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Sample records for genus tribolium tenebrionidae

  1. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

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    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  2. Toxicities of azadirachtin and polychlorinated petroleum Hydrocarbon against resist and susceptible strains of tribolium castaneum (coleoptera: tenebrionidae) adults

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    Hussain, R.; Riaz, M.; Riaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The LC/sub 50/ values for malathion-resistant (PAK) and organo-50 phosphate-susceptible (FSS-II) strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adult beetles were determined through filter paper impregnated method against azadirachtin (Nimbokil 60 EC) and polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon (Tenekil 100 EC). The LC values of these insecticides were worked out as 12830 and 50 9331 ppm for azadirachtin and 5148 and 4047 ppm for Tenekil 100 EC against PAK and FSS-II strains, respectively. The results revealed that polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon was more toxic than the azadirachtin. Furthermore, both the insecticides were equally toxic to the adult beetles of T. castaneum as the difference was non-significant because of overlapping 95% FLs to LC./sub 50/. (author)

  3. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

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    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  4. Identification, cloning, and expression of a GHF9 cellulase from Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of sequenced insect genomes has allowed for discovery and functional characterization of novel genes and proteins. We report use of the Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (red flour beetle) genome to identify, clone, express, and characterize a novel endo-ß-1,4-glucanase we named TcEG1 (...

  5. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp. Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. LANCELLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  6. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

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    Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Farash, Bibi Razieh; Teimoori, Salma; Hasanpour, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran. The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene. Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database. Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  7. EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FORMULATIONS ON THE ADULT INSECT TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (COL., TENEBRIONIDAE

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    Aleksandra Popovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored product pests such as Tribolium castaneum ( Herbst, 1979 are a major problem. Adult insects were obtained from laboratory cultures maintained in the dark in incubators at 25 1C and 70 80percent r.h., reared on wheat flour and fed with flour disks containing a known concentration of essential oil of 9 plants. The chemical components of essential oil of 3 plants, collected on the area of Montenegro, were also identified using GC-MS analysis. The results of insecticidal effect of essential oils were discussed. Also, mortality rate of adult insects was tested. In this research, the essential oils of C. glandulosa which were rich in monoterpene alcohols carvacrol and contained ketonic component showed strong insecticidal and fumigant activity against adults of T. castaneum. Less toxic effect showed essential oils of Satureja montana which had a lower carvacrol and ketonic content. On the other hand, essential oils of Teucrium polium which did not contain ketonic component did not show any activity. Therefore, it was observed that essential oils of C. glandulosa with concentration of 1.14% showed powerful toxic and repellent effect, with very high mortality rate after 24h (56,67%.

  8. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae Beetles from Iran

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    Mahsa Sadat Makki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010–2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52% of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12–14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, includ­ing the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97–100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  9. Egg detection and control of tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) in powdered stored food products

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    Dotse, Raphael Djoe Nuseli

    2017-07-01

    For safety and shelf-stability of powdered food products, it is important to detect and deal with any infestation during processing. The focus of this study was to detect the presence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleopera: Tenebionidae) eggs in powdered food products, and where present, kill them using gamma irradiation. The study was carried out at the Radiation Entomology and Pest management Centre (REPMC), Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Basic reproductive biology of T. castaneum in four different powdered food media (Wheat flour, Roasted corn powder, also known as ‘Tombrown’ powder, Cocoa powder and Fish powder) was studied. Seven (7) different stains (Bromocresol green, Malachite green, Carbol fuchsin, Basic fuchsin, Orange ‘G”, Gentian Violet and Crystal Violet) were evaluated for their ability to differentially stain T. castaneum eggs and background food particles using the American Association of Cereal Chemist, AACC (2000) staining technique. To control any egg infestation, the effect of gamma irradiation at 200Gy on egg hatchability was evaluated. Results indicate that egg production by T. casteneum within a three day period on Wheat flour, Cocoa powder and Tombrown was not significantly different but was significantly lower on fish powder (P = 0.255). Hatchability of T. castaneum eggs in the four food media was not significantly different (P = 0.046). Gamma irradiation at 200Gy was effective in controlling egg infestation by inhibiting hatchability. Bromocresol green and Malachite green differentially stained the eggs in all the four food products. The protocols for Bromocresol green and Malachite green are effective for detection of T. castaneum eggs in powdered foods and can be incorporated into production processes. Where insect eggs are detected and none of the processing steps can eliminate them, irradiation of the packaged products at 200Gy will kill any eggs and maintain the wholesomeness and safety of the product on the shelf

  10. Predatory Aptness of Ants Against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) in Wheat Flour

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    Shaheen, F.A.; Parveen, S.; Qadir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum is one of the most destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% larval consumption. Pupal stage was the highest vulnerable stage to the ant predation and was extremely predated by D. labiatus collected from forest habitats. The lowest predation was observed at larval stage by forest population of M. minimum (1.66%) that was significantly different from all the susceptible stages of RFB. These results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB. (author)

  11. Influence of acclimation to sublethal temperature on heat tolerance of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae exposed to 50°C.

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    Jianhua Lü

    Full Text Available Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae is a serious pest of stored agricultural products and one of the most common insects found in grain storage and food processing facilities. Heat treatment has been revisited to control stored-product insects as a potential alternative to methyl bromide for disinfesting mills and food-processing facilities. The influence of acclimation of T. castaneum adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs to sublethal temperatures of 36, and 42°C on their subsequent susceptibility to lethal temperature of 50°C was respectively investigated. The acclimation of T. castaneum eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults to 36, and 42°C significantly decreased their subsequent susceptibility to lethal high temperature of 50°C. The influence of acclimation to 42°C was significantly greater than that of acclimation to 36°C. The most influential acclimation times at 42°C for mortality of T. castaneum eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were 15, 5, 5, and 5 h, respectively, and their corresponding mortality were 41.24, 5.59, 20.19, and 4.48%, compared to 100% mortality of T. castaneum eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults without acclimation when exposed to 50°C for 35 min, respectively. The present results have important implications for developing successful heat treatment protocols to control T. castaneum, improving disinfestation effectiveness of heat treatment and understanding insect response to high temperatures.

