorganisms, the factors responsible for thermal adaptation of ST-CS isozymes are characterized by ion pairs in interterminal region.

  4. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...

  5. Controlling Citrate Synthase Expression by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing for n-Butanol Production in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, Min-Ji; Jung, Hwi-Min; Um, Jaeyong

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 was successfully demonstrated in Esherichia coli to effectively produce n-butanol in a defined medium under microaerobic condition. The butanol synthetic pathway genes including those encoding oxygen-tolerant alcohol dehydrogenase were overexpressed in metabolically...... prediction program, UTR designer, and modified using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method to reduce its expression level. E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was correlated with butanol production. These results demonstrate...

  6. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...... and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate...... and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P

  7. Yeast Cells Lacking the CIT1-encoded Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase Are Hypersusceptible to Heat- or Aging-induced Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong Joo; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the initial reaction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is catalyzed by the mitochondrial citrate synthase Cit1. The function of Cit1 has previously been studied mainly in terms of acetate utilization and metabolon construction. Here, we report the relationship between the function of Cit1 and apoptosis. Yeast cells with cit1 deletion showed a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype, and they displayed a rapid loss in viability associated with typical apoptotic hallma...

  8. Structural and functional annotation of citrate synthase from Aspergillus niger ANJ-120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arif, Rawaba; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Ali, Muhammad; Sharif, Sumaira; Atta, Asia

    2018-03-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) is involved in citric acid biosynthesis which is a well-established metabolic pathway. The condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CS. Citric acid (CA) has a number of applications in pharmaceutical industry. CA in combination with bicarbonates is used as an effervescent in the preparations of tablets and powders. It has also been used as an anticoagulant and acidulant to form mild astringent. In current study, detailed structural and functional analyses of CS protein were carried out using various bioinformatics tools. Structural modeling was also done by building 3D model of CS from Aspergillus niger ANJ-120 using Modeller 9.16 software. The 3D Model was then evaluated using different online approaches. Furthermore, superimposition of query and template structures, Root Mean Squared Deviation and visualization of generated model were done through UCSF Chimera 1.5.3. Even though various roles of CS protein were already known and verified experimentally, here we presented a structural analysis of CS protein. The structural investigation of CS protein will be helpful for protein engineering strategies and understanding the interactions among proteins. Due to large number of applications, the production of citric acid by A. niger and its bioinformatics studies will offer substantial improvement in commercial scale intensification of this useful product.

  9. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Różycki, Bartosz; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-01-01

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme

  10. Development of a Rickettsia bellii-Specific TaqMan Assay Targeting the Citrate Synthase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Joy A; Allerdice, Michelle E J; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Paddock, Christopher D; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2016-11-01

    Rickettsia bellii is a rickettsial species of unknown pathogenicity that infects argasid and ixodid ticks throughout the Americas. Many molecular assays used to detect spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species do not detect R. bellii, so that infection with this bacterium may be concealed in tick populations when assays are used that screen specifically for SFG rickettsiae. We describe the development and validation of a R. bellii-specific, quantitative, real-time PCR TaqMan assay that targets a segment of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. The specificity of this assay was validated against a panel of DNA samples that included 26 species of Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Bartonella, five samples of tick and human DNA, and DNA from 20 isolates of R. bellii, including 11 from North America and nine from South America. A R. bellii control plasmid was constructed, and serial dilutions of the plasmid were used to determine the limit of detection of the assay to be one copy per 4 µl of template DNA. This assay can be used to better determine the role of R. bellii in the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses in the Western Hemisphere. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Megan A.; Regish, Amy M.; McCormick, Stephen; Manzon, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19 °C) or below (8 °C) the thermal optimum (13 °C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60 µg T4/g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart. Warm acclimation decreased citrate synthase activity in liver and elevated both citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in red muscle. In contrast, induction of hyperthyroidism in warm-acclimated fish stimulated a significant increase in liver citrate synthase and heart cytochrome c oxidase activities, and a decrease in the activity of both enzymes in red muscle. No change in citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase activities was observed following cold acclimation in either the presence or absence of exogenous thyroid hormones. Collectively, our results indicate that thyroid hormones influence the activity of oxidative enzymes more strongly in warm-acclimated than in cold-acclimated lake whitefish, and they may play a role in mediating metabolic adjustments observed during thermal acclimation.

  12. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Megan A; Regish, Amy M; McCormick, Stephen D; Manzon, Richard G

    2017-06-01

    Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19°C) or below (8°C) the thermal optimum (13°C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60µg T 4 /g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart. Warm acclimation decreased citrate synthase activity in liver and elevated both citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in red muscle. In contrast, induction of hyperthyroidism in warm-acclimated fish stimulated a significant increase in liver citrate synthase and heart cytochrome c oxidase activities, and a decrease in the activity of both enzymes in red muscle. No change in citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase activities was observed following cold acclimation in either the presence or absence of exogenous thyroid hormones. Collectively, our results indicate that thyroid hormones influence the activity of oxidative enzymes more strongly in warm-acclimated than in cold-acclimated lake whitefish, and they may play a role in mediating metabolic adjustments observed during thermal acclimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Citrate synthase gene sequence: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis and identification of Ehrlichia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, H; Brouqui, P; Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

    2001-09-01

    The sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of 13 ehrlichial species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia muris, an Ehrlichia species recently detected from Ixodes ovatus, Cowdria ruminantium, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] agent, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale, Ehrlichia sennetsu, Ehrlichia risticii, and Neorickettsia helminthoeca) have been determined by degenerate PCR and the Genome Walker method. The ehrlichial gltA genes are 1,197 bp (E. sennetsu and E. risticii) to 1,254 bp (A. marginale and A. centrale) long, and GC contents of the gene vary from 30.5% (Ehrlichia sp. detected from I. ovatus) to 51.0% (A. centrale). The percent identities of the gltA nucleotide sequences among ehrlichial species were 49.7% (E. risticii versus A. centrale) to 99.8% (HGE agent versus E. equi). The percent identities of deduced amino acid sequences were 44.4% (E. sennetsu versus E. muris) to 99.5% (HGE agent versus E. equi), whereas the homology range of 16S rRNA genes was 83.5% (E. risticii versus the Ehrlichia sp. detected from I. ovatus) to 99.9% (HGE agent, E. equi, and E. phagocytophila). The architecture of the phylogenetic trees constructed by gltA nucleotide sequences or amino acid sequences was similar to that derived from the 16S rRNA gene sequences but showed more-significant bootstrap values. Based upon the alignment analysis of the ehrlichial gltA sequences, two sets of primers were designed to amplify tick-borne Ehrlichia and Neorickettsia genogroup Ehrlichia (N. helminthoeca, E. sennetsu, and E. risticii), respectively. Tick-borne Ehrlichia species were specifically identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of AcsI and XhoI with the exception of E. muris and the very closely related ehrlichia derived from I. ovatus for which sequence analysis of the PCR product is needed. Similarly, Neorickettsia genogroup Ehrlichia species were specifically identified by

  14. Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkani, Girish C.; Lee, Chi F.; Cammarato, Anthony [Department of Biology and the Molecular Biology Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4614 (United States); Bernstein, Sanford I., E-mail: sbernst@sciences.sdsu.edu [Department of Biology and the Molecular Biology Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4614 (United States)

    2010-05-28

    UNC-45 belongs to the UCS (UNC-45, CRO1, She4p) domain protein family, whose members interact with various classes of myosin. Here we provide structural and biochemical evidence that Escherichia coli-expressed Drosophila UNC-45 (DUNC-45) maintains the integrity of several substrates during heat-induced stress in vitro. DUNC-45 displays chaperone function in suppressing aggregation of the muscle myosin heavy meromyosin fragment, the myosin S-1 motor domain, {alpha}-lactalbumin and citrate synthase. Biochemical evidence is supported by electron microscopy, which reveals the first structural evidence that DUNC-45 prevents inter- or intra-molecular aggregates of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin caused by elevated temperatures. We also demonstrate for the first time that UNC-45 is able to refold a denatured substrate, urea-unfolded citrate synthase. Overall, this in vitro study provides insight into the fate of muscle myosin under stress conditions and suggests that UNC-45 protects and maintains the contractile machinery during in vivo stress.

  15. Citric acid production and citrate synthase genes in distinct strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... synthase in lactic acid production by A. niger and with the ... A number of microorganisms, including both bacteria and fungi, possess the capacity ..... citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and ...

  16. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph, E-mail: kappock@purdue.edu [Purdue University, 175 South University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2063 (United States)

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  17. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS

  18. Phosphorylation of sites 3 and 2 in rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase by a multifunctional protein kinase (ATP-citrate lyase kinase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheorain, V.S.; Ramakrishna, S.; Benjamin, W.B.; Soderling, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    A multifunctional protein kinase, purified from rat liver as ATP-citrate lyase kinase, has been identified as a glycogen synthase kinase. This kinase catalyzed incorporation of up to 1.5 mol of and]2number 2 PO 4 /mol of synthase subunit associated with a decrease in the glycogen synthase activity ratio from 0.85 to a value of 0.15. Approximately 65-70% of the 34 PO 4 was incorporated into site 3 and 30-35% into site 2 as determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. This multifunctional kinase was distinguished from glycogen synthase kinase-3 on the basis of nucleotide and protein substrate specificities. Since the phosphate contents in glycogen synthase of sites 3 and 2 are altered in diabetes and by insulin administration, the possible involvement of the multifunctional kinase was explored. Glycogen synthase purified from diabetic rabbits was phosphorylated in vitro by this multifunctional kinase at only 10% of the rate compared to synthase purified from control rabbits. Treatment of the diabetics with insulin restored the synthase to a form that was readily phosphorylated in vitro

  19. TCA cycle activity in Staphylococcus aureus is essential for iron-regulated synthesis of staphyloferrin A, but not staphyloferrin B: the benefit of a second citrate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jessica R; Marolda, Cristina L; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus elaborates two citrate-containing siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB), that enhance growth under iron-restriction, yet, paradoxically, expression of the TCA cycle citrate synthase, CitZ, is downregulated during iron starvation. Iron starvation does, however, result in expression of SbnG, recently identified as a novel citrate synthase that is encoded from within the iron-regulated SB biosynthetic locus, suggesting an important role for SbnG in staphyloferrin production. We demonstrate that during growth of S. aureus in iron-restricted media containing glucose, SB is produced but, in contrast, SA production is severely repressed; accordingly, SB-deficient mutants grow poorly in these media. Hypothesizing that reduced TCA cycle activity hinders SA production, we show that a citZ mutant is capable of SB synthesis, but not SA synthesis, providing evidence that SbnG does not generate citrate for incorporation into SA. A citZ sbnG mutant synthesizes neither staphyloferrin, is severely compromised for growth in iron-restricted media, and is significantly more impaired for virulence than either of the single-deletion mutants. We propose that SB is the more important of the two siderophores for S. aureus insofar as it is synthesized, and supports iron-restricted growth, without need of TCA cycle activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Function of muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Peter A; Strothers, Chad M; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    The Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is unique among lizards in foraging subtidally, leading to activity across a broad range of ambient temperatures ( approximately 14-40 degrees C). To determine whether the marine iguana shows any biochemical changes consistent with maintaining enzyme function at both warm and cold body temperatures, we examined the function of the aerobic enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and the muscle isoform of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (A(4)-LDH) in A. cristatus and a confamilial species, Iguana iguana, from 14 to 46 degrees C. We also deduced amino acid sequences from cDNA of each enzyme. In CS, despite two amino acid substitutions, we found no difference in the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) of oxaloacetate at any temperature, indicating that the substrate affinity of CS in A. cristatus has not adapted to changes in thermal environment. In A(4)-LDH, we used site-directed mutagenesis to show that the substitutions T9A and I283V (A. cristatus --> I. iguana) individually have no effect on kinetics, but together significantly decrease the K(m) of pyruvate and catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of the A. cristatus ortholog. Thus, our data show that A. cristatus A(4)-LDH has not become cold adapted in response to this species' aquatic foraging behavior, and instead may be consistent with moderate warm adaptation with respect to the I. iguana ortholog.

  1. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

    2010-02-15

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  2. Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselli Scaini

    2011-06-01

    fisiopatologia desta doença.OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  3. Geobacteraceae community composition is related to hydrochemistry and biodegradetion in an iron-reducing aquifer polluted by a neigbour landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques.

  4. Geobacteraceae community composition is related to hydrochemistry and biodegradation in an iron-reducing aquifer polluted by a neighboring landfill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B.; Braster, M.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques.

  5. Evolution from a respiratory ancestor to fill syntrophic and fermentative niches: comparative fenomics of six Geobacteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in natural environments, and the biotechnical use of anaerobes in energy production and remediation of subsurface environments, both require the cooperative activity of a diversity of microorganisms in different metabolic niches. The Geobacteraceae family contains members with three important anaerobic metabolisms: fermentation, syntrophic degradation of fermentation intermediates, and anaerobic respiration. Results In order to learn more about the evolution of anaerobic microbial communities, the genome sequences of six Geobacteraceae species were analyzed. The results indicate that the last common Geobacteraceae ancestor contained sufficient genes for anaerobic respiration, completely oxidizing organic compounds with the reduction of external electron acceptors, features that are still retained in modern Geobacter and Desulfuromonas species. Evolution of specialization for fermentative growth arose twice, via distinct lateral gene transfer events, in Pelobacter carbinolicus and Pelobacter propionicus. Furthermore, P. carbinolicus gained hydrogenase genes and genes for ferredoxin reduction that appear to permit syntrophic growth via hydrogen production. The gain of new physiological capabilities in the Pelobacter species were accompanied by the loss of several key genes necessary for the complete oxidation of organic compounds and the genes for the c-type cytochromes required for extracellular electron transfer. Conclusion The results suggest that Pelobacter species evolved parallel strategies to enhance their ability to compete in environments in which electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration were limiting. More generally, these results demonstrate how relatively few gene changes can dramatically transform metabolic capabilities and expand the range of environments in which microorganisms can compete.

  6. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  7. Citrat og nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Citrate is an important naturally occurring inhibitor of calcium stone formation in urine. Urinary citrate excretion was examined in 43 consecutive patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 50 normal controls by a specific enzymatic technique. Hypocitraturia (<1.6 mmol/24h...

  8. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  9. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  10. Enhancement of methanogenesis via direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacteraceae and Methanosaetaceae conducted by granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Chang, Jiali; Lin, Chao; Pan, Yiran; Cui, Kangping; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2017-12-01

    To understand how granular activated carbon (GAC) promotes methanogenesis, batch tests of CH 4 production potential in anaerobic serum bottles with addition of GAC or not were conducted. Tests showed that GAC promoted methanogenesis remarkably, but the non-conductive zeolite did not. The qPCR demonstrated that the biomass on GAC contributed little to the promotion. High-throughput sequencing data implied that promotion was related with direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacteraceae and Methanosaetaceae. According to the c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts) response to the supplement of GAC, it was speculated that GAC may play the role of c-Cyts' substitution. In the undefined cultures, the phenomenon that c-Cyts were repressed by GAC was first observed. This research provided new evidence to microbial mechanism of promoting methanogenesis via GAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citric complexes, neodymium citrate and americium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlassa, Saidati.

    1981-06-01

    The behaviour of neodymium and americium has been studied in citric aqueous medium by two methods: solvent extraction of elements at tracer scale as chelates and by potentiometry. So range of pH and concentrations of elements and citric acid never reached before have been explored: 10 -7 -1 M, 10 -10 -3 , Csub(H3 Cit) -1 M, 1 2 O; AmCit, xH 2 O; NdCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , 8H 2 O; AmCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , xH 2 O and Nd 3 (OH) 4 (Cit) 4 NH 4 (Co(NH 3 ) 6 ) 2 , 18H 2 O. Their spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics have been listed and studied. The nephelauxetic effect has been estimated from citric complexes as well as from citrates of these elements. The structure of the complexes in solution has been discussed on the basis of analysis of hypersensitive transition in different complexes [fr

  12. Benzalacetone Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuro eAbe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Benzalacetone synthase, from the medicinal plant Rheum palmatum (Polygonaceae (RpBAS, is a plant-specific chalcone synthase (CHS superfamily of type III polyketide synthase (PKS. RpBAS catalyzes the one-step, decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce the C6-C4 benzalacetone scaffold. The X-ray crystal structures of RpBAS confirmed that the diketide-forming activity is attributable to the characteristic substitution of the conserved active-site "gatekeeper" Phe with Leu. Furthermore, the crystal structures suggested that RpBAS employs novel catalytic machinery for the thioester bond cleavage of the enzyme-bound diketide intermediate and the final decarboxylation reaction to produce benzalacetone. Finally, by exploiting the remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic versatility of RpBAS, precursor-directed biosynthesis efficiently generated chemically and structurally divergent, unnatural novel polyketide scaffolds. These findings provided a structural basis for the functional diversity of the type III PKS enzymes.

  13. Influence of temperature on flavour compound production from citrate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Figueroa, R M; Oliver, G; Benito de Cárdenas, I L

    2001-03-01

    The citrate utilization by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was found to be temperature-dependent. The maximum citrate utilization and incorporation of [1,5-14C]citrate rate were observed at 37 degreesC. At this temperature, maximum citrate lyase activity and specific diacetyl and acetoin production (Y(DA%)) were observed. The high levels of alpha-acetolactate synthase and low levels of diacetyl reductase, acetoin reductase and L-lactate dehydrogenase found at 37 degreesC led to an accumulation of diacetyl and acetoin. Optimum lactic acid production was observed at 45 degreesC, according to the high lactate dehydrogenase activity. The NADH oxidase activity increased with increasing culture temperature from 22 degreesC to 37 degreesC. Thus there are greater quantities of pyruvate available for the production of alpha-acetolactate, diacetyl and aceotin, and less diacetyl and acetoin are reduced.

  14. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A novel Geobacteraceae-specific outer membrane protein J (OmpJ is essential for electron transport to Fe (III and Mn (IV oxides in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiffer Marianne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal reduction is thought to take place at or near the bacterial outer membrane and, thus, outer membrane proteins in the model dissimilatory metal-reducing organism Geobacter sulfurreducens are of interest to understand the mechanisms of Fe(III reduction in the Geobacter species that are the predominant Fe(III reducers in many environments. Previous studies have implicated periplasmic and outer membrane cytochromes in electron transfer to metals. Here we show that the most abundant outer membrane protein of G. sulfurreducens, OmpJ, is not a cytochrome yet it is required for metal respiration. Results When outer membrane proteins of G. sulfurreducens were separated via SDS-PAGE, one protein, designated OmpJ (outer membrane protein J, was particularly abundant. The encoding gene, which was identified from mass spectrometry analysis of peptide fragments, is present in other Geobacteraceae, but not in organisms outside this family. The predicted localization and structure of the OmpJ protein suggested that it was a porin. Deletion of the ompJ gene in G. sulfurreducens produced a strain that grew as well as the wild-type strain with fumarate as the electron acceptor but could not grow with metals, such as soluble or insoluble Fe (III and insoluble Mn (IV oxide, as the electron acceptor. The heme c content in the mutant strain was ca. 50% of the wild-type and there was a widespread loss of multiple cytochromes from soluble and membrane fractions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of mutant cells revealed an unusually enlarged periplasm, which is likely to trigger extracytoplasmic stress response mechanisms leading to the degradation of periplasmic and/or outer membrane proteins, such as cytochromes, required for metal reduction. Thus, the loss of the capacity for extracellular electron transport in the mutant could be due to the missing c-type cytochromes, or some more direct, but as yet unknown, role of OmpJ in metal

  16. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. Artificial Citrate Operon Confers Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Ability to Diverse Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B.; Macwan, Silviya R.; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200–1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  20. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095) is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  3. Gallium-67 citrate localization in disseminated sporotrichosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Brazier, J.M.; Baker, F.J.; Fox, B.J.; Pittman, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman demonstrated Ga-67 citrate accumulation within a facial cutaneous lesion and two subcutaneous nodules within the right lower extremity. Cultures of the facial lesion and one of the subcutaneous nodules grew Sporothrix schenckii. Ga-67 citrate uptake has not been reported previously with this fungal infection. Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy was helpful in defining the extent of the disease, following its course, and determining the response to therapy

  4. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate. It occurs as transparent crystals or a white... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS...

  5. Characterisation of citrate and iron citrate uptake by cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.M.; Morgan, E.H.; Baker, E.

    1998-01-01

    Background/Aims: the endogenous low molecular weight iron chelator, citrate, is considered to be an important contributor to iron transport and the liver the main site of uptake of iron citrate in subjects suffering from diseases of iron overload. Moreover, the citrate-metabolising enzyme, aconitase, is implicated in the regulation of cellular iron metabolism. This study was undertaken to determine the role of citrate and ferric citrate in the uptake of iron by rat hepatocytes. Methods: Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated (37 deg. C, 15 min) with 100 μM [ 14 C]-citrate in the presence or absence of 1.0 μM 55 Fe. Membrane-bound and intracellular radiolabel were separated by incubation with the general protease, Pronase. Results: Our results suggest that ferric citrate uptake is mediated by a specific citrate binding site which exhibits a higher affinity for citrate in the presence of iron than in its absence. Citrate was internalised by hepatocytes, with at least 70% being oxidised to CO 2 within 15 min. Citrate uptake was pH-dependent, did not require the presence of sodium and increased with increasing iron concentration. Metabolic energy, anion channels, the Na + , K + -ATPase and vesicle acidification do not appear to play a role in uptake of ferric citrate, but functional sulphydryl groups may be involved. Conclusions: The data suggest either that ferric citrate complexes with higher molar ratios of iron to citrate relative to the incubation medium are bound preferentially to the membrane, or that once citrate has delivered its iron to the membrane, the complex dissociates and the components are internalised separately. (au)

  6. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcour, Christian; Bruninx, Guy

    2013-01-01

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  7. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl citrate...

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of beta-alanine synthase from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobritzsch, D.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Andersen, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    In eukaryotes and some bacteria, the third step of reductive pyrimidine catabolism is catalyzed by beta-alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6). Crystals of the recombinant enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri were obtained using sodium citrate as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P2...

  9. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (M=Co, Cu) nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor method ... The structural characterization was carried out using an X-ray Diffractometer (Rikagu Miniflex, Japan) ..... His current area of interest includes magnetic nanomaterials.

  10. Inducible transport of citrate in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueroa, R M; Benito de Cárdenas, I L; Sesma, F; Alvarez, F; de Ruiz Holgado, A P; Oliver, G

    1996-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exhibited diauxie when grown in a medium containing both glucose and citrate as energy source. Glucose was used as the primary energy source during the glucose-citrate diauxie. Uptake of citrate was carried out by an inducible citrate transport system. The induction of citrate uptake system was repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression was reversible and mediated by cAMP.

  11. Citrate and succinate uptake by potato mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Potato mitochondria, in the absence of respiration, have a very low capacity for uptake by exchange with endogenous anions, taking up only 2.4 nanomoles citrate and 2.0 nanomoles succinate per milligram protein. Maximum citrate uptake of over 17 nanomoles per milligram protein occurs in the presence of inorganic phosphate, a dicarboxylic acid, and an external energy source (NADH), conditions where net anion accumulation proceeds, mediated by the interlinking of the inorganic phosphate, dicarboxylate, and tricarboxylate carriers. Maximum succinate uptake in the absence of respiratory inhibitors requires only added inorganic phosphate. Compounds which inhibit respiration (antimycin), the exchange carriers (mersalyl and benzylmalonate), or the establishment of the membrane proton motive force (uncouplers) reduce substrate accumulation. A potent inhibitor of the citrate carrier in animal mitochondria, 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid, does not inhibit citrate uptake in potato mitochondria. Citrate uptake is reduced by concurrent ADP phosphorylation and this reduction is sensitive to oligomycin. The initiation of state 3 after a 3-minute substrate state results in a reduction of the steady-state of citrate uptake by approximately 50%. Accumulation of succinate initially is inhibited by increasing sucrose concentration in the reaction medium from 50 to 400 millimolar. Limited substrate uptake is one of the factors responsible for the often observed depressed initial state 3 respiration rates in many mitochondrial preparations. Since nonlimiting levels of substrate in the matrix cannot be attained by energy-independent exchange, a dependence on respiration for adequate uptake results. Substrate limitation therefore occurs in the matrix for the period of time needed for energy-dependent accumulation of nonlimiting levels

  12. FERRIC CITRATE: AN IRON-BASED ORAL PHOSPHATE BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christopher Bond

    2012-06-01

    Based on actual physician behavior in response to ferritin and TSAT increases and ferric citrate clinical trial results, and assuming equivalent pricing to other PBs, there would be cost savings with ferric citrate use through reduced ESA and iron use.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of the Rhodium (II) citrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, R.; Santos, F.S. dos; Seidel, W.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the rhodium (II) citrate is described. Rhodium citrate was prepared by reacting citric acid trihydrated (3,4 g, 16 mmols) with anhydrous rhodium acetate (0,44 g, 1 mmol). Th electronic instruments, thermogravimetric curve and spectrum of rhodium (II) citrate are analysed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  14. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... paragraph (c)(1), effective April 27, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth...

  15. Myositis ossificans with Ga-67 citrate positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Yedinak, M.A.; Spicer, M.J.; Turnbull, G.L.; Byrd, B.F.; Brown, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 year-old boy presented with a firm mass within the left thigh. Ga-67 citrate and bone scintigraphy revealed soft tissue radiotracer accumulation within the mass lesion. Radiographs and xerography of the left thigh revealed calcification within the soft tissue mass typical of myositis ossificans. The patient's clinical course was uneventful

  16. Study of Np speciation in citrate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L.; Den Auwer, C.; Ansoborlo, E.; Moisy, P. [CEA Valrho - DEN/DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Cote, G. [ENSP - LECA, UMR 7575, Paris (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the French Environmental Nuclear Toxicology program, additional experiments related to the decorporation of actinides are planned. Decorporation is the removal or release from target organs (bones, liver, kidney..), tissues or cells of radioactive material previously incorporated in them, using chelating agents or other administrated pharmaceutical agents. The contradictory data on the neptunium complexation behaviour within blood and its transfer to target organs, as well as the inefficiency of therapeutic treatments, led us to study the complexation of this element with biological constituents. Within this purpose, the in vitro behaviour of Np(IV) and Np(V) in simple media simulating biological fluids was studied. This study was more specifically focused on the behaviour of neptunium with citrate ion, which is an essential component in a number of metalloenzyme active sites. In order to determine the speciation of this system, spectrophotometry was more particularly used. Concerning the complexation phenomenon, the existence of several complexes of Np(V) with various acido-basic forms of the citrate anion was observed; regarding Np(IV), complexes with Cit{sup 3-} have been observed. From the quantitative study of these equilibria, the values of the absolute constants for the complexation of Np(IV) and Np(V) with citrate were determined. Concerning the stability of neptunium towards oxydo-reduction, it was confirmed that Np(VI) was very quickly reduced to Np(V) by the citrate anions, whereas Np(IV) was stable. In the case of Np(V), it was observed that, depending on the pH and the citrate concentration, Np(V) was unstable and was reduced to Np(IV). The E-pH diagrams, constructed using the stability constants determined in this study, showed that this instability was due to the Np(V) disproportionation. (orig.)

  17. Citrate Anticoagulation during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Davide; Panicali, Laura; Facchini, Maria Grazia; Mancini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    During extracorporeal dialysis, some anticoagulation strategy is necessary to prevent the coagulation of blood. Heparin has historically been used as an anticoagulant because of its efficacy combined with low cost. However, a variable incidence of hemorrhagic complications (5-30%) has been documented in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with heparin as an anticoagulant. Citrate has anticoagulation properties secondary to its ability to chelate calcium, which is necessary for the coagulation cascade. Citrate may thus be used in a regional anticoagulation (RCA), limited to the extracorporeal circuit of CRRT, to avoid systemic anticoagulation. Recent meta-analysis confirmed the advantage of RCA over heparin in terms of incidence of bleeding during CRRT. Moreover, an increase in filter lifespan is documented, with a secondary advantage in reaching the prescribed dialysis dose. In our experience, we could confirm this positive effect. In fact, with a progressive increase in the proportion of CRRT with citrate as RCA, we obtained a reduction in the number of filters used for every 72 h of treatment (from 2.4 in 2011 to 1.3 in 2015), and most importantly, a reduction in the difference between the prescribed and delivered dialysis doses (from 22 to 7%). Citrate has an intense effect on the acid-base balance as well, if fully metabolized through the Krebs cycle, due to the production of bicarbonate. Even more severely ill patients, such as those with liver dysfunction, may be treated with RCA without severe complications, because modern machines for CRRT are equipped with simple systems that are able to manage the citrate infusion and control the calcium levels, with minimal risks of metabolic derangements. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Crystallization of Δ{sup 1}-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Ayako; Taura, Futoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota [Neutron Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Δ{sup 1}-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from C. sativa was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Δ{sup 1}-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is a novel oxidoreductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the psychoactive compound THCA in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). In order to investigate the structure–function relationship of THCA synthase, this enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified and finally crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.4 M sodium citrate. A single crystal suitable for X-ray diffraction measurement was obtained in 0.09 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.26 M sodium citrate. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at beamline BL41XU, SPring-8. The crystal belonged to the primitive cubic space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 178.2 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient was approximately 4.1 or 2.0 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} assuming the presence of one or two molecules of THCA synthase in the asymmetric unit, respectively.

  19. Crystallization of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Ayako; Taura, Futoshi; Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Δ 1 -Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from C. sativa was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Δ 1 -Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is a novel oxidoreductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the psychoactive compound THCA in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). In order to investigate the structure–function relationship of THCA synthase, this enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified and finally crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.4 M sodium citrate. A single crystal suitable for X-ray diffraction measurement was obtained in 0.09 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.26 M sodium citrate. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at beamline BL41XU, SPring-8. The crystal belonged to the primitive cubic space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 178.2 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient was approximately 4.1 or 2.0 Å 3 Da −1 assuming the presence of one or two molecules of THCA synthase in the asymmetric unit, respectively

  20. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  1. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nicole Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P=0.028. 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin.

  2. Clomiphene citrate therapy for male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Alexander, N J

    1979-11-01

    We have summarized 697 reported cases of the use of clomiphene citrate for the improvement of semen quality. Basal levels of gonadotropins are useful criteria for the differential diagnosis of hypo- and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate. Twenty-five mg. per day, administered in a cyclic fashion for a period of six to nine months, caused the greatest improvement. A higher dose (50 mg. per day) may be effective in men who do not respond to 25 mg. During the course of therapy gonadotropin levels and semen samples should be analyzed periodically. This drug is not currently approved for use in men; the incidence of side effects, particularly with long-term treatment, is unknown.

  3. Pyrolytic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celani, F.; Saggese, A.; Giovannella, C.; Messi, R.; Merlo, V.

    1988-01-01

    A pyrolytic procedure is described that via a citrate synthesis allowed us to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, results already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcrystals. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurement show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  4. STABILITY OF SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN CITRATE AND MIXED GELATIN/CITRATE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kavuličová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on an investigation of the influence of both citrate and mixed gelatin/citrate as a reductant and stabilizer on the colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPssynthesized by a chemical reduction of Ag+ ions after a short - (7th day - and long - (118th day - term storage. Formed AgNPs were characterized by a UV–vis Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, Dynamic light scattering (DLS and Zeta-potential (ZP. The obtained results revealed that a short-term stability of the synthesized AgNPs was greatly influenced by a citrate stabilizer with the absence of gelatin. Smaller-sized AgNPs (average particle diameter of 3 nm, roughly spherical in a shape, were obtained with a narrow size distribution. The very negative value of the Zeta-potential confirmed a strong stability of the citrate capped AgNPs. However, a surface coating of the AgNPs by a gelatin/citrate stabilizer was found to be a dominant contributor in improving a long-term stability of the AgNPs (average particle diameter of 26 nm. The use of gelatin in mixed stabilizer solution provided the AgNPs with higher monodispersity and a controllable size after both the short and long-term storage.

  5. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  6. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  7. Citric acid production and citrate synthase genes in distinct strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citric acid is an important organic acid, multifunctional with a wide array of uses. The objectives of this study were the isolation and selection strains of the genus Aspergillus, investigating the solubilization of phosphate of these isolates, verifying the expression rate of genes involved in the identification of isolates, and ...

  8. Clomiphene citrate-induced visual hallucinations: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Ramesh; Gujral, Gaganjeet Singh; Gurav, Prachi; Tibrewal, Shailja; Mathur, Umang

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of chronic anovulation and infertility in otherwise healthy fertile couples. Clomiphene citrate is used as a first-line ovulation induction therapy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clomiphene citrate can cause both systemic and ocular side effects. We report a rare side effect of illusory palinopsias in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate, and emphasize the n...

  9. Aspergillus niger Secretes Citrate to Increase Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; van Gaal, Merlijn P.; Schonewille, Tom; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an innate ability to secrete various organic acids, including citrate. The conditions required for A. niger citrate overproduction are well described, but the physiological reasons underlying extracellular citrate accumulation are not yet fully understood. One of the less understood culture conditions is the requirement of growth-limiting iron concentrations. While this has been attributed to iron-dependent citrate metabolizing enzymes, this straightforward relationship does not always hold true. Here, we show that an increase in citrate secretion under iron limited conditions is a physiological response consistent with a role of citrate as A. niger iron siderophore. We found that A. niger citrate secretion increases with decreasing amounts of iron added to the culture medium and, in contrast to previous findings, this response is independent of the nitrogen source. Differential transcriptomics analyses of the two A. niger mutants NW305 (gluconate non-producer) and NW186 (gluconate and oxalate non-producer) revealed up-regulation of the citrate biosynthesis gene citA under iron limited conditions compared to iron replete conditions. In addition, we show that A. niger can utilize Fe(III) citrate as iron source. Finally, we discuss our findings in the general context of the pH-dependency of A. niger organic acid production, offering an explanation, besides competition, for why A. niger organic acid production is a sequential process influenced by the external pH of the culture medium. PMID:28824560

  10. Preparation of electrocatalysts by reduction of precursors with sodium citrate

    OpenAIRE

    Briskeby, Stein Trygve; Tsypkin, Mikhail; Tunold, Reidar; Sunde, Svein

    2014-01-01

    In this work synthesis of Pt/C catalysts by reduction of H2PtCl6 with sodium citrate has been investigated. The strong pH-dependence of citrate as a reducing and stabilizing agent has been explored, and an optimum pH range for production of well dispersed catalysts is proposed. To achieve stabilizing and reducing conditions, the presence of both citrate anions and protonated citrates are required. This is achieved in an intermediate pH range between pKa2 and pKa3 (4.76 and 6.4) of citric acid...

  11. Biotransformation of uranium and transition metal citrate complexes by clostridia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Joshi-Tope, G.A.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Clostridium sphenoides, which uses citric acid as its sole carbon source, metabolized equimolar Fe(III)-citrate with the degradation of citric acid and the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), but not the U(VI)-citrate complex. However, in the presence of excess citric acid or added glucose it was reduced to U(IV)-citrate. In contrast, Clostridium sp., which ferments glucose but not citrate, reduced Fe(III)-citrate to Fe(II)-citrate and U(VI)-citrate to U(IV)-citrate only when supplied with glucose. These results show that complexed uranium is readily accessible as an electron acceptor despite the bacterium's inability to metabolize the organic ligand complexed to the actinide. These results also show that the metabolism of the metal-citrate complex depends upon the type of complex formed between the metal and citric acid. Fe(III) forms a bidentate complex with citric acid and was metabolized, whereas U forms a binuclear complex with citric acid and was recalcitrant. (author)

  12. Electrospray ionization of uranyl-citrate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Pasilis, Sofie P.; Pemberton, Jeanne E.

    2007-09-01

    Results presented here demonstrate the usefulness of electrospray ionization and gas-phase ion-molecule reactions to predict structural and electronic differences in complex inorganic ions. Electrospray ionization of uranyl citrate solutions generates positively and negatively charged ions that participate in further ion-molecule reactions in 3D ion trap and FT-ICR mass analyzers. Most ions observed are derived from the major solution uranyl-citrate complexes and involve species of {(UO2)2Cit2}2-, (UO2)3Cit2, and {(UO2)3Cit3}3-, where Cit indicates the citrate trianion, C6H5O73-. In a 3D ion trap operated at relatively high pressure, complex adducts containing solvent molecules, alkali and ammonium cations, and nitrate or chloride anions are dominant, and proton/alkali cation (Na+, K+) exchange is observed for up to six exchangeable protons in an excess of alkali cations. Adduct formation in a FT-ICR cell that is operated at lower pressures is less dominant, and direct detection of positive and negative ions of the major solution complexes is possible. Multiply charged ions are also detected, suggesting the presence of uranium in different oxidation states. Changes in uranium oxidation state are detected by He-CID and SORI-CID fragmentation, and certain fragments undergo association reactions in trapping analyzers, forming "exotic" species such as [(UO2)4O3]-, [(UO2)4O4]-, and [(UO2)4O5]-. Ion-molecule reactions with D2O in the FT-ICR cell indicate substantial differences in H/D exchange rate and D2O accommodation for different ion structures and charge states. Most notably, the positively charged ions [H2(UO2)2Cit2(H)]+ and [(UO2)2(Cit)]+ accommodate two and three D2O molecules, respectively, which reflects well the structural differences, i.e., tighter uranyl-citrate coordination in the former ion than in the latter. The corresponding negatively charged ions accommodate zero or two D2O molecules, which can be rationalized using suggested solution phase structures

  13. Exogenous iron and γ-irradiation induce NO-synthase synthesis in mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoyan, V.D.; Voevodskaya, N.V.; Kubrina, L.N.; Malenkova, I.V.; Vanin, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide, CHI) and exogenous antioxidant (phenazan) suppress the synthesis of NO in mouse liver in vivo which is induced by administration to the animals of γ-irradiation, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or Fe 2+ -citrate together with LPS. Biosynthesis of NO was monitored by the ESR signal of paramagnetic mononitrosyl iron complexes with the exogenous ligand diethyldithiocarbamate (MNIC-DETC) 30 min after addition of the ligand. The complexes arise from NO binding to DETC complexes with exogenous and endogenous Fe 2+ , which act as selective NO traps. The enhancement of NO biosynthesis after γ-irradiation or LPS or LPS + Fe 2+ -citrate is apparently due to the induction of the synthesis of NO-synthase, which is inhibited by cycloheximide. This process is triggered by reactive oxygen species, presumably through the activation of the transcription factor protein NFkB. The accumulation of free radical oxygen species is inhibited by the antioxidant phenazan

  14. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  15. Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies of Helicobacter pylori in Turkey. ... Results: When we look at the eradication rates of the treatment groups, only two groups (ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups) had eradication rates greater than 80%, both at intention to ...

  16. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  17. Iron(III) citrate speciation in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andre M N; Kong, XiaoLe; Parkin, Mark C; Cammack, Richard; Hider, Robert C

    2009-10-28

    Citrate is an iron chelator and it has been shown to be the major iron ligand in the xylem sap of plants. Furthermore, citrate has been demonstrated to be an important ligand for the non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) pool occurring in the plasma of individuals suffering from iron-overload. However, ferric citrate chemistry is complicated and a definitive description of its aqueous speciation at neutral pH remains elusive. X-Ray crystallography data indicates that the alcohol function of citrate (Cit4-) is involved in Fe(III) coordination and that deprotonation of this functional group occurs upon complex formation. The inability to include this deprotonation in the affinity constant calculations has been a major source of divergence between various reports of iron(III)-citrate affinity constants. However the recent determination of the alcoholic pKa of citric acid (H4Cit) renders the reassessment of the ferric citrate system possible. The aqueous speciation of ferric citrate has been investigated by mass spectrometry and EPR spectroscopy. It was observed that the most relevant species are a monoiron dicitrate species and dinuclear and trinuclear oligomeric complexes, the relative concentration of which depends on the solution pH value and the iron : citric acid molar ratio. Spectrophotometric titration was utilized for affinity constant determination and the formation constant for the biologically relevant [Fe(Cit)2]5- is reported for the first time.

  18. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca 2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32 P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32 P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor

  19. The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Citrate Crosslinked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop citrate crosslinked chitosan films using chitosan of different molecular weights. (MW) in .... left to stand until trapped air bubbles ... blotted out carefully with filter paper from the .... potential as biodegradable stent coatings. J.

  20. Enclomiphene Citrate for the Treatment of Secondary Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Katherine M.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypogonadism is a growing concern in an aging male population. Historically treated using exogenous testosterone, concerns about possible adverse effects of testosterone have led physicians to seek alternative treatment approaches. Areas Covered Enclomiphene citrate is the trans isomer of clomiphene citrate, a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that is FDA-approved for the treatment of ovarian dysfunction in women. Clomiphene citrate has also been used off-label for many years to treat secondary male hypogonadism, particularly in the setting of male infertility. Here we review the literature examining the efficacy and safety of enclomiphene citrate in the setting of androgen deficiency. Expert Opinion Initial results support the conclusion that enclomiphene citrate increases serum testosterone levels by raising luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, without negatively impacting semen parameters. The ability to treat testosterone deficiency in men while maintaining fertility supports a role for enclomiphene citrate in the treatment of men in whom testosterone therapy is not a suitable option. PMID:27337642

  1. Effect of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo on induction of ovulation in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Etelka; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Multicentre trial in 20 Dutch hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 228 women with polycystic ovary

  2. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, C.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500 0 C, 450 0 C and 250 0 C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450 0 C and 500 0 C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800 0 C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500 0 C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600 0 C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400 0 C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400 0 C-800 0 C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100 0 C and 1200 0 C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm -3 at 1200 0 C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs

  3. Ocular safety of Viagra, (sildenafil citrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, A M; Fraunfelder, F T

    1999-01-01

    To date, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) gives every evidence of being a safe drug for the eye despite a series of expressed concerns. A review of how its ocular safety profile has been identified offers insights into the strengths and weaknesses of present systems and resources for judging the ocular safety of Viagra or, for that matter, of any new drug. Such insights include: The great value of careful, informed assessment of preclinical information gleaned from laboratory experiments. By and large, such assessments point the way toward appropriate clinical evaluation. For Viagra, early in its development it was noted that besides exerting a major inhibitory effect on the intended target, the vascular-associated enzyme phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the drug also exerts a lesser but definite inhibitory effect on the closely related PDE6, located in the retina. For this reason, preclinical evaluation of the drug included electroretinography plus postmortem histology. In addition, an extended eye examination was incorporated into clinical protocols. The often chaotic but invaluable information stream that becomes available once marketing approval has been gained and large populations begin to use a drug. False alarms, misattribution, and erroneous information are the order of the day. Nevertheless, as information accumulates, patterns of response clarify and the true nature of special susceptibility for subpopulations, if any, becomes apparent. A role for the astute clinician remains: Subtle changes or unusual risks for subpopulations can be missed entirely for long periods of time. A manifest need for improvement in evaluation of postmarketing side-effects. This need has led to the establishment of a new discipline: pharmacoepidemiology. In ophthalmology, the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects maintains a constant and invaluable surveillance. Examples are supplied to illustrate each of these major points: Our presentation will include data gleaned from

  4. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) enhances vasodilatation in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, Mark; Myers, Jenny E; O'Hara, Maureen; Baker, Philip N

    2005-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects up to 8% of all pregnancies and has massive short-term (increased fetal morbidity and mortality) and long-term (increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in adulthood) health implications. Doppler waveform analysis of pregnancies complicated by FGR suggests compromised uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoperfusion. Our aim was to determine whether myometrial small artery function was aberrant in FGR and to assess whether sildenafil citrate could improve vasodilatation in FGR pregnancies. Small arteries dissected from myometrial biopsies obtained at cesarean section from normal pregnant women (n = 27) or women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR (n = 12) were mounted on wire myographs. Vessels were constricted (with arginine vasopressin or U46619) and relaxed (with bradykinin) before and after incubation with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil citrate. We demonstrated increased myometrial small artery vasoconstriction and decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in vessels from women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR. Sildenafil citrate significantly reduced vasoconstriction and significantly improved relaxation of FGR small arteries. We conclude that sildenafil citrate improves endothelial function of myometrial vessels from women whose pregnancies are complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Sildenafil citrate may offer a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in FGR pregnancies.

  5. Structural Basis of Catalysis in the Bacterial Monoterpene Synthases Linalool Synthase and 1,8-Cineole Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Karuppiah, Vijaykumar; Ranaghan, Kara E.; Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Johannissen, Linus O.; Shanmugam, Muralidharan; Ní Cheallaigh, Aisling; Bennett, Nathan J.; Kearsey, Lewis J.; Takano, Eriko; Gardiner, John M.; van der Kamp, Marc W.; Hay, Sam; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2017-01-01

    Terpenoids form the largest and stereochemically most diverse class of natural products, and there is considerable interest in producing these by biocatalysis with whole cells or purified enzymes, and by metabolic engineering. The monoterpenes are an important class of terpenes and are industrially important as flavors and fragrances. We report here structures for the recently discovered Streptomyces clavuligerus monoterpene synthases linalool synthase (bLinS) and 1,8-cineole synthase (bCinS)...

  6. Kinetics and equilibria of cyanide binding to prostaglandin H synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I D; Dunford, H B

    1989-09-01

    Cyanide binding to prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase results in a spectral shift in the Soret region. This shift was exploited to determine equilibrium and kinetic parameters of the cyanide binding process. At pH 8.0, ionic strength 0.22 M, 4 degrees C, the cyanide dissociation constant, determined from equilibrium experiments, is (65 +/- 10) microM. The binding rate constant is (2.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(3) M-1 s-1, and the dissociation rate constant is zero within experimental error. Through a kinetic study of the binding process as a function of pH, from pH 3.96 to 8.00, it was possible to determine the pKa of a heme-linked acid group on the enzyme of 4.15 +/- 0.10 with citrate buffer. An apparent pKa of 4.75 +/- 0.03 was determined with acetate buffer; this different value is attributed to complexation of the enzyme with one of the components of the acetate buffer.

  7. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  8. A test of the citrate method of PMI estimation from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Christensen, Angi M

    2017-01-01

    Citrate content in bone has been shown to be associated with the postmortem interval (PMI), with citrate decreasing after death as a function of time. Here we test this method using porcine ribs for the period of 1-165days after death, and also assess citrate content and variation from samples placed into two different postmortem environments (terrestrial and aquatic). Higher citrate variation, lower citrate recovery, and a weaker association with time were found in this study as compared to others. Citrate content, however, was found to decrease with increasing PMI, and the method was found to be easy and inexpensive to apply. No significant differences were found in citrate loss between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although more research is needed, citrate content appears to be a promising new approach in estimating PMI from skeletal remains. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Determination of radiation loads from examination of the colon by 67Ga citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalova, P.; Buncova, M.; Vrba, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of radiation loads from examination of the colon by gallium citrate. The average calculated committed effective dose after administration of 5 MBq of 67 Ga-citrate is 2.05 mSv.

  10. Hemodiafiltration using pre-dilutional on-line citrate dialysate: A new technique for regional citrate anticoagulation: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhouane Bousselmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, observational, feasibility study was carried out on four patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing bicarbonate hemodialysis to study the feasibility of an on-line hemodiafiltration technique using a citrate dialysate with pre-dilutional infusion of citrate as a technique for regional citrate anticoagulation. All patients had contraindication to systemic heparin anticoagulation. The dialysis technique consisted of an on-line hemodiafiltration with a citrate dialysate without calcium using a Fresenius 4008S dialysis machine and Fresenius Polysulfone F60 dialyzers. The infusion solution was procured directly from the dialysate and was infused into the arterial line. To avoid the risk of hypocalcemia, calcium gluconate was infused to the venous return line. The study was carried out in two stages. During the first stage, the citrate infusion rate was 80 mL/min and the calcium infusion rate was 9 mmol/h. At the second stage, the rates were 100 mL/min and 11 mmol/h, respectively. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of thrombosis in the extracorporeal blood circuit and/or the dialyzer. A total of 78 sessions were conducted. All the sessions were well tolerated clinically and there were no major incidents in any of the four patients. At the first stage of the study, there were five incidences of small clots in the venous blood chamber, an incidence of extracorporeal blood circuit thrombosis of 12.5%. At the second stage of the study, no cases of extracorporeal blood circuit or dialyzer thrombosis were noted. Hemodiafiltration with on-line citrate dialysate infusion to the arterial line is safe and allows an effective regional anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit without the need for systemic anticoagulation.

  11. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ...] Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300... allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300...

  12. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  13. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  14. Scintiscanning of lung cancer with 67Ga-citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsunobu; Ohyama, Shiro; Ohtsuka, Hassau; Hoshina, Toshifumi; Takanashi, Shuko

    1982-01-01

    The clinical value of scintigram with 67 Ga-citrate in 58 patients with primary lung cancer was investigated and discussed. The results are as follows: 1) Positive 67 Ga-scintigram was obtained in 83% of patients with primary lung cancer. The histologically confirmed positive ratios were 74% in adenocarcinoma, 94% in squamous cell carcinoma, 80% in small cell carcinoma and 100% in large cell carcinoma. 2) The positive ratios according to T category of TNM classification was 0% (0/1) in T1, 83% (20/24) in T2 and 85% (28/33) in T3. 3) According to rules for classification of lung cancer (TNM UICC 1978,) T2 cases were divided into two groups. a) In patients with hilar involvements on chest X-ray, positive accumulation to the hilar region was 88% (7/8). b) In patients without the evidence of hilar involvements on chest X-ray, the positive accumulation to the hilar region was 81% (13/16). 4) All cases extending to the mediastinum showed abnormal 67 Ga-citrate accumulation regardless of histological type. 67 Ga-citrate scanning is useful in evaluating the extent of lung cancer, especially with hilar and mediastinal involvements. Therefore 67 Ga-citrate scanning seems to be very useful for planning the radiotherapy for lung cancer. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline...

  16. The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Citrate Crosslinked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEM), dissolution studies and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for surface ... Conclusion: The citrate-crosslinked chitosan films can be modulated to vary swelling and drug release at pH 3.5 and 6.2; this feature makes them useful tools for ...

  17. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia De Sequera Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Dialysis with citrate provides better control of postdialysis acid-base balance, decreases/avoids postdialysis alkalaemia, and lowers the increase in Cac and Cai. This finding is of special interest in patients with predisposing factors for arrhythmia and patients with respiratory failure, carbon dioxide retention, calcifications and advanced liver disease.

  18. Ovarian capsular drilling in the treatment of clomiphene citrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling (LOD) is an effective and a well evaluated surgical Treatment of Clomiphene Citrate resistant Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (TVHL) is a relatively new simple method of exploring the pelvis and has recently been introduced as a transvaginal ...

  19. Molecular characterization of microbial population dynamics during sildenafil citrate degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Bruna; Argenziano, Carolina; Guida, Marco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Condorelli, Valerio; Inglese, Mafalda

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about pharmaceutical and personal care products pollutants (PPCPs), but there is a growing interest in how they might impact the environment and microbial communities. The widespread use of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) has attracted great attention because of the high usage rate, the unpredictable disposal and the unknown potential effects on wildlife and the environment. Until now information regarding the impact of Viagra on microbial community in water environment has not been reported. In this research, for the first time, the genetic profile of the microbial community, developing in a Viagra polluted water environment, was evaluated by means of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes, for bacteria and fungi, respectively, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separated using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The DGGE results revealed a complex microbial community structure with most of the population persisting throughout the experimental period. DNA sequences from bands observed in the different denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles exhibited the highest degree of identity to uncultured bacteria and fungi found previously mainly in polluted environmental and treating bioreactors. Biotransformation ability of sildenafil citrate by the microbial pool was studied and the capability of these microorganisms to detoxify a polluted water ecosystem was assessed. The bacterial and fungal population was able to degrade sildenafil citrate entirely. Additionally, assays conducted on Daphnia magna, algal growth inhibition assay and cell viability determination on HepG2 human cells showed that biotransformation products obtained from the bacterial growth was not toxic. The higher removal efficiency for sildenafil citrate and the lack of toxicity by the biotransformation products obtained showed that the microbial community identified here represented a composite population that might have biotechnological relevance to

  20. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  1. SERS substrates fabricated using ceramic filters for the detection of bacteria: Eliminating the citrate interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Sorensen, K. C.; George, R. D.; Sims, P. C.; O'braztsova, A.

    2017-06-01

    It was found that spectra obtained for bacteria on SERS substrates fabricated by filtering citrate-generated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) onto rigid, ceramic filters exhibited peaks due to citrate as well as the bacteria. In many cases the citrate spectrum overwhelmed that of the bacteria. Given the simplicity of the method to prepare these substrates, means of eliminating this citrate interference were explored. It was found that allowing a mixture of bacteria suspension and citrate-generated Ag NPs to incubate prior to filtering onto the ceramic filter eliminated this interference.

  2. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  3. Reduced insulin-mediated citrate synthase activity in cultured skeletal muscle cells from patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Mogensen, Martin; Petersen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In myotubes established from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid oxidation and insulin-mediated glucose oxidation are reduced, whereas in myotubes from obese non-diabetic subjects, exposure to palmitate impairs insulin-mediated glucose oxidation. To determine the underlying mechanisms...

  4. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Lenskjold, Toke; Jacoby, Anne Sophie

    2016-01-01

    cells were quantitated using enzyme immunometric assays. The activity of GSK-3β (serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β/total GSK-3β) was lower at baseline compared with follow-up. No significant mean change over time was observed in levels of total GSK-3β and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. Exploratory......Evidence indicates a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in cognitive disturbances; however, the natural variation in GSK-3β activity over time is unknown. We aimed to investigate GSK-3β activity over time and its possible correlation...... with emotional lability, subjective mood fluctuations and cognitive function in healthy individuals. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tests and blood samples at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Total GSK-3β and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β in peripheral blood mononuclear...

  5. Metformin-clomiphene citrate vs. clomiphene citrate alone: Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women that is associated with reproductive and metabolic disorders. Objectives: We compared the ovulation and conception rates after the treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC alone and in combination with metformin in infertile patients presented with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial of independent cases and controls was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 01 to December 31, 2008. The 42 subjects diagnosed as PCOS were divided into group A and B (21 subjects in each for management with CC + metformin and CC alone, respectively. Group A received 500 mg three times a day of metformin continuously from the first cycle for 6 months or till pregnancy was confirmed. In both groups CC was started at a dose of 50 mg from day-2 till day-6 of the menstrual cycle. The dose of CC was increased to 100 mg in second and 150 mg in third cycle, and then remained 150 mg for the remaining three cycles. With ovulation the dose of CC was unaltered in both groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: More than 50% females in both groups were had body mass index > 25. Group A achieved high rate of regular cycles, ovulation success, and conception than group B (71.4% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.03, (76.2% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.021, and (66.6% vs. 28.6%; P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Management with metformin + CC increased the ovulation and conception rates.

  6. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  7. Evaluation of oral abdominal contrast agent containing ferric ammonium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Toshiko; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Iwasaki, Toshiko

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of oral MRI contrast agent containing ferric ammonium citrate. Twenty patients were arbitrarily divided into 2 groups according to the given dose of 100 and 200 mg Fe of oral MRI contrast agent. MRI was performed before and immediately after ingesting 300 ml solution of oral MRI contrast agent using a 1.5 T superconducting system (GE: Signa). Each dose of 100 and 200 mg Fe of oral MRI contrast agent produced sufficient enhancement of gastrointestinal tract, enough to make clear the pancreatic contour and porta hepatis. There was no significant change in blood and urine analysis observed after taking oral MRI contrast agent. The use of ferric ammonium citrate as an oral MRI contrast agent seems to add valuable information in performing upper abdominal MRI imaging. (author)

  8. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  9. Colon transit scintigraphy by 67 Ga citrate for idiopathic constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshandar Asll, I.; Ehsani, M.J.; Javadi, H.

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: segmental colonic transit studies are important in patients with severe constipation. This study is the first Iranian preliminary survey of colonic transit scintigraphy using 67 Ga -citrate as a new method in constipated patients with normal radiographic and colonoscopic evaluations. Patients and methods: thirteen patients with idiopathic constipation underwent colon transit scintigraphy. After oral administration of 6-7 MBq Ga-citrates, serial abdominal images were taken up to 72 hours. Pattern classification wa s performed visually according to the distribution of radioactivity, Scintigraphic parameters such as geometric mean center of seq mental retention of tracer, as well as mean ac activity profiles and colonic tracer half-clearance time were calculated Results: Three patterns of colonic transit scintigraphy were recognized. Nine patients had the normal pattern, i.e. excellent propagation of ac activity. Three patients had the colonic inertia pattern with marked retention of activity in the transverse colon and splenic flexure at 48 hours, One patient had significant retention of activity in the recto sigmoid at 72 hours, defined as functional recto sigmoid obstruction . No significant difference was seen in GMC24h between the normal pattern and colonic inertia (P4.053), but GMC48h and GMC72h markedly differed between the two groups (P50.0 16 and 0.025 respectively). 'The mean half clearance time of the two groups was di different (P4.017). Our results are well compatible with scintigraphic diagnostic criteria in different patterns of colonic transit defined by other studies with different radiotracer. Conclusion: oral 67 Ga -citrate colon transit scintigraphy is a feasible method to evaluate idiopathic constipation and seems to be a suitable surrogate for radio-opaque markers. Keywords: oral 67 Ga -citrate, colonic transit study, idiopathic constipation, scintigraphy

  10. Renal Localization of 67Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1992-01-01

    67 Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of 67 Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal 67 Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of 67 Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher 67 Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal 67 Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal 67 Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, 67 Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  11. 67Ga-citrate scanning in gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douds, H.N.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The value of 67 Ga-citrate scanning in cases of gastrointestinal malignancies is discussed. Seven cases are presented, including lymphomas of the stomach, small bowel, and rectum, and adenocarcinomas of the stomach and colon. In a review of the literature, there is general pessimism regarding the use of 67 Ga scans in GI malignancies. Based on previous reports and our own experience, specific clinical situations are cited in which the scan is of considerable value for diagnosis and followup of GI malignancy

  12. Synthesis and characterization of poly(glycerol citrate/sebacate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brioude, Michel M.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Fiuza, Raigenis P.; Boaventura, Jaime S.; Jose, Nadia M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work were prepared and characterized the poly(glycerol citrate/sebacate) in three different ratios between acids. The polymers were prepared by a polycondensation reaction between glycerol and citric/sebacic acids and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning differential calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the polymers are polyesters and its crystallinity, thermal and morphological properties were modified by sebacic acid adding. (author)

  13. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms

  14. Targeted proteins involved in the neuroprotective effects of lithium citrate

    OpenAIRE

    I. Yu. Torshin; O. A. Gromova; L. A. Mayorova; A. Yu. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Preparations based on organic lithium salts are promising neuroprotective agents that are effective just in the micromolar concentration range and, at the same time, have high safety (Toxicity Class V).Objective: to elucidate more detailed mechanisms responsible for the biological and pharmacological effects of lithium citrate, by analyzing the possible interactions of lithium ion with human proteome proteins that are also represented in the rat proteome.Material and methods. The targets of l...

  15. PZ, PT and PZT formation from metal citrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, C.M.R.; Zaghette, M.A.; Jafelicci Junior, M.; Varela, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lead zirconate, lead titanate and lead titanate-zirconate were obtained by mechanical mixing of lead, titanium and zirconium citrates in ether and by calcination. The process was analyzed by DTA, TGA, IR, pore size distribution and surface area measurements. The results indicate that the decomposition reaction and formation of PZ, PT occur simultaneaously without formation of intermediate compounds. PZT was formed from 500 0 C. (author) [pt

  16. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.; Tang, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  17. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    OpenAIRE

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated with the ...

  18. Efficacy of extended clomifene citrate regimen in comparison with gonadotropins in clomifene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Fathy Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gonadotropins are successful treatment for women with clomifene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extended CC treatment may be an alternative to gonadotropins in the management of CC-resistant women with PCOS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comprised 200 women with CC-resistant PCOS were allocated to two equal treatment groups. Patients in the CC group were given 100 mg of CC daily starting fr...

  19. Neptunium speciation (complexation and redox behaviour) in aqueous citrate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, L.; Ansoborlo, E.; Moisy, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the French Environmental Nuclear Toxicology programme, additional experiments related to the decorporation of actinides are planned. The lack of information on the neptunium behaviour within blood and the inefficiency of therapeutic treatments, led us to study the complexation of this element with basic anions. Within this purpose, the in vitro behaviour of Np IV and Np V in simple media simulating biological media was studied: blood plasma is one of the media of interest and it can be simulated, from a chemical point of view, by an aqueous solution with pH 7.4, containing ions such as citrate (1.6 10 -4 mol/L), lactate (1.5 10 -3 mol/L), CO 3 2- (2.5 10 -2 mol/L), PO 4 3- (1.1 10 -3 mol/L), SO 4 2- (3.3 10 -4 mol/L) and Cl - (9 10 -2 mol/L). This study was more specifically focused on the behaviour of neptunium with citrate ion, which is also a basic ligand to consider when one wishes to study the migration of actinides in the environment, since it exists in significant amounts in the ground due to its production by the plants. In order to determine the speciation of this system, spectrophotometry was more particularly used. Concerning the complexation phenomenon, the existence of several complexes of Np V with various acid-basic forms of the citrate anion was observed; regarding Np IV , two complexes, with 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry, have been respectively observed. The reactivity of Np VI is probably similar to the behaviour of U VI , which is reported in literature to form a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry with the Cit 3- anion From the quantitative study of these equilibria, it has been possible to determine the values of various equilibrium constants. Concerning the stability of neptunium towards oxido-reduction, it was confirmed that Np VI was very quickly reduced to Np V by the citrate anions, whereas Np IV was stable. In the case of Np V , it was observed that, depending on the pH and the citrate

  20. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... chronic periodontitis (CP), 31 with gingivitis (G) and 50 healthy controls. Probing depth ..... Periodontal disease in pregnancy I. Prevalence and severity. ... endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene in premenopausal women with.

  1. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  2. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  3. A Role for the Krebs Cycle Intermediate Citrate in Metabolic Reprogramming in Innate Immunity and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh C. Williams

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism in immune cells is no longer thought of as merely a process for adenosine triphosphate (ATP production, biosynthesis, and catabolism. The reprogramming of metabolic pathways upon activation is also for the production of metabolites that can act as immune signaling molecules. Activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages have an altered Krebs cycle, one consequence of which is the accumulation of both citrate and succinate. Citrate is exported from the mitochondria via the mitochondrial citrate- carrier. Cytosolic metabolism of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA is important for both fatty-acid synthesis and protein acetylation, both of which have been linked to macrophage and DC activation. Citrate-derived itaconate has a direct antibacterial effect and also has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory agent, inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase. These findings identify citrate as an important metabolite for macrophage and DC effector function.

  4. Clinical efficacy of toothpaste containing potassium citrate in treating dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ya Shen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in this study was 38%. The use of desensitizing toothpaste containing potassium citrate with oral hygiene instruction can effectively reduce dentin hypersensitivity.

  5. Risks and benefits of citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, H P; Yan, W W; Chan, T M

    2015-04-01

    Heparin, despite its significant side-effects, is the most commonly used anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy in critical care setting. In recent years, citrate has gained much popularity by improving continuous renal replacement therapy circuit survival and decreasing blood transfusion requirements. However, its complex metabolic consequences warrant modification in the design of the citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy protocol. With thorough understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of citrate, a simple and practicable protocol can be devised. Citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy can be safely and widely used in the clinical setting with appropriate clinical staff training.

  6. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Marcella Lemos Brettas; Peixoto, Raphael C A; Joanitti, Graziela A; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; Telles, Luis A M; Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Bocca, Anamélia L; Vianna, Leonora M S; da Silva, Izabel C R; de Souza, Aparecido R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Báo, Sônia N

    2013-02-16

    Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments' toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Regarding the treatments' toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of maghemite

  7. Comparison of the efficiency of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in combination with metformin in moderately obese clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelica, Artur; Trninić-Pjević, Aleksandra; Mladenović-Segedi, Ljiljana; Cetković, Nenad; Petrović, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive-age. Therapy for those who want to get pregnant involves ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate, metformin, letrozole and gonadotropins. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of combinations of clomiphene citrate-metformin and letrozole-metformin in obese patients who are resistant to clomiphene citrate alone. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study involving 60 moderately obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Thirty-one of them received the clomiphene citrate-metformin, and 29 letrozole-metformin therapy. Stimulation was carried out for the procedures of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The age of patients, duration of infertility, and body mass index in both groups were similar. There was statistically significant difference in the thickness of the endometrium in favor of the group having the letrozole-metformin therapy (8.9 ± 1.7 mm) compared with the group receiving the clomiphene citrate-metformin treatment (6.3 ± 1.3 mm). The number of follicles was not statistically significantly different. Pregnancy rate in the first cycle of IUI in the clomiphene citrate group was 6.4%, and 17.2% in the letrozole group, which also was not statistically different. After the third IUI cycle, the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the letrozole group (20.6%), while in the clomiphene citrate group it was (9.6%). This retrospective study demonstrated the advantages of the use of letrozole over clomiphene citrate in combination with metformin in moderately obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who are resistant to stimulation with clomiphene citrate alone.

  8. Comparison of the efficiency of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in combination with metformin in moderately obese clomiphene citrate - resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductiveage. Therapy for those who want to get pregnant involves ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate, metformin, letrozole and gonadotropins. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of combinations of clomiphene citrate-metformin and letrozole-metformin in obese patients who are resistant to clomiphene citrate alone. Methods. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study involving 60 moderately obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Thirty-one of them received the clomiphene citrate-metformin, and 29 letrozole-metformin therapy. Stimulation was carried out for the procedures of intrauterine insemination (IUI. Results. The age of patients, duration of infertility, and body mass index in both groups were similar. There was statistically significant difference in the thickness of the endometrium in favor of the group having the letrozole-metformin therapy (8.9 ± 1.7 mm compared with the group receiving the clomiphene citrate-metformin treatment (6.3 ± 1.3 mm. The number of follicles was not statistically significantly different. Pregnancy rate in the first cycle of IUI in the clomiphene citrate group was 6.4%, and 17.2% in the letrozole group, which also was not statistically different. After the third IUI cycle, the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the letrozole group (20.6%, while in the clomiphene citrate group it was (9.6%. Conclusion. This retrospective study demonstrated the advantages of the use of letrozole over clomiphene citrate in combination with metformin in moderately obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who are resistant to stimulation with clomiphene citrate alone.

  9. Inhibition of citric acid accumulation by manganese ions in Aspergillus niger mutants with reduced citrate control of phosphofructokinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreferl, G.; Kubicek, C.P.; Roehr, M.

    1986-03-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with reduced citrate control of carbohydrate catabolism (cic mutants) grow faster than the parent strain on media containing 5% (wt/vol) citrate. The mutants tolerated a higher intracellular citrate concentration than the parent strain. One mutant (cic-7/3) contained phosphofructokinase activity significantly less sensitive towards citrate than the enzyme from the parent strain. When this mutant was grown under citrate accumulating conditions, acidogenesis was far less sensitive to inhibition by Mn/sup 2 +/ than in the parent strain. Some of the cic mutants also showed altered citrate inhibition of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

  10. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.

  11. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  12. Caffeine citrate - Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikash; Jawa, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a "silver bullet" in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Caffeine citrate – Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a “silver bullet” in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine.

  14. Free Rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate magnetic carriers as potential strategies for breast cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) has significant antitumor, cytotoxic, and cytostatic activity on Ehrlich ascite tumor. Although toxic to normal cells, its lower toxicity when compared to carboxylate analogues of rhodium (II) indicates Rh2(H2cit)4 as a promising agent for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, few studies have been performed to explore this potential. Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) represent an attractive platform as carriers in drug delivery systems (DDS) because they can present greater specificity to tumor cells than normal cells. Thus, the association between Rh2(H2cit)4 and SPIOs can represent a strategy to enhance the former's therapeutic action. In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles or magnetoliposomes, used as drug delivery systems, on both normal and carcinoma breast cell cultures. Results Treatment with free Rh2(H2cit)4 induced cytotoxicity that was dependent on dose, time, and cell line. The IC50 values showed that this effect was more intense on breast normal cells (MCF-10A) than on breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 and 4T1). However, the treatment with 50 μM Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded maghemite nanoparticles (Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) and Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded magnetoliposomes (Lip-Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) induced a higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and 4T1 than on MCF-10A (p rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles and magnetoliposomes induced more specific cytotoxicity on breast carcinoma cells than on breast normal cells, which is the opposite of the results observed with free Rh2(H2cit)4 treatment. Thus, magnetic nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as carriers in Rh2(H2cit)4 delivery systems, since they can act preferentially in tumor cells. Therefore, these nanopaticulate systems may be explored as a potential tool for chemotherapy drug development. PMID:21443799

  15. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon and (strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.

  16. Value of gallium 67 citrate scintigraphy in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanez-Alloschery, Monique.

    1978-01-01

    For ophthalmologists scintigraphy appears as a simple method to detect endoocular or endoorbital abnormalities. However none of the many scintigraphic methods described seems reliable enough to be used alone. One of the latest isotopic explorations using gallium 67 citrate, a tracer considered tumour-tropic might be able to solve this problem. The aim of this work is to judge the value of the method in the diagnosis of malignant endoocular and endoorbital tumours on the basis of 24 anatomoclinical observations. It may be concluded from this study that ocular gallium 67 citrate scintigraphy, which gave no clearly positive results at all but some doubtful results in the case of endoocular tumours more than 5 mm in diameter, is to be rejected; fluorescein angiography and ocular echograhy provide more elements for an accurate etiological diagnosis. Orbital scintigraphy on the other hand seems to be a necessary complement to a tomodensitometric examination since both methods offer diagnostic information without systematic recurse to carotid arteriography or orbital phlebography, sometimes dangerous for the patient [fr

  17. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  18. Interactions between citrate-capped gold nanoparticles and polymersomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Lopez, Anand; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2018-06-01

    Polymersomes are vesicles formed by self-assembled amphiphilic block copolymers. Polymersomes generally have better stability than liposomes and they have been widely used in making drug delivery vehicles. In this work, the interaction between two types of polymersomes and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied. The following two polymers: poly(2-methyloxazoline-b-dimethylsiloxane-b-2-methyloxazoline) (called P1) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (called P2) were respectively used to form polymersomes. While P1 only formed spherical vesicle structures, worm-like structures were also observed with P2 as indicated by cryo-TEM. Both polymersomes adsorbed AuNPs leading to their subsequent aggregation. A lower polymersome concentration produced more obvious aggregation of AuNPs as judged from the color change. Capping AuNPs with glutathione inhibited adsorption of AuNPs. Considering the surface property of the polymers, the interaction with AuNPs was likely due to van der Waals forces. P1 polymersomes encapsulated calcein stably and AuNPs did not induce leakage. The P1/AuNP complex was more efficiently internalized by HeLa cells compared to free P1 polymersomes, further indicating a stable adsorption under cell culture conditions. In summary, this work indicates citrate-capped AuNPs form stable adsorption complexes with these polymersomes and their interactions have been explored.

  19. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  20. Neptunium speciation (complexation and redox behaviour) in aqueous citrate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L.; Ansoborlo, E.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the French Environmental Nuclear Toxicology programme, additional experiments related to the decorporation of actinides are planned. The lack of information on the neptunium behaviour within blood and the inefficiency of therapeutic treatments, led us to study the complexation of this element with basic anions. Within this purpose, the in vitro behaviour of Np{sup IV} and Np{sup V} in simple media simulating biological media was studied: blood plasma is one of the media of interest and it can be simulated, from a chemical point of view, by an aqueous solution with pH 7.4, containing ions such as citrate (1.6 10{sup -4} mol/L), lactate (1.5 10{sup -3} mol/L), CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} (2.5 10{sup -2} mol/L), PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} (1.1 10{sup -3} mol/L), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (3.3 10{sup -4} mol/L) and Cl{sup -} (9 10{sup -2} mol/L). This study was more specifically focused on the behaviour of neptunium with citrate ion, which is also a basic ligand to consider when one wishes to study the migration of actinides in the environment, since it exists in significant amounts in the ground due to its production by the plants. In order to determine the speciation of this system, spectrophotometry was more particularly used. Concerning the complexation phenomenon, the existence of several complexes of Np{sup V} with various acid-basic forms of the citrate anion was observed; regarding Np{sup IV}, two complexes, with 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry, have been respectively observed. The reactivity of Np{sup VI} is probably similar to the behaviour of U{sup VI}, which is reported in literature to form a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry with the Cit{sup 3-}anion From the quantitative study of these equilibria, it has been possible to determine the values of various equilibrium constants. Concerning the stability of neptunium towards oxido-reduction, it was confirmed that Np{sup VI} was very quickly reduced to Np{sup V} by the citrate anions

  1. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-122-853] Citric Acid and Certain... on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The period of review (POR) is May... INFORMATION: Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by this order is citric acid and certain citrate salts...

  2. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-122-853] Citric Acid and Certain... the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The... order on citric acid from Canada. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary...

  3. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2011, through... and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Countervailing Duty Order, 74... subsidy, i.e., a government-provided financial contribution that gives rise to a benefit to the recipient...

  4. Evaluating the efficacy of citrate anticoagulation during CRRT in cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Караськов

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic anticoagulation during renal replacement therapy in cardiac patients increases the risk of postoperative complications. Citrate anticoagulation is a promising alternative. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of citrate anticoagulation and its influence on the parameters of hemostasis and complications.

  5. Pathogenic mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier SLC25A1 lead to impaired citrate export required for lipid, dolichol, ubiquinone and sterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Homa; King, Martin S; Smith, Anthony C; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2018-01-01

    Missense mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier, encoded by the SLC25A1 gene, lead to an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterised by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development, often resulting in early death. Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate by >70%, indicating that impaired citrate transport is the most likely primary cause of the disease. Some mutations may be detrimental to the structure of the carrier, whereas others may impair key functional elements, such as the substrate binding site and the salt bridge network on the matrix side of the carrier. To understand the consequences of impaired citrate transport on metabolism, the substrate specificity was also determined, showing that the human citrate carrier predominantly transports citrate, isocitrate, cis-aconitate, phosphoenolpyruvate and malate. Although D-2- and L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic hallmark of the disease, it is unlikely that the citrate carrier plays a significant role in the removal of hydroxyglutarate from the cytosol for oxidation to oxoglutarate in the mitochondrial matrix. In contrast, computer simulations of central metabolism predict that the export of citrate from the mitochondrion cannot be fully compensated by other pathways, restricting the cytosolic production of acetyl-CoA that is required for the synthesis of lipids, sterols, dolichols and ubiquinone, which in turn explains the severe disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. [Effect of glucose and lactose on the utilization of citrate by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus ATCC 7469].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito de Cárdenas, I L; Medina, R; Oliver, G

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of citrate by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in a complex medium containing glucose, lactose or citrate was investigated, as an approach to the question of the transport of this acid and the possible relationship with the production of flavour compounds (diacetyl and acetoin). This lactobacillus uses citrate as an energy source in the absence of carbohydrates. External pH and growth increases when citrate is added to complex medium. The presence of citrate does not affect glucose uptake. L. casei ATCC 7469 possibly uses a transport system for citrate utilization, and citrate uptake seems to be under glucose or lactose control. Lactose only inhibits the entrance of citrate at high concentration while the utilization of this acid was negatively regulated by low glucose concentration.

  7. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of 111 In and 67 Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of 67 Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both 111 In and 67 Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of 67 Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of 67 Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of 67 Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with 111 In T4NMPYP and 67 Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of 111 In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger and metabolic engineering for citrate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xian; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long and successful history of citrate production in Aspergillus niger, the molecular mechanism of citrate accumulation is only partially understood. In this study, we used comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of citrate-producing strains—namely, A. niger H915-1 (citrate titer: 157 g L−1), A1 (117 g L−1), and L2 (76 g L−1)—to gain a genome-wide view of the mechanism of citrate accumulation. Compared with A. niger A1 and L2, A. niger H915-1 contained 92 mutated genes, including a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway and an aconitase family protein involved in citrate synthesis. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of A. niger H915-1 revealed that the transcription levels of 479 genes changed between the cell growth stage (6 h) and the citrate synthesis stage (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h). In the glycolysis pathway, triosephosphate isomerase was up-regulated, whereas pyruvate kinase was down-regulated. Two cytosol ATP-citrate lyases, which take part in the cycle of citrate synthesis, were up-regulated, and may coordinate with the alternative oxidases in the alternative respiratory pathway for energy balance. Finally, deletion of the oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene in H915-1 eliminated oxalate formation but neither influence on pH decrease nor difference in citrate production were observed. PMID:28106122

  9. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ On May 31, 2012, we... order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in...

  10. Rôle modeste du citrate comme transporteur d'acétyl-CoA chez l'animal vivant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, S

    1971-02-09

    2,4-(14) C-Citrate incorporated to a far greater extent than 1,5-(14) C-citrate into liver, carcass or adipose tissue fatty acids of living mice. This finding excludes the possibility that the acetyl units emerge from the mitochondria in the form of citrate.

  11. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrosephosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 1132-base pairs (bp) polymerase-chain-reaction product of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.3.1.14) from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) fruit was cloned and nominated as Ac- SPS1. The sequence encodes a putative 377 amino acids protein containing two serine conserved features that had ...

  12. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is involved in key steps of immune response. Genetic factors predispose individuals to periodontal disease. This study's aim was to explore the association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and clinical parameters in patients with periodontal disease. Genomic DNA was obtained ...

  13. HAEM SYNTHASE AND COBALT PORPHYRIN SYNTHASE IN VARIOUS MICRO-ORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORRA, R J; ROSS, B D

    1965-03-01

    1. The preparation of a crude extract of Clostridium tetanomorphum containing cobalt porphyrin synthase but little haem-synthase activity is described. 2. The properties of cobalt porphyrin synthase in the clostridial extracts is compared with the properties of a haem synthase present in crude extracts of the yeast Torulopsis utilis. 3. Cobalt porphyrin synthase in extracts of C. tetanomorphum inserts Co(2+) ions into the following dicarboxylic porphyrins in descending order of rate of insertion: meso-, deutero- and proto-porphyrins. Esterification renders meso- and deutero-porphyrins inactive as substrates. Neither the tetracarboxylic (coproporphyrin III) nor the octacarboxylic (uroporphyrin III) compounds are converted into cobalt porphyrins by the extract, but the non-enzymic incorporation of Co(2+) ions into these two porphyrins is rapid. These extracts are unable to insert Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+) or Cu(2+) ions into mesoporphyrin. 4. Crude extracts of T. utilis readily insert both Co(2+) and Fe(2+) ions into deutero-, meso, and proto-porphyrins. Unlike the extracts of C. tetanomorphum, these preparations catalyse the insertion of Co(2+) ions into deuteroporphyrin more rapidly than into mesoporphyrin. This parallels the formation of haems by the T. utilis extract. 5. Cobalt porphyrin synthase is present in the particulate fraction of the extracts of C. tetanomorphum but requires a heat-stable factor present in the soluble fraction. This soluble factor can be replaced by GSH. 6. Cobalt porphyrin synthase in the clostridial extract is inhibited by iodoacetamide and to a smaller extent by p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. The haem synthases of T. utilis and Micrococcus denitrificans are also inhibited by various thiol reagents.

  14. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence.