  12. Insecticidal and Repellant Activities of Four indigenous medicinal Plants Against Stored Grain Pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae

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    S.R.Pugazhvendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of four indigenous plants for their insecticidal and repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Methods: Four widely distributed plants (Artemisia vulgaris, Sphaeranthus indicus, Tephrosia purpurea, and Prosopis juliflora were sequentially extracted with increasing polarity of organic solvents such as, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum by adapting the standard protocol in in vitro. Results: Data pertaining to the present investigation clearly revealed that the percentage of mortality was maximum in(72 hr 58% hexane extract of A. vulgaris, chloroform extract (72 hr 34% of S. indicus, and ethyl acetate extract (72 hr 52% of T. purpurea. Repellant activities of plant extracts were tested against T. castaneum, repellent activity was maximum in hexane extract of P. fuliflora, ( EPI value for P. fuliflora in 2.5% was – 0.11 and – 0.33 at 1hr and 6 hr respectively chloroform extract of T. purpurea (2.5% was -0.17 at 6 hr and ethyl acetate extract of S. indicus (2.5% was -0.65 at 6 hr against T. castaneum. Conclusions: The present work for botanical products to control the insect pest of stored grain Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.These results suggest the presence of actives toxic substances acting after consumption or topical application.

  13. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  14. Lethal dose determination of Cobalt-60 for adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)

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    Farias, Anderson Aparecido; Potenza, Marcos Roberto; Reis, Fabricio Caldeira; Sato, Mario Eidi

    2015-01-01

    The insect infestation is a major problem in the grain storage. The pesticides are most widely used method for disinfestation and prevention. Treatment with gamma irradiation may increase the product shelf life without encountering formation of waste can be used in packaged foods and ready for commercialization, representing an important alternative to the use of pesticides. This study aimed to determine the immediate lethal dose of gamma radiation for adults of Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus. The study was conducted in the Instituto Biologico and the radiations held at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo city, using a multipurpose irradiator Cobalt-60 with 3.31 dose rate and 3.23 kGy in months of November/2014 and January/2015. Each experimental unit consisted of 20 adult insects, confined in a 10 mL polyethylene container. The experimental plots in number 10 per dose were subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.00; 2:50 and 3.00 kGy. Mortality was assessed within two to four hours after irradiation. The data were submitted to Probit analysis, using the POLO PLUS program. The LD90 to control 90% (LD90) to control adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum were 2.73 and 2.91 kGy, respectively. (author)

  15. Lethal dose determination of Cobalt-60 for adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)

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    Farias, Anderson Aparecido, E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br [Instituto Biologico, Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Protecao Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos Roberto, E-mail: fcreis@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, Fabricio Caldeira; Sato, Mario Eidi, E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Instituto Biologico, Centro Experimental Central, Laboratorio de Acarologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The insect infestation is a major problem in the grain storage. The pesticides are most widely used method for disinfestation and prevention. Treatment with gamma irradiation may increase the product shelf life without encountering formation of waste can be used in packaged foods and ready for commercialization, representing an important alternative to the use of pesticides. This study aimed to determine the immediate lethal dose of gamma radiation for adults of Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus. The study was conducted in the Instituto Biologico and the radiations held at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo city, using a multipurpose irradiator Cobalt-60 with 3.31 dose rate and 3.23 kGy in months of November/2014 and January/2015. Each experimental unit consisted of 20 adult insects, confined in a 10 mL polyethylene container. The experimental plots in number 10 per dose were subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.00; 2:50 and 3.00 kGy. Mortality was assessed within two to four hours after irradiation. The data were submitted to Probit analysis, using the POLO PLUS program. The LD90 to control 90% (LD90) to control adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum were 2.73 and 2.91 kGy, respectively. (author)

  16. Insecticidal and repellant activities of plants oil against stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae

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    S.R.Pugazhvendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of five plants oil for their insecticidal and repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Method: Five plants oil Citrus autantium, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Gaultheria fragrantissima, Lavandula officinalis, and Ocimum sanctum were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against T. castaneum by adapting the standard protocol in vitro. Results: In Tulsi oil showed powerful repellent against T. castaneum beetles at both the concentration and this property can be clearly seen from the values at 5毺 1 (-0.60 and -0.73 in 1h and 6hr respectively and 10毺 1 (-0.56 and -0.81 in 1h and 6h respectively. Tulsi oil had more repelling property than other oil tested here against T. castaneum. Maximum percentage of mortality (76 and 92% at 48h and 72 hours after treatment respectively in Tulsi oil. Wintergreen oil showed 86% mortality at 72 hours after treatment. Conclusions: The present work for botanical products to control the insect pest of stored grain T. castaneum .These results suggest the presence of actives principles in the plant oils. Further exploration of active principles and their structural elucidations are underway.

  17. Repellent and Fumigant Activities of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC Essential Oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

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    Haider, S Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oils of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC collected from three different habitats (Gothing, Burphu and Glacier) of Uttarakhand Himalayas, India named as TNG, TNB and TNM respectively, were investigated against the adults of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Among the three samples tested, TNG was found to more potent exhibiting more repellent effect towards the insects and with LC50 values by fumigant bioassay were 13.23 and 8.32 µl per 0.25 L air at 24 and 48 h exposure of insects to the essential oil respectively. In between other two oil samples, TNM was superior in potency showed LC50 value of 14.22 (24 h) & 8.82 µl per 0.25 L air (48 h). During in vivo study all the essential oil samples significantly protected 500 g of wheat grains for 6 months from insect infestation as compared to non fumigated grains and order of efficacy was TNG>TNM>TNB. There were no side effects of essential oils on germination rate of grains (essential oil of T. nubigenum can be explored as novel natural fumigants for the control of stored product insects.

  18. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Nutritional Indices of Larval and Adults Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Moharramipour, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study antifeedant effect of different doses of gamma radiation as a controlling safe method on flour weevil, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae and adult was studied. Doses of 100, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy of gamma radiation were used and after 72 hours, nutritional indices were evaluated. The relative growth rate, relative consumption rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and feeding deterrence index as nutritional indices were evaluated. Treatments were assessed by flour wheat disc at 27±1 d egree C and 65 p ercent h umidity in a dark condition. The results showed that the relative growth rate of flour weevil larvae and adults decreased significantly (P<0.05) by gamma radiation and the severity of this reduction in larvae was higher than the adults. Although the relative growth rates decreased in adults, this rate in doses of 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy showed no significant difference. The relative food consumption rate also decreased with the gamma radiation and its value found to be inversely proportional to the dose radiation. Our experiments showed that the use of gamma radiation exposure to 800 Gy had no significant effect on the efficiency of conversion of ingested food of larvae and reduction was observed only when the gamma radiation was used in 1000 Gy. The feeding deterrence effect of gamma radiation, especially on the larvae was high but no significant difference between doses of 100 to 800 Gy was observed. The results showed that gamma radiation that induces antifeedant effect can be applied as an effective method in control of T. castaneum.

  19. Residual efficacy of methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae at different temperatures on varnished wood, concrete, and wheat

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    The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (Diacon II), was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed on varnished wood or unsealed concrete treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these surfaces were stored...