  15. Heterotopic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Raheleh; Fazel, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious. In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported. This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Heterotopic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ghandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious.Case: In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported.Conclusion: This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality

  17. Pre-process desilication of wheat straw with citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    in the residual biomass and treatment temperature was observed up to 170 degrees C, yielding a Si removal of up to 97.7%. This high Si removal came at the expense of a low mass yield (down to 45%) in the insoluble lignocellulosic fraction. Optimum process conditions for high Si removal and high total mass yield...... were: 100mM sodium citrate, 130 degrees C, 60 min, 2% w/v solids, and pH of similar to 6.5 during extraction. Using the proposed process conditions, silica removal of up to 77% was achieved with a mass yield of 72.8%. This Si removal from the insoluble lignocellulosic fraction did not affect...

  18. The effect of clomiphene-citrate on broody turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinzon, B; Shafir, Z; Perek, M; Snapir, N

    1984-11-01

    The effect of clomiphene-citrate (CC) on broody turkey hens was examined in three experiments. Turkey hens were categorized as broody if found in the laying nest during 6 successive checks per day, if they were reluctant to leave the nest for a period of 24 hr or more, if they had ruffled feathers, and if their cloacal orifices were contracted so as to prevent vaginal exposure by abdominal massage during artificial insemination. In each experiment, 20 hens, selected as broody from commercial breeding flocks, were treated; half were treated with CC at a dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight/day (per os) for 5 consecutive days, and the rest (control) received parallel treatment with a placebo (CaCO3). In all experiments, the CC administration alleviated brooding behavior and increased egg production.

  19. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  20. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Xiaolei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: hongwang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zou Jing [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 Degree-Sign C to 135 Degree-Sign C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 {mu}{Omega} cm after cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 50 min, 3.1 {mu}{Omega} cm at 230 Degree-Sign C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  1. Internet-ordered viagra (sildenafil citrate) is rarely genuine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Neil; Clark, John P; Stecher, Vera J; Goldstein, Irwin

    2012-11-01

    Counterfeit medication is a growing problem. This study assessed the requirement for prescription, cost, origin, and content of medications sold via the Internet and purporting to be the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor Viagra (sildenafil citrate). Pfizer monitored top search results for the query "buy Viagra" on the two leading Internet search engines in March 2011. Orders were placed from 22 unique Web sites claiming to sell Viagra manufactured by Pfizer. Tablets received were assessed for chemical composition. No Web site examined required a prescription for purchase or a health screening survey; 90% offered illegal "generic Viagra." Cost per tablet ranged from $3.28-$33.00. Shipment origins of purchases were Hong Kong (N = 11), the United States (N = 6), and the United Kingdom (N = 2) as well as Canada, China, and India (N = 1 each). Notably, the four Internet pharmacies claiming to be Canadian did not ship medication from a Canadian address. Of 22 sample tablets examined, 17 (77%) were counterfeit, 4 (18%) were authentic, and 1 (5%) was an illegal generic. Counterfeit tablets were analyzed for sildenafil citrate, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Viagra, and contents varied between 30% and 50% of the label claim. Counterfeits lacked product information leaflets, including appropriate safety warnings, and genuine Viagra formulations. Internet sites claiming to sell authentic Viagra shipped counterfeit medication 77% of the time; counterfeits usually came from non-U.S. addresses and had 30% to 50% of the labeled API claim. Caution is warranted when purchasing Viagra via the Internet. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Xiaolei; Wang Hong; Zou Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. ► A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. ► Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. ► Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. ► Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  3. Post-Dilution on Line Haemodiafiltration with Citrate Dialysate: First Clinical Experience in Chronic Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Panichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Citrate has anticoagulative properties and favorable effects on inflammation, but it has the potential hazards of inducing hypocalcemia. Bicarbonate dialysate (BHD replacing citrate for acetate is now used in chronic haemodialysis but has never been tested in postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF. Methods. Thirteen chronic stable dialysis patients were enrolled in a pilot, short-term study. Patients underwent one week (3 dialysis sessions of BHD with 0.8 mmol/L citrate dialysate, followed by one week of postdilution high volume OL-HDF with standard bicarbonate dialysate, and one week of high volume OL-HDF with 0.8 mmol/L citrate dialysate. Results. In citrate OL-HDF pretreatment plasma levels of C-reactive protein and β2-microglobulin were significantly reduced; intra-treatment plasma acetate levels increased in the former technique and decreased in the latter. During both citrate techniques (OL-HDF and HD ionized calcium levels remained stable within the normal range. Conclusions. Should our promising results be confirmed in a long-term study on a wider population, then OL-HDF with citrate dialysate may represent a further step in improving dialysis biocompatibility.

  4. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  5. Affinity for a malignant tumor and organs of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K; Nakazawa, N

    1976-12-01

    In order to investigate the tumor affinity of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex, it was synthesized in three different ways. By (1) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with FeCl/sub 3//sup -/ ascorbic acid in 0.15 M sodium citrate, (2) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with SnCl/sub 2/ solution in 0.15 M sodium citrate, and (3) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with NaBH/sub 4/ in 0.45 sodium citrate. It was presumed from thinlayer chromatography that the sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes synthesized in three ways were chemically different. These sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes were injected intravenously into the rats subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. These rats were sacrificed at one hour and three hours after injection. The radioactivity of the tumor, blood, muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and urine was measured by well-type scintillation counter. The retention values in these organs and the excretion rates in the urine were calculated. sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex synthesized by reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with SnCl/sub 2/ solution had very strong affinity for the malignant tumor but the other two sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes had no affinity to the malignant tumor. Excretion rates (% dose) of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes in one hour were from 65% to 75%.

  6. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  7. Alkali replacement raises urinary citrate excretion in patients with topiramate-induced hypocitraturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhagroo, R Allan; Wertheim, Margaret L; Penniston, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the magnitude and temporality of decreased urinary citrate excretion in patients just starting topiramate and (2) the effect of alkali replacement on topiramate-induced hypocitraturia. Study 1 was a prospective, non-intervention study in which patients starting topiramate for headache remediation provided pre- and post-topiramate 24 h urine collections for measurement of urine citrate. Study 2 was a clinical comparative effectiveness study in which patients reporting to our stone clinic for kidney stones and who were treated with topiramate were prescribed alkali therapy. Pre- and post-alkali 24 h urinary citrate excretion was compared. Data for 12 and 22 patients (studies 1 and 2 respectively) were evaluated. After starting topiramate, urinary citrate excretion dropped significantly by 30 days (P = 0.016) and 62% of patients had hypocitraturia (citrate alkali, urine citrate increased in stone-forming patients on topiramate (198 ± 120 to 408 ± 274 mg day(-1) ; P = 0.042 for difference). 85% of patients were hypocitraturic on topiramate alone vs. 40% after adding alkali. The increase in urinary citrate was greater in patients provided ≥ 90 mEq potassium citrate. Our study is the first to provide clinical evidence that alkali therapy can raise urinary citrate excretion in patients who form kidney stones while being treated with topiramate. Clinicians should consider alkali therapy for reducing the kidney stone risk of patients benefitting from topiramate treatment for migraine headaches or other conditions. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. A study of 153Sm-citrate-hydroxyapatite synovectomy in knee synovitis with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yanggang; Li Guohua; Yao Guozhong; Zhang Qingcheng; Li Guangming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of 153 Sm-citrate-hydroxyapatite (HA) synovectomy in knee synovitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: In 43 RA patients ineffective to routine anti-rheumatic drugs (DMMARDs) therapy, radiation synovectomy was performed by 153 Sm-citrate-HA in 67 joints and its efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results: Radioactivity was evenly distributed as observed by gamma camera after injection. In 8 cases leakage of radioactivity was detected after 24 h, and accounted to 153 Sm-citrate-HA synovectomy is effective after short-term and medium-term follow-up and it is a safe procedure. (authors)

  9. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  10. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Etienne

    Full Text Available Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  11. Citrate-Induced Nanocubes: A Re-Examination of the Role of Citrate as a Shape-Directing Capping Agent for Ag-Based Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajfathalian, Maryam; Gilroy, Kyle D; Hughes, Robert A; Neretina, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Seed-mediated syntheses utilizing facet-selective surface passivation provide the necessary chemical controls to direct noble metal nanostructure formation to a predetermined geometry. The foremost protocol for the synthesis of (111)-faceted Ag octahedra involves the reduction of metal ions onto pre-existing seeds in the presence of citrate and ascorbic acid. It is generally accepted that the capping of (111) facets with citrate dictates the shape while ascorbic acid acts solely as the reducing agent. Herein, a citrate-based synthesis is demonstrated in which the presence or absence of ascorbic acid is the shape-determining factor. Reactions are carried out in which Ag(+) ions are reduced onto substrate-immobilized Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt seeds. Syntheses lacking ascorbic acid, in which citrate acts as both the capping and the reducing agent, result in a robust nanocube growth mode able to withstand wide variations in the concentration of reactants, reaction rates, seed material, seed orientation and faceting, pH, and substrate material. If, however, ascorbic acid is included in these syntheses, then the growth mode reverts to one that advances the octahedral geometry. The implication of these results is that citrate, or one of its oxidation products, selectively caps (100) facets, but where this capability is compromised by ascorbic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  13. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Induces Cell Senescence through Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1-Mediated Lipogenesis in Chang Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Mie; Song, Insun; Seo, Yong-Hak; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced lipogenesis plays a critical role in cell senescence via induction of expression of the mature form of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which contributes to an increase in organellar mass, one of the indicators of senescence. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which signaling molecules control SREBP1-mediated lipogenesis and senescence. We developed cellular models for stress-induced senescence, by exposing Chang cells, which are immortalized human liver cells, to subcytotoxic concentrations (200 µM) of deferoxamine (DFO) and H2O2. In this model of stress-induced cell senescence using DFO and H2O2, the phosphorylation profile of glycogen synthase kinase 3α (GSK3α) and β corresponded closely to the expression profile of the mature form of SREBP-1 protein. Inhibition of GSK3 with a subcytotoxic concentration of the selective GSK3 inhibitor SB415286 significantly increased mature SREBP1 expression, as well as lipogenesis and organellar mass. In addition, GSK3 inhibition was sufficient to induce senescence in Chang cells. Suppression of GSK3 expression with siRNAs specific to GSK3α and β also increased mature SREBP1 expression and induced senescence. Finally, blocking lipogenesis with fatty acid synthase inhibitors (cerulenin and C75) and siRNA-mediated silencing of SREBP1 and ATP citrate lyase (ACL) significantly attenuated GSK3 inhibition-induced senescence. GSK3 inactivation is an important upstream event that induces SREBP1-mediated lipogenesis and consequent cell senescence.

  14. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary flow in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Nehra, Ajay; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary function in normal subjects. The study assessed mean blood pressure, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow, and echocardiographic variables before and 30 and 60 minutes after taking 50 mg of sildenafil citrate. The mean velocity of LAD flow was assessed with Doppler flow imaging. The study subjects were 6 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years). The mean velocity of LAD flow increased 60 minutes after taking sildenafil citrate, but there were no other changes. Two volunteers felt mild flashing and one had mild headache during the study. Sildenafil citrate caused vasodilatation in a normal coronary artery without systemic pressure drops. These results suggest that the agent itself did not have negative effects on the heart in normal subjects.

  15. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  16. SILDENAFIL CITRATE INDUCED RETINAL TOXICITY-ELECTRORETINOGRAM, OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS FINDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoga, Fatoumata; Gentile, Ronald C; Chui, Toco Y P; Freund, K Bailey; Fell, Millie; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Rosen, Richard B

    2018-02-27

    To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake. Single retrospective case report. A 31-year-old white man with no medical history presented with complaints of bilateral multicolored photopsias and erythropsia (red-tinted vision), shortly after taking sildenafil citrate-purchased through the internet. Patient was found to have cone photoreceptor damage, demonstrated using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics imaging. The patient's symptoms and the photoreceptor structural changes persisted for several months. Sildenafil citrate is a widely used erectile dysfunction medication that is typically associated with transient visual symptoms in normal dosage. At high dosage, sildenafil citrate can lead to persistent retinal toxicity in certain individuals.

  17. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  18. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  19. Photometric determination of the composition and dissociation constants of niobium (5) citrate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, V.V.; Golubeva, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    Niobium (5) citrate complexes in aqueous solution (pH 1-6) are investigated. To determine the complexes composition the metal-indicator method has been applied. Experimental data have been treated by the method of equilibrium shift using somewhat changed variant of the metal-indicator method. The complex ion charge in the solution has been determined by the ion-exchange method. Dissociation constants of citrate complexes have been determined photometrically

  20. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; Kovarik, Libor; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals and organic matter are two important components in natural environments that influence hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction. Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe2+ and pyrite. However, the effects of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in clays are not well understood. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated under near neutral pH condition (pH=6). Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in NAu-2. The decreased reaction rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and polyanionic dichromate (Cr2O7- ), because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of citrate was likely because citrate provided additional reducing power through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe 3+ derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was the possible form of reduced chromium when citrate was present. In contrast, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction by reduced NAu-2 without citrate. Our study highlights the importance of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-bearing clay minerals are applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic matter rich environments.

  1. Comparison of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and gallium-67 citrate scanning in the assessment of lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegels, P.; Nocaudie, M.; Huglo, D.; Deveaux, M.; Detourmignies, L.; Wattel, E.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the value of scintigraphy using technetium-99m methoxy-isobutylisonitrile (MIBI) with that of scintigraphy using gallium-67 citrate in the assessment of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and to relate these results with those of CT scan and MRI. Fifty-eight patients were included either for a follow-up examination or for monitoring of their treatment. Twenty-three residual masses were studied. A whole-body scan was performed, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) 20 min after injection of 740 MBq of 99m Tc-MIBI and 72 h after injection of 185 MBq of 67 Ga citrate. The overall sensitivity of 99m Tc-MIBI and 67 Ga citrate was 71% and 68%, respectively, and the overall specificity was 76% and 44%, respectively. For residual masses, the sensitivity was 44% with both tracers and the specificity was 80% with 99m Tc-MIBI and 53% with 67 Ga citrate. The positive predictive values were 85% and 68% and the negative predictive values were 59% and 44%, respectively. The signal-to-background ratio was 1.5 for 99m Tc-MIBI and 2 for 67 Ga citrate. At present, 99m Tc-MIBI cannot replace 67 Ga citrate in the assessment of lymphomas. (orig.)

  2. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) enhances vasodilatation by atrial natriuretic peptide in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Seward, James B; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2007-12-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, which might enhance the vasorelaxant and natriuretic actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with heart failure. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effect of Viagra on hemodynamic changes during infusion of exogenous ANP. Healthy male beagles were used to assess systemic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and plasma levels of cGMP. After hemodynamic variables were measured, 0.1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) of ANP was given during this study. One hour after initiating infusion of ANP, 2 mg/kg of sildenafil citrate or vehicle was given orally via a nasogastric tube. Hemodynamic changes were measured before and 1 h after these administrations. Mean systemic and PAP decreased during infusion of ANP, and further decreased after sildenafil citrate administration, however, mean systemic blood pressure decreased within 10 mmHg. Plasma levels of cGMP also increased after sildenafil citrate administration. In normal dogs, sildenafil citrate enhances the vasodilator effect of ANP by increasing the cGMP level, however, the concomitant use of sildenafil citrate with ANP will not induce severe hypotension.

  3. Is it safe to prescribe clomiphene citrate without ultrasound monitoring facilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coughlan, C

    2010-05-01

    The majority of triplet and higher order multiple pregnancies now result from ovulation induction\\/superovulation rather than in vitro fertilisation. However, clomiphene citrate is still widely prescribed by gynaecologists and general practitioners who do not have access to ultrasound monitoring. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of multifollicular development with different doses of clomiphene citrate. A retrospective review of transvaginal ultrasound monitoring of 425 cycles in 182 women receiving clomiphene citrate from January 2002 to December 2003, was studied. Three or more follicles of >or= 14 mm were identified in 58 cycles (14%). Patients received 50 mg of clomiphene citrate in 52 of these 58 cycles and 25 mg in the remaining six. One patient was noted to have developed five follicles and 10 patients developed four follicles. One patient developed six follicles, despite receiving only 25 mg clomiphene citrate daily. It was concluded that a significant number of women (14%) developed three or more follicles, despite receiving low doses of clomiphene citrate.

  4. Gallium-67 citrate imaging for the assessment of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Masaaki

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of radiation pneumotinis, gallium-67 citrate ( 67 Ga) imaging was performed before and after radiation therapy (RT) on 103 patients with lung cancer. In 23 patients with radiation pneumonitis detected radiographically, abnormal 67 Ga uptake in sites other than tumors was found in all post-RT 67 Ga lung images. Three patterns of uptake were found: (A) focal uptake corresponding to the RT field (n=10); (B) diffuse uptake including the RT field (n=4); and (C) diffuse uptake outside the RT field (n=9). The area of 67 Ga uptake was consistent with that of interstitial pneumonitis as revealed histopathologically in 7 cases. 67 Ga uptake in pattern (C) was an indicator of poor prognosis for the patients with radiation pneumonitis. 67 Ga uptake in the patients with reversible pneumonitis disappeared with steroid therapy. Sixteen (20%) of 80 asymptomatic patients, in whose chest radiographs there was no finding of radiation pneumonitis, showed transient 67 Ga uptake. These were considered to occur in the subclinical radiation pneumonitis. These data suggest that 67 Ga imaging is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection of radiation pneumonitis and is useful in the assessment of the extent and clinical course of radiation pneumonitis. (author)

  5. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation

  6. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  7. A COMPARISON OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND SEQUENTIAL CLOMIPHENE CITRATE PLUS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rashidi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There are currently ‎many different protocols in use for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, but the optimal method has ‎not yet been determined. To compare the outcome of COH using ‎clomiphene citrate (CC versus CC plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in conjunction with intrauterine insemination (IUI, we studied 117 infertile couples‎. IUI with CC was used in 92 cycles ‎(group A and IUI with CC plus hMG was used in 66 cycles (group B. ‎Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the two ‎groups with respect to patients’ age, duration and type of infertility, prior COH and endometrial thickness and pattern. Group A had a little ‎longer follicular phase length than group B. ‎Pregnancy rate for group A and B were 6.52% and 12.12%, respectively (P= 0.22. ‎Endometrial pattern and thickness had no impact on pregnancy rate. ‎There were no multiple gestation and obvious hyperstimulation syndrome. ‎For patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI, ‎CC plus hMG protocol yields higher pregnancy rate than one using CC, although this ‎difference was not statistically significant because of limitation of number of ‎cycles.

  8. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jatinder; Sawhney, Meenakshi; DattaGupta, Siddartha; Shukla, Nootan K; Srivastava, Anurag; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-01-01

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  9. Health-related quality of life in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome randomized between clomifene citrate plus metformin or clomifene citrate plus placebo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; van Wely, M.; Lambalk, C. B.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2012-01-01

    What is the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomifene citrate (CC) combined with metformin compared with those using CC combined with placebo? Overall quality of life in women with PCOS treated with CC plus

  10. Health-related quality of life in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome randomized between clomifene citrate plus metformin or clomifene citrate plus placebo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; van Wely, M.; Lambalk, C.B.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Study Question What is the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomifene citrate (CC) combined with metformin compared with those using CC combined with placebo? Summary Answer Overall quality of life in women with

  11. Whole-body retention studies of /sup 167/Tm--citrate. Estimation of radiation dose to humans from /sup 167/Tm--citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, T; Ando, A [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Mori, H; Ando, I; Sakamoto, K

    1978-02-01

    For the purpose of calculating absorbed dose to humans from /sup 167/Tm-citrate, the whole-body retention studies using 5 rats were carried out. Up to 40 days following intravenous injection of /sup 167/Tm-citrate, the whole-body counts were monitored with an animal counter. The whole-body retention curve was obtained with three exponential components. Namely, the 26% of the injected /sup 167/Tm-citrate had a biological half-time of 3.4 hours, 12.5% had a biological half-time of 99 hours and 61.5% had a biological half-time of 106 days. These results indicate, that three components consist of the rapid clearance from the kidneys, the retention in the liver and other soft tissues with relatively long half-time and the retention in the bones with long half-time. Based on these biological data and the MIRD Committee method, the average dose estimates to the bone and whole-body from intravenous administration of 1 mCi /sup 167/Tm-citrate were 7.08 rads and 1.28 rads, respectively.

  12. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  13. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first path-way-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1′-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate...

  14. Corrosion behavior of Ti and TI6Al4V in citrate buffers containing fluoride ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Marlene Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride ions concentration on the electrochemical behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V in citrate buffers was studied. Open circuit potential (OCP measurements and voltammetric studies of the samples in the fluoride containing citrate buffers revealed a dissolution process when the pH falls below 5.0 and the NaF content is higher than 0.01 M. However, in citrate pH 7.6 the materials showed a passive behavior even in 0.1 M NaF. Some micrographs of Ti grade 2 obtained after longer immersion times in citrate pH 5.0 with 0.01 M NaF showed a surface attack. EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Sprectroscopy data obtained at the OCP revealed that the film resistance decreases when the immersion time is increased in pH 5.0 containing 0.1 M NaF. In the citrate pH 7.6 the EIS data indicated a two-layer model of an oxide film consisting of a more compact inner layer and a porous outer layer. On the other hand, the EIS results in citrate pH 4.0 change significantly when the fluoride ions concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.05 M. The electrochemical data revealed that the corrosion behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V in the citrate buffers depends on the pH, the fluoride content and the exposure time.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  16. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  17. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Andrew; Sharpe, Lindsay T; Tufail, Adnan; Kell, Philip D; Ripamonti, Caterina; Jeffery, Glen

    2007-06-08

    The erectile dysfunction medicine sildenafil citrate (Viagra) inhibits phosphodiesterase type 6 (PDE6), an essential enzyme involved in the activation and modulation of the phototransduction cascade. Although Viagra might thus be expected to impair visual performance, reports of deficits following its ingestion have so far been largely inconclusive or anecdotal. Here, we adopt tests sensitive to the slowing of the visual response likely to result from the inhibition of PDE6. We measured temporal acuity (critical fusion frequency) and modulation sensitivity in four subjects before and after the ingestion of a 100-mg dose of Viagra under conditions chosen to isolate the responses of either their short-wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone photoreceptors or their long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive (L- and M-) cones. When vision was mediated by S-cones, all subjects exhibited some statistically significant losses in sensitivity, which varied from mild to moderate. The two individuals who showed the largest S-cone sensitivity losses also showed comparable losses when their vision was mediated by the L- and M-cones. Some of the losses appear to increase with frequency, which is broadly consistent with Viagra interfering with the ability of PDE6 to shorten the time over which the visual system integrates signals as the light level increases. However, others appear to represent a roughly frequency-independent attenuation of the visual signal, which might also be consistent with Viagra lengthening the integration time (because it has the effect of increasing the effectiveness of steady background lights), but such changes are also open to other interpretations. Even for the more affected observers, however, Viagra is unlikely to impair common visual tasks, except under conditions of reduced visibility when objects are already near visual threshold.

  18. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  19. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  20. The role of tannic acid and sodium citrate in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Socha, Ewelina; Krzyczmonik, Pawel; Ignaczak, Anna; Orlowski, Piotr; Krzyzowska, Małgorzata; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw

    2017-08-01

    We describe herein the significance of a sodium citrate and tannic acid mixture in the synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Monodisperse AgNPs were synthesized via reduction of silver nitrate using a mixture of two chemical agents: sodium citrate and tannic acid. The shape, size and size distribution of silver particles were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Special attention is given to understanding and experimentally confirming the exact role of the reagents (sodium citrate and tannic acid present in the reaction mixture) in AgNP synthesis. The oxidation and reduction potentials of silver, tannic acid and sodium citrate in their mixtures were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Possible structures of tannic acid and its adducts with citric acid were investigated in aqueous solution by performing computer simulations in conjunction with the semi-empirical PM7 method. The lowest energy structures found from the preliminary conformational search are shown, and the strength of the interaction between the two molecules was calculated. The compounds present on the surface of the AgNPs were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results are compared with the IR spectrum of tannic acid theoretically calculated using PM6 and PM7 methods. The obtained results clearly indicate that the combined use of sodium citrate and tannic acid produces monodisperse spherical AgNPs, as it allows control of the nucleation, growth and stabilization of the synthesis process. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Sodium citrate blood contamination by K2 -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): impact on routine coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Salvagno, G L; Danese, E; Favaloro, E J; Guidi, G C; Lippi, G

    2015-06-01

    The potential cross-contamination of additives between primary blood tubes is a well-known problem during sample collection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of citrated blood contamination with different amounts of dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic (K2 EDTA blood) on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen. Blood was collected from 15 ostensibly healthy volunteers into four 0.109 m citrate blood tubes followed by one K2 EDTA blood tube. The citrate tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in five aliquots. The whole blood of the K2 EDTA tube was then added in scalar amounts to autologous citrated blood aliquots, to obtain K2 EDTA contamination ranging from 0% to 43%, and thus mimic potential pre-analytical contamination. A statistically and clinically significant prolongation was observed for both APTT and PT between 29% and 43% K2 EDTA contamination, whereas the decrease of fibrinogen values became statistically and clinically significant at 43% K2 EDTA contamination. The results of this investigation show that contamination of citrated blood with as much as 29% of K2 EDTA blood generates a significant bias in results of routine clotting assays. This has serious implications for patient safety and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bio-inspired citrate functionalized apatite coating on rapid prototyped titanium scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Peng [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lu, Fang [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Wang, Di [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Xiaojing [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaolan [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhang, Yu; Li, Lihua [General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Designed and reproducible porous titanium scaffolds were produced. • Hydrophilic nanoporous film was built on scaffold. • Apatite coating was deposited on scaffold under the modulation of citrate ions. • Citrate ions could affect CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation in apatite coatings. - Abstract: Scaffold functionalized with appropriate osteogenic coatings can significantly improve implant-bone response. In this study, with designed model and optimized manufacture parameters, reproducible and precise titanium scaffolds were produced. Reconstructed three-dimensional image and sectional structure of the scaffold were examined by micro-computed tomography and relative software. Alkali treatment was carried out on these manufactured porous scaffolds to produce nanoporous hydrophilic film. After 6 days deposition in simulated body fluid (SBF) containing sodium citrate (SC-SBF), plate-like amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coating was deposited on scaffold surface. Ultrasonication tests qualitatively indicated an enhanced adhesion force of apatite coatings deposited in SC-SBF compared to that deposited in SBF. And the effect of citrate ions on the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation rate in apatite coating was quantitatively examined by bending vibration of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at ∼874 cm{sup −1}. Results indicated the highest carbonate content was obtained at the citrate ion concentration of 6 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in SC-SBF. These three-dimensional porous titanium-apatite hybrid scaffolds are expected to find application in bone tissue regeneration.

  3. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  4. Prostaglandin H synthase immunoreactivity in human gut. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Rumessen, J J; Qvortrup, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandins exhibit a variety of actions on intestinal smooth muscle depending upon the type, dose and muscle layer studied. As the cellular origin of prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase has not been established with certainty in the human gut wall, we studied the localization of PGH synthase...

  5. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed...

  6. Contributions of citrate in redox potential maintenance and ATP production: metabolic pathways and their regulation in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli and can utilize various NADH-reoxidizing routes (e.g., citrate, glycerol, and oxygen) according to environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the ability of L. panis PM1 to produce succinate, acetate, and lactate via citrate utilization. Possible pathways, as well as regulation, for citrate metabolism were examined on the basis of the genome sequence data and metabolic profiles of L. panis PM1. The presence of citrate led to the up-regulation, at the transcriptional level, of the genes encoding for citrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme of the citrate pathways by 10- to 120-fold. The transcriptional regulator of the dha operon coding for glycerol dehydratase of L. panis PM1 repressed the expression of the citrate lyase gene (10-fold). Metabolite analyses indicated that the transcriptional enhancement by citrate stimulated succinate yield. Citrate metabolism contributed to energy production by providing a major alternate pathway for NAD(+) regeneration and allowed acetyl phosphate to yield acetate/ATP instead of ethanol/NAD(+). Additionally, a branching pathway from oxaloacetate to pyruvate increased the pool of lactate, which was then used to produce ATP during stationary phase. However, the redirection of NADH-to-citrate utilization resulted in stress caused by end-products (i.e., succinate and acetate). This stress reduced succinate production by up to 50 % but did not cause significant changes at transcriptional level. Overall, citrate utilization was beneficial for the growth of L. panis PM1 by providing a NAD(+) regeneration route and producing extra ATP.

  7. Use of 67Ga citrate in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Zajtseva, T.I.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Abramov, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A study was of the potentialities of 67 Ga citrate in the diagnosis of lung cancer, in differentiation from benign tumors and chronic inflammatory processes of the lungs. A total of 101 lung cancer patients were examined, of them 64 with central, and 37 with peripheral cancer. The results of radionuclide studies were correlated with those of surgery and with morphological findings. It has been established that in central cancer scintigraphy with 67 Ga citrate gives positive results in 87% of cases, and in peripheral cancer in 89%. This method is of great value for the diagnosis of cancer metastases to the mediastinal lymph nodes. No correlation between the intensity of 67 Ga citrate accumulation in lung tumors and their histological structure has been revealed [ru

  8. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate: such a big deal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Monte G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lo Monte, Angela Graziano, Isabella Piva, Roberto Marci Department of Morphology, Surgery, and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Abstract: For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra® in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate should be kept as the last option. Keywords: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD, sildenafil citrate

  9. A fundamental study on brain scanning with sup(99m)Tc-citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Nobuaki; Horiike, Shigeharu; Nakazawa, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    We examined the sup(99m)Tc-citrate obtained by labelling citrate with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate using Solcocitran Kit. For our fundamental study--we measured the ratio of labelling by means of paper chromatography. By picking out each organs of each rats we also measured the velocity at which radiopharmaceuticals disappeared in each of their organs, and the distribution of radio-pharmaceuticals in their organs. For our clinical study--we performed brain scanning on 47 patients. The following are the results; Citrate was labelled as much as 99 - 95% into sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate. The velocity of disappearance in each organ of the rats was quicker than in the case of sup(99m)TcO 4 - . Accumulation in the choroid plexus and salivary gland was not obserbed despite the fact that we did not use KClo 4 , and images of brain tumor were obtainable to a high degree. (author)

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  11. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Hsu, Lewis L; Berkowitz, Dan E; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  12. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinity J Bivalacqua

    Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  13. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, Selda; Karabiber, Mehmet; As, Ismet; Tamer, Lülüfer; Erdogan, Canan; Atalay, Ayçe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms and to determine the effect of magnesium citrate treatment on these symptoms. Sixty premenopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria and 20 healthy women whose age and weight matched the premenopausal women were evaluated. Pain intensity, pain threshold, the number of tender points, the tender point index, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores and patient symptoms were evaluated in all the women. Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were also measured. The patients were divided into three groups. The magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) was given to the first group (n = 20), amitriptyline (10 mg/day) was given to the second group (n = 20), and magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) + amitriptyline (10 mg/day) treatment was given to the third group (n = 20). All parameters were reevaluated after the 8 weeks of treatment. The serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. Also there was a negative correlation between the magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms. The number of tender points, tender point index, FIQ and Beck depression scores decreased significantly with the magnesium citrate treatment. The combined amitriptyline + magnesium citrate treatment proved effective on all parameters except numbness. Low magnesium levels in the erythrocyte might be an etiologic factor on fibromyalgia symptoms. The magnesium citrate treatment was only effective tender points and the intensity of fibromyalgia. However, it was effective on all parameters when used in combination with amitriptyline.

  14. Studies on sildenafil citrate (Viagra) interaction with DNA using electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Sakandar; Nawaz, Haq; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Khalid, Ahmad M

    2007-05-15

    The interaction of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) with DNA was studied by using an electrochemical DNA biosensor. The binding mechanism of sildenafil citrate was elucidated by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry at DNA-modified glassy carbon electrode. The decrease in the guanine oxidation peak area or peak current was used as an indicator for the interaction in 0.2M acetate buffer (pH 5). The binding constant (K) values obtained were 2.01+/-0.05 x 10(5) and 1.97+/-0.01 x 10(5)M(-1) with constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. A linear dependence of the guanine peak area or peak current was observed within the range of 1-40 microM sildenafil citrate with slope=-2.74 x 10(-4)s/microM, r=0.989 and slope=-2.78 x 10(-3)microA/microM, r=0.995 by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. Additionally, binding constant values for sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction were determined for the pH range of 4-8 and in biological fluids (serum and urine) at pH 5. The influence of sodium and calcium ions was also studied to elucidate the mechanism of sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction under different solution conditions. The present study may prove to be helpful in extending our understanding of the anticancer activity of sildenafil citrate from cellular to DNA level.

  15. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using 99mTc-citrate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Jin Jianhua; Li Sijin; Li Xianfeng; Zhang Xiaojuan; Ren Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using 99m Tc- citrate scintigraphy. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (92 lesions) with confirmed malignant bone disease or degenerative benign bone disease were studied, for which the results of 99m Te-methylene diphosphonate( 99m Tc- MDP) scintigraphy were positive. 99m Tc-citrate scintigraphy was performed within a time interval of 2-7 days after 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy. Visual analysis and semiquantitative analysis were applied. Each lesion was scored as malignant or benign, which was independently verified, using conventional techniques (histopathology, X-ray, CT, MRI and clinical follow up). Results: In visual analysis of 99m Tc-citrate imaging, most malignant lesions (35/48, 72.92%) clearly showed high radioactivity accumulation, while most benign lesions (39/44, 88.64%) had not obviously visible uptake of 99m Tc-citrate. In semiquantitative analysis of 99m Tc- citrate image, malignant lesions demonstrated a higher lesion-to-background radioisotope uptake ratio (RUR) than that of benign degenerative lesions (1.47 ± 0.42 vs. 1.09 ± 0.38, t=2.887, P 99m Tc-MDP in the two groups is of the same (1.96 ± 0.25 vs. 1.87 ± 0.21, t=1.178, P>0.20). Conclusion: 99m Tc- citrate scintigraphy is a promising method to differentiate malignant from benign degenerative lesions seen as areas of increased activity on 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. (authors)

  16. Homospermidine synthase, the first pathway-specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Dietrich; Hartmann, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are preformed plant defense compounds with sporadic phylogenetic distribution. They are thought to have evolved in response to the selective pressure of herbivory. The first pathway-specific intermediate of these alkaloids is the rare polyamine homospermidine, which is synthesized by homospermidine synthase (HSS). The HSS gene from Senecio vernalis was cloned and shown to be derived from the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) gene, which is highly conserved among all eukaryotes and archaebacteria. DHS catalyzes the first step in the activation of translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which is essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and which acts as a cofactor of the HIV-1 Rev regulatory protein. Sequence comparison provides direct evidence for the evolutionary recruitment of an essential gene of primary metabolism (DHS) for the origin of the committing step (HSS) in the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. PMID:10611289

  17. Abnormal splenic uptake of gallium-67 citrate in a case of infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeau, R.J.; LaCorte, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of fever of undetermined origin (FUO) demonstrated abnormal intense concentration of Ga-67 citrate in the spleen. Initial workup demonstrated two negative mono spot tests for infectious mononucleosis (IM) but, on hospital day 2, a repeat mono test was positive. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by rising heterophilic antibody titers. Six weeks after hospital discharge, repeat Ga-67 citrate imaging demonstrated absence of abnormal splenic activity. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously described in IM. In the appropriate clinical setting, intense splenic uptake of Ga-67 should alert the clinician to include the possibility of IM in the differential diagnosis

  18. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte......Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid...

  19. Diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate in a patient with hypoproteinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Gobuty, A.; Gutierrez, C.

    1983-01-01

    A 3-wk-old male, with abdominal distention and severe hypoproteinemia from poor nutrition, underwent a study that showed a persistent diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate, indicating pyogenic or tuberculous peritonitis. However, there were no corresponding clinical or laboratory findings. After a 1-wk course of hyperalimentation with albumin, furosemide, and protein, repeat radiographs showed reduction in bowel gas. It is suggested that hypoproteinemia should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis when there is diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate, with careful clinical correlation. Possible mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in the peritoneal cavity is suggested

  20. Increased tumor uptake of 67Ga citrate following a course of picibanil (NSC-B116209)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Mishina, Hitoshi.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure to exponential dose schedules of OK-432, penicillin-inactivated preparation of streptococcus hemolyticus (NSC-B116209), resulted in an increased retention of 67 Ga citrate. Its uptake in footpad tumors of AH 109A was also increased. The results may suggest that pretreatment with OK-432 would increase tumor uptake of 67 Ga citrate and help scintigraphic delineation of malignancies in man. It may probably augment tumor concentration of anticancer chemotherapeutics, too. Thus, the tumor affinitive property of OK-432 can be taken advantage of in anticancer strategy as well as cancer detection by 67 Ga scanning. (author)

  1. Removal of radioactive cesium from soil by ammonium citrate solution and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Shunji; Kitakouji, Manabu; Taga, Atsushi; Ogata, Fumihiko; Ouchi, Hidekazu; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Inagaki, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive cesium has strongly bound soil as time proceeded, which could not be cleaved in mild condition. We have found that serial treatment of ammonium citrate solution and ionic liquid removed radioactive cesium from soil effectively. The sequence of the treatment is crucial, since inverse serial treatment or mixture of two kinds of solution did not show such an effect, which suggested that ammonium citrate unlocked trapped cesium in soil and ionic liquid solved it. We also found that repeating serial treatment and prolonged treatment time additively removed cesium from soil. (author)

  2. Citrate, a Ubiquitous Key Metabolite with Regulatory Function in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Belhage, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and 13C-NMR to investigate...... metabolic processes in cultured neurons and astrocytes resulting in the important observation that citrate was specifically synthesized in and released from astrocytes in large amounts which is in keeping with the high concentration found in the CSF. The aim of this review is to highlight the possible roles...

  3. Citrate metabolism in blood transfusions and its relationship due to metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis commonly results from excessive hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium (K(+)) and water (H2O) loss from the stomach or through the urine. The plasma anion gap increases in non-hypoproteinemic metabolic alkalosis due to an increased negative charge equivalent on albumin and the free ionized calcium (Ca(++)) content of plasma decreases. The mean citrate load in all patients was 8740±7027 mg from 6937±6603 mL of transfused blood products. The citrate load was significantly higher in patients with alkalosis (9164±4870 vs. 7809±3967, P alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop, blood transfusions may result in certain complications.

  4. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for... results of this review.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of...

  5. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... of citric acid from the PRC. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  6. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain...) published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29...

  7. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Countervailing Duty... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...

  8. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic..., regarding ``Second Antidumping Administrative Review of Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  9. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the... duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

  10. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ On [[Page...\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent to Rescind...