  20. The genus Alphitobius Stephens (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alphitobiini in Africa and adjacent islands

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    Wolfgang Schawaller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available All species of the genus Alphitobius Stephens, 1829 (Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917, subfamily Tenebrioninae Latreille, 1802 from Africa and adjacent islands are revised. New species: Alphitobius capitaneus sp. n. from Kenya. New synonyms: Cryptops ulomoides Solier, 1851, syn. n. of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1796; Alphitobius rufus Ardoin, 1976, syn. n. of Alphitobius hobohmi Koch, 1953; Peltoides (Micropeltoides crypticoides Pic, 1916, syn. n. of Peltoides (Micropeltoides opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871, comb. n. Homonym: Alphitobius ulomoides Koch, 1953 = Alphitobius arnoldi nom. n. New combinations from Alphitobius: Ulomoides basilewskyi (Ardoin, 1969, comb. n.; Peltoides (Micropeltoides opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871, comb. n. Figures of all examined species are added and a species key is compiled.

  1. Review of tenebrionid beetles of the genus Calyptopsis Solier, 1835 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae of the Norther Caucasus

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    M. V. Nabozhenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the genus Calyptopsis Solier, 1835 of the Northern Caucasus is given in the paper. Now from territory of Dagestan 2 species and 1 subspecies, described here are known: C. bogatchoevi sp. n., C. lezginica sp. n., C. pulchella avarica subsp. n. The name C. daghestanica Abdurakhmanov, 1988 is nomen nudum. The find of transcaucasian species C. caucasica (Kraatz, 1865 in northeast of Chechen republic is considered doubtful. The key to the species of Calyptopsis of the Northern Caucasus is given.

  2. Effects of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils on survival stored cereal pests: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Trogoderma granarium (Everst (Coleoptera, Dermestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Slimane Badreddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the chemical components and toxicity of Artemisia herba-alba (A. herbaalba essential oil against two major stored cereal pests, Tribolium castaneum (T. castaneum and Trogoderma granarium (T. granarium. Methods: Two bioassay actions were tasted: repellent and fumigant actions against adult and larvae, respectively, to assess the effect of A. herba-alba essential oil. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses of the essential oil contained β-thujone (12.50%, α-thujone (8.78%, sabinyl acetate (8.56%, terpinene-4-ol (8.51%, α-terpineol (3.35%, 1,8-cineol (5.45%, γ-terpene (4.82%, camphor (4.52%, dimethylethylbenzene (3.93% and α-terpinene (3.35% as the major components. Fumigant toxicity tests showed that A. herba-alba oil was more toxic than T. granarium (LC50 = 2.09 mg/mL, LC90 = 4.12 mg/mL and T. castaneum (LC50 = 6.39 mg/mL, LC90 = 10.10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study has highlighted a bioinsecticide activity of A. herba-alba against two insect pests of stored foodstuffs (T. castaneum and T. granarium. The Artemisia essential oil offers an interesting potential insecticide that could be studied more deeply to isolate and identify the active substances, to study their physiological impact on other insects

  3. Phosphine Resistance in Adult and Immature Life Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Populations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Hosoda, E

    2016-12-01

    Phosphine resistance in stored-product insects occurs worldwide and is a major challenge to continued effective use of this fumigant. We determined resistance frequencies and levels of resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella collected from California almond storage and processing facilities. Discriminating doses of phosphine were established for eggs and larvae of P. interpunctella and eggs of T. castaneum using laboratory susceptible strains of the two species. For T. castaneum and P. interpunctella eggs, discriminating doses were 62.4 and 107.8 ppm, respectively, over a 3-d fumigation period, and for P. interpunctella larvae, discriminating dose was 98.7 ppm over a 20-h fumigation period. Discriminating dose tests on adults and eggs showed that 4 out of 11 T. castaneum populations tested had resistance frequencies that ranged from 42 to 100% for adults and 54 to 100% for eggs. LC99 values for the susceptible and the most resistant adults of T. castaneum were 7.4 and 356.9 ppm over 3 d, respectively. LC99 values for T. castaneum eggs were 51.5 and 653.9 ppm, respectively. Based on adult data, the most resistant T. castaneum beetle population was 49× more resistant than the susceptible strain. Phosphine resistance frequencies in P. interpunctella eggs ranged from 4 to 20%. Results show phosphine resistance is present in both species in California. Future research will investigate phosphine resistance over a wider geographic area. In addition, the history of pest management practices in facilities where insects tested in this study originated will be determined in order to develop phosphine resistance management strategies for California almond storage and processing facilities. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Susceptibility of different life stage of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to cold treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the efficacy of different exposure intervals (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d) on different life stages (adults, pupae, larvae, eggs) of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the confused flour beetle, and O. surinamensis (...

  5. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to three, 24 hour heat treatments using forced-air gas heaters. Two sanitation levels, dusting of wheat flour an...

  6. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T...

  7. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Whitesell, Matthew E; Wade, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution.

  8. Revision of the genus Odocnemis Allard, 1876 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Helopini) from Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran with observations on feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabozhenko, Maxim; Keskin, Bekir

    2016-12-01

    A revision of the genus Odocnemis of Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran is presented. Thirty species and four subspecies are distributed in this territory. The following 20 new species and subspecies are described: O. dichroa sp. n., O. allardi sp. n., O. merkli sp. n., O. seducta sp. n., O. aegaeica sp. n., O. euritopica sp. n., O. subtuberculigera sp. n., O. subtuberculigera thracica subsp. n., O. erseni sp. n., O. molecularica sp. n., O. shokhini sp. n., O. inornata sp. n., O. altimontana sp. n., O. amanosica sp. n., O. cordiformis sp. n., O. kakunini sp. n. O. evestigata sp. n., O. torosica sp. n., O. torosica subangulata subsp. n., Odocnemis hakkariensis sp. n. The name of the genus is feminine, therefore all species names are transformed from masculine to feminine. Almost all new taxa are described from Turkey; O. amanosica sp. n. is additionally recorded from Syria, O. allardi sp. n.-from Armenia, Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan) and Iran, O. kakunini sp. n. from Iran. New synonymies are established: Odocnemis anatolica (Pic, 1899) = Stenomax korbi Reitter 1902: 219, syn.n.; Odocnemis recticollis (Allard, 1877) = Stenomax kurdistanus Reitter, 1902: 221, syn.n.; Odocnemis punctata Allard, 1876 = Cylindronotus (Odocnemis) pseudoclarus Reitter, 1922, syn.n. The following lectotypes are designated: Helops (Odocnemis) anatolicus Pic, 1899, Helops (Stenomax) seriegranatus Seidlitz, 1896, Cylindronotus (Odocnemis) opertus Reitter, 1922, Stenomax recticollis Allard, 1876, Odocnemis punctata Allard, 1876, Helops (Odocnemis) protinus Reitter in Bodemeyer, 1900. Holotypes and paratypes of all other Turkish species of Odocnemis are studied. Two new combinations are established: Odocnemis gloriosa (Faldermann, 1837), comb. n. (from Nalassus Mulsant, 1854) and Odocnemis terminasianae (Nabozhenko, 2011), comb. n. (from Armenohelops Nabozhenko, 2002). Five species O. bosphoranus (Allard, 1876), O. amasiae (Seidlitz, 1896), O. scutellatus (Reitter, 1902), O. fundator (Reitter, 1908