  11. A light-up fluorescent probe for citrate detection based on bispyridinum amides with aggregation-induced emission feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Hang, Yandi; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Ji; Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Jianli

    2018-02-01

    Citrate is an important intermediate in the citric acid cycle, a vital metabolic pathway for animals, plants and bacteria. It is of great significance to detect its levels in human beings because several diseases may cause the abnormal of citrate. In this paper, a new turn-on fluorescent sensor (TPE-Py) using the classic tetraphenylethylene (TPE) as the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore and bipyridinium-based amides as the recognition receptor has been synthesized for the detection of citrate. The probe exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity to citrate with a relatively low detection limit (1.0 × 10 -7 M). The enhancement of the fluorescence is relevant with the AIE property based on the complexation of TPE-Py with citrate caused by the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between the bipyridinium diamides and citrate, which has been proved by 1 H NMR and mass spectra titration, scanning electronic microscope and dynamic light scattering analyses. More importantly, the quantification of citrate in artificial urine may develop TPE-Py fluorometric probe for the citrate detection in real biosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by

  13. The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    Aim: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. Methods: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400

  14. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  15. Nitric oxide synthase gene G298 allele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagib El-Kilany, Galal E.; Nayel, Ehab; Hazzaa, Sahar

    2004-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) has an important effect on blood pressure, arterial wall, and the basal release of endothelial NO in hypertension (HPN) may be reduced. Until now, there is no solid data revealing the potential role of the polymorphism of the nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS) in patients with HPN and microvascular angina. Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the gene of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as the polymorphism of this gene may be a putative candidate for HPN and initiate the process of atherosclerosis. Methods: Sixty participants were recruited for this study; 50 were hypertensive patients complaining of chest pain [30 of them have electrocardiogram (EKG) changes of ischemia], 20 had isolated HPN, and 10 healthy volunteers served as control. All patients underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary angiography. Genotyping of eNOS for all patients and controls was performed. The linkages between HPN, microvascular angina and eNOS gene polymorphism were investigated. Results: MPI and coronary angiography revealed that 15 patients had chest pain with true ischemia and reversible myocardial perfusion defects (multiple and mild) but normal epicardial coronary arteries (microvascular angina), while 15 patients had significant coronary artery disease (CAD), and 20 hypertensive patients showed normal perfusion scan and coronary angiography. The prevalence of the NOS G 298 allele was higher in the hypertensive group with microvascular angina (documented by MPI) than it was among the control participants (P<.005). The eNOS allele was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control participants, but there was no significant difference in homozygote mutants among hypertensive participants, x-syndrome and patients with CAD. Conclusion: eNOS gene polymorphism is proved to be an important etiology in microvascular angina (x-syndrome) among hypertensive patients. In addition, the eNOS mutant

  16. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS. Scintigraphie pulmonaire au citrate de Ga67 chez des patients VIH(+) ou sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumal, J.; Pena, C.; Mata, F.; Paternostro, C.; Penafiel, A. (Hopital Son Dureta, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))

    1993-04-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs.

  17. Antitumor effect of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles on mice bearing breast cancer: a systemic toxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; de Souza Filho, José; Carneiro, Marcella Lemos' Brettas; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; da Silva, Matheus Oliveira; de Souza, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia Nair

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer types among women. The use of magnetic fluids for specific delivery of drugs represents an attractive platform for chemotherapy. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated that maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate (Magh-Rh2Cit) induced in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity, followed by intratumoral administration in breast carcinoma cells. In this study, our aim was to follow intravenous treatment to evaluate the systemic antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Female Balb/c mice were evaluated with regard to toxicity of intravenous treatments through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine and liver, kidney, and lung histology. The antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2Cit), Magh-Rh2Cit, and maghemite nanoparticles coated with citrate (Magh-Cit), used as control, was evaluated by tumor volume reduction, histology, and morphometric analysis. Magh-Rh2Cit and Magh-Cit promoted a significant decrease in tumor area, and no experimental groups presented hematotoxic effects or increased levels of serum ALT and creatinine. This observation was corroborated by the histopathological examination of the liver and kidney of mice. Furthermore, the presence of nanoparticles was verified in lung tissue with no morphological changes, supporting the idea that our nanoformulations did not induce toxicity effects. No studies about the systemic action of rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles have been carried out, making this report a suitable starting point for exploring the therapeutic potential of these compounds in treating breast cancer.

  18. Whole-body retention studies of /sup 169/Yb-citrate. Estimation of radiation dose to humans from /sup 169/Yb-citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Mori, H; Ando, I; Hisada, K

    1977-09-01

    For purpose of the estimation of the radiation dose to humans from /sup 169/Yb-citrate, the whole-body retention studies using five rats were carried out. Following intravenous administration of /sup 169/Yb-citrate, the whole-body activity was monitored for 40 days by the animal counter. The whole-body retention curve consisted of three components: the first with a 3.6 hours effective half-time, the second with an 154 hours effective half-time and the third with a 29.9 days effective half-time. Therefore it was assumed that 32% of the administered /sup 169/Yb-citrate clears from the kidney with a short biologic half-time (3.6 hours), 18% remains in the liver and other soft tissues with a relatively long biologic half-time (194 hours) and 50% remains in the bone with a long biologic half-time (850 days). Based on these biological data and the MIRD Committee method, the average dose to the bone and whole-body were 20.8 rads/mCi and 4.5 rads/mCi respectively.

  19. Plasma Membrane Na+-Coupled Citrate Transporter (SLC13A5 and Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom D. Bhutia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150–200 μM. Li+ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy. Human SLC13A5 differs from rodent Slc13a5 in two important aspects: the affinity of the human transporter for citrate is ~30-fold less than that of the rodent transporter, thus making human SLC13A5 a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and the rodent Slc13a5 a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter. In the liver, SLC13A5 is expressed exclusively in the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes, where it plays a role in the uptake of circulating citrate from the sinusoidal blood for metabolic use. In the testis, the transporter is expressed only in spermatozoa, which is also only in the mid piece where mitochondria are located; the likely function of the transporter in spermatozoa is to mediate the uptake of citrate present at high levels in the seminal fluid for subsequent metabolism in the sperm mitochondria to generate biological energy, thereby supporting sperm motility. In the brain, the transporter is expressed mostly in neurons. As astrocytes secrete citrate into extracellular medium, the potential function of SLC13A5 in neurons is to mediate the uptake of circulating citrate and astrocyte-released citrate for subsequent metabolism. Slc13a5-knockout mice have been generated; these mice do not have any overt phenotype but are resistant to experimentally induced metabolic syndrome. Recently however, loss-of-function mutations in human SLC13A5 have been found to cause severe epilepsy

  20. Glycogen synthase activation by sugars in isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, C J; Carabaza, A; Bosch, F; Gòmez I Foix, A M; Guinovart, J J

    1988-07-01

    We have investigated the activation by sugars of glycogen synthase in relation to (i) phosphorylase a activity and (ii) changes in the intracellular concentration of glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotides. All the sugars tested in this work present the common denominator of activating glycogen synthase. On the other hand, phosphorylase a activity is decreased by mannose and glucose, unchanged by galactose and xylitol, and increased by tagatose, glyceraldehyde, and fructose. Dihydroxyacetone exerts a biphasic effect on phosphorylase. These findings provide additional evidence proving that glycogen synthase can be activated regardless of the levels of phosphorylase a, clearly establishing that a nonsequential mechanism for the activation of glycogen synthase occurs in liver cells. The glycogen synthase activation state is related to the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In this respect, tagatose, glyceraldehyde, and fructose deplete ATP and increase AMP contents, whereas glucose, mannose, galactose, xylitol, and dihydroxyacetone do not alter the concentration of these nucleotides. In addition, all these sugars, except glyceraldehyde, increase the intracellular content of glucose 6-phosphate. The activation of glycogen synthase by sugars is reflected in decreases on both kinetic constants of the enzyme, M0.5 (for glucose 6-phosphate) and S0.5 (for UDP-glucose). We propose that hepatocyte glycogen synthase is activated by monosaccharides by a mechanism triggered by changes in glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotide concentrations which have been described to modify glycogen synthase phosphatase activity. This mechanism represents a metabolite control of the sugar-induced activation of hepatocyte glycogen synthase.

  1. Generation and Functional Evaluation of Designer Monoterpene Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, N; Lange, I; Lange, B M

    2016-01-01

    Monoterpene synthases are highly versatile enzymes that catalyze the first committed step in the pathways toward terpenoids, the structurally most diverse class of plant natural products. Recent advancements in our understanding of the reaction mechanism have enabled engineering approaches to develop mutant monoterpene synthases that produce specific monoterpenes. In this chapter, we are describing protocols to introduce targeted mutations, express mutant enzyme catalysts in heterologous hosts, and assess their catalytic properties. Mutant monoterpene synthases have the potential to contribute significantly to synthetic biology efforts aimed at producing larger amounts of commercially attractive monoterpenes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase from Methanosarcina mazei: Different role, different evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takuya; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    The gene of (all-E) geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase that is responsible for the biosynthesis of methanophenazine, an electron carrier utilized for methanogenesis, was cloned from a methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Goe1. The properties of the recombinant enzyme and the results of phylogenetic analysis suggest that the enzyme is closely related to (all-E) prenyl diphosphate synthases that are responsible for the biosynthesis of respiratory quinones, rather than to the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids, including (all-E) geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase from a thermophilic archaeon.

  3. Aqueous solubility of calcium citrate and interconversion between the tetrahydrate and the hexahydrate as a balance between endothermic dissolution and exothermic complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solubility of calcium citrate tetrahydrate was found to decrease with increasing temperature, while solubility of hexahydrate increased with a transition temperature at 51.6 °C. Excess citrate increased calcium citrate solubility but decreased the calcium ion activity of the saturated sol...

  4. THE SURFACE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF PROCYMIDONE IN PRESENCE OF AMMONIUM FERRIC CITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osipov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procymidone was chosen as the model compound and its phototransformation was followed under sunlight irradiation. The main photodegradation products on silica is 3,5-dichloroaniline and 3,5-diclorphenilisocyanate. The use of ammonium ferric citrate enhances the degradation of the procymidone.

  5. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  6. Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of the First Mononuclear Aqueous Aluminum Citrate Complex Using DFT Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, Antonio Luiz Oliveira; Guimarães, Luciana; Duarte, Hélio Anderson

    2007-05-01

    Structural and thermodynamic properties of the mononuclear Al/citrate complexes have been theoretically investigated aiming to understand the coordination mechanism at an atomic level. GGA-DFT/PCM calculations have been performed for the different conformations and tautomers arising from the Al(3+) and citric acid (H3L) interaction in aqueous solution. The Gibbs reaction energies were estimated based on the reaction of the trigonal planar Al(OH)3 and H3L to form different Al-citrate complexes. The estimated Gibbs free reaction energies for the [AlL], [AlHL](+), and [Al(OH)L](-) species are in good agreement with the experimental values. In these species, the Al(3+) center is coordinated by two carboxylic and the tertiary hydroxyl groups of the citrate. Conversely to what has been proposed based on the experiments, the present theoretical calculations indicate that the citric acid hydroxyl group remains protonated upon the coordination of Al(3+). In fact, our model turns out to be more consistent with the relative pKa values of citrate protonation groups and with the hydrolysis constant of the H2O bound to Al(3+) leading to better agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... that satisfies the standards set forth in the United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a... meaning of 19 CFR 351.106(c)(1), in which case the cash deposit rate will be zero; (2) for previously.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

  8. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na(+)-citrate transporter CitS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na(+)-citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly

  9. Preparation of nanocrystalline Mg4Nb2O9 by citrate gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    using potassium niobate precursor. The purpose ... ficult to maintain reaction conditions. This citrate ... of metal ions by poly functional carboxyl acids such as citric acid or ... on a water bath at 100°C a gel was formed after evaporation of water.

  10. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  11. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 [Docket No... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College... results from a 90-day oral toxicity study on bismuth citrate in rats, genotoxicity studies, dermal...

  12. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The imaging of infectious and inflammatory diseases using gallium-67 (⁶⁷Ga) citrate scintigraphy has been a well-established diagnostic tool for decades. In recent times, interest has focused on PET using the short-lived positron emitting radioisotope ⁶⁸Ga. ⁶⁸Ga is not only more readily available...

  13. Fast and simple one-step preparation of Ga-68 citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend B.; Nielsen, Karin M.; Mewis, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The imaging of infectious and inflammatory diseases using gallium-67 (Ga-67) citrate scintigraphy has been a well-established diagnostic tool for decades. In recent times, interest has focused on PET using the short-lived positron emitting radioisotope Ga-68. Ga-68 is not only more readily...

  14. Cupric citrate as growth promoter for broiler chickens in different rearing stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainer, Monica Maria de Almeida; Menten, Jose Fernando Machado; Vale, Marcos Martinez do; Morais, Sonia Cristina Daroz de

    2003-01-01

    Feeding cupric citrate as alternative to cupric sulfate to broilers has been suggested in the literature. Day-old male broiler chicks (1,200) were used in an experiment to evaluate the efficacy of cupric citrate supplementation (75 mg Cu kg-1) during the 1-21, 22-42 or 1-42 d periods in comparison to an unsupplemented diet and a diet supplemented with cupric sulfate (200 mg Cu kg-1, 1-42 d). A randomized block design was used, with five treatments, six replicates and 40 birds per pen. The diets, based on corn and soybean meal, and water were offered ad libitum during the 42-day experimental period. Over the entire period, there was no effect of copper supplementation (P > 0.05) on bird live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and mortality. Cupric citrate supplementation on the 22-42 d period resulted in worse feed conversion as compared to broilers receiving cupric sulfate (2.014 vs. 1.967, P < 0.05). Copper residues in the litter were reduced when broilers were fed cupric citrate, as compared to cupric sulfate (P < 0.01). The absence of response to copper supplementation can be attributed to the environmental and sanitary rearing conditions

  15. Efficacy of egg-yolk citrate extender fortified with aqueous garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to harness the potential of aqueous fresh and dried garlic extracts supplement in egg yolk extender for rooster semen to improve fertility and hatchability of egg. Aqueous extract of fresh and dry garlic were obtained and supplemented into egg yolk-citrate buffer at 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% for ...

  16. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts.

  17. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) impairs fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R J; McClure, Neil; Cosby, S Louise; Stevenson, Michael; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate, a cyclic monophosphate-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to affect sperm function, on fertilization and early embryo cleavage. This acute mammal study included male and female mice assigned randomly, the females sacrificed after mating and their oocytes/embryos evaluated at four time periods after treatment. Academic research environment. Male and female CBAB(6) mice. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 IU gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate follicular growth and induce ovulation. They were each caged with a male that had been gavaged with sildenafil citrate (0.06 mg/0.05 mL) and allowed to mate. After 12, 36, 60, and 84 h, females were killed, their oviducts were dissected out, and retrieved embryos were assessed for blastomere number and quality. Fertilization rates and numbers of embryos were evaluated after treatment. Fertilization rates (day 1) were markedly reduced (-33%) in matings where the male had taken sildenafil citrate. Over days 2-4, the numbers of embryos developing in the treated group were significantly fewer than in the control group. There was also a trend for impaired cleavage rates within those embryos, although this did not reach significance. The impairments to fertility caused by sildenafil citrate have important implications for infertility centers and for couples who are using this drug precoitally while attempting to conceive.

  18. Cupric citrate as growth promoter for broiler chickens in different rearing stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainer, Monica Maria de Almeida [EAFCe, Ceres, GO (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia; Menten, Jose Fernando Machado; Vale, Marcos Martinez do; Morais, Sonia Cristina Daroz de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: jfmmente@esalq.usp.br

    2003-07-01

    Feeding cupric citrate as alternative to cupric sulfate to broilers has been suggested in the literature. Day-old male broiler chicks (1,200) were used in an experiment to evaluate the efficacy of cupric citrate supplementation (75 mg Cu kg-1) during the 1-21, 22-42 or 1-42 d periods in comparison to an unsupplemented diet and a diet supplemented with cupric sulfate (200 mg Cu kg-1, 1-42 d). A randomized block design was used, with five treatments, six replicates and 40 birds per pen. The diets, based on corn and soybean meal, and water were offered ad libitum during the 42-day experimental period. Over the entire period, there was no effect of copper supplementation (P > 0.05) on bird live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and mortality. Cupric citrate supplementation on the 22-42 d period resulted in worse feed conversion as compared to broilers receiving cupric sulfate (2.014 vs. 1.967, P < 0.05). Copper residues in the litter were reduced when broilers were fed cupric citrate, as compared to cupric sulfate (P < 0.01). The absence of response to copper supplementation can be attributed to the environmental and sanitary rearing conditions.

  19. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  20. The evidence for clinically significant bias in plasma glucose between liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juricic, Gordana; Saracevic, Andrea; Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Bakliza, Ana; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    Citrate buffer additive has been suggested to be of supreme performance in inhibiting glycolysis. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the comparability of glucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer containing tubes. The aim of this study was to compare glucose concentrations in tubes containing liquid (Glucomedics) and lyophilized citrate buffer (Terumo VENOSAFE™ Glycemia) additive, measured immediately after centrifugation. Blood was collected from forty volunteers into both Glucomedics and Venosafe Glycemia tubes. Blood was centrifuged within 15min from venipuncture and glucose concentration was measured immediately after centrifugation, on the Abbott Architect analyzer. Differences between glucose concentrations in Glucomedics and Terumo tubes were tested using the paired t-test. Mean bias was calculated and compared to recommended quality specification for glucose (i.e. 2.2%). Glucose concentration in Terumo tubes was 3.4% lower than in Glucomedics tubes (Pglucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive tubes (Glucomedics vs. Terumo tubes) measured immediately after centrifugation. This difference may affect the patient outcome due to the misclassification of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chun eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate (POC showed approximately 70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers (CUPEs and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20% and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that they are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  2. Gallium-67 Citrate uptake in cryptoccal thyroiditis in a Homosexual male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case of disseminated cryptococcosis and autopsy proven cryptococcal thyroiditis is described in a homosexual male. Thyroid uptake of Gallium-67 citrate was seen one week prior to positive blood cultures. This finding was the sole indication of thyroid involvement. Focal Gallium uptake may be considered as an indication for biopsy and culture in the initial work up of this group of immunocompromised hosts

  3. The structure and binding mode of citrate in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Johani, Hind

    2017-03-27

    Elucidating the binding mode of carboxylate-containing ligands to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is crucial to understand their stabilizing role. A detailed picture of the three-dimensional structure and coordination modes of citrate, acetate, succinate and glutarate to AuNPs is obtained by 13C and 23Na solid-state NMR in combination with computational modelling and electron microscopy. The binding between the carboxylates and the AuNP surface is found to occur in three different modes. These three modes are simultaneously present at low citrate to gold ratios, while a monocarboxylate monodentate (1κO1) mode is favoured at high citrate:gold ratios. The surface AuNP atoms are found to be predominantly in the zero oxidation state after citrate coordination, although trace amounts of Auδ+ are observed. 23Na NMR experiments show that Na+ ions are present near the gold surface, indicating that carboxylate binding occurs as a 2e− L-type interaction for each oxygen atom involved. This approach has broad potential to probe the binding of a variety of ligands to metal nanoparticles.

  4. The structure and binding mode of citrate in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Johani, Hind; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Widdifield, Cory M.; Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Sangaru, Shiv; Gajan, David; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Gurinov, Andrei; Kelly, Michael J.; El Eter, Mohamad; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the binding mode of carboxylate-containing ligands to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is crucial to understand their stabilizing role. A detailed picture of the three-dimensional structure and coordination modes of citrate, acetate, succinate and glutarate to AuNPs is obtained by 13C and 23Na solid-state NMR in combination with computational modelling and electron microscopy. The binding between the carboxylates and the AuNP surface is found to occur in three different modes. These three modes are simultaneously present at low citrate to gold ratios, while a monocarboxylate monodentate (1κO1) mode is favoured at high citrate:gold ratios. The surface AuNP atoms are found to be predominantly in the zero oxidation state after citrate coordination, although trace amounts of Auδ+ are observed. 23Na NMR experiments show that Na+ ions are present near the gold surface, indicating that carboxylate binding occurs as a 2e− L-type interaction for each oxygen atom involved. This approach has broad potential to probe the binding of a variety of ligands to metal nanoparticles.

  5. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  6. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalini- zation medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 60 mL/min/1.73 m2or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was −0.60 ± 1.58 versus −0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39. Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of

  7. Isolation of developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study aimed at identifying developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase genes from .... the First strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermentas, Pittsburgh,. USA). .... ing height of the rooted cutting, girth of the stem, leaf area.

  8. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  9. Developmental toxicity of orally administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in SWR/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy; Al-Meteri, Mokhlid Hamed

    2011-04-01

    Normal adult inbred SWR/J mice were used to investigate the teratogenic and other possible toxic effects of various dose levels of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on fetuses. Multiple dose levels of 6.5, 13.0, 19.5, 26.0, 32.5 or 40.0 mg of sildenafil citrate/kg body weight (which correspond to the multiples of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 of human 50 mg Viagra, respectively) were orally administered into pregnant mice on days 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15 of gestation. On day 17 of pregnancy, all fetuses were removed and examined for toxic phenomena (embryo-fetal toxicity) and for external, internal and skeletal malformations. A total of 285 pregnant mice were used in the present study. None of the dams treated with sildenafil citrate at any of the oral dose levels used in the present study died during the experimental period and all dams treated with the drug failed to reveal overt signs of maternal toxicity. Moreover, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate that none of the multiple oral dose levels of the drug at any time interval used has induced any external, internal or skeletal malformations in the fetuses obtained from treated females. However, the dose level of 40 mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate has a growth suppressing effect on alive fetuses when it was administered at all the time intervals used in the present study. Furthermore, the dose levels 26.0, 32.5 and 40 mg/kg of the drug have embryo-fetal toxicity when the drug is applied on days 13-15 of gestation. The possible mechanisms involved in the embryo-fetal toxicity and fetal growth suppressing effects of sildenafil citrate were discussed. The results of this study have important implications for the widespread use of this drug.

  10. Direct separation of 67Ga citrate from zinc and copper target materials by an ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azony, K.M.; Ferieg, Kh.; Saleh, Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The separation of 6 7G a from zinc and copper target materials using an anion- f:exchanger (Dowex21K) and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 6 is described. The gallium-67 was separated in citrate solution and can be directly used for medical applications. Gallium-67 with a half-life of 78.3 h and gamma-rays with energies of 93, 185 and 300 keV is a cyclotron produced radioisotope for which a considerable demand exists. 6 7G a is frequently produced through proton or deuteron bombardment of natural or enriched Zn targets (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973). It is usually separated from Zn by ion exchange chromatography (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; van der Walt and Strelow, 1983) or by liquid extraction Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; Hupf and Beaver, 1970). The isotope is usually supplied in citrate solution which is widely used as 6 7G a Gallium citrate which is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for imaging soft tissue tumors and abscesses. Several routes for large scale production of 6 7G a and the development of medical applications have been reported (Silvester and Thakur, 1970; Dahl and Tilbury, 1972; Steyn and Meyer,1973; Vlatkovic et al., 1975; Neirinckx, 1976; Thakur, 1977). Various attempts were carried out to separate gallium-67 by using different ion exchange methods (Strelow et al., 1971; Das and Ramamoorthy, 1995; Boothe et al.,1991) through the labelling of citrate by using 6 7G a was carried out for medical applications

  11. Determining the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) behavior of citrate and spermine under in vivo conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharat, Meer; deSouza, Nandita M.; Parkes, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the exchange rates of labile 1H in citrate and spermine, metabolites present in prostatic secretions, to predict the size of the citrate and spermine CEST effects in vivo. Methods CEST z‐spectra were acquired at high‐field [11.7 Tesla (T)] from citrate and spermine solutions at physiological pH (6.5) using saturation power 6 μT. CEST was performed at different temperatures to determine exchange regimes (slow, intermediate or fast). For low pH solutions of spermine, exchange rates were estimated from resonance line width, fitting z‐spectra using the Bloch equations incorporating exchange, and using quantifying exchange using saturation time experiments (QUEST). These rates were extrapolated to physiological pH. Results Citrate showed little CEST effect at pH 6.5 and temperature (T) = 310 K (maximum 0.001% mM‐1), indicating fast exchange, whereas spermine showed greater CEST effects (maximum 0.2% mM‐1) indicating intermediate‐to‐fast exchange. Extrapolating data acquired from low pH spermine solutions predicts exchange rates at pH 6.5 and T of 310 K of at least 2 × 104s‐1. Conclusion Citrate and spermine show minimal CEST effects at 11.7T even using high saturation power. These effects would be much less than 2% at clinical field‐strengths due to relatively faster exchange and would be masked by CEST from proteins. Magn Reson Med 76:742–746, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26467055

  12. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, A; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, M; Bartolini, B; Moretto, Paola; DE LUCA, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vc; Passi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in euk...

  13. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    acetyl- cholinesterase inhibitors have been developed, many with femtomolar binding affinities (7). This body of literature also confirms that the...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for...May 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Revised Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 May 2009-30 Apr 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for

  14. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    compounds. For example, numerous classes of acetyl- cholinesterase inhibitors have been developed, m any with fe mtomolar binding affinities (7). This...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for...CONTRACT NUMBER Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0204 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  15. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  16. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  17. Converting S-limonene synthase to pinene or phellandrene synthases reveals the plasticity of the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinkun; Ai, Ying; Wang, Jianhui; Xu, Jingwei; Zhang, Yongkang; Yang, Dong

    2017-05-01

    S-limonene synthase is a model monoterpene synthase that cyclizes geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) to form S-limonene. It is a relatively specific enzyme as the majority of its products are composed of limonene. In this study, we converted it to pinene or phellandrene synthases after introducing N345A/L423A/S454A or N345I mutations. Further studies on N345 suggest the polarity of this residue plays a critical role in limonene production by stabilizing the terpinyl cation intermediate. If it is mutated to a non-polar residue, further cyclization or hydride shifts occurs so the carbocation migrates towards the pyrophosphate, leading to the production of pinene or phellandrene. On the other hand, mutant enzymes that still possess a polar residue at this position produce limonene as the major product. N345 is not the only polar residue that may stabilize the terpinyl cation because it is not strictly conserved among limonene synthases across species and there are also several other polar residues in this area. These residues could form a "polar pocket" that may collectively play this stabilizing role. Our study provides important insights into the catalytic mechanism of limonene synthases. Furthermore, it also has wider implications on the evolution of terpene synthases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model. Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citrate-rhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2 group and rhBMP-2 only group. Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respec-tively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits. Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg or rhBMP-2 alone were im-planted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab. Bone granules were obtained at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis. LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones, and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group. The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks, and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all. At 2 weeks, mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly en-hances bone regeneration in bone defects. This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions. Key words: Bone morphogenetic protein-2; Biocompatible materials; Calcium citrate; Gelatin

  19. Controlled swelling and degradation studies of alginate microbeads in dilute natrium-citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dragana D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate hydrogels are widely used in biomedicine due to alginate availability, hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Alginate microbeads are particularly attractive for applications in pharmacy and regenerative medicine due to high surface to volume ratio, low mass transfer limitations and simple implantation by injection. Aim of this work was to investigate possibilities for controlled degradation of alginate microbeads in cell culture medium (Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with Na-citrate added in small concentrations (0.05 - 0.5 mM. Alginate microbeads (1.5% w/w, 800 m in diameter were produced by electrostatic droplet extrusion and evaluated over a period of 10 days regarding appearance, kinetics and degree of swelling as well as biomechanical properties determined in a novel bioreactor with mechanical stimulation under in vivo-like conditions in articular cartilage (10% strain, 337.5 m/s compression rate. In the citrate concentration range investigated, microbeads initially swelled reaching an equilibrium value (~150-170% with respect to the initial mass, upon which they appeared stable for a certain period of time (1 to over 7 days followed by bead bursting and degradation. This degradation process indicated that Na+ ions from the solution initially replaced Ca2+ ions bound mainly to COO- groups in polymannuronate sequences inducing electrostatic repulsion of polymer chains and, consequently, swelling of the beads. Citrate ions assisted in this process by forming insoluble calcium citrate. Thus, the specific rate of the bead swelling increased with the increase in citrate concentration approaching a maximal value of ~0.34 d-1. In the last phase, the beads burst into pieces, which slowly continued to degrade by replacement of Ca2+ ions bonded to polyguluronate blocks in the egg-box structure. Compression moduli for packed beds of control, freshly produced microbeads, and microbeads swelled at the equilibrium

  20. Sphingomyelin synthases regulate protein trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Subathra

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2 represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG. SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 reduced the localization of the DAG-binding protein, protein kinase D (PKD, to the Golgi. Since PKD recruitment to the Golgi has been implicated in cellular secretion through the trans golgi network (TGN, the effect of down-regulation of SMSs on TGN-to-plasma membrane trafficking was studied. Down regulation of either SMS1 or SMS2 significantly retarded trafficking of the reporter protein vesicular stomatitis virus G protein tagged with GFP (VSVG-GFP from the TGN to the cell surface. Inhibition of SMSs also induced tubular protrusions from the trans Golgi network reminiscent of inhibited TGN membrane fission. Since a recent study demonstrated the requirement of PKD activity for insulin secretion in beta cells, we tested the function of SMS in this model. Inhibition of SMS significantly reduced insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells. Taken together these results provide the first direct evidence that both enzymes (SMS1 and 2 are capable of regulating TGN-mediated protein trafficking and secretion, functions that are compatible with PKD being a down-stream target for SMSs in the Golgi.

  1. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  2. Characterization of the human gene (TBXAS1) encoding thromboxane synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, A; Yokoyama, C; Ihara, H; Bandoh, S; Takeda, O; Takahashi, E; Tanabe, T

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding human thromboxane synthase (TBXAS1) was isolated from a human EMBL3 genomic library using human platelet thromboxane synthase cDNA as a probe. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the human thromboxane synthase gene spans more than 75 kb and consists of 13 exons and 12 introns, of which the splice donor and acceptor sites conform to the GT/AG rule. The exon-intron boundaries of the thromboxane synthase gene were similar to those of the human cytochrome P450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) except for introns 9 and 10, although the primary sequences of these enzymes exhibited 35.8% identity each other. The 1.2-kb of the 5'-flanking region sequence contained potential binding sites for several transcription factors (AP-1, AP-2, GATA-1, CCAAT box, xenobiotic-response element, PEA-3, LF-A1, myb, basic transcription element and cAMP-response element). Primer-extension analysis indicated the multiple transcription-start sites, and the major start site was identified as an adenine residue located 142 bases upstream of the translation-initiation site. However, neither a typical TATA box nor a typical CAAT box is found within the 100-b upstream of the translation-initiation site. Southern-blot analysis revealed the presence of one copy of the thromboxane synthase gene per haploid genome. Furthermore, a fluorescence in situ hybridization study revealed that the human gene for thromboxane synthase is localized to band q33-q34 of the long arm of chromosome 7. A tissue-distribution study demonstrated that thromboxane synthase mRNA is widely expressed in human tissues and is particularly abundant in peripheral blood leukocyte, spleen, lung and liver. The low but significant levels of mRNA were observed in kidney, placenta and thymus.

  3. Enclomiphene citrate stimulates testosterone production while preventing oligospermia: a randomized phase II clinical trial comparing topical testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, Ronald D; Fontenot, Gregory K; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Nydell, Jennifer; Lipshultz, Larry

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effect of enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Phase II clinical trial. Community dwelling men making visits to physician offices. Men with secondary hypogonadism. Oral administration of enclomiphene citrate or 1% topical T gel. Luteinizing hormone, FSH, T, and semen analysis. Treatment with enclomiphene citrate resulted in increased morning serum T, E2, and LH levels similar to those obtained with a topical T gel in men with secondary hypogonadism. Follicle-stimulating hormone and LH were increased with enclomiphene, and sperm counts were conserved. Enclomiphene citrate reverses the two hallmarks of secondary hypogonadism, namely, low serum total T and low or inappropriately normal LH while preserving sperm production. NCT01270841 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01270841). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ferritin Elevation and Improved Responsiveness to Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients on Ferric Citrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Yokoyama

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: It is suggested that not only iron load but also the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose reduction may be involved in ferritin elevation during ferric citrate hydrate treatment, resulting in a decrease of erythropoietin resistance index.

  5. Women taking the "blue pill" (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option.

  6. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option. PMID:25422584

  7. Early detection of interstitial pneumonia by 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Mikami, Riichiro; Ryujin, Yoshitada

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we report our recent experience indicating usefulness of 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy in 4 cases with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. These cases showed abnormal pulmonary 67 Ga uptake with normal chest radiographs. The first case with malignant lymphoma and the second one with lung cancer suffered from pulmonary infection following secondary immuno-insufficiency due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Pneumocystis carinii was suspected as causative agent in the first case, and gram negative bacilli in the second case. The third case with lung cancer developed radiation pneumonia after radiotherapy. The fourth case with acute bronchitis developed drug induced interstitial pneumonia presumably due to minocycline administration. It is concluded that 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy is more sensitive for early detection of interstitial pneumonia than routine chest radiography. (author)

  8. Structural, spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Potassium Di-hydrogen Citrate Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Pandya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dihydrogen citrate (KDC finds wide applications in food products. Pure potassium dihydrogen citrate crystal was grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. Grown crystal exhibited needle like morphology. The powder XRD shows triclinic structure symmetry with lattice parameters a=11.820 Å, b=14.970 Å, c=9.442 Å with angles α = 91.60°, β = 93.35°, γ = 110°. The presence of various functional groups of grown crystal was confirmed by using FT-IR spectroscopy. The thermogram indicates the thermal stability of the sample up to 100oC and then decomposes slowly into oxide stage through two stages. The results are discussed here.

  9. Highly divergent mitochondrial ATP synthase complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Balabaskaran Nina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1 sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1 and F(o sectors are highly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, it was a surprise that genes encoding the a and b subunits as well as other components of the F(o sector were undetectable in the sequenced genomes of a variety of apicomplexan parasites. While the parasitic existence of these organisms could explain the apparent incomplete nature of ATP synthase in Apicomplexa, genes for these essential components were absent even in Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate belonging to a sister clade of Apicomplexa, which demonstrates robust oxidative phosphorylation. This observation raises the possibility that the entire clade of Alveolata may have invented novel means to operate ATP synthase complexes. To assess this remarkable possibility, we have carried out an investigation of the ATP synthase from T. thermophila. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed the ATP synthase to be present as a large complex. Structural study based on single particle electron microscopy analysis suggested the complex to be a dimer with several unique structures including an unusually large domain on the intermembrane side of the ATP synthase and novel domains flanking the c subunit rings. The two monomers were in a parallel configuration rather than the angled configuration previously observed in other organisms. Proteomic analyses of well-resolved ATP synthase complexes from 2-D BN/BN-PAGE identified orthologs of seven canonical ATP synthase subunits, and at least 13 novel proteins that constitute subunits apparently limited to the ciliate lineage. A mitochondrially encoded protein, Ymf66, with predicted eight transmembrane domains could be a

  10. Comparison of equine platelet function and survival in whole blood collected in acid-citrate-dextrose solution or citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Sutton-Burges, Julie W; Tablin, Fern

    2017-06-01

    Equine whole blood collection and storage methods have been evaluated to assess red blood cell viability; however, platelet (PLT) viability has not been comprehensively assessed. The purpose of the study was to compare viability of PLTs collected in whole blood into 2 different anticoagulants. Whole blood from 6 healthy adult Thoroughbred horses was collected into citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) or acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD). Platelet count, pH, and concentrations of glucose, lactate, carbon dioxide, oxygen, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride were measured within 10 minutes of collection and then again one hour later at which time PLT aggregometry was performed to assess PLT function. Aggregometry mean amplitudes were significantly higher in CPDA compared to ACD. Blood glucose, pH, bicarbonate, sodium, and lactate concentrations were significantly higher in CPDA compared to ACD. Lactate concentration was higher following one hour in either anticoagulant. Potassium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly higher in ACD compared to CPDA at collection. Platelet aggregometry results suggest that CPDA is superior to ACD for maintaining PLT viability following whole blood collection. This may be associated with the higher, more neutral pH as well as an increase in glucose available for metabolism. Although lactate was increased in the CPDA samples it was not high enough to decrease pH and therefore may not have been high enough to cause morphologic lesions and loss of PLT viability. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Adherence rates to ferric citrate as compared to active control in patients with end stage kidney disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Diana; McFadden, Molly; Dwyer, Jamie P; Umanath, Kausik; Aguilar, Erwin; Yagil, Yoram; Greco, Barbara; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B; Greene, Tom; Goral, Simin

    2017-04-01

    Oral phosphate binders are the main stay of treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Adherence rates to ferric citrate, a recently approved phosphate binder, are unknown. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether adherence rates were different for ferric citrate vs. active control in 412 subjects with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) who were randomized to ferric citrate vs. active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Adherence was defined as percent of actual number of pills taken to total number of pills prescribed. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics including gender, race/ethnicity, and age between the ferric citrate and active control groups. Baseline phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels were similar. Mean (SD) adherence was 81.4% (17.4) and 81.7% (15.9) in the ferric citrate and active control groups, respectively (P = 0.88). Adherence remained similar between both groups after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, age, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetic nephropathy (mean [95% CI]: 81.4% [78.2, 84.6] and 81.5% [77.7, 85.2] for ferric citrate and active control, respectively). Gender, race/ethnicity, age, and diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy did not influence adherence to the prescribed phosphate binder. Subjects with CVD had lower adherence rates to phosphate binder; this was significant only in the active control group. Adherence rates to the phosphate binder, ferric citrate, were similar to adherence rates to active control. Similar adherence rates to ferric citrate are notable since tolerance to active control was an entry criteria and the study was open label. Gender, race/ethnicity, nor age influenced adherence. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  12. Functional analysis of the citrate activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis implicates a divalent metal in ligand binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Blancato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD= 1.2±0.2 µM, while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation.

  13. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sucrose Accumulation at Low Temperature 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Charles L.; Huber, Joan L. A.; Huber, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of growth temperature on the free sugar and sucrose phosphate synthase content and activity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf tissue was studied. When plants were grown at 25°C for 3 weeks and then transferred to a constant 5°C, sucrose, glucose, and fructose accumulated to high levels during a 14-d period. Predawn sugar levels increased from 14- to 20-fold over the levels present at the outset of the low-temperature treatment. Sucrose was the most abundant free sugar before, during, and after exposure to 5°C. Leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was significantly increased by the low-temperature treatment, whereas sucrose synthase and invertases were not. Synthesis of the sucrose phosphate synthase subunit was increased during and after low-temperature exposure and paralleled an increase in the steady-state level of the subunit. The increases in sucrose and its primary biosynthetic enzyme, sucrose phosphate synthase, are discussed in relation to adjustment of metabolism to low nonfreezing temperature and freezing stress tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652990

  14. Altered 67Ga citrate distribution in patients with multiple red blood cell transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelstad, B.; Luk, S.S.; Hattner, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Gallium-67 citrate studies from four patients who received multiple red blood cell transfusions were reviewed. Increased kidney, bladder, or bone localization was associated with decreased liver and colon activity. The findings suggest altered distribution due to competition with iron for receptor binding. Identification of inflammatory disease in two patients was possible. However, the effect of transfusions on detection of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases requires further evaluation

  15. Spirocyclic character of ixazomib citrate revealed by comprehensive XRD, NMR and DFT study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skořepová, E.; Čerňa, I.; Vlasáková, R.; Zvoníček, V.; Tkadlecová, M.; Dušek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1148, Nov (2017), s. 22-27 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ixazomib citrate * molecular structure * stereoisomers * crystal structure * NMR * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  16. Tumor affinity of radiolabeled peanut agglutinin compared with that of Ga-67 citrate in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Aburano, T.; Watanabe, N.; Kawabata, S.; Ishida, H.; Mukai, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Peanut agglutinin (PNA) binds avidly to the immunodominant group of the tumor associated T antigen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oncodiagnostic potential of radiolabeled PNA in animal models. PNA was labeled with I-125 or I-131 by Iodogen and also with In-111 by cyclic DTPA anhydride. The biological activity of PNA was examined by a hemaglutination titer with a photometer before and after labeling. Animal tumor models used were Lewis Lung Cancer(LLC), B-16 Melanotic Melanoma(MM), Yoshida Sarcoma(YS), Ehrlich Ascites Tumor(EAT and Hepatoma AH109A(HAH). Inflammatory tissue induced by turpentine oil was used as an abscess model. Serial scintigraphic images were obtained following IV injections of 100 μCi of I-131 or In-111-DTPA-PNA. The tumor affinity of Ga-67 citrate was studied to compare that of radiolabeled PNA. Tissue biodistribution was studied in EAT bearing mice. All of these tumor models except HAH were clearly visible by radiolabeled PNA without subtraction techniques. In the models of LLC and EAT, PNA showed the better accumulation into the tumor tissue than Ga-67 citrate. In YS and MM, PNA represented almost the same accumulation as Ga-67 citrate. The localization of PNA into abscess tissue wasn't found although Ga-67 citrate markedly accumulated into abscess tissue as well as tumor tissue. The clearance of PNA from tumor was slower than those from any other organs. Tumor to muscle ratio was 5.1 at 48hrs. and tumor to blood ratio increased with time to 2.3 at 96hrs. These results suggested that radiolabeled PNA may have a potential in the detection of tumor

  17. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumal, J.; Pena, C.; Mata, F.; Paternostro, C.; Penafiel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs

  18. Centrifugation protocols: tests to determine optimal lithium heparin and citrate plasma sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeski, Goce; Solano, Connie; Petroff, Mark K; Hynd, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Currently, no clear guidelines exist for the most appropriate tests to determine sample quality from centrifugation protocols for plasma sample types with both lithium heparin in gel barrier tubes for biochemistry testing and citrate tubes for coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 14 participants in four lithium heparin and one serum tube with gel barrier. The plasma tubes were centrifuged at four different centrifuge settings and analysed for potassium (K(+)), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), glucose and phosphorus (Pi) at zero time, poststorage at six hours at 21 °C and six days at 2-8°C. At the same time, three citrate tubes were collected and centrifuged at three different centrifuge settings and analysed immediately for prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, derived fibrinogen and surface-activated clotting time (SACT). The biochemistry analytes indicate plasma is less stable than serum. Plasma sample quality is higher with longer centrifugation time, and much higher g force. Blood cells present in the plasma lyse with time or are damaged when transferred in the reaction vessels, causing an increase in the K(+), LD and Pi above outlined limits. The cells remain active and consume glucose even in cold storage. The SACT is the only coagulation parameter that was affected by platelets >10 × 10(9)/L in the citrate plasma. In addition to the platelet count, a limited but sensitive number of assays (K(+), LD, glucose and Pi for biochemistry, and SACT for coagulation) can be used to determine appropriate centrifuge settings to consistently obtain the highest quality lithium heparin and citrate plasma samples. The findings will aid laboratories to balance the need to provide the most accurate results in the best turnaround time.

  19. Effect of sildenafil citrate on secondary healing in full thickness skin defects in experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, E; Karasoy Yesilada, A; Sevim, K Z; Sumer, O; Tatlidede, H S; Sakiz, D

    2014-01-01

    An acceleration of the wound healing process expedites chronic wound patient's return to normal social environments significantly. Sildenafil, a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent phosphodiesterase- 5 inhibitor has been shown to be a potent stimulator of angiogenesis through upregulation of cGMP. In our study, sildenafil was administered orally as a cost-effective supplement in the treatment of full thickness defects and chronic wounds in that manner with low incidence of side effects and morbidity. Randomly selected 72 Wistar-Albino rats were divided into the two groups, 36 rats in each group. Control group (n =36) was divided further into a secondary healing group consisting of 9 rats and a pathology group consisting of 27 rats (pathology group 1: 9 rats, 4th and 7th day of wound healing, pathology group 2: 9 rats, 10th and 14th day of wound healing, pathology group 3: 9 rats, 21st and 28th day of wound healing. Experimental group consisted of 36 rats which received sildenafil citrate (Viagra® Pfizer, Germany) for secondary wound healing to proceed. The average wound healing period in the control group was 17.89 days and in the sildenafil citrate administered group 14.56 days. The difference of the epithelialisation on full thickness defects were more prominent on days 5 and 11 postoperatively. In the sildenafil citrate applied group, on the 7th day, the defect was 25% smaller and on the 13th day, the defect contracted by 38%. In conclusion, we believe that sildenafil citrate administered orally is a cost- effective supplement in the treatment of full thickness defects and chronic wounds in that manner with low incidence of side effects and morbidity (Tab. 4, Fig. 7, Ref. 34).

  20. Cytogenetic effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on SWR/J mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the cytogenetic effects of sildenafil citrate in SWR/J mouse bone marrow cells. Thirty-six males and 36 females were used and divided into four groups. Each group contained 18 animals (9 males and 9 females), weighing 30-35 g. These animals were orally administered with a single dose of 13, 26 or 40 mg/kg sildenafil citrate solution. A control group received normal saline in an identical condition. The animals were sacrificed at 12, 24 or 48 h, after the treatment. Chromosome aberrations were investigated in 50 metaphases per animal. No significant differences in the percentages of mitotic indices or in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed between treated male and female mice at any doses or at any time intervals used, therefore, data from the two sexes were pooled when analyzed statistically. No significant (p < 0.05) differences in the percentages of mitotic indices or in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed between sildenafil citrate-treated groups and the control group at any doses or at any time intervals used. However, the percentages of centromeric adhesions increased significantly (p < 0.01) in treated groups as compared with the control group at all doses and at all time intervals used. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that sildenafil citrate does not have cytogenetic effects on mouse bone marrow cells, but the centromeric adhesions induced by this drug need further studies to confirm them and to investigate the possible mechanism(s) responsible for such effect.

  1. Effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qing-Yu; Lin, Zhong-Qin; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Kou, Dong-Quan; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Nie, Peng-Fei; Li, Xiu-Cui; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Huang, Hang; Zhang, Hua; Mu, Zhong-Lin; Peng, Lei

    2012-04-01

    To explore effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model, and to compare the bone formation with different sizes by radiological and histological study. Twenty-four male Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (Group A, B, C) in this study. Under anesthesia, defects of four sizes (1.2, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm) were created in each of the rabbits. Commercially pure calcium citrate powder was placed inside the medullary compartment of the femur (Experimental), while in the contralateral femur (Control) nothing was implanted. The defects were analyzed using radiography and histological analysis by using Imagepro-Plus 6.0 software after animal was sacrificed at 4th(Group A), 6th(Group B) and 8th(Group C) weeks postoperatively. Four samples were analyzed for each size of defect and each healing period. The histological and the radiologic evaluation were performed after sacrification of all rabbits on postoperative 4th and 6th weeks, It showed significant difference between the experimental group and the control group when these defects were less than or equal to 2.0 mm. No statistical difference was observed when these defects were larger than 2.0 mm at all healing periods except at the 4th week. Calcium citrate affects the early periods of bone defects healing mechanism in Japanese white rabbits positively, especially when the defect is not too large. We suggest further studies on calcium citrate to determine the effects of various dosages, administration ways and the experimental time on the bone defects. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of new butyltin citrate complex with lipid model membrane and DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruchnik, H.; Kral, Teresa; Hof, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 967-975 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0092 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Butyltin citrate complex * Phase transition * DSC Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014

  3. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  4. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0...... to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution....

  5. Lattice Constant Dependence on Particle Size for Ceria prepared from a Citrate Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, V N; Farrell, R A; Sexton, A M; Morris, M A

    2006-01-01

    High surface area ceria nanoparticles have been prepared using a citrate solgel precipitation method. Changes to the particle size have been made by calcining the ceria powders at different temperatures, and X-ray methods used to determine their lattice parameters. The particle sizes have been assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameter found to fall with decreasing particle size. The results are discussed in the light of the role played by surface tension effects

  6. Biodegradation of metal citrate complexes and implications for toxic-metal mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of synthetic and naturally occurring chelating agents in nuclear and toxic-metal wastes is a major concern because of their potential to enhance mobilization of metal ions away from the disposal sites. Of particular interest is citric acid, which is present in low-level and transuranic radioactive wastes and in domestic and industrial wastes (as washing fluids, for instance), as well as being found naturally. Citrate ions form multidentate, stable complexes with a variety of toxic metals and radionuclides; but biodegradation of these complexes, precipitating the metal ions as insoluble hydroxides, oxides or other salts, may retard migration. Here we report a study of the biodegradation of citrate complexes of Ca, Fe(II), Fe(III), Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and U. Several of these complexes were not readily degraded by bacteria, and the biodegradability depended on the chemical nature of the complex, not on the toxicity of the metal to the bacteria. This resistance to biodegradation implies that citrate complexation may play an important part in migration of these hazardous wastes. (author)

  7. Evaluation of hilar 67Ga-citrate uptake in bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Noriyo; Kuyama, Junpei; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Hatano, Osamu; Imai, Yasunori; Uno, Kimiichi; Minoshima, Satoshi.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated hilar uptake on 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy and correlated with hilar lymph node metastases in one-hundred seventeen cases (two-hundred thirty four hila) of bronchogenic carcinoma. Hilar uptake was classified into three grades independently on anterior and posterior chest views: no uptake (grade 0), uptake equal to that in the thoracic vertebrae (grade 1), and uptake higher than that in the thoracic vertebrae (grade 2). If a summed grade of anterior and posterior view was larger than 3, hilar uptake was considered as positive. In forty-four cases (forty-nine hila) with hilar lymph node metastases, positive hilar uptake was found in ten cases (eleven hila), resulting in sensitivity of 22% based on cases and 23% based on hila. In seventy-three cases (one-hundred forty-six hila) without hilar lymph node metastases, positive hilar uptake was found in six cases (ten hila), resulting in specificity of 91% based on cases and 93% based on hila. In comparison to scintigraphic findings of unilaterally positive hilar uptake, findings of bilaterally positive hilar uptake showed significantly lower accuracy in determining presence of hilar lymph node metastases. No definite correlation between hilar uptake and histopathology or 67 Ga-citrate uptake in a primary tumor was observed. The results indicate that usefulness of 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy is limited when evaluating hilar lymph node metastases in bronchogenic carcinoma. (author)

  8. Flexible biodegradable citrate-based polymeric step-index optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Dingying; Zhang, Chenji; Kalaba, Surge; Mehta, Nikhil; Kim, Gloria B; Liu, Zhiwen; Yang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Implanting fiber optical waveguides into tissue or organs for light delivery and collection is among the most effective ways to overcome the issue of tissue turbidity, a long-standing obstacle for biomedical optical technologies. Here, we report a citrate-based material platform with engineerable opto-mechano-biological properties and demonstrate a new type of biodegradable, biocompatible, and low-loss step-index optical fiber for organ-scale light delivery and collection. By leveraging the rich designability and processibility of citrate-based biodegradable polymers, two exemplary biodegradable elastomers with a fine refractive index difference and yet matched mechanical properties and biodegradation profiles were developed. Furthermore, we developed a two-step fabrication method to fabricate flexible and low-loss (0.4 db/cm) optical fibers, and performed systematic characterizations to study optical, spectroscopic, mechanical, and biodegradable properties. In addition, we demonstrated the proof of concept of image transmission through the citrate-based polymeric optical fibers and conducted in vivo deep tissue light delivery and fluorescence sensing in a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, laying the groundwork for realizing future implantable devices for long-term implantation where deep-tissue light delivery, sensing and imaging are desired, such as cell, tissue, and scaffold imaging in regenerative medicine and in vivo optogenetic stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Citrate biodegradation. Mid-year status report, [January 1994--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Chatterjee, S.; Landry, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was established to demonstrate advanced technologies for the remediation of uranium contaminated soils. This program, managed by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), focuses on the development and demonstration of new soil remediation processes which are faster, safer, and more economical for use at the Fernald site and throughout the DOE complex for cleanup of similar contaminants. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a process which uses citric acid to treat contaminated soils and wastes with the subsequent recovery of toxic metals and uranium. Citric acid, a naturally occurring organic chelating agent, forms multidentate stable complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and has been effectively used to extract uranium and other metals from solid wastes via the formation of soluble metal citrate complexes. Further studies have also shown that several of the metal citrate complexes are readily biodegraded by microorganisms. During this process, the metals form a precipitate or become associated with the biomass and are recovered at the end of the biodegradation. Although uranyl citrate is recalcitrant to biodegradation, upon exposure to visible light it undergoes photochemical degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium

  10. Ytterbium 169 citrate in the diagnosis of lung opacities of cancerous origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, Patrick.

    1976-01-01

    Lung scintigraphy for tumour exploration has been widely studied for some years, but unfortunately with the many radioisotopes used at present this examination is not entirely reliable. It seemed interesting therefore to investigate a new tracer, 169 Yb citrate, the properties of which were demonstrated recently by HISADA. To estimate the specificity of this tracer we chose 62 records of different bronchopulmonary diseases. After an introductory review of various diagnostic methods the physical and physiological characteristics of ytterbium citrate and its method of use are described, then the records examined are presented and our thoughts and conclusions discussed. 169 Yb citrate possesses excellent biophysical properties for tumour scintigraphy but this isotope, though causing no radioactive pollution, delivers an appreciable irradiation dose to the patient examined. It has a positive tropism for pathological lung images. The fixation index of the documents taken separately, apart from that of the 14th day, cannot distinguish between benign and malignant diseases. This is possible with the kinetic uptake curve and the index ratios for the 2nd and 14th days. With these diagnostic criteria the overall results are better than those obtained with other commonly used radioisotopes: true positives 70%, false negatives 11%, false positives 4.5% [fr

  11. Sildenafil citrate protects skeletal muscle of ischemia-reperfusion injury: immunohistochemical study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira Armstrong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: vehicle-treated control (CTG, sildenafil citrate-treated (SCG, and sham group (SG. CTG and SCG had femoral artery occluded for 6 hours. Saline or 1 mg/kg of SC was given 5.5 hours after occlusion. SG had a similar procedure without artery occlusion. Soleus muscle samples were acquired 4 or 24h after the reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry caspase-3 analysis was used to estimate apoptosis using the apoptotic ratio (computed as positive/negative cells. Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Eighteen animals were included in the 4h reperfusion groups and 21 animals in the 24h reperfusion groups. The mean apoptotic ratio was 0.18±0.1 for the total cohort; 0.14±0.06 for the 4h reperfusion groups and 0.19±0.08 for the 24h groups (p<0.05. The SCG had lower caspase-3 ratio compared to the control groups at the 24h reperfusion time point (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate administration after the onset of the ischemic injury reduces IR-induced cellular damage in skeletal muscle in this rat hindlimb ischemia model.

  12. Tofacitinib Citrate for Ulcerative Keratitis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Meadow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with tofacitinib citrate. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 59-year-old patient, with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, on methotrexate 10 mg PO qwk and IV abatacept 750 mg/month, presented with photosensitivity, foreign body sensation, pain, redness, and blurry vision of her right eye (RE. Visual acuity of the RE was 20/200 and 20/20 of the left eye (LE. The slit lamp examination of the RE revealed dryness, 2+ injection of the conjunctiva, and pericentral ulceration of the cornea with 20–30% stromal thinning, pannus, and diffuse punctate epithelial erosions. The anterior chamber appeared normal. Laboratory values revealed elevated levels of rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, and C-reactive protein. The patient was switched to tofacitinib citrate 5 mg PO b.i.d, underwent corneal gluing, and was given prednisone acetate 1% gt TID, polytrim gt TID, neomycin-polymyxin-dexameth gt QD, FreshKote lubricant 1.8% gt QID, moxifloxacin 0.5% gt QID, and preservative free artificial tears Q1H. Within one week, laboratory values normalized, symptoms diminished, and the cornea reepithelialized. Conclusion. RA can present with ulcerative keratitis. Tofacitinib citrate, steroids, and corneal gluing were found to halt the progression of keratolysis and promote reepithelialization.

  13. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  14. Citrate dialysate does not induce oxidative stress or inflammation in vitro as compared to acetate dialysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased acetataemia during haemodialysis sessions has been associated with a number of abnormalities, including increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthesis. Citric acid may play an alternative role to acetate as a dialysate stabilizer given that the effect of citrate on complement and leukocyte activation is different to that of acetate. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory effect in immunocompetent blood cells of acetate dialysate and citrate dialysate. Materials and methods: The effect of acetate and/or citrate was investigated in the whole blood of uremic patients and in healthy in vitro samples. Four types of dialysate were tested: dialysate 1, acetate-free with 1 mmol/L of citrate; dialysate 2, with 0.8 mmol/L of citrate and 0.3 mmol/L of acetate; dialysate 3, citrate-free with 3 mmol/L of acetate; and dialysate 4, citrate-free with 4 mmol/L of acetate. The cell types used were: human monocyte culture (THP-1; and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy subjects and uremic patients on haemodialysis. ICAM-1 was determined and levels of reactive oxygen species and total microvesicles were quantified. Results: Unlike the citrate dialysates, the dialysates with acetate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4 induced increased ICAM-1 expression density in THP-1 cells; an increase in ICAM-1 expression was observed in the immunocompetent cells of healthy subjects with acetate dialysate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4 but not with citrate dialysate (dialysate 1 and dialysate 2. No significant ICAM-1 differences were found between the different dialysates in the cells of haemodialysed patients. Reactive oxygen species expression and the number of microvesicles increased significantly with acetate dialysate but not with citrate dialysate in the cells of both healthy subjects and haemodialysed patients. Conclusion: At the concentrations in which it is generally used in clinical practice

  15. Dietary fat and hepatic lipogenesis: mitochondrial citrate carrier as a sensor of metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrate carrier (CIC) is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that has a fundamental role in hepatic intermediary metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the transport of citrate from mitochondria, where this molecule is formed, to cytosol, where this molecule is used for fatty acid (FA) and cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial CIC acts upstream of cytosolic lipogenic reactions, and its regulation is particularly important in view of the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Although a great deal of data are currently available on the dietary modulation of cytosolic lipogenic enzymes, little is known about the nutritional regulation of CIC transport activity. In this review, we describe the differential effects of distinct FAs present in the diet on the activity of mitochondrial CIC. In particular, polyunsaturated FAs were powerful modulators of the activity of mitochondrial CIC by influencing its expression through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. On the contrary, saturated and monounsaturated FAs did not influence mitochondrial CIC activity. Moreover, variations in CIC activity were connected to similar alterations in the metabolic pathways to which the transported citrate is channeled. Therefore, CIC may be considered as a sensor for changes occurring inside the hepatocyte and may represent an important target for the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. The crucial role of this protein is reinforced by the recent discovery of its involvement in other cellular processes, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inflammation, tumorigenesis, genome stability, and sperm metabolism. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, E.-P.

    1978-03-01

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used [fr

  17. Dietary Fat and Hepatic Lipogenesis: Mitochondrial Citrate Carrier as a Sensor of Metabolic Changes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Citrate carrier (CIC) is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that has a fundamental role in hepatic intermediary metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the transport of citrate from mitochondria, where this molecule is formed, to cytosol, where this molecule is used for fatty acid (FA) and cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial CIC acts upstream of cytosolic lipogenic reactions, and its regulation is particularly important in view of the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Although a great deal of data are currently available on the dietary modulation of cytosolic lipogenic enzymes, little is known about the nutritional regulation of CIC transport activity. In this review, we describe the differential effects of distinct FAs present in the diet on the activity of mitochondrial CIC. In particular, polyunsaturated FAs were powerful modulators of the activity of mitochondrial CIC by influencing its expression through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. On the contrary, saturated and monounsaturated FAs did not influence mitochondrial CIC activity. Moreover, variations in CIC activity were connected to similar alterations in the metabolic pathways to which the transported citrate is channeled. Therefore, CIC may be considered as a sensor for changes occurring inside the hepatocyte and may represent an important target for the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. The crucial role of this protein is reinforced by the recent discovery of its involvement in other cellular processes, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inflammation, tumorigenesis, genome stability, and sperm metabolism. PMID:24829468

  18. Highly selective and sensitive macrocycle-based dinuclear foldamer for fluorometric and colorimetric sensing of citrate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhaman, Md Mhahabubur; Hasan, Mohammad H; Alamgir, Azmain; Xu, Lihua; Powell, Douglas R; Wong, Bryan M; Tandon, Ritesh; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2018-01-10

    The selective detection of citrate anions is essential for various biological functions in living systems. A quantitative assessment of citrate is required for the diagnosis of various diseases in the human body; however, it is extremely challenging to develop efficient fluorescence and color-detecting molecular probes for sensing citrate in water. Herein, we report a macrocycle-based dinuclear foldamer (1) assembled with eosin Y (EY) that has been studied for anion binding by fluorescence and colorimetric techniques in water at neutral pH. Results from the fluorescence titrations reveal that the 1·EY ensemble strongly binds citrate anions, showing remarkable selectivity over a wide range of inorganic and carboxylate anions. The addition of citrate anions to the 1·EY adduct led to a large fluorescence enhancement, displaying a detectable color change under both visible and UV light in water up to 2 μmol. The biocompatibility of 1·EY as an intracellular carrier in a biological system was evaluated on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HF) cells, showing an excellent cell viability. The strong binding properties of the ensemble allow it to be used as a highly sensitive, detective probe for biologically relevant citrate anions in various applications.

  19. Inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the release of endothlin-1 induced by bradykinin in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Shinohara, Akira; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Our previous study showed that the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl citrate inhibits endothelin-1-and bradykinin-mediated pain responses in mice orthotopically inoculated with melanoma cells. We also demonstrated that bradykinin induces endothelin-1 secretion in melanoma cells. However, the analgesic mechanisms of fentanyl citrate remain unclear. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine whether fentanyl citrate affects bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion in B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The amount of endothelin-1 in the culture medium was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The expression of endothelin-1, kinin B 2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL/6 melanoma cells was determined using immunocytochemistry. Fentanyl citrate inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion. The inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the secretion of endothelin-1 was attenuated by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide. The immunoreactivities of endothelin-1, kinin B 2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL6 melanoma cells were observed. These results suggest that fentanyl citrate regulates bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion through μ-opioid receptors in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; Korevaar, J C; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2008-08-01

    An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical parameters of 111 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with 114 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus placebo. The data for age, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and plasma testosterone were available in all women, 2 h glucose in 80% of women and homeostatic model assessment for assessing insulin sensitivity (HOMA) in 50% of women. Of the women who were allocated to the metformin group, 44 women (40%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. In the placebo group, 52 women (46%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. There was a significantly different chance of an ongoing pregnancy for metformin versus placebo between subgroups based on age and WHR (P = 0.014). There was a positive effect of metformin versus placebo on pregnancy rate in older women (>or=28 years) with a high WHR, a negative effect of metformin versus placebo in young women (Metformin may be an effective addition to clomifene citrate in infertile women with PCOS, especially in older and viscerally obese patients.

  1. Bornyl-diphosphate synthase from Lavandula angustifolia: A major monoterpene synthase involved in essential oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despinasse, Yolande; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Antonczak, Serge; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Jullien, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products. Molecular modeling of the enzyme's active site suggests that the carbocation intermediates are more stable in LaBPPS than in SoBPPS leading probably to a lower efficiency of LaBPPS to convert GPP into BPP. Quantitative RT-PCR performed from leaves and flowers at different development stages of L. angustifolia samples show a clear correlation between transcript level of LaBPPS and accumulation of borneol/camphor, suggesting that LaBPPS is mainly responsible of in vivo biosynthesis of borneol/camphor in fine lavender. A phylogenetic analysis of terpene synthases (TPS) pointed out the basal position of LaBPPS in the TPSb clade, suggesting that LaBPPS could be an ancestor of others lavender TPSb. Finally, borneol could be one of the first monoterpenes to be synthesized in the Lavandula subgenus. Knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies to improve the lavender oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding. Accession numbers: LaBPPS: KM015221. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sesquiterpene Synthase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Synthase Fusion Protein Responsible for Hirsutene Biosynthesis in Stereum hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Christopher M; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    The wood-rotting mushroom Stereum hirsutum is a known producer of a large number of namesake hirsutenoids, many with important bioactivities. Hirsutenoids form a structurally diverse and distinct class of sesquiterpenoids. No genes involved in hirsutenoid biosynthesis have yet been identified or their enzymes characterized. Here, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a hirsutene synthase as an unexpected fusion protein of a sesquiterpene synthase (STS) with a C-terminal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) synthase (HMGS) domain. Both the full-length fusion protein and truncated STS domain are highly product-specific 1,11-cyclizing STS enzymes with kinetic properties typical of STSs. Complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the HMGS domain is also functional in vivo Phylogenetic analysis shows that the hirsutene synthase domain does not form a clade with other previously characterized sesquiterpene synthases from Basidiomycota. Comparative gene structure analysis of this hirsutene synthase with characterized fungal enzymes reveals a significantly higher intron density, suggesting that this enzyme may be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In contrast, the HMGS domain is clearly related to other fungal homologs. This STS-HMGS fusion protein is part of a biosynthetic gene cluster that includes P450s and oxidases that are expressed and could be cloned from cDNA. Finally, this unusual fusion of a terpene synthase to an HMGS domain, which is not generally recognized as a key regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate isoprenoid precursor pathway, led to the identification of additional HMGS duplications in many fungal genomes, including the localization of HMGSs in other predicted sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene clusters. IMPORTANCE Hirsutenoids represent a structurally diverse class of bioactive sesquiterpenoids isolated from fungi. Identification of their biosynthetic pathways will provide

  3. Impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major hallmark of type 2 diabetes and an early detectable abnormality in the development of this disease. The cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance include impaired insulin-mediated muscle glycogen synthesis and increased intramyocellular lipid content......, whereas impaired insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase represents a consistent, molecular defect found in both type 2 diabetic and high-risk individuals. Despite several studies of the insulin signaling pathway believed to mediate dephosphorylation and hence activation of glycogen synthase......, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this defect remain unknown. Recently, the use of phospho-specific antibodies in human diabetic muscle has revealed hyperphosphorylation of glycogen synthase at sites not regulated by the classical insulin signaling pathway. In addition, novel approaches such as gene...

  4. Class II recombinant phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase from spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, B N; Hove-Jensen, B

    2001-01-01

    to other PRPP synthases the activity of spinach PRPP synthase isozyme 3 is independent of P(i), and the enzyme is inhibited by ribonucleoside diphosphates in a purely competitive manner, which indicates a lack of allosteric inhibition by these compounds. In addition spinach PRPP synthase isozyme 3 shows...... an unusual low specificity toward diphosphoryl donors by accepting dATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP in addition to ATP. The kinetic mechanism of the enzyme is an ordered steady state Bi Bi mechanism with K(ATP) and K(Rib-5-P) values of 170 and 110 micrometer, respectively, and a V(max) value of 13.1 micromol (min x...... mg of protein)(-1). The enzyme has an absolute requirement for magnesium ions, and maximal activity is obtained at 40 degrees C at pH 7.6....

  5. Reduction of costs for anemia-management drugs associated with the use of ferric citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anila Thomas,1 Leif E Peterson2 1Clinical Pharmacy Services, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA; 2Center for Biostatistics, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA Background: Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder which has the potential to reduce usage of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs and intravenous (IV iron used for anemia management during hemodialysis (HD among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Currently, the potential health care cost savings on a national scale due to the use of ferric citrate in ESRD are undetermined. Methods: Per-patient-per-year costs of ESAs (Epogen® and Aranesp® [Amgen Inc., CA, USA] and IV iron (Venofer® [American Regent, Inc., NY, USA] and Ferrlecit® [Sanofi US, Bridgewater, NJ, USA] were based on RED BOOK™ (Truven Health Analytics New York, NY, USA costs combined with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS base rate and actual usage in 2011 for the four drugs. The annual number of outpatients undergoing HD in the US was based on frequencies reported by the USRDS (United States Renal Data System. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed to determine total annual costs and cost reduction based on ferric citrate usage. Results: Total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron for anemia management in ESRD determined by Monte Carlo analysis assuming CMS base rate value was 5.127 (3.664–6.260 billion USD. For actual utilization in 2011, total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron was 3.981 (2.780–4.930 billion USD. If ferric citrate usage reduced ESA utilization by 20% and IV iron by 40%, then total cost would be reduced by 21.2% to 4.038 (2.868–4.914 billion USD for the CMS base rate, and by 21.8% to 3.111 (2.148–3.845 billion USD, based on 2011 actual utilization. Conclusion: It is likely that US health care costs for anemia-management drugs associated with ESRD among HD patients can be reduced by using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder. Keywords

  6. Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient and impurities in sildenafil citrate obtained from the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Nutan, Mohammad T; Dodla, Uday Krishna Reddy

    2014-10-01

    The accessibility of prescription drugs produced outside of the United States, most notably sildenafil citrate (innovator product, Viagra®), has been made much easier by the Internet. Of greatest concern to clinicians and policymakers is product quality and patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings to potential buyers that the safety of drugs purchased from the Internet cannot be guaranteed, and may present a health risk to consumers from substandard products. The objective of this study was to determine whether generic sildenafil citrate tablets from international markets obtained via the Internet are equivalent to the US innovator product regarding major aspects of pharmaceutical quality: potency, accuracy of labeling, and presence and level of impurities. This will help identify aspects of drug quality that may impact public health risks. A total of 15 sildenafil citrate tablets were obtained for pharmaceutical analysis: 14 generic samples from international Internet pharmacy websites and the US innovator product. According to US Pharmacopeial guidelines, tablet samples were tested using high-performance liquid chromatography for potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and levels of impurities (impurities A, B, C, and D). Impurity levels were compared with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) limits. Among the 15 samples, 4 samples possessed higher impurity B levels than the ICH qualification threshold, 8 samples possessed higher impurity C levels than the ICH qualification threshold, and 4 samples possessed more than 1% impurity quantity of maximum daily dose (MDD). For API, 6 of the samples failed to fall within the 5% assay limit. Quality assurance tests are often used to detect formulation defects of drug products during the manufacturing and/or storage process. Results suggest that manufacturing standards for sildenafil citrate generic drug products compared with the US innovator product are not

  7. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  8. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  9. Virtual Screening of Novel Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lather, Amit; Sharma, Sunil; Khatkar, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by microorganisms are the major cause of death today. The tremendous and improper use of antimicrobial agents leads to antimicrobial resistance. Various currently available antimicrobial drugs are inadequate to control the infections and lead to various adverse drug reactions. Efforts based on computer-aided drug design (CADD) can excavate a large number of databases to generate new, potent hits and minimize the requirement of time as well as money for the discovery of newer antimicrobials. Pharmaceutical sciences also have made development with advances in drug designing concepts. The current research article focuses on the study of various G-6-P synthase inhibitors from literature cited molecular database. Docking analysis was conducted and ADMET data of various molecules was evaluated by Schrodinger Glide and PreADMET software, respectively. Here, the results presented efficacy of various inhibitors towards enzyme G-6-P synthase. Docking scores, binding energy and ADMET data of various molecules showed good inhibitory potential toward G-6-P synthase as compared to standard antibiotics. This novel antimicrobial drug target G-6-P synthase has not so extensively been explored for its application in antimicrobial therapy, so the work done so far proved highly essential. This article has helped the drug researchers and scientists to intensively explore about this wonderful antimicrobial drug target. The Schrodinger, Inc. (New York, USA) software was utilized to carry out the computational calculations and docking studies. The hardware configuration was Intel® core (TM) i5-4210U CPU @ 2.40GHz, RAM memory 4.0 GB under 64-bit window operating system. The ADMET data was calculated by using the PreADMET tool (PreADMET ver. 2.0). All the computational work was completed in the Laboratory for Enzyme Inhibition Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M.D. University, Rohtak, INDIA. Molecular docking studies were carried out to identify the binding

  10. Structure and mechanism of the diterpene cyclase ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W. (UIUC); (Iowa State); (Penn)

    2011-09-20

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase reveals three {alpha}-helical domains ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the {beta}{gamma} domains in ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase but exclusively in the {alpha} domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions.

  11. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates; Preparacao do titanato zirconato de chumbo a partir dos citratos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500{sup 0} C, 450{sup 0} C and 250{sup 0} C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450{sup 0} C and 500{sup 0} C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800{sup 0} C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500{sup 0} C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600{sup 0} C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400{sup 0} C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400{sup 0} C-800{sup 0} C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100{sup 0} C and 1200{sup 0} C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm{sup -3} at 1200{sup 0} C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs.

  12. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  13. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon V

    2009-02-01

    Aluminum-activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in plant Al tolerance. This paper characterizes AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al-tolerance genes, shown here to encode an Al-activated citrate transporter in Arabidopsis. Together with the previously characterized Al-activated malate transporter, AtALMT1, this discovery allowed us to examine the relationship in the same species between members of the two gene families for which Al-tolerance genes have been identified. AtMATE is expressed primarily in roots and is induced by Al. An AtMATE T-DNA knockdown line exhibited very low AtMATE expression and Al-activated root citrate exudation was abolished. The AtALMT1 AtMATE double mutant lacked both Al-activated root malate and citrate exudation and showed greater Al sensitivity than the AtALMT1 mutant. Therefore, although AtALMT1 is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance, AtMATE also makes a significant but smaller contribution. The expression patterns of AtALMT1 and AtMATE and the profiles of Al-activated root citrate and malate exudation are not affected by the presence or absence of the other gene. These results suggest that AtALMT1-mediated malate exudation and AtMATE-mediated citrate exudation evolved independently to confer Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. However, a link between regulation of expression of the two transporters in response to Al was identified through work on STOP1, a transcription factor that was previously shown to be necessary for AtALMT1 expression. Here we show that STOP1 is also required for AtMATE expression and Al-activated citrate exudation.

  14. Metformin-letrozole in comparison with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene-resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Fallahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Additionally, around 20– 25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be “clomiphene– resistant”. Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare results of Metformin-letrozole with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI.Materials and Methods: In this single blind randomized trial, ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistant patients with PCOS. The inclusion criteria were patients who received 150mg clomiphene citrate daily for 3 cycles and failed to become pregnant. The patients were matched for their age, body mass index (BMI, and infertility period. They were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n=50 and a metformin-clomiphene citrate group (n=50. Chemical and clinical pregnancies were assessed after IUI. Abortion rates were determined in both groups. Results: Regarding pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference between the two groups. One miscarriage (2% occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none was seen in the metformin-letrozole group. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rate between clomiphene citrate and letrozole groups although it has been 2% in the former and 5% in the latter.

  15. Effects of Citrate and Arginine on Sorption of Nickel to Yazd Sepiolite and Calcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Sheikhhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pollution of soil and water environment by release of heavy metals is of great concerns of the last decades. Sorption of heavy metals by low cost materials is considered as an inexpensive and efficient method used for removal of heavy metals from soil-water systems. The presence of different ligands with various complexing abilities can change the sorption properties of heavy metals and their fate in the environment as well. In order to assess the effect of citrate and arginine as natural organic ligands in soil environment, in a batch study we investigated the effects of these ligands on equilibrium sorption of nickel to sepiolite and calcite minerals and also kinetics of Ni sorption by these minerals. Materials and Methods: Minerals used in this study included sepiolite from Yazd (Iran and pure calcite (Analytical grade, Merck, Germany. Sepiolite was purified, saturated with Ca using 0.5 M CaCl2, powdered in a mortar and sieved by non-metal 230 mesh standard wire sieve. For equilibrium sorption study, in a 50-mL polyethylene centrifuge tube,0.3 g sample of each mineral was suspended in 30 mL of a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 Ni (NiCl2 and containing zero (as control or 0.1mmol L-1 citrate or arginine ligands. The applied concentrationsfor each ligand can naturally occur in soils. Preparedtubes were shaken (180±2 rpm, 25±1oC for 24 h using an orbital shaker and centrifuged (4000×g for 10 min and the supernatants were analyzed for Ni concentration using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAnalyst 200 Perkin-Elmer at a wavelength of 232 nm and a detection limit of 0.05 mg L-1. The quantity of Ni retained by each mineral at equilibrium was calculated using equation qe = (Ci - CeV/W where qe was the amount of nickel retained by mineral surface at equilibrium. Ci and Ce were the initial and the equilibrium concentrations (mg L-1 of Ni, respectively, V was the volume (L of the solution

  16. Highly Divergent Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nina, Praveen Balabaskaran; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kane, Lesley A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1) sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o) sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1) and F(o) sectors are

  17. Predicting the catalytic sites of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) related Non-haem iron-dependent oxygenases and oxidases (NHIDOX) demonstrated a striking structural conservativeness, even with low protein sequence homology. It is evident that these enzymes have an architecturally similar catalytic centre with active ligands lining the reactive pocket.

  18. Studies on the Active Site of Deacetoxycephalosporin C Synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, Matthew D.; Lee, Hwei-Jen; Harlos, Karl; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Baldwin, Jack E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Charnock, John M.; Garner, C. David; Hara, Takane; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Valegård, Karin; Viklund, Jenny A.C.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger; Danielsson, Åke; Bhikhabhai, Rama

    1999-01-01

    The Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) from Streptomyces clavuligerus was expressed at ca 25% of total soluble protein in Escherichia coli and purified by an efficient large-scale procedure. Purified protein catalysed the conversions of

  19. Beta-Glucan Synthase Gene Expression in Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus sp. is a popular edible mushroom, containing various functional component, in particular, Beta-glucan. Beta-glucans is a part of glucan family of polysaccharides and supposedly contribute to medicinal and nutritional value of Pleurotus.sp. In order to understand the distribution of Beta-glucan in Pleurotus.sp, the Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was determined and compared in different part of Pleurotus, namely mycelium, stripe and cap. The Pleurotus.sp RNA was extracted using commercial kit, employing Tissuelyser ll (Qiagen, USA) to disrupt the cell walls. Then the RNA was quantified by Nano drop (Thermo Fisher, USA) and visualized using denaturing agarose gel. RNA with good OD 260.280 reading (∼2.0) was chosen and converted to cDNA. Using Laccase synthase gene as home keeping gene, Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was quantified using CFX 96 Real Time PCR detection system (Biorad, USA). Preliminary result shows that Beta-glucan synthase was relatively expressed the most in stripe, followed by mycelium and barely in cap. (author)

  20. Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii thymidylate synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edman, U; Edman, J C; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    The thymidylate synthase (TS) gene from Pneumocystis carinii has been isolated from complementary and genomic DNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequence of TS is 891 nucleotides, encoding a 297-amino acid protein of Mr 34,269. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar...

  1. Insight into Biochemical Characterization of Plant Sesquiterpene Synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manczak, Tom; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    A fast and reproducible protocol was established for enzymatic characterization of plant sesquiterpene synthases that can incorporate radioactivity in their products. The method utilizes the 96-well format in conjunction with cluster tubes and enables processing of >200 samples a day. Along...... with reduced reagent usage, it allows further reduction in the use of radioactive isotopes and flammable organic solvents. The sesquiterpene synthases previously characterized were expressed in yeast, and the plant-derived Thapsia garganica kunzeaol synthase TgTPS2 was tested in this method. KM for TgTPS2...... was found to be 0.55 μM; the turnover number, kcat, was found to be 0.29 s-1, kcat for TgTPS2 is in agreement with that of terpene synthases of other plants, and kcat/KM was found to be 0.53 s-1 μM-1 for TgTPS2. The kinetic parameters were in agreement with previously published data....

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in association with oxidative DNA damage in coronary atherosclerosis. Rajesh G. Kumar, Mrudula K. Spurthi, Kishore G. Kumar, Sanjib K. Sahu and Surekha H. Rani. J. Genet. 91, 349–352. Table 1. The demographic and clinical data of the CHD ...

  3. ATP synthase--a marvellous rotary engine of the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Muneyuki, E; Hisabori, T

    2001-09-01

    ATP synthase can be thought of as a complex of two motors--the ATP-driven F1 motor and the proton-driven Fo motor--that rotate in opposite directions. The mechanisms by which rotation and catalysis are coupled in the working enzyme are now being unravelled on a molecular scale.

  4. Contribution of granule bound starch synthase in kernel modification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of gbssI and gbssII genes, encoding granule bound starch synthase enzyme I and II, respectively, in quality protein maize (QPM) were studied at different days after pollination (DAP). Total RNA was used for first strand cDNA synthesis using the ImpromIISriptTM reverse transcriptase. No detectable levels of gbssI ...

  5. Dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations in Pneumocystis and sulfa resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina; Atzori, Chiara

    2004-01-01

    in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Similar mutations have been observed in P. jirovecii. Studies have consistently demonstrated a significant association between the use of sulfa drugs for PCP prophylaxis and DHPS gene mutations. Whether these mutations confer resistance to TMP-SMX or dapsone plus trimethoprim...