  9. Distribución geográfica del género Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville, 1834 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: una aproximación biogeográfica Geographical distribution of the genus Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville, 1834 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: a biogeographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME PIZARRO-ARAYA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis de parsimonia de endemismo para el género Gyriosomus, taxón monofilético, erémico y endémico del norte de Chile. En este trabajo se evalúa (i si los patrones de distribución de las especies de Gyriosomus están determinados por la heterogeneidad del hábitat y (ii si que las discontinuidades distribucionales de los taxa reflejan áreas de endemismo. Para ello se determinaron áreas de endemismo para las especies de Gyriosomus, se relacionaron con formaciones vegetacionales, y se establecieron las relaciones biogeográficas entre los distintos ecosistemas descritos para el norte de Chile. El área de estudio correspondió a la distribución del género y fue dividida en cuadrículas de un cuarto de grado de latitud y medio grado de longitud; los datos de presencia o ausencia de las especies se registraron en una matriz, la que se analizó mediante los programas NONA 2.0 y Winclada. Un árbol de consenso estricto permitió establecer para Gyriosomus, un patrón de áreas anidadas, donde se reconocieron dos áreas de endemismo en los ecosistemas costeros de Paposo y Carrizal Bajo. Los ecosistemas de desierto costero de Huasco y Matorral estepario costero presentaron la mayor riqueza de especies de Gyriosomus. Un cladograma reveló una divergencia en el componente faunístico en dos unidades biogeográficas, el desierto costero y matorral estepario. Los resultados de este trabajo complementados con una reconstrucción filogenética del género podrían ser utilizados para entender los eventos vicariantes que explicarían las divergencias evolutivas de GyriosomusA parsimony analysis of areas of endemism for the monophyletic genus Gyriosomus, an eremic and endemic element of the northern coast of Chile, was performed. We tested that: (i distributional patterns of Gyriosomus species are determined by environmental heterogeneity, and that (ii discontinuities in the distribution of Gyriosomus species will reflect areas of

  10. Activity of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) essential oils against the grain storage pest Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum.

  11. Fecundity of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum adults after exposure to deltamethrin packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, are packaging invaders and will exploit any rip, tear, or defect in packaged food and infest the contents. Impregnating packaging materials with insecticides is a novel technologic...

  12. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-04-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This catalogue includes all valid family-group (8 subfamilies, 52 tribes, 14 subtribes, genus-group (349 genera, 86 subgenera, and species-group names (2825 species, 215 subspecies of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae known to occur in North America1 and their available synonyms. Data on extant, subfossil and fossil taxa are given. For each name the author and year and page number of the description are provided, with additional information (e.g., type species for genus-group names, author of synonymies for invalid taxa depending on the taxon rank. Several new nomenclatural acts are included. One new genus, Lepidocnemeplatia Bousquet and Bouchard, is described. Spelaebiosis Bousquet and Bouchard [for Ardoinia Özdikmen, 2004], Blapstinus marcuzzii Aalbu [for Blapstinus kulzeri Marcuzzi, 1977], and Hymenorus campbelli Bouchard [for Hymenorus oculatus Doyen and Poinar, 1994] are proposed as new replacement names. Supporting evidence is provided for the conservation of usage of Tarpela micans (Fabricius, 1798 nomen protectum over Tarpela vittata (Olivier, 1793 nomen oblitum. The generic names Psilomera Motschulsky, 1870 [= Stenomorpha Solier, 1836], Steneleodes Blaisdell, 1909 [= Xysta Eschscholtz, 1829], Ooconibius Casey, 1895 and Euconibius Casey, 1895 [= Conibius LeConte, 1851] are new synonyms (valid names in square brackets. The following 127 new synonymies of species-group names, listed in their original combination, are proposed (valid names, in their current combination, placed in square brackets: Bothrasida mucorea Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus guanajuatensis (Champion, 1884]; Parasida zacualpanicola Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus asidoides Solier, 1836]; Stenosides kulzeri Pallister, 1954, Stenosides bisinuatus Pallister, 1954, and Parasida trisinuata Pallister, 1954 [= Pelecyphorus dispar (Champion, 1892]; Asida favosa Champion, 1884 and Asida similata Champion, 1884 [= Pelecyphorus fallax (Champion, 1884]; Ologlyptus bicarinatus

  14. Atypical centrioles are present in Tribolium sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, E L; Jo, Kyoung; Ha, Andrew; Royfman, Rachel; Zinn, Ashtyn; Krishnamurthy, Malathi; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2017-03-01

    Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster , we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote. Whether the sperm of other insects has a second centriolar structure is unknown. Here, we characterized spermiogenesis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Electron microscopy suggests that Tribolium has one microtubule-based centriole at the tip of the axoneme and a structure similar to the PCL, which lacks microtubules and lies in a cytoplasmic invagination of the nucleus. Immunostaining against the orthologue of the centriole/PCL protein, Ana1, also recognizes two centrioles near the nucleus during spermiogenesis: one that is microtubule-based at the tip of the axoneme, suggesting it is the centriole; and another that is more proximal and appears during early spermiogenesis, suggesting it is the PCL. Together, these findings suggest that Tribolium sperm has one microtubule-based centriole and one microtubule-lacking centriole. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Effect of combination of gamma radiation and essential oil from perovskia atriplicifolia on mortality of tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Moharramipour, S.; Ardakani, M.R.; Mozdarani, H.

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to find a natural and inexpensive method to control the stored-product pests, the effect of combination of gamma radiation and essential oil from Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) on the adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was investigated. Experiments were carried out at 27±l d eg C and 65±5% R. H. under dark condition. Two experimental regimes were designed: 1) irradiation of fumigated adults 2)fumigation of irradiated adults. In combination experiments, mortality was assessed 14 days after the first treatment. The results showed significant synergistic effect of gamma radiation with essential oil on adults of T. castaneum (1-7 days old). Gamma irradiation at dosage 100 Gy, alone caused 12.5% mortality on T. castaneum but when these irradiated insects were treated by 7.66 μ1/1 air of P. atriplicifolia oil 7 days after irradiation, (caused 6.25% mortality alone) mortality percent reached 32.5%. These results provide the basis for successful use of gamma radiation in the presence of the essential oil for management of T. castaneum.