  6. Analysis of genetic variation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity of 100 Malaysian native chickens was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for two candidate genes: inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1). The two genes were selected ...

  7. Characterising the cellulose synthase complexes of cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoori Zangir, N.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the plant kingdom is the presence of a structural cell wall. Cellulose is a major component in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants. In higher plants cellulose is synthesized by so called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of strictosidine synthase, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitragynine is one of the most dominant indole alkaloids present in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a species of Rubiaceae. This alkaloid is believed to be synthesized via condensation of the amino acid derivative, tryptamine and secologanine by the action of strictosidine synthase (STR). The cDNA clone encoding STR ...

  9. Functional Characterization of Sesquiterpene Synthase from Polygonum minus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fang Ee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS has a complete open reading frame (ORF of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β-sesquiphellandrene.

  10. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-07-31

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na+ solutions. However, Ca2+ ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na+ solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na+ concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest the importance

  11. The crystal structures of the tri-functional Chloroflexus aurantiacus and bi-functional Rhodobacter sphaeroides malyl-CoA lyases and comparison with CitE-like superfamily enzymes and malate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Jan; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2013-11-09

    Malyl-CoA lyase (MCL) is a promiscuous carbon-carbon bond lyase that catalyzes the reversible cleavage of structurally related Coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. This enzyme plays a crucial, multifunctional role in the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation in Chloroflexus aurantiacus. A second, phylogenetically distinct MCL from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for acetate assimilation. Both MCLs belong to the large superfamily of CitE-like enzymes, which includes the name-giving β-subunit of citrate lyase (CitE), malyl-CoA thioesterases and other enzymes of unknown physiological function. The CitE-like enzyme superfamily also bears sequence and structural resemblance to the malate synthases. All of these different enzymes share highly conserved catalytic residues, although they catalyze distinctly different reactions: C-C bond formation and cleavage, thioester hydrolysis, or both (the malate synthases). Here we report the first crystal structures of MCLs from two different phylogenetic subgroups in apo- and substrate-bound forms. Both the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCL contain elaborations on the canonical β8/α8 TIM barrel fold and form hexameric assemblies. Upon ligand binding, changes in the C-terminal domains of the MCLs result in closing of the active site, with the C-terminal domain of one monomer forming a lid over and contributing side chains to the active site of the adjacent monomer. The distinctive features of the two MCL subgroups were compared to known structures of other CitE-like superfamily enzymes and to malate synthases, providing insight into the structural subtleties that underlie the functional versatility of these enzymes. Although the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCLs have divergent primary structures (~37% identical), their tertiary and quaternary structures are very similar. It can be assumed that the C-C bond formation catalyzed by the MCLs occurs as proposed for

  12. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M; Nahuis, Marleen J; Hompes, Peter G; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, followed by three cycles of IVF in case of no birth; (3) six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (4) 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (5) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (6) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF. Two-year cumulative birth rates were 58%, 74%, 89%, 97%, 93% and 98% and costs per couple were € 9518, € 7530, € 9711, € 9764, € 7651 and € 7684 for scenarios 1-6, respectively. Scenario 2 was the lowest cost option. The extra cost for at least one live birth in scenario 5 was € 629 and in scenario 6 € 630. In these subjects, continuation of treatment for six cycles of clomiphene citrate, 6 or 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and IVF is potentially cost-effective. These results should be confirmed in a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural insights into the elevator-like mechanism of the sodium/citrate symporter CitS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Subin; Kim, Songwon; Lee, Haerim; Lee, Jie-Oh; Jin, Mi Sun

    2017-05-31

    The sodium-dependent citrate transporter of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCitS) belongs to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2-HCT) family and allows the cell to use citrate as sole carbon and energy source in anaerobic conditions. Here we present crystal structures of KpCitS in citrate-bound outward-facing, citrate-bound asymmetric, and citrate-free inward-facing state. The structures reveal that the KpCitS dimerization domain remains stationary throughout the transport cycle due to a hydrogen bond network as well as extensive hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, its transport domain undergoes a ~35° rigid-body rotation and a ~17 Å translocation perpendicular to the membrane to expose the substrate-binding site alternately to either side of the membrane. Furthermore, homology models of two other 2-HCT proteins based on the KpCitS structure offer structural insights into their differences in substrate specificity at a molecular level. On the basis of our results and previous biochemical data, we propose that the activity of the 2-HCT CitS involves an elevator-like movement in which the transport domain itself traverses the lipid bilayer, carrying the substrate into the cell in a sodium-dependent manner.

  14. Effects of heating atmosphere on formation of crystalline citrate-derived LaAlO3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu; Guo, Yu-Man

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LaAlO 3 can be crystallized at 550 deg. C in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. → Calcining the citrate precursor in oxygen atmosphere lowers the reaction temperatures to form crystalline LaAlO 3 . → In oxygen atmosphere, pure citrate-derived LaAlO 3 nanoparticles can be produced at 700 deg. C. - Abstract: Crystalline LaAlO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized at relative low temperatures, using a citrate-precursor technique. La(NO 3 ) 3 , Al(NO 3 ) 3 , and C 3 H 4 (OH)(COOH) 3 , in a molar ratio of 1:1:1, were dissolved in deionized water. NH 4 OH was used to adjust the aqueous solution to pH 7. After drying, the citrate precursors were charred at 350 deg. C, followed by calcination at different temperatures, in air or oxygen atmosphere. The thermochemical properties of the resultant particles were analyzed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Effects of calcination temperature and heating atmosphere on the formation of crystalline LaAlO 3 nanoparticles were investigated. In O 2 atmosphere, clacining the citrate-derived charred solid precursor at 700 deg. C for 3 h can decompose all intermediates to produce pure LaAlO 3 nanoparticles (particle sizes ≤ 100 nm) with an average crystallite size of about 24 nm and possessing high sinterability.

  15. A Retrospective Review of the Use of Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration for Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kit-Hung Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of a commercially prepared citrate solution has revolutionized the use of RCA in the intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of a commercially prepared citrate solution. Method. Predilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH was performed using Prismocitrate 10/2 at 2500 mL/h and a blood flow rate of 150 mL/min. Calcium chloride solution was infused to maintain ionized calcium within 1.0–1.2 mmol/L. An 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution was infused separately. Treatment was stopped when the predefined clinical target was reached or the filter clotted. Result. 58 sessions of citrate RCA were analyzed. The median circuit lifetime was 26.0 h (interquartile range IQR 21.2–44.3. The percentage of circuits lasting more than 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h was 94.6%, 58.9%, and 16.1%, respectively. There was no incidence of hypernatremia and median pH was 2.5, only four patients had evidence of citrate accumulation. Conclusion. The commercially prepared citrate solution could be used safely in critically ill patients who required CVVH with no major adverse events.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection for the determination of stabilizers and citrates present in human albumin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Małgorzata; Cygan, Paulina; Wilk, Małgorzata; Anuszewska, Elzbieta

    2009-08-15

    Sodium caprylate and N-acetyltryptophan are the most frequently used stabilizers that protect the albumin from aggregation or heat induced denaturation. In turn citrates - excipients remaining after fractionation process - can be treated as by-product favoring leaching aluminum out of glass containers whilst albumin solution is stored. With ionic nature these substances have all the markings of a subject for capillary electrophoresis analysis. Thus CE methods were proposed as new approach for quality control of human albumin solution in terms of determination of stabilizers and citrates residue. Human albumin solutions both 5% and 20% from various manufacturers were tested. Indirect detection mode was set to provide sufficient detectability of analytes lacking of chromophores. As being anions analytes were separated with reversed electroosmotic flow. As a result of method optimization two background electrolytes based on p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid were selected for stabilizers and citrates separation, respectively. The optimized methods were successfully validated. For citrates that require quantification below 100microM the method demonstrated the precision less than 4% and the limit of detection at 4microM. In order to check the new methods accuracy and applicability the samples were additionally tested with selected reference methods. The proposed methods allow reliable quantification of stabilizers and citrates in human albumin solution that was confirmed by method validation as well as result comparison with reference methods. The CE methods are considered to be suitable for quality control yet simplifying and reducing cost of analysis.

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) on Vertebral Artery Blood Flow in Patients with Vertebro-Basilar Insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Berilgen, Sait; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Ogur, Erkin; Tekatas, Aslan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the vertebral artery blood flow of patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI) using color duplex sonography (CDS). The study included 21 patients with VBI (aged 31-76; mean 61.0 ± 10.5 yrs). We administered a 50 mg oral dose of sildenafil citrate to all patients. Next, we measured the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end diastolic velocity (Vmin), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), diameter, area, and flow volume (FV) of vertebral arteries using CDS before the administration of sildenafil citrate; 45 minutes after, and 75 minutes after administration. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The statistical test used to determine the outcome of the analysis was the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Compared to the baseline values, the vertebral artery diameter, area, and FV increased significantly following the administration of sildenafil citrate. The diameter, area and FV increased from 3.39 mm at 45 minutes to 3.64 mm at 75 minutes, 9.43 cm 2 to 10.80 cm 2 at 45 minutes and 10.81 cm 2 at 75 minutes, as well as from 0.07 L/min at baseline to 0.09 L/min at 45 minutes and unchanged at 75 minutes, respectively. Sildenafil citrate elicited a significant effect on vertebral artery diameter, area and FVs

  18. Evaluation of the effects of sildenafil citrate (viagra) on vertebral artery blood flow in patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Berilgen, Sait; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Tekatas, Aslan; Ogur, Erkin

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the vertebral artery blood flow of patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI) using color duplex sonography (CDS). The study included 21 patients with VBI (aged 31-76; mean 61.0 +/- 10.5 yrs). We administered a 50 mg oral dose of sildenafil citrate to all patients. Next, we measured the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end diastolic velocity (Vmin), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), diameter, area, and flow volume (FV) of vertebral arteries using CDS before the administration of sildenafil citrate; 45 minutes after, and 75 minutes after administration. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The statistical test used to determine the outcome of the analysis was the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Compared to the baseline values, the vertebral artery diameter, area, and FV increased significantly following the administration of sildenafil citrate. The diameter, area and FV increased from 3.39 mm at 45 minutes to 3.64 mm at 75 minutes, 9.43 cm(2) to 10.80 cm(2) at 45 minutes and 10.81 cm(2) at 75 minutes, as well as from 0.07 L/min at baseline to 0.09 L/min at 45 minutes and unchanged at 75 minutes, respectively. Sildenafil citrate elicited a significant effect on vertebral artery diameter, area and FVs.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) on Vertebral Artery Blood Flow in Patients with Vertebro-Basilar Insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Berilgen, Sait; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Ogur, Erkin [Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig(Turkmenistan); Tekatas, Aslan [Elazig Government Hospital, Elazig (Turkmenistan)

    2008-12-15

    To investigate the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the vertebral artery blood flow of patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI) using color duplex sonography (CDS). The study included 21 patients with VBI (aged 31-76; mean 61.0 +- 10.5 yrs). We administered a 50 mg oral dose of sildenafil citrate to all patients. Next, we measured the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end diastolic velocity (Vmin), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), diameter, area, and flow volume (FV) of vertebral arteries using CDS before the administration of sildenafil citrate; 45 minutes after, and 75 minutes after administration. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The statistical test used to determine the outcome of the analysis was the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Compared to the baseline values, the vertebral artery diameter, area, and FV increased significantly following the administration of sildenafil citrate. The diameter, area and FV increased from 3.39 mm at 45 minutes to 3.64 mm at 75 minutes, 9.43 cm{sup 2} to 10.80 cm{sup 2} at 45 minutes and 10.81 cm{sup 2} at 75 minutes, as well as from 0.07 L/min at baseline to 0.09 L/min at 45 minutes and unchanged at 75 minutes, respectively. Sildenafil citrate elicited a significant effect on vertebral artery diameter, area and FVs

  20. The influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilies Anggarwati Astuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a blood concentrate that has a thrombocytes concentration several time higher than normal concentration of thrombocytes in normal human blood. PRP is a promising alternative to surgery with a safe and natural healing. The standard protocol for PRP preparation must be determined to get the right quantity and quality of the matrix of fibrin, leukocytes, platelets and growth factors. It could not be separated from the number of PRP produced. The use of PRP in the success of periodontal treatment would not be separated from methods to obtain it. To detect the influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of PRP. There are 41 subjects studied by taking 21 ml of venous blood in each of the seven tubes. Centrifugation performed twice with different speed, duration, use of anticoagulants then analyzed. This quantity between the two groups differed significantly between the PRP in EDTA group is higher 322.2 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, then control group is higher 329.5 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, while there is no difference between EDTA and control group. There is effect of the use of anticoagulants EDTA compared with citrate acid 3.8% in the quantity of PRP, and there was no effect using citrate acid 3.8% as anticoagulants in quantity of PRP.

  1. On the nature of citrate-derived surface species on Ag nanoparticles: Insights from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Vorobyev, Sergey A.; Saikova, Svetlana V.; Vishnyakova, Elena A.; Romanchenko, Alexander S.; Zharkov, Sergey M.; Larichev, Yurii V.

    2018-01-01

    Citrate is an important stabilizing, reducing, and complexing reagent in the wet chemical synthesis of nanoparticles of silver and other metals, however, the exact nature of adsorbates, and its mechanism of action are still uncertain. Here, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, and other techniques in order to determine the surface composition and to specify the citrate-related species at Ag nanoparticles immobilized from the dense hydrosol prepared using room-temperature reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions with ferrous ions and citrate as stabilizer (Carey Lea method). It was found that, contrary to the common view, the species adsorbed on the Ag nanoparticles are, in large part, products of citrate decomposition comprising an alcohol group and one or two carboxylate bound to the surface Ag, and minor unbound carboxylate group; these may also be mixtures of citrate with lower molecular weight anions. No ketone groups were specified, and very minor surface Ag(I) and Fe (mainly, ferric oxyhydroxides) species were detected. Moreover, the adsorbates were different at AgNPs having various size and shape. The relation between the capping and the particle growth, colloidal stability of the high-concentration sol and properties of AgNPs is briefly considered.

  2. Defective enamel and bone development in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando R Irizarry

    Full Text Available There has been growing recognition of the essential roles of citrate in biomechanical properties of mineralized tissues, including teeth and bone. However, the sources of citrate in these tissues have not been well defined, and the contribution of citrate to the regulation of odontogenesis and osteogenesis has not been examined. Here, tooth and bone phenotypes were examined in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient C57BL/6 mice at 13 and 32 weeks of age. Slc13a5 deficiency led to defective tooth development, characterized by absence of mature enamel, formation of aberrant enamel matrix, and dysplasia and hyperplasia of the enamel organ epithelium that progressed with age. These abnormalities were associated with fragile teeth with a possible predisposition to tooth abscesses. The lack of mature enamel was consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta. Furthermore, Slc13a5 deficiency led to decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone formation in 13-week-old mice but not in older mice. The findings revealed the potentially important role of citrate and Slc13a5 in the development and function of teeth and bone.

  3. Effect of sildenafil citrate on women affected by sexual dysfunction referred to health clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Zeinalzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Female sexual dysfunction is a serious, multifactorial problem which affects women’s quality of life. Objectives. This study aimed at assessing the effect of sildenafil citrate on sexual dysfunction among women of reproductive age. Materials and methods. The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 84 married women between 18 and 40 years old who suffered from sexual dysfunction. The inclusion criteria of the study were being married and between 18–40 years old, obtaining scores ≥ 22 in FSFI, not having a history of hypothyroidism or hyperprolactinemia, and not suffering from dyspareunia or vaginismus. The intervention group was required to consume 50 mg sildenafil citrate 1 hour before sexual intercourse for 5 weeks, and the control group received placebo. FSFI was completed by both study groups before and 5 weeks after the treatment. The data were analyzed through SPSS (v. 18 and paired t-test and independent t-test. Results . Most of the women (67.2% were between 30 and 40 years old. The study results revealed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean scores of sexual desire (p = 0.011, sexual arousal (p = 0.001, lubrication (p = 0.026, orgasm and sexual satisfaction (p < 0.001, and the whole dimension (p < 0.001. Besides, total mean sexual function before and after for the intervention and control groups was 21.1 ± 3.28 vs. 17.22 ± 5.9 (p < 0.001. Conclusion . In this study, sildenafil citrate was effective in enhancing sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Of course, more studies need to be conducted on this issue.

  4. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of citric acid and citrate on protoplasmic droplet of bovine epididymal sperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Abdy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor evaluation of citric acid and citrate effects on bovine epididymal protoplasmic droplets, fifty bovine testes were collected in the October 2007 till June 2008 from Urmia slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory in a cool container filled with 5 °C ice pack. Caudal epididymis was incised and sperm cells were put into Petri dishes containing hams f10 media with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS, which were kept in 37 °C, CO2 incubator. Then sperm cells were counted and 50-milion per mL concentration was prepared. After this stage, three dilutions of citric acid (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 N and one dilution of citrate (1N, based on normal osmolarity and normal pH were added to a micro tube containing 25 milion per mL sperm. Then one-step eosin-nigrosin staining in 30-60-120-240-360 minutes was performed and slides were evaluated with 1000-x phase contrast microscope and 200 sperm cells per slide were counted. The results revealed significant difference between blank and citric acid 0.3 N. The proportion of protoplasmic droplet in group consisting of 0.3 N acid citric in 120-240-360 minutes, was significantly lower than that of blank (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference between citrate – blank and citric acid 0.1N-blank groups, but after 240 minutes significant difference was observed between blank & citric acid 0.2 N (P < 0.05. In conclusions citric acid based on dilution and time duration can reduce the proportion of bovine epididymal sperm cytoplasmic droplets.

  6. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm(-2)), concentration of enhancing agent (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm(-2) did not increase removal and thus using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg(-1) (removals: 78-86%) and 440-590 mg Cr kg(-1) (removals: 35-51%), being within the 500 mg kg(-1) limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acid-base characteristics of bromophenol blue-citrate buffer systems in the amorphous state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjiang; Chatterjee, Koustuv; Medek, Ales; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Zografi, George

    2004-03-01

    In this study, we have examined the acid-base characteristics of various citrate buffer systems alone and in the presence of the pH indicator dye, bromophenol blue, in aqueous solution, and after lyophilization to produce amorphous material. Fourier transform Raman and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been used to monitor the ratio of ionized to un-ionized citric acid under various conditions, as a function of initial pH in the range of 2.65-4.28. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to probe the extent of proton transfer of bromophenol blue in the citrate buffer systems in solution and the amorphous state. Spectroscopic studies indicated greater ionization of citric acid and bromophenol blue in solution and the solid state with increasing initial solution pH, as expected. Fourier transform Raman measurements indicated the same ratio of ionized to un-ionized citrate species in solution, frozen solution, and the amorphous state. It is shown that the ratio of species at any particular initial pH is primarily determined by the amount of sodium ion present so as to maintain electroneutrality and not necessarily to the fact that pH and pK(a) remain unchanged during freezing and freeze drying. Indeed, for bromophenol blue, the relative ultraviolet-visible intensities for ionized and un-ionized species in the amorphous sample were different from those in solution indicating that the extent of protonation of bromophenol blue was significantly lower in the solid samples. It is concluded that under certain conditions there can be significant differences in the apparent hydrogen activity of molecules in amorphous systems. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. Ferric ammonium citrate as a positive bowel contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelitz, D.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gehl, H.B. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Heuck, A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Krahe, T. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Lodemann, K.P. [Bracco-Byk Gulden GmbH, Konstanz (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of two different doses of ferric ammonium citrate as a paramagnetic oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen. Material and methods: Ninety-nine adult patients referred for MR imaging for a known or suspected upper abdominal pathology were included in this randomized multicenter double-blind clinical trial. Imaging was performed with spin-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) and gradient-echo (T1-weighted) techniques before and after administration of either 1200 mg or 2400 mg of ferric ammonium citrate dissolved in 600 ml of water. Safety analysis included monitoring of vital signs, assessment of adverse events, and laboratory testing. Efficacy with regard to organ distension, contrast distribution, bowel enhancement and delineation of adjacent structures was graded qualitatively. Results: No serious adverse events were reported for either of the two concentrations. A total of 31 minor side effects were noted, of which significantly more occurred in the higher dose group (p<0.01). The diagnostic confidence in defining or excluding disease was graded as better after contrast administration for 48% of all images. Marked or moderate enhancement of the upper gastrointestinal tract was achieved at both doses in 69.5% of cases with no evident difference between the two doses. The higher dose tended to show better results in terms of the contrast assessment parameters. Conclusion: Ferric ammonium citrate is a safe and effective oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen at two different dose levels. The higher dose showed a tendency toward better imaging results while the lower dose caused significantly fewer side effects. Therefore, the 1200 mg dose can be recommended in view of the risk-to-benefit ratio. (orig.)

  9. Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas C Carpita

    2009-04-20

    Five specific objectives of this project are to develop strategies to identify the genes that encode the catalytic components of "mixed-linkage" (1→3),(1→4)-beta-D-glucans in grasses, to determine the protein components of the synthase complex, and determine the biochemical mechanism of synthesis. We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility. We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes.

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of a τ-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-β-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a τ-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). τ-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum γ-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum δ-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of τ-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-β-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender.

  11. A randomized study comparing IVF in the unstimulated cycle with IVF-following clomiphene citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Højgaard, A.; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of IVF in unstimulated cycles was compared with that following ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate in a simple protocol with ultrasound monitoring only. A total of 132 couples with no previous IVF attempts, selected by female age ... protocol, but not IVF in unstimulated cycles, seems compatible with the concept of `friendly IVF', yielding a fair pregnancy rate both per cycle started and per embryo transfer in selected patients. The results do not substantiate any important negative anti-oestrogenic effects of clomiphene....

  12. Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide films from sodium citrate-selenosulphite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) film has been carried out from deposition bath containing sodium selenosulphite, along with cadmium complexed with sodium citrate under potentiostatic deposition condition on titanium substrates. The pH of deposition bath was weakly basic (< 9.0). The CdSe films up to 3.0 μm were deposited. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the CdSe films are microcrystalline with increased grain size after annealing. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the films are porous with cauliflower-like morphology. The photelectrochemical characterization showed that the CdSe films are photoactive

  13. Gallium-67 citrate used as a tracer of acetone production routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Aoki, Pedro E.; Silva, Valdir Cosmos da; Haraguchi, Marcio I.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Alvarez, Alexandre G.; Paixão, Leticia B.; Hamada, Margarida M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the pathway of the chemical product and the kinetics parameters were evaluated in a laboratory plant settled, using 40 GBq of 67 Ga citrate as radiotracer and 18 NaI(Tl) radiation detectors. The AnaComp program was used to estimate the kinetic parameters of the acetone production. The yield of the acetone production was estimated by the percentage ratio between the areas under the curve (AUC) of the curve profiles of the final product compartment divided by the concentration found inside the chemical reactor whose result was 87% yield during the first 30 minutes of reaction. (author)

  14. Gallium-67 citrate used as a tracer of acetone production routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Aoki, Pedro E.; Silva, Valdir Cosmos da; Haraguchi, Marcio I.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Alvarez, Alexandre G.; Paixão, Leticia B.; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: chmesqui@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work the pathway of the chemical product and the kinetics parameters were evaluated in a laboratory plant settled, using 40 GBq of {sup 67}Ga citrate as radiotracer and 18 NaI(Tl) radiation detectors. The AnaComp program was used to estimate the kinetic parameters of the acetone production. The yield of the acetone production was estimated by the percentage ratio between the areas under the curve (AUC) of the curve profiles of the final product compartment divided by the concentration found inside the chemical reactor whose result was 87% yield during the first 30 minutes of reaction. (author)

  15. Evolutionary and mechanistic insights from the reconstruction of α-humulene synthases from a modern (+)-germacrene A synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Veronica; Touchet, Sabrina; Grundy, Daniel J; Faraldos, Juan A; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2014-10-15

    Germacrene A synthase (GAS) from Solidago canadensis catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) to the plant sesquiterpene (+)-germacrene A. After diphosphate expulsion, farnesyl cation reacts with the distal 10,11-double bond to afford germacrene A (>96%) and <2% α-humulene, which arises from 1,11-cyclization of FDP. The origin of the 1,11-activity of GAS was investigated by amino acid sequence alignments of 1,10- and 1,11-synthases and comparisons of X-ray crystal structures with the homology model of GAS; a triad [Thr 401-Gly 402-Gly 403] that might be responsible for the predominant 1,10-cyclization activity of GAS was identified. Replacement of Gly 402 with residues of increasing size led to a progressive increase of 1,11-cyclization. The catalytic robustness of these 1,10- /1,11-GAS variants point to Gly 402 as a functional switch of evolutionary significance and suggests that enzymes with strict functionalities have evolved from less specific ancestors through a small number of substitutions. Similar results were obtained with germacrene D synthase (GDS) upon replacement of the homologous active-site residue Gly 404: GDS-G404V generated approximately 20% bicyclogermacrene, a hydrocarbon with a cyclopropane ring that underlines the dual 1,10-/1,11-cyclization activity of this mutant. This suggests that the reaction pathways to germacrenes and humulenes might be connected through a bridged 1,10,11-carbocation intermediate or transition state that resembles bicyclogermacrene. Mechanistic studies using [1-(3)H1]-10-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate and deuterium-labeling experiments with [12,13-(2)H6]-FDP support a germacrene-humulene rearrangement linking 1,10- and 1,11-pathways. These results support the bioinformatics proposal that modern 1,10-synthases could have evolved from promiscuous 1,11-sesquiterpene synthases.

  16. An excess of topical calcium and magnesium reverses the therapeutic effect of citrate on the development of corneal ulcers after alkali injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddox, J L; Pfister, R R; Slaughter, S E

    1996-03-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether chelation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is the mechanism by which sodium citrate inhibits corneal ulceration in the alkali-injured rabbit eye. The right eyes of 60 albino rabbits (2-2.5 kg) were alkali-injured by filling a 12-mm-diameter plastic well placed on the corneal surface with 0.4 ml of 1 N NaOH. After 35 s the alkali was aspirated, and the well was rinsed with physiological saline. Animals were randomly distributed to three treatment groups of equal size. Two drops of the following topical medications were administered on the hour (14 times per day) for 35 days: physiological saline, 10% citrate in saline, and 346 mM Ca2+, 346 mM Mg2+, and 10% citrate in saline. During the experiment, significantly fewer ulcerations occurred in the citrate-treated eyes (five of 20, 25%) than in the saline-treated eyes (13 of 20, 65%) or in the calcium-magnesium-citrate-treated eyes (15 of 20, 75%). When ulcerations did develop in the citrate group, they occurred significantly later and were less severe than those in the saline and calcium-magnesium-citrate groups. There was a significant increase in the number of eyes with signs of band keratopathy and translucent areas in the calcium-magnesium-citrate group when compared with the other two groups. As in previous studies, sodium citrate significantly inhibited the development of corneal ulcers after alkali injury. The annullment of the favorable effect of citrate on ulceration in the alkali-injured eye by the addition of calcium and magnesium shows that the mechanism of action of citrate is the chelation of these divalent cations.

  17. Effects of acupuncture on the citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver under various types of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kawakami, M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of acupuncture on citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver in terms of incorporation of 14 C-1, 5-citric acid and 14 C-u-glucose in some metabolites. The effect of acupuncture on citrate metabolism in the liver under control conditions was such as to increase production of G and reduce that of KB, FC and FFA. No effect of acupuncture on glucose metabolism in the liver under such conditions was observed. Both citrate and glucose metabolism were affected to a marked extent by immobilization stress or exposure to heat or cold. The deleterious effect of these types of stress was less prominent in animals receiving acupuncture at the Tsu-San-Li locus than in those treated otherwise or receiving no treatment

  18. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  19. Influence of citrate ions as complexing agent for electrodeposition of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chraibi, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Sciences des Materiaux et Electrochimie; Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Dept. de Physique; Fahoume, M.; Ennaoui, A. [Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Dept. de Physique; Delplancke, J.L. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Sciences des Materiaux et Electrochimie

    2001-08-16

    The preparation of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by electrodeposition is studied. The effect of sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}) as complexing agent on the electrodeposition of pure copper, indium, selenium and of their ternary alloy is emphasized. Cathodic shifts of the copper and selenium electrodeposition potentials with increasing citrate concentration are observed. On the contrary, the presence of citrate in the electrolyte does not change the indium electrodeposition potential but improves its crystallinity. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The texture of the deposits and their compositions are analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films with a chalcopyrite structure and good stoichiometry is observed. (orig.)

  20. Effects of acupuncture on the citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver under various types of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of the effect of acupuncture on citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver in terms of incorporation of /sup 14/C-1, 5-citric acid and /sup 14/C-u-glucose in some metabolites. The effect of acupuncture on citrate metabolism in the liver under control conditions was such as to increase production of G and reduce that of KB, FC and FFA. No effect of acupuncture on glucose metabolism in the liver under such conditions was observed. Both citrate and glucose metabolism were affected to a marked extent by immobilization stress or exposure to heat or cold. The deleterious effect of these types of stress was less prominent in animals receiving acupuncture at the Tsu-San-Li locus than in those treated otherwise or receiving no treatment.

  1. Influence of the particle size of activated charcoal on labeling efficiency with 67Ga-citrate for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Yu Lin; Shih-Chuan Tsai; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bor-Tsung Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Indium-111 and 99m Tc have been proposed for colonic transit study, but 111 In is expensive and the half-life of 99m Tc is too short for the study. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and has a suitable half-life. In our previous study, we successfully labeled 67 Ga-citrate activated charcoal, and the labeling efficiency exceeded 91% after a 96 hour incubation period. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the size of activated charcoal particles on the labeling efficiency with 67 Ga-citrate. The data showed that the influence of particle size on the labeling efficiency of activated charcoal with 67 Ga was insignificant. Both sizes of activated charcoal particles can be used for labeling with 67 Ga in colonic transit study. (author)

  2. Ferric citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cada, Dennis J; Cong, Jasen; Baker, Danial E

    2015-02-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are sent in print and are also available on-line. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. A drug class review is now published monthly with The Formulary Monograph Service. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, call The Formulary at 800-322-4349. The February 2015 monograph topics are netupitant/palonosetron, naltrxone SR/bupropion SR, nintedanib, pirfenidone, and ivabradine. The Safety MUE is on netupitant/palonosetron.

  3. Preparation of freeze dried kit of sodium citrate labeled with Tc-99m used as a new kidney functional agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzah, K. S.; Abdulkrim, H. M.; Resen, H. M.; Badi, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    A new freeze-dried kit of sodium citrate complex has been prepared, to be labeled with technetium-99m can be used for diagnosis of kidney function. The labeling conditions of Tc-99m citrate complex using stannous chloride as a reducing agent for pertechnetate have been described. The GCS method reveals that the labeling efficiency of Tc-99m citrate complex is promoted by raisinng the pH of the preparation to (pH=4) using 1 N NaOH. The optimal amounts of the reactants in the preparation to obtain labeled and stable complex with high kidney uptake were found to be not less than (1 mg) sodium citrate and not more than (100μg) SnCI 2 2HO. The results show that high labeling yield (≥95%) for the labeled complex (Tc-99 Sn- citrate) can be perform due to the suitable reactant materials. The data of biodistribution experiments in the laboratory animals (Mice), clear high radioactivity accumulation labeled complex in kidney at 5 minutes post injection. The results of the radiochemical purity and biodistribution studies of the lyophilized kit approved that it was stable for about more than seven moths under normal conditions (2-8 o C ). The results of biodistribution of labeled kit have shown a good biological behavior with low radioactivity accumulation in the non-target organs (blood, liver and other organs). the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Tc-99-citrate complex as a new kidney functional agents and the efficiency of the freeze dried kit in the diagnosis of kidney function. (Author)

  4. Immobilization of selenium by biofilm of Shewanella putrefaciens with and without Fe(III)-citrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinori; Sakama, Yosuke; Saiki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of biofilms on selenium migration, we examined selenite reduction by biofilms of an iron-reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens, under anaerobic conditions. The biofilms were grown under static conditions on culture cover glasses coated with poly-L-lysine. Optical microscopic observation of the biofilms after staining with 0.1% crystal violet solution revealed that the cells were surrounded by filamentous extracellular polymer substances. Exposure of the biofilms to aqueous selenite resulted in the formation of red precipitates, which were assigned to nanoparticulate elemental selenium using X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. Micrographic observation showed that the precipitates immobilized at the biofilms. We also examined the selenite reduction in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complex. In this case, a dark brown precipitate formed at the biofilms. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis revealed that the precipitate was a mixed compound with elemental selenium and iron selenide. These findings indicate that biofilms of iron-reducing bacteria in the environment can immobilize selenium by reducing Se(IV) to Se(0), and Fe(III)-citrate complex promotes the reduction of Se(0) to Se(-II). (author)

  5. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  6. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na+-citrate transporter CitS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2017-08-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na + -citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly resemble those of the sodium-dicarboxylate symporter vcINDY, and the putative exporters YdaH and MtrF, thus hinting at convergence in structure and function. CitS and the related proteins are predicted to translocate their substrates by an elevator-like mechanism, in which a compact transport domain slides up and down through the membrane while the dimerization domain is stably anchored. Here we review the large body of available biochemical data on CitS in the light of the new crystal structure. We show that the biochemical data are fully consistent with the proposed elevator mechanism, but also demonstrate that the current structural data cannot explain how strict coupling of citrate and Na + transport is achieved. We propose a testable model for the coupling mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved circulating microparticle analysis in acid-citrate dextrose (ACD) anticoagulant tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Bence; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Kovács, Alexandra; Barabás, Eszter; Bekő, Gabriella; Várnai, Katalin; Pállinger, Éva; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Szabó, Tamás G; Kiss, Attila A; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit I

    2014-02-01

    Recently extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microparticles also referred to as microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) have attracted substantial interest as potential biomarkers and therapeutic vehicles. However, analysis of microparticles in biological fluids is confounded by many factors such as the activation of cells in the blood collection tube that leads to in vitro vesiculation. In this study we aimed at identifying an anticoagulant that prevents in vitro vesiculation in blood plasma samples. We compared the levels of platelet microparticles and non-platelet-derived microparticles in platelet-free plasma samples of healthy donors. Platelet-free plasma samples were isolated using different anticoagulant tubes, and were analyzed by flow cytometry and Zymuphen assay. The extent of in vitro vesiculation was compared in citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) tubes. Agitation and storage of blood samples at 37 °C for 1 hour induced a strong release of both platelet microparticles and non-platelet-derived microparticles. Strikingly, in vitro vesiculation related to blood sample handling and storage was prevented in samples in ACD tubes. Importantly, microparticle levels elevated in vivo remained detectable in ACD tubes. We propose the general use of the ACD tube instead of other conventional anticoagulant tubes for the assessment of plasma microparticles since it gives a more realistic picture of the in vivo levels of circulating microparticles and does not interfere with downstream protein or RNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of letrazole and Clomiphene Citrate in Women with Polycystic Ovaries Undergoing Ovarian Stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharief, M.; Nafee, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of letrazole in the induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and primary infertility. Methods: The prospective clinical trial was conducted at Basrah Maternity and Child Hospital, Basrah, Iraq, between January 2012 and April 2013, and comprised women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary infertility who were randomised into 2 groups. Group A received 100-200mg clomiphene citrate daily while group 2 received letrazole (2.5-5mg) daily. Both groups were followed by ultrasound until the dominant follicle reached a diameter >18mm, human chorionic gonadotropin10.000 U/L was given and timed intercourse was advised. Results: Of the 75 subjects in the study, 40(53.3 percent) were in group A and 35(46.6 percent) in group B. The mean age in group A was 25.3+2.1 years versus 26.1+1.3 years in group B (p=0.05). The number of mature follicles was significantly lower, but the endometrial thickness and ovulation were significantly higher in group B than in group A (p<0.05 each). There was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Letrazole may have a role as the first-line treatment for unovulatory patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. (author)

  9. Colorimetric detection of riboflavin by silver nanoparticles capped with β-cyclodextrin-grafted citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Song, Jinping; Zhang, Sufang; Wang, Meifang; Guo, Yong; Dong, Chuan

    2016-12-01

    β-Cyclodextrin-grafted citrate was used for the first time as a stabilizer and reducer to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The as-synthesized AgNPs were further characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the presence of riboflavin caused severe aggregation of the nanoparticles, thereby inducing a colour change from yellow to red. 1 H NMR further verified the formation of non-inclusion complexes between riboflavin and β-cyclodextrin-grafted citrate. Hydrogen bond was considered the main driving force of the interaction between the riboflavin and external rim of β-cyclodextrin. Based on these observations, the as-synthesized AgNPs were utilized to develop a novel colorimetric sensor for riboflavin detection. This colorimetric probe showed excellent selectivity and high sensitivity for riboflavin with a detection limit of 167nM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of sildenafil citrate tablets of different sources by near infrared chemical imaging and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Guilherme P; Lozano, Valeria A; Rocha, Werickson F C; Romão, Wanderson; Ortiz, Rafael S; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-11-01

    The chemical imaging technique by near infrared spectroscopy was applied for characterization of formulations in tablets of sildenafil citrate of six different sources. Five formulations were provided by Brazilian Federal Police and correspond to several trademarks of prohibited marketing and one was an authentic sample of Viagra. In a first step of the study, multivariate curve resolution was properly chosen for the estimation of the distribution map of concentration of the active ingredient in tablets of different sources, where the chemical composition of all excipients constituents was not truly known. In such cases, it is very difficult to establish an appropriate calibration technique, so that only the information of sildenafil is considered independently of the excipients. This determination was possible only by reaching the second-order advantage, where the analyte quantification can be performed in the presence of unknown interferences. In a second step, the normalized histograms of images from active ingredient were grouped according to their similarities by hierarchical cluster analysis. Finally it was possible to recognize the patterns of distribution maps of concentration of sildenafil citrate, distinguishing the true formulation of Viagra. This concept can be used to improve the knowledge of industrial products and processes, as well as, for characterization of counterfeit drugs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Studies on ligand exchange reaction of functionalized mercaptothiadiazole compounds onto citrate capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; John, S. Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Mercaptothiadiazole ligands functionalized with thiol (2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMT)) and methyl (5-methyl-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMT)) groups capped onto citrate capped gold nanoparticles (C-AuNPs) by ligand exchange reaction was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The surface plasmon resonance band at 522 nm for C-AuNPs was shifted to 530 nm after capping with DMT whereas an additional band was observed at 630 nm due to aggregation in addition to a shift in the band at 522 nm after capping of MMT onto C-AuNPs. Thus, capping of DMT onto C-AuNPs leads to the formation of stable AuNPs while capping of MMT leads to the formation of unstable AuNPs. FT-IR studies show that the citrate ions were completely replaced by both DMT and MMT ligands from the AuNPs. TEM images indicate that the size and shape of the AuNPs remain same after capping of these ligands.