  16. Mobility of adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored products represent an enormous economic output, but insects regularly immigrate into stored products from the surrounding landscape throughout the post-harvest supply chain. Long-lasting insecticide netting (LLIN), which usually contains an impregnated pyrethroid, has been used as part of a s...

  17. Toxicidade da combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina sob diferentes temperaturas para Tribolium castaneum Toxicity of the carbon dioxide and phosphine combination to Tribolium castaneum under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo W. S. Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a toxicidade da combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina, para os estágios de desenvolvimento de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. A toxicidade da combinação de 5% de dióxido de carbono e 1 g m-3 de fosfina para os estágios de ovo, larvas de 5, 10 e 15 dias, pupa e adulto de T. castaneum, foi estudada nas temperaturas de 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 °C, por meio de estimativas dos tempos de exposição letais para 50 e 95% dos insetos (TL50 e TL95. Curvas tempo-resposta foram estabelecidas mediante bioensaios com períodos crescentes de exposição à combinação do dióxido de carbono com a fosfina. Observou-se que os TL50 e TL95 reduziram com a elevação da temperatura em todos os estágios de T. castaneum avaliados. O estágio de larva de cinco dias foi a mais susceptível à combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina. De acordo com os resultados, a combinação do dióxido de carbono com a fosfina é alternativa potencial para diminuir a quantidade de fosfina aplicada em produtos armazenados, por apresentar alta toxicidade para todos os estágios de T. castaneum sob diferentes temperaturas.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of temperature on the toxicity of the carbon dioxide-phosphine combination for the developmental stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The toxicity of combination of 5% carbon dioxide and 1 g m-3 phosphine in the developmental stages of egg, larvae of 5, 10 and 15 days, pupae and adult of T. castaneum was studied under the temperatures of 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C, through the estimation of lethal insect exposure times of 50 and 95% (LT50 and LT95. For that, time-response curves were established through bioassays with increasing periods of exposure to the combination of carbon dioxide and phosphine. A reduction of LT50 and LT95 was observed with temperature increase in all

  18. The Tenebrionidae of California: A Time Sensitive Snapshot Assessment

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    Rolf Aalbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to a diversity of habitats and its geologic history, the US state of California hosts a spectacular assemblage of darkling beetle species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A “snapshot” of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  19. The tenebrionidae of california: a time sensitive snapshot assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbu, Rolf L; Smith, Aaron D

    2014-01-01

    DUE TO A DIVERSITY OF HABITATS AND ITS GEOLOGIC HISTORY, THE US STATE OF CALIFORNIA HOSTS A SPECTACULAR ASSEMBLAGE OF DARKLING BEETLE SPECIES (COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae). In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A "snapshot" of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  20. Biochemical abnormalities induced by abamectin in sixth instar larvae of the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum (herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2014-01-01

    The sub lethal effects of abamectin (Sure 1.8 EC) were studied on malathion-resistant (PAK) and organophosphate susceptible (FSS-II) strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae in the laboratory. The objective was to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, soluble protein and FAA between strains and among concentrations. Abamectin, at LC and LC , changed the activities 10 20/levels of TE, CE, AcP, total protein and FAA in the larvae of both the strains. The activities of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and AkP remained non-significant at both doses in the two strains. In PAK strain larvae, the TE activity was inhibited with depletion of total protein contents and elevation of FAA contents. In FSS-II larvae, the effect of abamectin on levels of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, AkP, total protein and soluble protein remained non-significant. The activities of TE and AcP were reduced at both doses, while activities/levels of CE reduced at LC and FAA increased 10 at LC . It is concluded that abamectin affected the overall body 20 functioning of PAK strain more as compared to FSS-II strain considering disturbances caused in the levels/activities of biochemical components. (author)

  1. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability...... to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example...

  2. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richards, S.; Jindra, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 452, č. 7190 (2008), s. 949-955 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Tribolium castaneum * genome * sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 31.434, year: 2008

  3. Attractiveness of essential oils of three Cymbopogon species to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior bioassays were conducted in the laboratory (23 ± 1°C and 50 ± 5% r.h. using the olfactometer to determine the effects of essential oils of three plant species in the Cymbopogon genus (Lemongrass, Cymbopogon nervatus, C. proximus and C. schoenanthus, on adults of Tribolium castaneum. The effect of essential oils was compared to a commercial biopesticide based on azadirachtin at three concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01%. The results showed that all essential oils and the azadirachtin-based biopesticide had significant (p <0.05 repellent effects on T. castaneum adults at all tested concentrations, except C. proximus essential oil which showed a neutral effect at the lowest concentration. The highest concentrations of the essential oils of C. nervatus and C. proximus had significantly stronger repellent effects (p <0.05 than the lowest concentration. At the concentrations of 0.0001 and 0.001% all tested essential oils and azadirachtin showed a similar repellent effect without statistically significant difference, whereas the oil of C. nervatus had the highest repellent effect on adults of T. castaneum at the 0.01% concentration. Considering all tested variations, the essential oils of plants of the genus Cymbopogon showed similar or stronger repellent effects on T. castaneum adults than the biopesticide based on azadirachtin.

  4. Landmark-based morphometric analysis of two sibling species of the genus Asida (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-01-01

    The case described here analyses morphological change at the boundary between ecological and evolutionary scales. The size and shape of 8 populations of two sibling species of tenebrionid beetles (Asida planipennis and A. moraguesi) are analysed using landmark-based methods. The two species differ

  5. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  6. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  7. A genome-wide inventory of neurohormone GPCRs in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    in Tribolium was the occurrence of a vasopressin GPCR and a vasopressin peptide. So far, the vasopressin/GPCR couple has not been detected in any other insect with a sequenced genome (D. melanogaster and six other Drosophila species, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Bombyx mori, and A. mellifera). Tribolium...

  8. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2017-06-01

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a, and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after 1 h of exposure to 40 °C and UV light. All 3 genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on mortality of tribolium castaneum (HERBST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita Muhamad Awang.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the susceptibility of larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum to gamma irradiation. The larvae were more susceptible to irradiation than the adults. A dose of 0.05 kGy killed all the larvae but higher dose of 0.15 kGy was required to kill all the adults. Therefore, a dose of 0.15 kGy was found to be the effective dose to kill both the larvae and the adults of T. castaneum. (author)

  10. High-dose mode of mortality in Tribolium: A model system for study of radiation injury and repair in non-proliferative tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chihing Christina.

    1989-01-01

    With appropriate doses of ionizing radiation, both the acute, or lethal-midlethal, dose-independent pattern of mortality, and the hyperacute, dose-dependent pattern, were demonstrated within a single insect genus (Tribolium). This demonstration provides resolution of apparently contradictory reports of insect radiation responses in terms of doses required to cause lethality and those based on survival time as a function of dose. A dose-dependent mortality pattern was elicited in adult Tribolium receiving high doses, viz., 300 Gy or greater; its time course was complete in 10 days, before the dose-independent pattern of mortality began. Visual observations of heavily-irradiated Tribolium suggested neural and/or neuromuscular damage, as had been previously proposed by others for lethally-irradiated wasps, flies, and mosquitoes. Results of experiments using fractionated high doses supported the suggestion that the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death is the result of damage to nonproliferative tissues. Relative resistance of a strain to the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death was not correlated with resistance to the midlethal mode, which is believed to be the result of damage to the proliferative cells of the midgut. Using the high-dose mode of death as a model of radiation damage to nonproliferative tissues, the effects of age, and of a moderate priming dose were assessed. Beetles showed age-related increase in sensitivity to the high-dose mode of death, suggesting a decline in capacity to repair radiation damage to postmitotic tissue. This correlated with a decrease (50%) in the amount of repair reflected in the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (SDF) between the age of 1 to 3 months. The age related increase in radiosensitivity was reduced by a moderate priming dose (40 or 65 Gy) given at a young age

  11. Tribolium castaneum larval gut transcriptome and proteome: A resource for the study of the Coleopteran gut

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morris, K.; Lorenzen, M. D.; Hiromasa, Y.; Tomich, J. M.; Oppert, C.; Elpidina, E. N.; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.; Fabrick, J.; Oppert, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2009), s. 3889-3898 ISSN 1535-3893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Tribolium castaneum * microarray * proteomics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.132, year: 2009

  12. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  13. Non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-06-01

    Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Reproducción y ultraestructura del huevo y larva de primer estadio de Gyriosomus kingi (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae del desierto de Atacama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pizarro-Araya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Gyriosomus es un importante género chileno de Tenebrionidae, habitante del desierto costero del país. En este ambiente, las especies de Gyriosomus son un componente erémico y endémico de la entomofauna epígea. A pesar de la importancia ecológica que estas especies tienen en el desierto chileno, poco se conoce respecto de la morfología de los estados preimaginales. En este trabajo se describe la morfología del huevo y de la larva de primer estadio de G. kingi Reed, 1873, y se entregan algunos antecedentes acerca de la bionomía de la hembra. Los huevos y las larvas fueron obtenidos a partir de parejas mantenidas en condiciones de laboratorio. Los adultos fueron capturados durante la primavera del año 2002, en sitios costeros del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe, localizado en la frontera sur del Desierto de Atacama (28°01’S; 71°03’W. El primer tercio del corión del huevo presenta celdas subhexagonales sin aeropilas. La larva es oligópoda y elongada. Su cápsula cefálica está fuertemente quitinizada y sus patas protorácicas son más largas y más gruesas que las restantes. Según observaciones de laboratorio, cada ovipostura incluye de siete a diez huevos cada vez, con un máximo de seis oviposturas por hembra. Los huevos son enterrados en el suelo, recubiertos con un mucílago que genera una película de arena-arcilla adherida al corión.Reproduction and ultrastructure of egg and first instar larvae of Gyriosomus kingi (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from the desert of Atacama. Gyriosomus is an important Chilean genus of Tenebrionidae, inhabiting the coastal desert of this country. in this environment, the Gyriosomus-species are both eremic and endemic components of the epigean entomofauna. Despite the ecological importance of these species in the Chilean desert, there is a lack of knowledge on the preimaginal stages of them. in this paper we describe the egg and first instar larval morphology of G. kingi Reed, 1873, along with

  15. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  16. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs. Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8 showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2 and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs. With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3′ end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae, which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits.

  17. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  18. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  19. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  20. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Gamma irradiation of pupae and adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R.; Garg, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation of 2 to 3 day old pupae and 10 day old adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) revealed that adult emergence from irradiated pupae was negatively correlated with the radiation doses upto 10 Krad (100 Gy). At higher doses of 10 Krad to 50 Krad (100 Gy to 500 Gy), there was no further decrease in adult emergence. Mortality of adults emerging from the irradiated pupae, however, increased rapidly at doses of 10 Krad (100 Gy) and above and irradiation at 15 Krad to 50 Krad (150 Gy to 500 Gy) caused 100 per cent mortality of the adults within 15 days of exposure. Irradiation of 10 day old adults with doses upto 6 Krad (60 Gy) had no significant effect on mortality but this effect was quite pronounced at 8 Krad to 20 Krad (80 Gy to 200 Gy). The LD 50 value recorded 12 days after irradiation was 10.3 Krad (103 GY). Irradiation of adults with doses of 12 Krad (120 Gy) and above also decreased the longevity of the irradiated adults. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab

  2. UVB Radiation Delays Tribolium castaneum Metamorphosis by Influencing Ecdysteroid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Yu, Lin; He, Li; Ma, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth), and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis.

  3. Adaptation of the Egg of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to Arid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis , while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis . The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor , and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor . The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  4. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  5. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, M.; Knorr, E.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Kollewe, C.; Vilcinskas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, NOV 2015 (2015), s. 208-215 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antimicrobial peptides * Defensin * Innate immunity * Insects * Tribolium castaneum * Gram-positive bacteria Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2015

  6. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  7. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  8. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional analysis of C1 family cysteine peptidases in the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied protein digestion the tenebrionids Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum, pests of stored grains and grain products, to identify potential targets for biopesticide development. Tenebrionid larvae have highly compartmentalized guts, with primarily cysteine peptidases in the acidic anter...