  12. The evaluation of the bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    The bone marrow distribution of Ga-67 citrate may be influenced by various elements in serum. In order to make these points clear, 1,955 whole body images were reviewed on the relationship between the accumulation of bone marrow and laboratory examination data of each patients. Increasing accumulation in the bone marrow was determined as positive when the bones of lower extremities were deposited on the images, because these bones was not visualized in normal gallium image. Laboratory data of 20 patients without having bone marrow accumulation was used as control. The positive findings of bone marrow accumulation was observed in 38 patients (2%) including 23 malignancies and 15 benign disease. The malignant tumor infiltration to the bone marrow was demonstrated by bone marrow aspiration biopsy in 2 out of 7 patients with bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67. Seven out of 15 patients with benign disease were collagen disease such as aortitis syndrome or SLE. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in the patients with positive findings in comparison with control. These results suggest that the lower level of serum iron and anemia may cause increasing bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate. (author).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a layered double hydroxide containing an intercalated nickel(II) citrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianying; Wu Guoqing; Evans, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The nickel(II) citrate complex anion ([Ni(C 6 H 4 O 7 )] 2- ) may be intercalated into the interlayer galleries of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by a process involving ion-exchange with an Mg 2 Al-NO 3 LDH precursor. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms that the layered structure is maintained. The thermal decomposition process of the complex anion-intercalated material has been characterized by in situ high temperature powder XRD, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The thermal stability of the nickel(II) citrate complex anion intercalated in LDHs in air is lower than that in the sodium salt. Calcination generates a high degree of nickel(II) oxide dispersion in a matrix of magnesium and aluminium oxide phases which should be an advantage if the materials are used as catalyst precursors. Based on the observed data, a structural model for the [Ni(C 6 H 4 O 7 )] 2- anion intercalated in the galleries of the LDH is proposed

  14. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K 3 cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K 3 cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K 3 cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K 3 cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K 3 cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K 3 cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K 3 cit

  15. Affinity of /sup 167/Tm-citrate for tumor and liver tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Sakamoto, K; Hisada, K; Takeshita, M

    1983-10-07

    Strong affinity of /sup 167/Tm-citrate for tumor tissue was reconfirmed by using Ehrlich tumor. Excellent tumor imaging was obtained with /sup 167/Tm-citrate because of its strong tumor affinity and because of the suitable physical characteristics of /sup 167/Tm. A large amount of /sup 167/Tm had accumulated in the connective tissue which contained inflammatory tissue, quite large amounts were found in areas containing viable and necrotic tumor tissue, and small amounts were present in viable tumor tissue. /sup 167/Tm was not seen in necrotic tumor tissue. It was concluded that lysosomes did not play a major role in the tumor concentration of /sup 167/Tm, but played an important role in the liver concentration of this nuclide. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, it was presumed that lysosomes played a considerably important role in the tumor concentration of /sup 167/Tm, hepatoma AH109A possessing some residual features of the liver. /sup 167/Tm was bound to acid mucopolysaccharides and transposed by the acid mucopolysaccharides in the tumor tissues and liver. The acid mucopolysaccharides to which /sup 167/Tm were bound in tumor and liver, were heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate (or keratosulfate) and heparin (or keratosulfate).

  16. Affinity of 167Tm-citrate for tumor and liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Ando, I.; Hiraki, T.

    1983-01-01

    Strong affinity of 167 Tm-citrate for tumor tissue was reconfirmed by using Ehrlich tumor. Excellent tumor imaging was obtained with 167 Tm-citrate because of its strong tumor affinity and because of the suitable physical characteristics of 167 Tm. A large amount of 167 Tm had accumulated in the connective tissue which contained inflammatory tissue, quite large amounts were found in areas containing viable and necrotic tumor tissue, and small amounts were present in viable tumor tissue. 167 Tm was not seen in necrotic tumor tissue. It was concluded that lysosomes did not play a major role in the tumor concentration of 167 Tm, but played an important role in the liver concentration of this nuclide. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, it was presumed that lysosomes played a considerably important role in the tumor concentration of 167 Tm, hepatoma AH109A possessing some residual features of the liver. 167 Tm was bound to acid mucopolysaccharides and transposed by the acid mucopolysaccharides in the tumor tissues and liver. The acid mucopolysaccharides to which 167 Tm were bound in tumor and liver, were heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate (or keratosulfate) and heparin (or keratosulfate). (orig.)

  17. Uranium leaching from phosphatic sandstone and shale of Qatrani using citrate as a new leaching reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium is found in Qatrani area (Southwest of Cairo and North of lake Qarun) in various forms in sedimentary rocks. Two important ore materials have been chosen for studying the recovery of their uranium contents namely; the phosphatic sandstone and the carbonaceous shale. The main emphasis in this thesis is the choice of an acid that would selectively leach uranium from thesis ores while leaving calcium phosphate and carbonate minerals minerals almost completely intact. Citric acid was indeed found advantageous due primarily to its strong ability to form stable complexes with uranium over a wide range of PH values beside the possibility of controlling thr solubility of calcium-bearing compounds by adding calcium citrate. The latter is actually characterized by its ability to exist in an unionized or associated from in citric acid solutions. From the general leaching characteristics of both uranium and P 2 O 5 from Qatrani phosphatic sandstone by citric acid, it was found that uranium could be completely leached beside the possibility of realizing a differential leaching percent values vs P 2 O 5 which is generally of limited solubility. Such a low solubility of P 2 O 5 has even been completely inhibited by providing calcium citrate to the citric acid solutions in amounts sufficient to exist in an optimum ionized non-associated state. Such a provision would render the solution unable to carry any further calcium ions thus the breakdown of the phosphate mineral was hindered while uranium has completely been selectively

  18. The evaluation of the bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1989-01-01

    The bone marrow distribution of Ga-67 citrate may be influenced by various elements in serum. In order to make these points clear, 1,955 whole body images were reviewed on the relationship between the accumulation of bone marrow and laboratory examination data of each patients. Increasing accumulation in the bone marrow was determined as positive when the bones of lower extremities were deposited on the images, because these bones was not visualized in normal gallium image. Laboratory data of 20 patients without having bone marrow accumulation was used as control. The positive findings of bone marrow accumulation was observed in 38 patients (2%) including 23 malignancies and 15 benign disease. The malignant tumor infiltration to the bone marrow was demonstrated by bone marrow aspiration biopsy in 2 out of 7 patients with bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67. Seven out of 15 patients with benign disease were collagen disease such as aortitis syndrome or SLE. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in the patients with positive findings in comparison with control. These results suggest that the lower level of serum iron and anemia may cause increasing bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate. (author)

  19. Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Laura; Cercamondi, Colin I; Zeder, Christophe; Wild, Daniela; Adelmann, Horst; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Iron fortification of rice is a promising strategy for improving iron nutrition. However, it is technically challenging because rice is consumed as intact grains, and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is usually used for rice fortification, has low bioavailability. We investigated whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice grains. We conducted an iron absorption study in iron-sufficient young women (n = 20), in which each participant consumed 4 different meals (4 mg Fe/meal): 1) extruded FePP-fortified rice (No CA/TSC); 2) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC added before extrusion (CA/TSC extruded); 3) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSC solution); and 4) nonextruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, we assessed the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron:CA:TSC ratios. Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P solubility and dialyzability were higher in CA/TSC-extruded rice than in rice with No CA/TSC and CA/TSC solution, and solubility increased with higher amounts of added CA and TSC in extruded rice. Iron bioavailability nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4 We attribute this effect to an in situ generation of soluble FePP citrate moieties during extrusion and/or cooking because of the close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC in the extruded rice matrix. This trial was registered at

  20. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha serum level in obese and lean women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Emaduldin; Hasan, Momen; Khalifa, Eissa M.; Ramadan, Ahmad; Hefzy, Enas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the level of the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as an inflammatory biomarker in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), who are resistant to clomiphene citrate (CCR-PCOD). Patients and design: It is a case controlled study, where one hundred and fifty (n = 150) PCOD women (study group), who are resistant to clomiphene citrate (CCR-PCOD) had been recruited, in addition to one hundred (n = 100) women wi...

  1. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Král

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid andacetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification ofcitrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red electrodes arepresented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillaryelectrophoresis.

  2. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...... define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis...

  3. ATP Synthase, a Target for Dementia and Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, James W; Larrick, Jasmine W; Mendelsohn, Andrew R

    2018-02-01

    Advancing age is the biggest risk factor for development for the major life-threatening diseases in industrialized nations accounting for >90% of deaths. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is among the most devastating. Currently approved therapies fail to slow progression of the disease, providing only modest improvements in memory. Recently reported work describes mechanistic studies of J147, a promising therapeutic molecule previously shown to rescue the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by aged, transgenic AD mice. Apparently, J147 targets the mitochondrial alpha-F1-ATP synthase (ATP5A). Modest inhibition of the ATP synthase modulates intracellular calcium to activate AMP-activated protein kinase to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin, a known mechanism of lifespan extension from worms to mammals.

  4. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitric oxide synthase isoforms in spontaneous and salt hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojná, Silvie; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, Suppl. 2 (2007), S 338-S 338 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /17./. 15.06.2007-19.06.2007, Milan] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nitric oxide synthase isoforms * spontaneous and salt hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  6. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichersky, Eran

    1998-01-01

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed.

  7. Trypanosoma brucei solanesyl-diphosphate synthase localizes to the mitochondrion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lai, D.-H.; Bontempi, E. J.; Lukeš, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 2 (2012), s. 189-192 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2179 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma brucei * Sleeping sickness * Ubiquinone * Solanesyl-diphosphate synthase * Digitonin permeabilization * In situ tagging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.734, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166685112000539

  8. Multi-substrate terpene synthases: their occurrence and physiological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pazouki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpene synthases are responsible for synthesis of a large number of terpenes in plants using substrates provided by two distinct metabolic pathways, the mevalonate-dependent pathway that is located in cytosol and has been suggested to be responsible for synthesis of sesquiterpenes (C15, and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway located in plastids and suggested to be responsible for the synthesis of hemi- (C5, mono- (C10 and diterpenes (C20. Recent advances in characterization of genes and enzymes responsible for substrate and end product biosynthesis as well as efforts in metabolic engineering have demonstrated existence of a number of multi-substrate terpene synthases. This review summarizes the progress in the characterization of such multi-substrate terpene synthases and suggests that the presence of multi-substrate use might have been significantly underestimated. Multi-substrate use could lead to important changes in terpene product profiles upon substrate profile changes under perturbation of metabolism in stressed plants as well as under certain developmental stages. We therefore argue that multi-substrate use can be significant under physiological conditions and can result in complicate modifications in terpene profiles.

  9. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk; Jenkins, Huw T., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Samuel C. [University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Byrne, Robert T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich (Germany); Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer.

  10. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Fiona; Jenkins, Huw T.; Griffiths, Samuel C.; Byrne, Robert T.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer

  11. Mechanism of Action and Inhibition of dehydrosqualene Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F Lin; C Liu; Y Liu; Y Zhang; K Wang; W Jeng; T Ko; R Cao; A Wang; E Oldfield

    2011-12-31

    'Head-to-head' terpene synthases catalyze the first committed steps in sterol and carotenoid biosynthesis: the condensation of two isoprenoid diphosphates to form cyclopropylcarbinyl diphosphates, followed by ring opening. Here, we report the structures of Staphylococcus aureus dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM) complexed with its reaction intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP), the dehydrosqualene (DHS) product, as well as a series of inhibitors. The results indicate that, on initial diphosphate loss, the primary carbocation so formed bends down into the interior of the protein to react with C2,3 double bond in the prenyl acceptor to form PSPP, with the lower two-thirds of both PSPP chains occupying essentially the same positions as found in the two farnesyl chains in the substrates. The second-half reaction is then initiated by the PSPP diphosphate returning back to the Mg{sup 2+} cluster for ionization, with the resultant DHS so formed being trapped in a surface pocket. This mechanism is supported by the observation that cationic inhibitors (of interest as antiinfectives) bind with their positive charge located in the same region as the cyclopropyl carbinyl group; that S-thiolo-diphosphates only inhibit when in the allylic site; activity results on 11 mutants show that both DXXXD conserved domains are essential for PSPP ionization; and the observation that head-to-tail isoprenoid synthases as well as terpene cyclases have ionization and alkene-donor sites which spatially overlap those found in CrtM.

  12. Phytochelatin synthase activity as a marker of metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitka, Ondrej; Krystofova, Olga; Sobrova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Adam, Vojtech [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kizek, Rene, E-mail: kizek@sci.muni.cz [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} New tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity. {yields} The optimization of experimental condition for determination of the enzyme activity. {yields} First evaluation of K{sub m} for the enzyme. {yields} The effects of cadmium (II) not only on the activity of the enzyme but also on K{sub m}. -- Abstract: The synthesis of phytochelatins is catalyzed by {gamma}-Glu-Cys dipeptidyl transpeptidase called phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Aim of this study was to suggest a new tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity in the tobacco BY-2 cells treated with different concentrations of the Cd(II). After the optimization steps, an experiment on BY-2 cells exposed to different concentrations of Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for 3 days was performed. At the end of the experiment, cells were harvested and homogenized. Reduced glutathione and cadmium (II) ions were added to the cell suspension supernatant. These mixtures were incubated at 35 {sup o}C for 30 min and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The results revealed that PCS activity rises markedly with increasing concentration of cadmium (II) ions. The lowest concentration of the toxic metal ions caused almost three fold increase in PCS activity as compared to control samples. The activity of PCS (270 fkat) in treated cells was more than seven times higher in comparison to control ones. K{sub m} for PCS was estimated as 2.3 mM.

  13. Phytochelatin synthase activity as a marker of metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitka, Ondrej; Krystofova, Olga; Sobrova, Pavlina; Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity. → The optimization of experimental condition for determination of the enzyme activity. → First evaluation of K m for the enzyme. → The effects of cadmium (II) not only on the activity of the enzyme but also on K m . -- Abstract: The synthesis of phytochelatins is catalyzed by γ-Glu-Cys dipeptidyl transpeptidase called phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Aim of this study was to suggest a new tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity in the tobacco BY-2 cells treated with different concentrations of the Cd(II). After the optimization steps, an experiment on BY-2 cells exposed to different concentrations of Cd(NO 3 ) 2 for 3 days was performed. At the end of the experiment, cells were harvested and homogenized. Reduced glutathione and cadmium (II) ions were added to the cell suspension supernatant. These mixtures were incubated at 35 o C for 30 min and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The results revealed that PCS activity rises markedly with increasing concentration of cadmium (II) ions. The lowest concentration of the toxic metal ions caused almost three fold increase in PCS activity as compared to control samples. The activity of PCS (270 fkat) in treated cells was more than seven times higher in comparison to control ones. K m for PCS was estimated as 2.3 mM.

  14. Longevity in vivo of primary cell wall cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph Lee; Josephs, Cooper; Barnes, William J; Anderson, Charles T; Tien, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC. We determined the stability over time of primary cell wall (PCW) CESAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, using immunoblotting after inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide treatment. Our work reveals very slow turnover for the Arabidopsis PCW CESAs in vivo. Additionally, we show that the stability of all three CESAs within the PCW CSC is altered by mutations in individual CESAs, elevated temperature, and light conditions. Together, these results suggest that CESA proteins are very stable in vivo, but that their lifetimes can be modulated by intrinsic and environmental cues.

  15. The primary defect in glycogen synthase activity is not based on increased glycogen synthase kinase-3a activity in diabetic myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Brusgaard, Klaus; Handberg, Aa.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the diminished activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in diabetic myotubes remains unclear, but may involve increased activity and/or expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). In myotubes established from type 2 diabetic and healthy control subjects we determined...

  16. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (−)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (−)-α-zingiberene and (−)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase. PMID:23272109

  17. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research.

  18. Suites of terpene synthases explain differential terpenoid production in ginger and turmeric tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jo Koo

    Full Text Available The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale and turmeric (Curcuma longa contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+-germacrene D synthase and (S-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (--caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+-α-turmerone and (+-β-turmerone, are produced from (--α-zingiberene and (--β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

  19. FecB, a periplasmic ferric-citrate transporter from E. coli, can bind different forms of ferric-citrate as well as a wide variety of metal-free and metal-loaded tricarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambuddha; Paul, Subrata; Nguyen, Leonard T; Chu, Byron C H; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Fec system, consisting of an outer membrane receptor (FecA), a periplasmic substrate binding protein (FecB) and an inner membrane permease-ATPase type transporter (FecC/D), plays an important role in the uptake and transport of Fe(3+)-citrate. Although several FecB sequences from various organisms have been reported, there are no biophysical or structural data available for this protein to date. In this work, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we report for the first time the ability of FecB to bind different species of Fe(3+)-citrate as well as other citrate complexes with trivalent (Ga(3+), Al(3+), Sc(3+) and In(3+)) and a representative divalent metal ion (Mg(2+)) with low μM affinity. Interestingly, ITC experiments with various iron-free di- and tricarboxylic acids show that FecB can bind tricarboxylates with μM affinity but not biologically relevant dicarboxylates. The ability of FecB to bind with metal-free citrate is also observed in (1)H,(15)N HSQC-NMR titration experiments reported here at two different pH values. Further, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments indicate that the ligand-bound form of FecB has greater thermal stability than ligand-free FecB under all pH and ligand conditions tested, which is consistent with the idea of domain closure subsequent to ligand binding for this type of periplasmic binding proteins.

  20. A Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for carbamazepine degradation at a very low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH: The mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Zhang, Dapeng; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii

    2017-11-01

    A novel Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for degrading a model micropollutant, carbamazepine (CBZ), at a low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH has been proposed in this study, and the mechanisms of radical generation in the system was explored. With a UV dose of 302.4 mJ/cm 2 , an initial pH of 7, and CBZ, PMS, Fe(II) and citrate at initial concentrations of 10, 100, 12 and 26 μM, respectively, the CBZ degradation efficiency reached 71% in 20 min in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, which was 4.7 times higher than that in either the citrate/UV/PMS or Fe(II)/citrate/PMS process. The enhanced CBZ degradation in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process was mainly attributed to the continuous activation of PMS by the UV-catalyzed regenerated Fe(II) from a Fe(III)-citrate complex, [Fe 3 O(cit) 3 H 3 ] 2- , which not only maintained Fe(III) soluble at neutral pH, but also increased 6.6 and 2.6 times of its molar absorbance and quantum yield as compared to those of ionic Fe(III), respectively. In the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, the SO 4 •- produced from the fast reaction between PMS and the initially-added Fe(II) contributed 11% of CBZ degradation. The PMS activation by the UV radiation and regenerated Fe(II) contributed additional 14% and 46% of CBZ removal, respectively. The low iron and citrate doses and the fast radical generation at neutral pH make the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process suitable for degrading recalcitrant organic compounds in potable water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of the human beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase from the mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe B; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct ways of organizing fatty acid biosynthesis exist: the multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) of mammals, fungi, and lower eukaryotes with activities residing on one or two polypeptides; and the dissociated type II FAS of prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria with individual...... activities encoded by discrete genes. The beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase (KAS) moiety of the mitochondrial FAS (mtKAS) is targeted by the antibiotic cerulenin and possibly by the other antibiotics inhibiting prokaryotic KASes: thiolactomycin, platensimycin, and the alpha-methylene butyrolactone, C75. The high...... degree of structural similarity between mitochondrial and prokaryotic KASes complicates development of novel antibiotics targeting prokaryotic KAS without affecting KAS domains of cytoplasmic FAS. KASes catalyze the C(2) fatty acid elongation reaction using either a Cys-His-His or Cys-His-Asn catalytic...

  2. Cloning and characterization of indole synthase (INS) and a putative tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) genes from Polygonum tinctorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhehao; Kim, Jin-Hee; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Soo-Un

    2016-12-01

    Two cDNAs for indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase homolog were cloned from Polygonum tinctorium. One encoded cytosolic indole synthase possibly in indigoid synthesis, whereas the other encoded a putative tryptophan synthase α-subunit. Indigo is an old natural blue dye produced by plants such as Polygonum tinctorium. Key step in plant indigoid biosynthesis is production of indole by indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (IGL). Two tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) homologs, PtIGL-short and -long, were isolated by RACE PCR from P. tinctorium. The genome of the plant contained two genes coding for IGL. The short and the long forms, respectively, encoded 273 and 316 amino acid residue-long proteins. The short form complemented E. coli ΔtnaA ΔtrpA mutant on tryptophan-depleted agar plate signifying production of free indole, and thus was named indole synthase gene (PtINS). The long form, either intact or without the transit peptide sequence, did not complement the mutant and was tentatively named PtTSA. PtTSA was delivered into chloroplast as predicted by 42-residue-long targeting sequence, whereas PtINS was localized in cytosol. Genomic structure analysis suggested that a TSA duplicate acquired splicing sites during the course of evolution toward PtINS so that the targeting sequence-containing pre-mRNA segment was deleted as an intron. PtINS had about two to fivefolds higher transcript level than that of PtTSA, and treatment of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole caused the relative transcript level of PtINS over PtTSA was significantly enhanced in the plant. The results indicate participation of PtINS in indigoid production.

  3. Synthesis of novel lidocaine-releasing poly(diol-co-citrate) elastomers by using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M Concepción; Gutiérrez, María C; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferrer, M Luisa; del Monte, Francisco

    2012-01-14

    Poly(octanediol-co-citrate) elastomers containing high loading of lidocaine were synthesized at temperatures below 100 °C by means of using deep eutectic mixtures of 1,8-octanediol and lidocaine. The preservation of lidocaine integrity resulted in high-capacity drug-eluting elastomers. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation of...

  5. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... the final results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of...

  6. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... preliminary results of the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain..., 2009. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Sales from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  7. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation of Antidumping and...

  8. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... practicable to complete the preliminary results of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC...

  9. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; LEITE, Fábio Renato Manzolli; ZANDIM, Daniela Leal; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; RACHED, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; SAMPAIO, José Eduardo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. Material and Methods A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group). After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. Results Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning. PMID:22858707

  10. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain...

  11. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric acid, timely requested that the Department...

  12. Intense muscle uptake of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP in a patient with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, W.G. Jr.; Yeh, S.D.; Rosenblum, M.K.; Larson, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    An unusual distribution of Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in several muscle groups is described in a 14-year-old boy with aplastic anemia and normal renal function at the time of imaging. Although the patient did not develop musculo-skeletal signs or symptoms, a subsequent autopsy revealed widespread muscle calcification

  13. Citrate- and Succinate-Modified Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mehbuba Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells. Citrate- or succinate-modified CA particles were synthesized with different concentrations of sodium citrate or sodium succinate, respectively, in the absence or presence of doxorubicin. The drug loading efficiency of the particles and their cellular uptake were observed by quantifying fluorescence intensity. The average diameter and surface charge of the particles were determined using Zetasizer. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA exhibited the highest (31.38% binding affinity for doxorubicin and promoted rapid cellular uptake of the drug, leading to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration 1000 times less than that of the free drug in MCF-7 cells. Hence, CMCA nanoparticles with greater surface area enhance cytotoxicity in different breast cancer cells by enabling higher loading and more efficient cellular uptake of the drug.

  14. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had...

  15. Study of corrosion behavior on the addition of sodium citrate in nickel electroplating on SPCC steel using EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riastuti, R.; Ramadini, C.; Siallagan, S. T.; Rifki, A.; Herdino, F.

    2018-04-01

    The addition of sodium citrate to nickel electroplating process as additive is useful for refining the grain size of nickel deposit. The refining of grain size in nickel deposit as coating layer can improve surface performance, one of which corrosion resistance. This paper aims to investigate the effect of sodium citrate addition as grain refiner to promote corrosion resistance on SPCC steel. This experiment used Watt’s Bath solution of NiSO4 300 g/L, NiCl4 45 g/L, H3BO3 60 g/L, wetting agent 0.2 cc/L. Sodium citrate was added in composition of 45g/L and 60g/L. Nickel were deposited by direct current using current density on 6 A/dm2 at the acidity level of 5 for 30 minutes by keeping the operating temperature stable at 50°C. The grain size of nickel deposit was observed through Optical Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The corrosion behavior of SPCC was observed by linear polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) methods using 3% NaCl solution. Based on the research, the addition of sodium citrate as grain refiner will increasing corrosion resistance on SPCC steel from 0.35 to 0.05 mm/year.

  16. Rapid activation of catalase followed by citrate efflux effectively improves aluminum tolerance in the roots of chick pea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manorma; Sharma, Vinay; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the comparative response of two contrasting genotypes (aluminum (Al) tolerant and Al sensitive) of chick pea (Cicer arietinum) against Al stress. The Al-tolerant genotype (RSG 974) showed lesser inhibition of root growth as well as lower oxidative damages, measured in terms of the accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation compared to the Al-sensitive genotype (RSG 945). The accumulation of Al by roots of both genotypes was almost equal at 96 and 144 h after Al treatment; however, it was higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype at 48 h after Al treatment. Further, the Al-mediated induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was almost similar in both genotypes. Al treatment promptly activated catalase activity in Al-tolerant genotype, and it was remarkably higher than that of Al-sensitive genotype. As another important Al detoxification mechanism, citrate efflux was almost equal in both genotypes except at 1000 μM Al treatment for 96 and 144 h. Further, citrate carrier and anion channel inhibitor experiment confirmed the contribution of citrate efflux in conferring Al tolerance in Al-tolerant genotype. Based on the available data, the present study concludes that rapid activation of catalase (also SOD) activity followed by citrate efflux effectively improves Al tolerance in chick pea.

  17. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...

  18. Morphology of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harets V.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological state of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication was studied. We found that values of the hepatofetal index in the groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au had significant differences as compared to the group exposed to lead intoxication, but did not differ significantly from the control group and made up 0,086±0,001 and 0,083±0,001, respectively. Value of the relative area of blood vessels in groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au was 13.08±0.53% and 16.83±0.53%, respectively, which had no significant difference as compared to control group, but differed from the value of lead intoxication group. Under the influence of silver citrate on a background of lead intoxication the relative area of hematopoietic cells was 52,5±0,95%; this indicates to modification action of silver on haematopoiesis. Thus, injection of silver and gold citrates prevents negative effect of lead on morphometric parameters of embryonic liver, relative area of blood vessels and hematopoietic cells. Experiment results showed protective effect of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication during hepatogenesis.

  19. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cavassim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group. After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. RESULTS: Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Nahuis, Marleen J.; Hompes, Peter G.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene

  1. Treatment preferences and trade-offs for ovulation induction in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate patient preferences and trade-offs for laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries relative to ovulation induction with recombinant FSH (rFSH) in patients with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Assessment of preferences and

  2. Predictors for treatment failure after laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries in women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic electrocautery has been put forward as the treatment of choice in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In order to make an informed treatment decision it would be helpful if we could identify women with PCOS with a high probability

  3. Does Metformin combined with Clomiphene Citrate improve fertility related outcomes in Clomiphene resistant women with PCOS: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabraj Gill

    2014-06-01

    Authors’ conclusions: Metformin and Clomiphene Citrate have been shown to improve ovulation and pregnancy rates in the treatment of infertile patients with PCOS who are Clomiphene resistant. However, the optimal treatment regime remains ambiguous and needs further investigation with larger sample sizes of adequate power.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evidences that antioxidant action contributes to the neuroprotective effects of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bobby; Saravanan, Karuppagounder S; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2008-05-01

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) is neuroprotective against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitory action partially contributes to this effect. We tested the hypothesis that 7-NI could be a powerful hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger, and interferes with oxidative stress caused by MPTP. We measured OH, reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in the nucleus caudatus putamen and substantia nigra of Balb/c mice following MPTP and/or 7-NI administration. The nNOS inhibitor caused dose-dependent inhibition in the production of OH in (i) Fenton-like reaction employing ferrous citrate in a cell-free system in test tubes, (ii) in isolated mitochondrial preparation in presence of MPP+, and (iii) in the striatum of mice systemically treated with MPTP. An MPTP-induced depletion of GSH in both the nuclei was blocked by 7-NI, which was dose-dependent (10-50mg/kg), but independent of MAO-B inhibition. The nNOS-mediated recovery of GSH paralleled attenuation of MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. MPTP-induced increase in the activities of striatal or nigral SOD and catalase were significantly attenuated by 7-NI treatment. These results suggest potent antioxidant action of 7-NI in its neuroprotective effects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  6. PUR-PIR foam produced based on poly(hydroxybutyl citrate foamed founded with different factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszkowska Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(hydroxybutyl citrate p(HBC was obtained. The product compound produced in the solution during esterification, was added to rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR. The amount of petrochemical polyol in the foams was decreased in favor of the p(HBC from 0.1 to 0.5 equivalent. The foams were foamed in two ways: with distilled water (W foams and with Solkane 365/227 (S foams. The examination results of both foam series were compared. They showed that the foams foamed with water have higher softening temperature than the foams foamed with solkane. The retention values for both foam series are around 91–95%, and water absorption in the range of 0.7–3.2%. The anisotropy coefficient did not exceed 1.08 (the lowest value being 1.01.

  7. Speciation of An(IV) (Pu, Np, U and Th) in citrate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L.; Moisy, P. [CEA Valrho, DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Cote, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The acquisition of additional data concerning actinide decorporation is planned under the French nuclear and environmental toxicology program. Citric acid is a fundamental biological constituent found at relatively high concentrations in blood plasma and is involved in many biological processes. Spectrophotometry was the primary method used to determine the speciation of An(IV)-citrate systems (Th, U, Np, Pu). Complexation phenomena were identified, especially the formation of complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometries. The corresponding conditional constants were calculated according to the experimental conditions. Depending on the acid-base form of the ligand (H{sub 2}Cit{sup -}, HCit{sup 2-} or Cit{sup 3-}) the apparent stability constants were also calculated and compared for various tetravalent actinides. (orig.)

  8. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  9. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel via nitrate-citrate combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi, Ali; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Sarpoolaky, Hosein; Willert-Porada, Monika; Gerdes, Thorsten; Simon, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) was synthesized using metal nitrates, citric acid and ammonium solutions. The precursor and the calcined powders at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combustion mechanism was also studied by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) which coupled to STA. The generated heat through the combustion of the mixture of ammonium nitrate and citrate based complexes decreased the synthesis temperature of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. The synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 spinel at 900 deg. C has faced shape with crystallite size in the range of 18-24 nm

  10. Lipase inhibitory activity of Carica papaya, Chrysophyllum cainito, Corcorus olitorius, Cympogon citrates and Syzygium cumini extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briones, A.T.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lipase inhibitory action of Carica papaya, Chrysophyllum cainito, Corcorus olitorius, Cymbopogon citrates and Syzygium cumini were evaluated to explore for the presence of anti-obesity compounds and their potential weight-lowering activity. Enzyme inhibition results of the alcoholic extracts of the five plants showed that C. cainito has the highest percent inhibition at 74.91% while S. cumini, C. citratus, C. olitorius and C. papaya obtained less than 50% average inhibition. C. cainito was partitioned using hexane and ethyl acetate to further concentrate the bioactive compounds. The lipase inhibition assay of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed 92.11% inhibition and 21.9% inhibition, respectively. The greater activity in the former may imply that majority of potential anti-lipase constituents are found in the hexane portion.

  11. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberboym, M; Mena, I; Wainstein, J; Boaz, M; Lampl, Y

    2010-06-01

    Sildenafil citrate is widely used for erectile dysfunction. The present study examined the short-term effects of sildenafil administration in individuals with cerebrovascular risk factors, including patients with a history of stroke. Twenty-five consecutive male patients with erectile dysfunction and vascular risk factors were included in the study. A perfusion brain SPECT study was performed at baseline and 1 h after the oral administration of sildenafil. Associations between any of the risk factors and the perfusion scores were not detected, with the exception of stroke. Stroke patients showed significantly more areas with diminished perfusion after sildenafil administration compared to baseline. In patients with diabetes or hypertension, a dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not appear to produce detrimental effects on cerebral blood flow. However, patients with a history of stroke may be at increased risk of hemodynamic impairment after the use of sildenafil.

  12. Strategically functionalized carbon nanotubes as the ultrasensitive electrochemical probe for picomolar detection of sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Lee, Kwang Pill; Komathi, Shanmugasundaram

    2011-02-15

    The present work demonstrates the utility of the functionalized carbon nanotubes, poly(4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) (PABS) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes, MWNT-g-PABS, as an electrode modifier towards achieving ultrasensitive detection of a model drug, sildenafil citrate (SC). PABS units in MWNT-g-PABS interact with SC, pre-concentrate and accumulate at the surface. The electron transduction from SC to electrode is augmented via MWNT-g-PABS. As a result, the MWNT-g-PABS modified electrode exhibited ultrasensitive (57.7 μA/nM) and selective detection of SC with a detection limit of 4.7 pM. The present work provides scope towards targeting ultrasensitivity for the detection of biomolecules/drug through rational design and incorporation of appropriate chemical components to carbon nanotubes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an "R" value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U-O bond.

  14. Exploring cellular uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles associated with rhodium citrate in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Natalia L; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Böttner, Julia; Lopes, Cláudio Ap; Guido, Bruna C; de Sousa, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia N

    2017-01-01

    Nanocarriers have the potential to improve the therapeutic index of currently available drugs by improving their efficacy and achieving therapeutic steady-state levels over an extended period. The association of maghemite-rhodium citrate (MRC) nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to increase specificity of the cytotoxic action. However, the interaction of these NPs with cells, their uptake mechanism, and subcellular localization need to be elucidated. This work evaluates the uptake mechanism of MRC NPs in metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer-cell models, comparing them to a nontumor cell line. MRC NPs uptake in breast cancer cells was more effective than in normal cells, with regard to both the amount of internalized material and the achievement of more strategic intracellular distribution. Moreover, this process occurred through a clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway with different basal expression levels of this protein in the cell lines tested.

  15. Radiation dose estimates for the fetus from intakes of gallium citrate by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Information about the distribution and retention of Ga 67 in the pregnant woman is limited and must be extrapolated from animal data. Studies have shown that gallium administered as citrate crosses the placenta into the fetus; however, the concentration in the placenta appears to be considerably greater than that in the fetus. Little is known about the retention of gallium in the fetus and placenta. In this paper, available data on the concentrations in the placenta and fetus are combined with data on the biokinetics of gallium in the woman to provide a model for dose calculation. The absorbed fractions calculated from the pregnant woman models developed by the Radiopharmaceutical Internal Dose Information Center will be used to provide dose estimates for the radioisotopes of gallium. (author)

  16. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto; Delgado, René; Velho, Jesus; Inada, Natalia M; Curti, Carlos; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2005-05-01

    The extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) is able to prevent iron mediated mitochondrial damage by means of oxidation of reduced transition metals required for the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and direct free radical scavenging activity. In this study we report for the first time the iron-complexing ability of Vimang as a primary mechanism for protection of rat liver mitochondria against Fe2+ -citrate-induced lipoperoxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption were used as quantitative measures of lipoperoxidation. Vimang at 10 microM mangiferin concentration equivalent induced near-full protection against 50 microM Fe2+ -citrate-induced mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi). The IC50 value for Vimang protection against Fe2+ -citrate-induced mitochondrial TBARS formation (7.89+/-1.19 microM) was around 10 times lower than that for tert-butylhydroperoxide mitochondrial induction of TBARS formation. The extract also inhibited the iron citrate induction of mitochondrial antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption, stimulated oxygen consumption due to Fe2+ autoxidation and prevented Fe3+ ascorbate reduction. The extracted polyphenolic compound, mainly mangiferin, could form a complex with Fe2+, accelerating Fe2+ oxidation and the formation of more stable Fe3+ -polyphenol complexes, unable to participate in Fenton-type reactions and lipoperoxidation propagation phase. The strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with an apparent IC50 of 2.45+/-0.08 microM suggests that besides its iron-complexing capacity, Vimang could also protect mitochondria from Fe2+ -citrate lipoperoxidation through direct free radical scavenging ability, mainly lipoperoxyl and alcoxyl radicals, acting as both a chain-breaking and iron-complexing antioxidant. These results are of pharmacological relevance since Vimang could be a potential candidate for antioxidant therapy in

  17. Phosphorus acquisition by citrate- and phytase-exuding Nicotiana tabacum plant mixtures depends on soil phosphorus availability and root intermingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Richardson, Alan E; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Mezeli, Malika M; Brown, Lawrie K; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin Sa; Shand, Charles A; Stutter, Marc I; Wendler, Renate; Cooper, Patricia; Lumsdon, David G; Wearing, Catherine; Zhang, Hao; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2018-03-02

    Citrate and phytase root exudates contribute to improved phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) when both exudates are produced in a P deficient soil. To test the importance of root intermingling in the interaction of citrate and phytase exudates, Nicotiana tabacum plant-lines with constitutive expression of heterologous citrate (Cit) or fungal phytase (Phy) exudation traits were grown under two root treatments (roots separated or intermingled) and in two soils with contrasting soil P availability. Complementarity of plant mixtures varying in citrate efflux rate and mobility of the expressed phytase in soil was determined based on plant biomass and P accumulation. Soil P composition was evaluated using solution 31 P NMR spectroscopy. In the soil with limited available P, positive complementarity occurred in Cit+Phy mixtures with roots intermingled. Root separation eliminated positive interactions in mixtures expressing the less mobile phytase (Aspergillus niger PhyA) whereas positive complementarity persisted in mixtures that expressed the more mobile phytase (Peniophora lycii PhyA). Soils from Cit+Phy mixtures contained less inorganic P and more organic P compared to monocultures. Exudate-specific strategies for the acquisition of soil P were most effective in P-limited soil and depended on citrate efflux rate and the relative mobility of the expressed phytase in soil. Plant growth and soil P utilization in plant systems with complementary exudation strategies are expected to be greatest where exudates persist in soil and are expressed synchronously in space and time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Correction of metabolic acidosis with potassium citrate in renal transplant patients and its effect on bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Astrid; Corsenca, Alf; Kohler, Thomas; Knubben, Johannes; Kraenzlin, Marius; Uebelhart, Daniel; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Müller, Ralph; Ambühl, Patrice M

    2012-09-01

    Acidosis and transplantation are associated with increased risk of bone disturbances. This study aimed to assess bone morphology and metabolism in acidotic patients with a renal graft, and to ameliorate bone characteristics by restoration of acid/base homeostasis with potassium citrate. This was a 12-month controlled, randomized, interventional trial that included 30 renal transplant patients with metabolic acidosis (S-[HCO(3)(-)] 24 mmol/L, or potassium chloride (control group). Iliac crest bone biopsies and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were performed at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Bone biopsies were analyzed by in vitro micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry, including tetracycline double labeling. Serum biomarkers of bone turnover were measured at baseline and study end. Twenty-three healthy participants with normal kidney function comprised the reference group. Administration of potassium citrate resulted in persisting normalization of S-[HCO(3)(-)] versus potassium chloride. At 12 months, bone surface, connectivity density, cortical thickness, and cortical porosity were better preserved with potassium citrate than with potassium chloride, respectively. Serological biomarkers and bone tetracycline labeling indicate higher bone turnover with potassium citrate versus potassium chloride. In contrast, no relevant changes in bone mineral density were detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Treatment with potassium citrate in renal transplant patients is efficient and well tolerated for correction of metabolic acidosis and may be associated with improvement in bone quality. This study is limited by the heterogeneity of the investigated population with regard to age, sex, and transplant vintage.