  10. Effects of weightlessness, gravity compensation and radiation on the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Silver, I.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1975-10-01

    Tribolium confusum, the flour beetle; was chosen as a test organism for determination of possible synergistic effects of radiation and space environment in the inertial flight of Biosatellite-II. The organism subjected to weightlessness and radiation during the flight exhibited greater than expected wing abnormalities. However, a postflight vibration control experiment produced anomalous results, and some doubt remained with respect to assigning weightlessness as the sole cause of the increased wing abnormalities. Results are reported from experiments performed on the interaction of gravity compensation, radiation, and Tribolium development. It was found that gravity compensation together with heavy ion irradiation did not cause more wing abnormalities than those caused by radiation alone. However, radiation and gravity compensation plus high temperature did cause an increased percentage of wing abnormalities. Two possible reasons are discussed

  11. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  12. Desenvolvimento de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae com Zophobas confusa Gebien (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae comparado à duas outras presas alternativas Development of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae compared with two another alternative preys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha V Zanuncio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 were fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae under 25±0.5ºC, 60±10% of RH and photophase of 12h. Nymphal viability of P. nigrispinus were 64.0%, 80.0% and 92.0% with Z. confusa, M. domestica and T. molitor, respectively. No differences were found for pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number of eggs, egg viability, and longevity for females of this predator fed with any of these preys.

  13. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  14. Caracteres preimaginales y aspectos bionómicos de Gyriosomus luczotii Laporte, 1840 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez, V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the morphology and microstructure of the egg chorion, and the morphology of the first instar larva of Gyriosomus luczotii Laporte, 1840 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Nycteliini. Bionomical and distributional data on this species are also provided. To obtain eggs and larvae, couples were collected in the field and kept in rearing cages until oviposture and ecclosion. The structure and adornment of the egg exochorion, and the exterior morphological features of larvae were examined with electron scanning microscopy. The eggs of G. luczotii showed a rounded micropyle and a smooth exochorion, composed of hexagonal cells without aeropyles. The larvae of G. luczotii showed morphological characteristics suited for an edaphic life similar to that of Pedobionta: digging prothoracic legs, cephalic capsule with abundant sensilla, and well–developed pygopodium. We analysed the importance of larval morphology as an element for specific diagnosis and found that interspecific differences regarding frontal sensilla, clypeus shape, and anterior part of labrum, had a taxonomic value and possibly a phylogenetic value.

  15. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nabozhenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  16. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Nabozhenko; I. V. Shokhin; G. M. Abdurahmanov; A. M. Klicheva; A. V. Morakhonich; D. I. Oleinik

    2012-01-01

    The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  17. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Dönitz

    Full Text Available In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera, is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn, which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  18. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  19. Sexual competitiveness of gamma irradiated red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum (herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satar, A.; Khan, A.; Khattak, S.U.; Salihan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the sexual competitiveness of radiated male and female adults of tribolium castaneum were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results evaluated on the basis of tendency infertility and competitiveness showed that a ratio of 5:1:1 (Irradiated male/female: Unirradiated male/female: Unirradiated female/male) was the best followed by 4:1:1, 3;1:1, 2:1:1 and 1:1:1 in both the sexes. However, females were found more competitive than male. (author)

  20. Antifeedant Diterpenoids against Tribolium castaneum from the Stems and Twigs of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae

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    Zhi Wei Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese mangrove plants for insecticidal principles showed that ethanol extract of Ceriops tagal stems and twigs possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Family: Rhizophoraceae. From the ethanol extract, three feeding deterrent diterpenoids were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as tagalsin A, B, and H on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Tagalsin A, B, and H exhibited strong feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum adults with EC50 values of 375.3 ppm, 277.3 ppm, and 285.45 ppm, respectively.

  1. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  2. Effect of Larval Density on Food Utilization Efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Developmental trajectories and breakdown in F1 interpopulation hybrids of Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Ehmke, Ross C; Jideonwo, Victoria N; Wade, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    When hybrid inviability is an indirect by-product of local adaptation, we expect its degree of severity between pairs of populations to vary and to be sensitive to the environment. While complete reciprocal hybrid inviability is the outcome of the gradual process of local adaptation, it is not representative of the process of accumulation of incompatibility. In the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, some pairs of populations exhibit complete, reciprocal F1 hybrid incompatibility while other pairs are fully or partially compatible. We characterize this naturally occurring variation in the degree and timing of expression of the hybrid incompatible phenotype to better understand the number of genes or developmental processes contributing to speciation. We assessed the morphological and developmental variation in four Tribolium castaneum populations and their 12 possible F1 hybrids at each life-history stage from egg to adult. We find that the rate of hybrid larval development is affected in all interpopulation crosses, including those eventually producing viable, fertile adults. Hybrid incompatibility manifests early in development as changes in the duration of instars and diminished success in the transition between instars are relative to the parent populations. Parent populations with similar developmental profiles may produce hybrids with disrupted development. The degree and timing of expression of hybrid inviability depends upon populations crossed, direction of the cross, and environment in which hybrids are raised. Our findings suggest that the coordinated expression of genes involved in transitional periods of development is the underlying cause of hybrid incompatibility in this species. PMID:23919145

  5. Effects of vanillin and gamma irradiation on the development of confused flour beetle, tribolium confusum (DUV.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.A.; Mohamed, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the natural chemical compound food flavoring agent, vanillin on the tribolium confusum was examined. The effect of vanillin on tribolium confusum reared as 18-day old larvae decreased the percent adult emergence, it was 32 % and 51.4 % adults at the treatments 2 % and 4 % respectively. The sex ratio was in favour of female at control group (1:1.2 male:female). This ratio reversed at the treatments 2 %, 4 % vanillin was favour of males. When one day old larvae treated with 2 %, 8 % vanillin, the percent pupation was decrease from control group. It was 31.83, 45.0 %, as compared with 53.33 in control group, respectively. At highest treatment 8 %, sex ratio was in favour of males. The mean number of total progenies decrease significantly from control when larvae 18-day old treated with vanillin and stored for two or four months. While when larvae 1-day old treated with vanillin , the decrease in the number of total progenies was insignificant. When one day old adults irradiated at 20, 50 and 70 Gy and reared for two and four months. The mean number of progenies decrease significantly by increasing the radiation dose, when compared with control group

  6. Ionizing radiation control of Tribolium castaneum in wheat flour type 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The insects, mainly those of the coleoptera order, produce serious changes on the grains and flours, producing in some regions up to 50 % loss. Taking in account the information available up to date, this experiment consists of putting under the effect of the ionizing radiation specimens of Tribolium castaneum feeded with bread flour type 000, with the purpose of controling their biological cycle. They received gamma radiation doses between 250 and 2000 Gy, using 60 Co source. The daily observation made over a population of 590 insects, indicates the efficiency of the procedure, non toxic, which provokes the sterility at 250 Gy and inmediate dead starting at 1750 Gy. On the other hand, it was verified that the DL 50 on the insects irradiated at the lower of eight different doses applied, reaches 15,3 days, against the 162,6 days of the reference Tribolium. Then it is concluded that it is technologically feasible the application of ionizing radiation to the bread wheat flour type 000 for controling this main plage. (Author) [es

  7. Metabolic pathway interruption: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of tryptophan 2,3-oxygenase in Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tribolium castaneum vermilion gene encodes tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a pivotal enzyme in the ommochrome pathway that is responsible for the black eye color. T. castaneum strains with a loss-of-function mutation, vermilion white (vw), lack both the promoter and the first 80% of the vermilion co...