  19. The effect of EDDS and citrate on the uptake of lead in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Ahmad; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Schat, Henk

    2013-10-01

    Root and shoot lead concentrations and the impact of chelating agents on these were investigated in two populations of the novel metallophyte Matthiola flavida. Plants were exposed in hydroponics to Pb(NO3)2, supplied alone, or in combination with citric acid, or EDDS. When supplied at concentrations expected to bind about 95% of the Pb in a solution containing 1-μM Pb (1000 μM citrate or 3.1 μM EDDS, respectively), the root and shoot Pb concentrations were dramatically lowered, in comparison with a 1-μM free ionic Pb control exposure. A 1-mM EDDS+1-μM Pb treatment decreased the plants' Pb concentrations further, even to undetectable levels in one population. At 100 μM Pb in a 1-mM EDDS-amended solution the Pb concentration increased strongly in shoots, but barely in roots, in comparison with the 1-μM Pb+1-mM EDDS treatment, without causing toxicity symptoms. Further increments of the Pb concentration in the 1-mM EDDS-amended solution, i.e. to 800 and 990 μM, caused Pb hyperaccumulation, both in roots and in shoots, associated with a complete arrest of root growth and foliar necrosis. M. flavida seemed to be devoid of constitutive mechanisms for uptake of Pb-citrate or Pb-EDDS complexes. Hyperaccumulation of Pb-EDDS occurred only at high exposure levels. Pb-EDDS was toxic, but is much less so than free Pb. Free EDDS did not seem to be toxic at the concentrations tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine Citrate Dosing Adjustments to Assure Stable Caffeine Concentrations in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Datta, Alexandre N; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M; van den Anker, John; Pfister, Marc

    2017-12-01

    To identify dosing strategies that will assure stable caffeine concentrations in preterm neonates despite changing caffeine clearance during the first 8 weeks of life. A 3-step simulation approach was used to compute caffeine doses that would achieve stable caffeine concentrations in the first 8 weeks after birth: (1) a mathematical weight change model was developed based on published weight distribution data; (2) a pharmacokinetic model was developed based on published models that accounts for individual body weight, postnatal, and gestational age on caffeine clearance and volume of distribution; and (3) caffeine concentrations were simulated for different dosing regimens. A standard dosing regimen of caffeine citrate (using a 20 mg/kg loading dose and 5 mg/kg/day maintenance dose) is associated with a maximal trough caffeine concentration of 15 mg/L after 1 week of treatment. However, trough concentrations subsequently exhibit a clinically relevant decrease because of increasing clearance. Model-based simulations indicate that an adjusted maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in the second week, 7 mg/kg/day in the third to fourth week and 8 mg/kg/day in the fifth to eighth week assures stable caffeine concentrations with a target trough concentration of 15 mg/L. To assure stable caffeine concentrations during the first 8 weeks of life, the caffeine citrate maintenance dose needs to be increased by 1 mg/kg every 1-2 weeks. These simple adjustments are expected to maintain exposure to stable caffeine concentrations throughout this important developmental period and might enhance both the short- and long-term beneficial effects of caffeine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of ZnS thin films from aqueous caustic of trisodium citrate and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn A. Sozanskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide (ZnS thin films due to their properties are widely used in various electronic optical devices. They are produced by several methods, among which – vacuum sublimation, high frequency sputtering method, quasiclosed volume method, sol-gel method, electrodeposition. These methods have high energy consumption which increases the price of ZnS thin films. Aim: The aim of this work is to establish the optimal parameters of the synthesis of ZnS thin films of the aqueous caustic and the correlation between content of zinc in the synthesized films determined by the method of stripping voltammetry and thickness, structural, morphological and optical parameters. Materials and Methods: The ZnS thin films were obtained from aqueous caustics of zinc-containing salt using chemical deposition. Fresh solution of zinc-containing salt, trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7 as a complexing agent, thiourea ((NH22CS and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH was used for the synthesis of ZnS films by chemical deposition. The deposition was performed on prepared glass substrates with the area of 5,76 cm2. Results: The phase mixture of the films has been determined. It showed the presence of ZnS compounds in the cubic modification (sphalerite. Stripping voltammetry was used to determine the mass of zinc in the ZnS films on various conditions of synthesis, namely on the concentration of the initial zinc-containing salt, trisodium citrate, thiourea, deposition time and temperature. The surface morphology, optical properties, the thickness of the ZnS resulting films have been studied. Conclusions: The optimal conditions for the synthesis of ZnS films were found based on these data. Three-dimensional surface morphology of ZnS film studies showed its smoothness, uniformity, integrity and confirmed the correctness of determining the optimal synthesis parameters.

  2. Influence of centrifuge brake on residual platelet count and routine coagulation tests in citrated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daves, Massimo; Giacomuzzi, Katia; Tagnin, Enrico; Jani, Erika; Adcock Funk, Dorothy M; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Sample centrifugation is an essential step in the coagulation laboratory, as clotting tests are typically performed on citrated platelet (PLT) poor plasma (PPP). Nevertheless, no clear indication has been provided as to whether centrifugation of specimens should be performed with the centrifuge brake set to on or off. Fifty consecutive sodium citrate anticoagulated samples were collected and divided into two aliquots. The former was centrifuged as for Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines with the centrifuge brake set to on, whereas the latter was centrifuged again as for CLSI guidelines, but with the brake set to off. In the PPP of all samples, a PLT count was performed, followed by the analysis of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FBG). The PLT count after samples centrifugation was substantially reduced, either with centrifuge brake set to on or off (5 ± 1 versus 3 ± 1 × 10/l; P = 0.009). The frequency of samples exceeding a PLT count less than 10 × 10/l was nearly double in samples centrifuged with the brake on than in those with the brake off (14 versus 8%; P centrifuge brake set to on (mean bias 0.2 s; P centrifuge brake set to on (mean bias 0.29 g/l; P centrifugation for routine coagulation testing should be preferably performed with the centrifuge brake set to off for providing a better quality specimen.

  3. Red blood cell aging markers during storage in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelou, Marianna H; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Economou-Petersen, Effrosini; Margaritis, Lukas H; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2010-02-01

    It has been suggested that red blood cell (RBC) senescence is accelerated under blood bank conditions, although neither protein profile of RBC aging nor the impact of additive solutions on it have been studied in detail. RBCs and vesicles derived from RBCs in both citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD)-saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) were evaluated for the expression of cell senescence markers (vesiculation, protein aggregation, degradation, activation, oxidation, and topology) through immunoblotting technique and immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy study. A group of cellular stress proteins exhibited storage time- and storage medium-related changes in their membrane association and exocytosis. The extent, the rate, and the expression of protein oxidation, Fas oligomerization, caspase activation, and protein modifications in Band 3, hemoglobin, and immunoglobulin G were less conspicuous and/or exhibited significant time retardation under storage in CPD-SAGM, compared to the CPDA storage. There was evidence for the localization of activated caspases near to the membrane of both cells and vesicles. We provide circumstantial evidence for a lower protein oxidative damage in CPD-SAGM-stored RBCs compared to the CPDA-stored cells. The different expression patterns of the senescence markers in the RBCs seem to be accordingly related to the oxidative stress management of the cells. We suggest that the storage of RBCs in CPD-SAGM might be more alike the in vivo RBC aging process, compared to storage in CPDA, since it is characterized by a slower stimulation of the recognition signaling pathways that are already known to trigger the erythrophagocytosis of senescent RBCs.

  4. UV-induced photochemical transformations of citrate-capped silver nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Justin M.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Klein, Kate L.; Fairbrother, D. Howard; Holbrook, R. David

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products, it is essential to understand how variables, such as light exposure, may change the physical and chemical characteristics of AgNP suspensions. To this end, the effect of 300 nm ultraviolet (UV) light on (20, 40, 60 and 80) nm citrate-capped AgNP suspensions has been investigated. As a consequence of irradiation, the initial yellow hue of the AgNP suspensions is transformed towards a near colorless solution due to the loss of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorbance. The decrease in SPR absorbance followed a first-order decay process for all particle sizes with a rate constant that increased linearly with the AgNP specific surface area and non-linearly with light intensity. The rate of loss of the SPR absorbance decreased with increasing citrate concentration, suggesting a surface-mediated transformation. Absorbance, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering results all indicated that AgNP photolysis was accompanied by a diameter decrease and occasional aggregation. Furthermore, in situ transmission electron microscopy imaging using a specialized liquid cell also showed a decrease in the particle size and the formation of a core–shell structure in UV-exposed AgNPs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggested that this shell consisted of oxidized silver. The SPR in UV-exposed AgNP suspensions could be regenerated by addition of a strong reducing agent (NaBH 4 ), supporting the idea that oxidized silver is present after photolysis. Evidence for UV-enhanced dissolution and the production of silver ions was obtained with the Donnan membrane technique. This study reveals that the physico-chemical properties of aqueous AgNP suspensions will change significantly upon exposure to UV light, with implications for environmental health and safety risk assessments.

  5. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  6. Follow-up of rheumatic carditis using 67Ga-citrate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Bae, S.H.; Prado, E.S.; Gomes, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This study reports the follow -up of 25 patients (pts) with rheumatic carditis (9 male, 16 females; 4-29 years, mean 12,12) using 67-gallium citrate. Materials and Methods: the pts were divided in 2 groups: I- first attack (7pts, 2 males, with a mean follow-up of 5,65 years); II- recurrence (18 pts, 7 males, with a mean follow-up of 5,27 years).Images of the thorax and semi quantitative indexes were obtained 72 hours after intravenous injection of 37-74 MBq (1-2 mCi) of 67-gallium citrate, using a LFOV scintillation camera. 67-gallium uptake in the cardiac area was graded as mild, moderate or severe using the tracer uptake in the lung as a reference (normal up to 130%). Results: all pts in group I (2 severe, 2 moderate, and 3 mild carditis) had normal gallium uptake in up to 9 weeks after the institution of cortico therapy, with a better outcome in follow-up.In group II, 8 pts presented moderately active carditis (2 had good and 6 had a poor outcome) and 10 mildly active carditis (7 had good and 3 had poor outcome). The evolution of the disease was better in 8 pts that the reduction of 67- gallium uptake to normal limits occurred in up to 9 weeks, than in 9 pts that the scintigraphy was only normal after 10 weeks of therapy. Conclusion: normal gallium uptake in up to 9 weeks of treatment seems to be a good predictor of evolution in rheumatic carditis first attack or recurrence; in recurrence, reduction of 67-gallium uptake only after 10 weeks or increasing uptake seems to be worse predictors

  7. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an “R” value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U–O bond. - Highlights: • Bulk quantities of nanocrystalline urania were prepared for the first time using citrate gel combustion method. • Volume combustion was observed in mixtures with fuel to nitrate ratio (R) 0.25. • The value of R was found to significantly influence the characteristics of the final product. • Typical exfoliated microstructure and nanopores were observed. • Established correlation between particle size distribution and bulk density, X-ray crystallite size and lattice strain. • Relationship between fuel to nitrate (R) mole ratio and physical characteristics of powders were also established.

  8. Cardiac Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Following Instillation of 20 nm Citrate-capped Nanosilver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becak DP, Holland NA; Shannahan, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have garnered much interest due to their antimicrobial properties, becoming one of the most utilized nano scale materials. However, any potential evocable cardiovascular injury associated with exposure has not been previously reported. We have previously demonstrated expansion of myocardial infarction after intratracheal (IT) instillation of other nanomaterials. We hypothesized that pulmonary exposure to Ag core AgNP induces persistent increase in circulating cytokines, expansion of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with altered coronary vessel reactivity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 200 µg of 20 nm citrate capped Ag core AgNP, or a citrate vehicle intratracheally (IT). One and 7 days following IT instillation lungs were evaluated for inflammation and silver presence, serum was analyzed for concentrations of selected cytokines, and cardiac I/R injury and coronary artery reactivity was assessed. Results: AgNP instillation resulted in modest pulmonary injury with detection of silver in lung tissue and infiltrating cells, elevation of serum cytokines: G-CSF, MIP-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-10, IL-18, IL-17, TNFα, and RANTES, expansion of I/R injury and depression of the coronary vessel reactivity at 1 day post IT compared to vehicle treated rats. Seven days post IT instillation was associated with persistent detection of silver in lungs, elevation in cytokines: IL-2, IL-13, and TNFα and expansion of I/R injury. Conclusions: Based on these data, IT instillation of AgNP increases circulating levels of several cytokines, which may contribute to persistent expansion of I/R injury possibly through an impaired vascular responsiveness.

  9. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  10. Effects of Acetate-Free Citrate Dialysate on Glycoxidation and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Masuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown the presence of high levels of glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products in association with atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Acetates are commonly used buffer for correcting metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. Since the toxic effects of acetates are well established, acetate-free citrate dialysate (AFD has become available in Japan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suppressive effects of AFD on oxidative stress in maintenance HD patients by measuring plasma pentosidine and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels as markers for glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products. Methods: Plasma pentosidine, MDA-LDL and other laboratory parameters were examined on maintenance HD at the Juntendo University Hospital before and after switching to AFD. Results: MDA-LDL levels divided by LDL cholesterol were significantly lower than those before switching to AFD. Furthermore, levels of plasma pentosidine were lower than those before switching to AFD. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the percent change of the calcium-phosphorus product in the nondiabetic group and that of phosphorus in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of MDA-LDL/LDL, whereas the percent change of log high-sensitive C-reactive protein and that of systolic blood pressure in the nondiabetic group and that of diastolic blood pressure in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of plasma pentosidine. Conclusions: It appears that AFD decreases glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products when compared with acid citrate dextrose in HD patients. The reduction of oxidative stress by AFD during HD may have possible beneficial effects on atherosclerosis through calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood pressure.

  11. Evaluation of unilateral versus bilateral ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate resistant cases of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K K; Baruah, Jinee; Moda, Nidhi; Kumar, Sunesh

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) has been put forward as the treatment of choice in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with tubo-ovarian adhesion formation as the major disadvantage. Our study proposed to compare the efficacy of laparoscopic unilateral ovarian drilling with bilateral ovarian drilling in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rate with the expected advantage of decreasing postoperative adhesion rate and change in fimbiro ovarian relationship with unilateral drilling. This prospective randomized study included 44 patients with anovulatory infertility due to PCOS. Twenty-two patients underwent unilateral ovarian drilling in group-I and 22 patients underwent bilateral ovarian drilling in group-II between June 2005 and June 2007. The number of drilling site in each ovary was limited to five. The clinical and biochemical response, ovulation and pregnancy rates over a follow-up period of 1 year were compared. Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section or during repeat laparoscopy. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. Postoperatively, tubo-ovarian adhesions could be assessed in 36.3% of the patients and no adhesions were found in a single case in either group. Unilateral drilling cauterization of ovary is equally efficacious as bilateral drilling in inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy. Unilateral ovarian drilling may be a suitable option in clomiphene citrate resistant infertility patient of PCOS which can replace bilateral ovarian drilling with the potential advantage of decreasing the chances of adhesion formation.

  12. The efficacy of metformin and clomiphene citrate combination compared with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction in infertile patients with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Dasari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Low ovulatory and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate (CC in anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Aim: To find out the ovulatory and pregnancy rates in infertile PCOS subjects who receive CC alone and a combination of metformin and CC. Setting and Design: A prospective controlled clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department from August 2003 to August 2005. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four infertile PCOS women received CC alone at incremental doses of 50 mg up to 150 mg for three cycles and then at a dose of 150 mg for another three cycles (control group. The study group (16 PCOS received the same dose of CC along with 1500mg of metformin. Ovulation was monitored by transvaginal sonography up to six cycles or till pregnancy occurred. Statistical Analysis: This was carried out using software SSPS, version 10. Fisher′s exact test was used to calculate the ovulatory rates. Nine subjects of the control group who failed to conceive with CC had opted for CC and metformin and their ovulatory rate was calculated using statistical software, namely SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, MedCalc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 using Fischer′s exact test. Results: The metformin and clomiphene combination resulted in a significantly higher rate of ovulation ( P = 0.0016. The pregnancy rate was 8% with CC and 24% with metformin and CC. The CC failure group also ovulated at a similar rate as that of the study group. Conclusions: The ovulatory rate and the pregnancy rate with the metformin-CC combination was found to be higher when compared with CC alone. Metformin increased the ovulatory rate in CC failures, also implying increased sensitivity to CC.

  13. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of terpene carbon skeletons in plants is formed by enzymes known as terpene synthases. This review covers the monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases presenting an up-to-date list of enzymes reported and evidence for their ability to form multiple products. The reaction mechanisms of these enzyme classes are described, and information on how terpene synthase proteins mediate catalysis is summarized. Correlations between specific amino acid motifs and terpene synthase function are described, including an analysis of the relationships between active site sequence and cyclization type and a discussion of whether specific protein features might facilitate multiple product formation.

  14. (13)C heteronuclear NMR studies of the interaction of cultured neurons and astrocytes and aluminum blockade of the preferential release of citrate from astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshitsuka, Shunsuke; Aremu, David A

    2008-02-01

    Citrate has been identified as a major tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle constituent preferentially released by astrocytes. We undertook the present study to examine further the nature of metabolic compartmentation in central nervous system tissues using (13)C-labeled glucose and to provide new information on the influence of aluminum on the metabolic interaction between neurons and astrocytes. Metabolites released into the culture medium from astrocytes and neuron-astrocyte coculture, as well as the perchloric acid extracts of the cells were analyzed using 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Astrocytes released citrate into the culture medium and the released citrate was consumed by neurons in coculture. Citrate release by astrocytes was blocked in the presence of aluminum, with progressive accumulation of citrate within the cells. We propose citrate supply is a more efficient energy source than lactate for neurons to produce ATP, especially in the hypoglycemic state on account of it being a direct component of the TCA cycle. Astrocytes may be the cellular compartment for aluminum accumulation as a citrate complex in the brain.

  15. A Comparison of Secondary Polycythemia in Hypogonadal Men Treated with Clomiphene Citrate versus Testosterone Replacement: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Karen M; Smith, Ryan P; Kumar, Raj A; Setia, Shaan; Costabile, Raymond A; Kavoussi, Parviz K

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the relative prevalence of secondary polycythemia in hypogonadal men treated with clomiphene citrate or testosterone replacement therapy. In this retrospective, multi-institutional study, we included 188 men who received clomiphene citrate and 175 who received testosterone replacement therapy with symptomatic hypogonadism. The overall prevalence and ORs of secondary polycythemia for clomiphene citrate treatment vs testosterone replacement were primarily measured, as were baseline characteristics. Subset analysis included polycythemia rates for different types of testosterone replacement therapy. Overall, men on testosterone replacement therapy were older than clomiphene citrate treated men (age 51.5 vs 38 years). Men on testosterone replacement had longer treatment duration than clomiphene citrate treated men (19.6 vs 9.2 months). For testosterone replacement therapy and clomiphene citrate the mean change in hematocrit was 3.0% and 0.6%, and the mean change in serum testosterone was 333.1 and 367.6 ng/dl, respectively. The prevalence of polycythemia in men on testosterone replacement was 11.2% vs 1.7% in men on clomiphene citrate (p = 0.0003). This significance remained on logistic regression after correcting for age, site, smoking history and pretreatment hematocrit. The prevalence of polycythemia in men treated with clomiphene citrate was markedly lower than that in men on testosterone replacement therapy. The improvement in absolute serum testosterone levels was similar to that in men on testosterone replacement. There is no significant risk of polycythemia in men treated with clomiphene citrate for hypogonadism. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of vascular targeting by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Peter D.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Naylor, Matthew A.; Thomson, Peter; Lewis, Gemma; Hill, Sally A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the enhancement of the vascular targeting activity of the tubulin-binding agent combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) by various inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases. Methods and Materials: The syngeneic tumors CaNT and SaS growing in CBA mice were used for this study. Reduction in perfused vascular volume was measured by injection of Hoechst 33342 24 h after drug administration. Necrosis (hematoxylin and eosin stain) was assessed also at 24 h after treatment. Combretastatin A4 phosphate was synthesized by a modification of the published procedure and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIO, L-NIL, S-MTC, S-EIT, AMP, AMT, and L-TC, obtained from commercial sources. Results: A statistically significant augmentation of the reduction in perfused vascular volume by CA4P in the CaNT tumor was observed with L-NNA, AMP, and AMT. An increase in CA4P-induced necrosis in the same tumor achieved significance with L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIL, and AMT. CA4P induced little necrosis in the SaS tumor, but combination with the inhibitors L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIO, S-EIT, and L-TC was effective. Conclusions: Augmentation of CA4P activity by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors of different structural classes supports a nitric oxide-related mechanism for this effect. L-NNA was the most effective inhibitor studied

  17. Incorporation of phosphate into glycogen by glycogen synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Christopher J; Segvich, Dyann M; Mahalingan, Krishna; Chikwana, Vimbai M; Kirley, Terence L; Hurley, Thomas D; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    The storage polymer glycogen normally contains small amounts of covalently attached phosphate as phosphomonoesters at C2, C3 and C6 atoms of glucose residues. In the absence of the laforin phosphatase, as in the rare childhood epilepsy Lafora disease, the phosphorylation level is elevated and is associated with abnormal glycogen structure that contributes to the pathology. Laforin therefore likely functions in vivo as a glycogen phosphatase. The mechanism of glycogen phosphorylation is less well-understood. We have reported that glycogen synthase incorporates phosphate into glycogen via a rare side reaction in which glucose-phosphate rather than glucose is transferred to a growing polyglucose chain (Tagliabracci et al. (2011) Cell Metab13, 274-282). We proposed a mechanism to account for phosphorylation at C2 and possibly at C3. Our results have since been challenged (Nitschke et al. (2013) Cell Metab17, 756-767). Here we extend the evidence supporting our conclusion, validating the assay used for the detection of glycogen phosphorylation, measurement of the transfer of (32)P from [β-(32)P]UDP-glucose to glycogen by glycogen synthase. The (32)P associated with the glycogen fraction was stable to ethanol precipitation, SDS-PAGE and gel filtration on Sephadex G50. The (32)P-signal was not affected by inclusion of excess unlabeled UDP before analysis or by treatment with a UDPase, arguing against the signal being due to contaminating [β-(32)P]UDP generated in the reaction. Furthermore, [(32)P]UDP did not bind non-covalently to glycogen. The (32)P associated with glycogen was released by laforin treatment, suggesting that it was present as a phosphomonoester. The conclusion is that glycogen synthase can mediate the introduction of phosphate into glycogen, thereby providing a possible mechanism for C2, and perhaps C3, phosphorylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eKorotkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1 is a well recognized target for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs that can reduce symptoms of inflammation in rheumatic diseases and other inflammatory conditions. In this review, we focus on mPGES-1 in rheumatic diseases with the aim to cover the most recent advances in the understanding of mPGES-1 in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and inflammatory myopathies. Novel findings regarding regulation of mPGES1 cell expression as well as enzyme inhibitors are also summarized.

  19. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal......NOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age...

  20. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, He-Zhong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhaoyx1011@163.com [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou (China); Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: maxiaofeng@gucas.ac.cn [College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC{sub 50} value of 10.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He-Zhong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing; Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC 50 value of 10.3 μmol L -1 . (author)

  2. An ultrasensitive and highly selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for citrate ions based on rhodamine B and its application as the first molecular security keypad lock based on phosphomolybdic acid and citrate inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavallali, Hossein, E-mail: Tavallali@pnu.ac.ir; Baezzat, Mohammad-Reza; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-04-15

    Rhodamine B (Rh{sub B}) has been developed as novel and efficient colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensor for citrate ions (Cit{sup 3−}) in an absolutely aqueous media. The UV–vis absorption and fluorescent emission titrations experiments have been employed to study the sensing process. Rh{sub B} could act as an efficient “ON–OFF” fluorescent chemosensor for phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) based on an electron transfer (ET) process. Also (Rh{sub B}{sup +}){sub 3}.PMA{sup 3−} could operate as an “OFF–ON” fluorescent chemosensor for citrate ions based on a ligand substitution process. The chemosensor Rh{sub B} shows excellent fluorescence sensitivity and selectivity toward citrate in aqueous media, and displays ON–OFF–ON type fluorescence change with alternately adding PMA and citrate to the media along with reversible association–dissociation of the complex. The (Rh{sub B}{sup +}){sub 3}.PMA{sup 3−} can be applied to the quantification of citrate with a linear ranges covering from 0.053 to 0.83 and 0.08 to 1.6 µM by detection limits of 6.0 and 9.1 nM for fluorescence and colorimetric methods respectively. The keypad lock operation is particularly important, as the output of the system depends not only on the proper combination but also on the order of input signals, creating the correct password that can be used to “open” this molecular keypad lock through strong fluorescence emission at 575 nm. As a whole, its various logic gate properties may improve its impact for the development of new-generation “intelligence” digital devices. The ionic PMA and Cit{sup 3−} inputs to (Rh{sub B}{sup +}){sub 3}.PMA{sup 3−} have been mimicked as a superimposed electronic molecular keypad lock. Also indicates that Rh{sub B} is suitable for the detection of Cit{sup 3−} ions in the biological environment. - Highlights: • Our probe is commercially available with good photostability and high quantum yield. • Both color and fluorescence change

  3. Molecular cloning and functional expression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Coleus forskohlii Briq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamukai Makoto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, a common biosynthetic precursor to the labdane diterpene forskolin, has been biosynthesised via a non-mevalonate pathway. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP synthase is an important branch point enzyme in terpenoid biosynthesis. Therefore, GGPP synthase is thought to be a key enzyme in biosynthesis of forskolin. Herein we report the first confirmation of the GGPP synthase gene in Coleus forskohlii Briq. Results The open reading frame for full-length GGPP synthase encodes a protein of 359 amino acids, in which 1,077 nucleotides long with calculated molecular mass of 39.3 kDa. Alignments of C. forskohlii GGPP synthase amino acid sequences revealed high homologies with other plant GGPP synthases. Several highly conserved regions, including two aspartate-rich motifs were identified. Transient expression of the N-terminal region of C. forskohlii GGPP synthase-GFP fusion protein in tobacco cells demonstrated subcellular localization in the chloroplast. Carotenoid production was observed in Escherichia coli harboring pACCAR25ΔcrtE from Erwinia uredovora and plasmid carrying C. forskohlii GGPP synthase. These results suggested that cDNA encoded functional GGPP synthase. Furthermore, C. forskohlii GGPP synthase expression was strong in leaves, decreased in stems and very little expression was observed in roots. Conclusion This investigation proposed that forskolin was synthesised via a non-mevalonate pathway. GGPP synthase is thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of forskolin, which is primarily synthesised in the leaves and subsequently accumulates in the stems and roots.

  4. Glycogen synthase from the parabasalian parasite Trichomonas vaginalis: An unusual member of the starch/glycogen synthase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne A; Pradhan, Prajakta; Madhan, Nayasha; Gist, Galen C; Brittingham, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protist, is the causative agent of the common sexually-transmitted infection trichomoniasis. The organism has long been known to synthesize substantial glycogen as a storage polysaccharide, presumably mobilizing this compound during periods of carbohydrate limitation, such as might be encountered during transmission between hosts. However, little is known regarding the enzymes of glycogen metabolism in T. vaginalis. We had previously described the identification and characterization of two forms of glycogen phosphorylase in the organism. Here, we measure UDP-glucose-dependent glycogen synthase activity in cell-free extracts of T. vaginalis. We then demonstrate that the TVAG_258220 open reading frame encodes a glycosyltransferase that is presumably responsible for this synthetic activity. We show that expression of TVAG_258220 in a yeast strain lacking endogenous glycogen synthase activity is sufficient to restore glycogen accumulation. Furthermore, when TVAG_258220 is expressed in bacteria, the resulting recombinant protein has glycogen synthase activity in vitro, transferring glucose from either UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to glycogen and using both substrates with similar affinity. This protein is also able to transfer glucose from UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to maltose and longer oligomers of glucose but not to glucose itself. However, with these substrates, there is no evidence of processivity and sugar transfer is limited to between one and three glucose residues. Taken together with our earlier work on glycogen phosphorylase, we are now well positioned to define both how T. vaginalis synthesizes and utilizes glycogen, and how these processes are regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  6. The Effects of High Level Magnesium Dialysis/Substitution Fluid on Magnesium Homeostasis under Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychajlo Zakharchenko

    Full Text Available The requirements for magnesium (Mg supplementation increase under regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA because citrate acts by chelation of bivalent cations within the blood circuit. The level of magnesium in commercially available fluids for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT may not be sufficient to prevent hypomagnesemia.Patients (n = 45 on CRRT (2,000 ml/h, blood flow (Qb 100 ml/min with RCA modality (4% trisodium citrate using calcium free fluid with 0.75 mmol/l of Mg with additional magnesium substitution were observed after switch to the calcium-free fluid with magnesium concentration of 1.50 mmol/l (n = 42 and no extra magnesium replenishment. All patients had renal indications for CRRT, were treated with the same devices, filters and the same postfilter ionized calcium endpoint (<0.4 mmol/l of prefilter citrate dosage. Under the high level Mg fluid the Qb, dosages of citrate and CRRT were consequently escalated in 9h steps to test various settings.Median balance of Mg was -0.91 (-1.18 to -0.53 mmol/h with Mg 0.75 mmol/l and 0.2 (0.06-0.35 mmol/h when fluid with Mg 1.50 mmol/l was used. It was close to zero (0.02 (-0.12-0.18 mmol/h with higher blood flow and dosage of citrate, increased again to 0.15 (-0.11-0.25 mmol/h with 3,000 ml/h of high magnesium containing fluid (p<0.001. The arterial levels of Mg were mildly increased after the change for high level magnesium containing fluid (p<0.01.Compared to ordinary dialysis fluid the mildly hypermagnesemic fluid provided even balances and adequate levels within ordinary configurations of CRRT with RCA and without a need for extra magnesium replenishment.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01361581.

  7. Stereochemical course of enzyme-catalyzed aminopropyl transfer: spermidine synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullberg, D.W.; Orr, G.R.; Coward, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The R and S enantionmers of S-adenosyl-3-[ 2 H]3-(methylthio)-1-propylamine (decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine), previously synthesized in this laboratory, were incubated with [1,4- 2 H 4 ]-putrescine in the presence of spermidine synthase from E. coli. The resulting chiral [ 2 H 5 ]spermidines were isolated and converted to their N 1 ,N 7 -dibocspermidine-N 4 -(1S,4R)-camphanamides. The derivatives were analyzed by 500 MHz 1 H-NMR and the configuration of the chiral center assigned by correlation with the spectra of synthetic chiral [ 2 H 3 ]dibocspermidine camphanamide standards. The enzyme-catalyzed aminopropyl transfer was shown to occur with net retention of configuration, indicative of a double-displacement mechanism. This result concurs with that of a previous steady-state kinetics study of spermidine synthase isolated from E. coli, but contradicts the single-displacement mechanism suggested by a stereochemical analysis of chiral spermidines biosynthesized in E. coli treated with chirally deuterated methionines. It also indicates that this aminopropyltransferase is mechanistically distinct from the methyltransferases, which have been shown to act via a single-displacement mechanism (net inversion at -CH 3 ) in all cases studied to date

  8. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  9. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, Anna; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vincent C; Passi, Alberto

    2009-10-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in eukaryotic cells and addressed the question of HAS activity during intracellular protein trafficking. We prepared three cellular fractions: plasma membrane, cytosol (containing membrane proteins mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi), and nuclei. After incubation with UDP-sugar precursors, newly synthesized HA was quantified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides and high performance liquid chromatography. This new method measured HAS activity not only in the plasma membrane fraction but also in the cytosolic membranes. This new technique was used to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbeliferone, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin 1beta, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and tunicamycin on HAS activities. We found that HAS activity can be modulated by post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in HAS activity in the cytosolic membrane fraction after tunicamycin treatment. Since this compound is known to induce HA cable structures, this result links HAS activity alteration with the capability of the cell to promote HA cable formation.

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase 3: more than a namesake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayasam, Geetha Vani; Tulasi, Vamshi Krishna; Sodhi, Reena; Davis, Joseph Alex; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively acting multi-functional serine threonine kinase is involved in diverse physiological pathways ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, development and oncogenesis to neuroprotection. These diverse multiple functions attributed to GSK3 can be explained by variety of substrates like glycogen synthase, tau protein and beta catenin that are phosphorylated leading to their inactivation. GSK3 has been implicated in various diseases such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, Alzheimer's and bipolar disorder. GSK3 negatively regulates insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis and glucose homeostasis, and increased expression and activity of GSK3 has been reported in type II diabetics and obese animal models. Consequently, inhibitors of GSK3 have been demonstrated to have anti-diabetic effects in vitro and in animal models. However, inhibition of GSK3 poses a challenge as achieving selectivity of an over achieving kinase involved in various pathways with multiple substrates may lead to side effects and toxicity. The primary concern is developing inhibitors of GSK3 that are anti-diabetic but do not lead to up-regulation of oncogenes. The focus of this review is the recent advances and the challenges surrounding GSK3 as an anti-diabetic therapeutic target.

  11. Polyketide synthases from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotti, Hannu; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Arvas, Mikko; Teeri, Teemu H; Rischer, Heiko

    2015-11-01

    Coniine is a toxic alkaloid, the biosynthesis of which is not well understood. A possible route, supported by evidence from labelling experiments, involves a polyketide formed by the condensation of one acetyl-CoA and three malonyl-CoAs catalysed by a polyketide synthase (PKS). We isolated PKS genes or their fragments from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) by using random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and transcriptome analysis, and characterized three full-length enzymes by feeding different starter-CoAs in vitro. On the basis of our in vitro experiments, two of the three characterized PKS genes in poison hemlock encode chalcone synthases (CPKS1 and CPKS2), and one encodes a novel type of PKS (CPKS5). We show that CPKS5 kinetically favours butyryl-CoA as a starter-CoA in vitro. Our results suggest that CPKS5 is responsible for the initiation of coniine biosynthesis by catalysing the synthesis of the carbon backbone from one butyryl-CoA and two malonyl-CoAs. © 2015 FEBS.

  12. Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids as Potential Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hulcová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of well-known substances like glycogen synthase, tau-protein, and β-catenin. Recent studies have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer´s disease, bipolar disorder, stroke, more than 15 types of cancer, and diabetes. GSK-3β is one of the most attractive targets for medicinal chemists in the discovery, design, and synthesis of new selective potent inhibitors. In the current study, twenty-eight Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of various structural types were studied for their potency to inhibit GSK-3β. Promising results have been demonstrated by alkaloids of the homolycorine-{9-O-demethylhomolycorine (IC50 = 30.00 ± 0.71 µM, masonine (IC50 = 27.81 ± 0.01 μM}, and lycorine-types {caranine (IC50 = 30.75 ± 0.04 μM}.

  13. The crystal structure of human GDP-L-fucose synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Lihua; Li, Jian; Xu, Chunyan; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yahui; Ji, Chaoneng; He, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    Human GDP-l-fucose synthase, also known as FX protein, synthesizes GDP-l-fucose from its substrate GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose. The reaction involves epimerization at both C-3 and C-5 followed by an NADPH-dependent reduction of the carbonyl at C-4. In this paper, the first crystal structure of human FX protein was determined at 2.37 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal structure contains four molecules which form two homodimers. Each molecule consists of two domains, a Rossmann-fold NADPH-binding motif and a carboxyl terminal domain. Compared with the Escherichia coli GDP-l-fucose synthase, the overall structures of these two enzymes have four major differences. There are four loops in the structure of human FX protein corresponding to two α-helices and two β-sheets in that of the E. coli enzyme. Besides, there are seven different amino acid residues binding with NAPDH comparing human FX protein with that from E. coli. The structure of human FX reveals the key catalytic residues and could be useful for the design of drugs for the treatment of inflammation, auto-immune diseases, and possibly certain types of cancer.

  14. Prostaglandin E(2) synthase inhibition as a therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Jitesh P; Srivastava, Punit K; Dev, Rishabh; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-07-01

    Most NSAIDs function by inhibiting biosynthesis of PGE(2) by inhibition of COX-1 and/or COX-2. Since COX-1 has a protective function in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), non-selective inhibition of both cycloxy genases leads to moderate to severe gastro-intestinal intolerance. Attempts to identify selective inhibitors of COX-2, led to the identification of celecoxib and rofecoxib. However, long-term use of these drugs has serious adverse effects of sudden myocardial infarction and thrombosis. Drug-mediated imbalance in the levels of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) with a bias towards TXA(2) may be the primary reason for these events. This resulted in the drugs being withdrawn from the market, leaving a need for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, the focus of research has shifted to enzymes downstream of COX in the prosta glandin biosynthetic pathway such as prostaglandin E(2) synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) specifically isomerizes PGH(2) to PGE(2), under inflammatory conditions. In this review, we examine the biology of mPGES-1 and its role in disease. Progress in designing molecules that can selectively inhibit mPGES-1 is reviewed. mPGES-1 has the potential to be a target for anti-inflammatory therapy, devoid of adverse GIT and cardiac effects and warrants further investigation.

  15. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Seldin, M.F. [Univ. of California Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Health-related quality of life in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome randomized between clomifene citrate plus metformin or clomifene citrate plus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; van Wely, M; Lambalk, C B; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2012-11-01

    What is the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomifene citrate (CC) combined with metformin compared with those using CC combined with placebo? Overall quality of life in women with PCOS treated with CC plus metformin was significantly lower than in women treated with CC plus placebo. There are no data on HRQoL in adult women who receive ovulation induction with the purpose of conceiving. Women with PCOS have higher scores on depression and anxiety scales and lower QoL scores than women without PCOS. This study was a secondary analysis of a multi-centre RCT completed between June 2001 and May 2004. The randomization was stratified per centre, and the centres received blinded, numbered containers with medication. There were172 women available for the HRQoL assessment: 85 were allocated to metformin and 87 were allocated to placebo. The Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL), a standard self-administered questionnaire, was used to assess physical symptoms, psychological distress, activity levels and overall HRQoL. In the intention to treat analysis, we found differences between the treatment groups with respect to physical symptoms and overall HRQoL. Physical well-being was significantly impaired in women allocated to metformin but not in women allocated to placebo. The increase in physical symptoms in the metformin group was caused by side-effects typical of metformin, and was most pronounced at Week 1 (mean difference 12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 8-16] and still apparent at Week 16 [mean difference 7 (95% CI 2-12]. Overall well-being was significantly impaired in the metformin group compared with the placebo group [mean difference 13 (95% CI 6-20)]. RSCL measurements were available only for three quarters of the participants. Although the number of missing questionnaires and the baseline measurements, were comparable between the treatment groups, some form of selection bias

  17. Effect of clomiphene citrate on uterine hemodynamics in women with unexplained infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Eman Omran, Mohamed El-Sharkawy, Akmal El-Mazny, Mohamed Hammam, Wafaa Ramadan, Dina Latif, Dalia Samir, Sherine Sobh Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of clomiphene citrate on uterine artery blood flow using pulsed Doppler and endometrial and subendometrial micro vascularization using 3D power Doppler in unexplained infertility. Patients and methods: In a prospective observational study at a university teaching hospital, the mid-luteal (peri-implantation endometrial thickness and volume, uterine artery pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI, endometrial and subendometrial vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI, and vascularization flow index (VFI, and serum estradiol and progesterone levels were compared between natural and clomiphene citrate stimulated cycles in the same group of 50 patients with unexplained infertility. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test to compare different study variables. Results: The primary outcome, which was the endometrial flow index, was significantly lower in the stimulated cycles (mean ± SD: 23.89±7.96 vs 27.49±8.73, mean difference (95% CI: -3.6 (-2, -5.9; P=0.03. The mean ± SD of endometrial thickness (10.92±3.04 vs 12.46±3.08 mm; P=0.01, volume (4.57±1.28 vs 5.26±1.32 cm3; P=0.009, endometrial VI (0.86±0.15 vs 0.95%±0.21%; P=0.02, VFI (0.25±0.08 vs 0.31±0.12; P=0.004, subendometrial VI (1.93±0.68 vs 2.26%±0.75%; P=0.02, FI (26.81±9.16 vs 30.73±9.87; P=0.04, and VFI (0.68±0.18 vs 0.79±0.21; P=0.006 were significantly lower in the stimulated cycles. However, there were no significant differences in the uterine artery PI (P=0.12 and RI (P=0.08 or serum estradiol (P=0.54 and progesterone (P=0.37 levels between natural and stimulated cycles. Conclusion: Peri-implantation endometrial perfusion is significantly lower in clomiphene citrate stimulated

  18. Selectivity of the surface binding site (SBS) on barley starch synthase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Palcic, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Starch synthase I (SSI) from various sources has been shown to preferentially elongate branch chains of degree of polymerisation (DP) from 6–7 to produce chains of DP 8–12. In the recently determined crystal structure of barley starch synthase I (HvSSI) a so-called surface binding site (SBS) was ...

  19. Inhibition of the ATP Synthase Eliminates the Intrinsic Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus towards Polymyxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Nøhr-Meldgaard, Katrine; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph

    2017-01-01

    , linezolid, daptomycin, and oxacillin were unchanged. ATP synthase activity is known to be inhibited by oligomycin A, and the presence of this compound increased polymyxin B-mediated killing of S. aureus Our results demonstrate that the ATP synthase contributes to intrinsic resistance of S. aureus towards...

  20. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...