  8. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium castaneum on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted in which adults, pupae, and 4-week-old larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed separately on concrete arenas partially treated (14.4 % of the total area) with the insecticide chlorfenapyr (Phantom®) at 1.1 g active ingredient/...

  9. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  10. The genus Baijiania (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Baijiania, originally thought to be indigenous in China and Borneo, appears to be restricted to Borneo. The only species is Baijiania borneensis, with two varieties, the type variety and var. paludicola Duyfjes, var. nov.

  11. A Tenebrionid beetle's dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Germán H; Flores, Gustavo E; Román, Nicolás Martínez; Podestá, Darío; Mazzanti, Renato; Miyashiro, Lidia

    2013-12-18

    The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005-2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET). The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/). Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina), also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT

  12. NEW DATA ABOUT COMPOSITION, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND POSSIBLE WAYS OF FORMING OF DARKLING BEETLES FAUNA (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN PERI-CASPIAN AND ISLAND CASPIAN ECOSYSTEMS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim is study of biological diversity of the Caspian coasts and islands ecosystems, the composition, especially geographical distribution and possible ways of forming of darkling beetles fauna (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand collecting, soil traps, light traps, processing and material definition. List discussed tenebrionid fauna is composed using Abdurakhmanov and Medvedev (1994, Abdurakhmanov and Nabozhenko (2011.Results. The paper includes a comparative analysis of darkling beetles (341 species of 17 regions of 5 Caspian countries. Diversity of Tenebrionidae of the Caspian islands Chechen (32 species, Tyuleniy (29 species, Nordovyi (24 species, Kulaly (16 species is discussed for the first time. Faunistic base of discussed ecosystems includes species with turanian (sensu lato, 204 species, steppe (42 species, caucasian (30 species, including subendemics of the Caucasus, mediterranean (19 species, western asian (17 species biogeographic complexes with background of widespread euro-siberian, transpalearctic, paleotropical species. Сonnections and relations of regional and island faunas are discussed.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the coastal level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  13. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

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    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  14. Development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae after gamma irradiation of eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R.; Garg, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Development of Rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum larvae, after gamma irradiation of eggs of two different age groups was studied. Results indicated that, if 2 to 3 day old eggs were irradiated with 6 Krad, the development of larvae emerging from such eggs is completely arrested at the end of 18 days after hatching. In case of comparatively older eggs (3 to 4 day old), 8 Krad dose of gamma radiation was required to produce the similar results. However, treatment with 10 Krad resulted in 100 per cent egg mortality in both the age groups. The studies thus reveal that survival of the larvae depends not only on the radiation dose and the time period elapsed after irradiation but also on the age of eggs at the time of exposure. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  15. Fumigant and Repellent Activity of Limonene Enantiomers Against Tribolium confusum du Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, A; Campolo, O; Laudani, F; Palmeri, V

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides, as carried out in the last 50 years, caused several negative environmental and human health consequences, leading to the development of alternative techniques to control pests, such as the use of compounds of plant origin. In this study, we assessed the fumigant and repellent activity of both the enantiomers of limonene, a monoterpene usually found in many plant species, against Tribolium confusum du Val. We tested both molecules at different doses, air temperatures, and in absence and presence of flour. R-(+)-limonene resulted more effective than S-(-)-limonene; indeed, it was able to reach 100% of efficacy at a concentration of 85 mg/L air when tested at different temperatures without flour. Data showed a positive relationship between efficacy and temperature, and a negative effect of the presence of debris on the bioactivity of limonene. Furthermore, repellency trials reported a higher activity of R-(+)-limonene compared to the other enantiomer.

  16. Time-course mortality and radiosensitivity indices in Tribolium spp. developing from irradiated pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Md Mahbub

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation (1-5 Krad) on the time-course mortality and radiosensitivity indices in adults of Tribolium anaphe, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T. destructor, T. freemani developing from irradiated 1 day old and pre-emergence (4-5 day old) pupae were studied. Adult longevity was significantly (P<0.001) affected by irradiation and was linearly dose dependent. T. destructor was markedly more radioresistant than the other species at all dose levels and had a longer life expectancy. The mean survival times of adults developing from irradiated early and late pupae were shorter in females than in males for all the species. The radiosensitivity indices did not vary widely among the species and these values decreased as the dose increased in all the species which clearly indicate that the resistance of the species was dose-dependent. (author)

  17. A mannitol/sorbitol receptor stimulates dietary intake in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tomoyuki; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikuta, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    In insects, perception of chemical stimuli is involved in the acceptance or rejection of food. Gustatory receptors (Grs) that regulate external signals in chemosensory organs have been found in many insects. Tribolium castaneum, a major pest of stored products, possesses over 200 Gr genes. An expanded repertoire of Gr genes appears to be required for diet recognition in species that are generalist feeders; however, it remains unclear whether T. castaneum recognizes a suite of chemicals common to many products or whether its feeding is activated by specific chemicals, and whether its Grs are involved in feeding behavior. It is difficult to determine the food preferences of T. castaneum based on dietary intake due to a lack of appropriate methodology. This study established a novel dietary intake estimation method using gypsum, designated the TribUTE (Tribolium Urges To Eat) assay. For this assay, T. castaneum adults were fed a gypsum block without added organic compounds. Sweet preference was determined by adding sweeteners and measuring the amount of gypsum in the excreta. Mannitol was the strongest activator of T. castaneum dietary intake. In a Xenopus oocyte expression, TcGr20 was found to be responsible for mannitol and sorbitol responses, but not for responses to other tested non-volatile compounds. The EC50 values of TcGr20 for mannitol and sorbitol were 72.6 mM and 90.6 mM, respectively, suggesting that TcGr20 is a feasible receptor for the recognition of mannitol at lower concentrations. We used RNAi and the TribUTE assay to examine whether TcGr20 expression was involved in mannitol recognition. The amounts of excreta in TcGr20 dsRNA-injected adults decreased significantly, despite the presence of mannitol, compared to control adults. Taken together, our results indicate that T. castaneum adults recognized mannitol/sorbitol using the TcGr20 receptor, thereby facilitating the dietary intake of these compounds.

  18. Geographic Variation in Phosphine Resistance Among North American Populations of the Red Flour Beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, A J; Elliott, Brent; Nayak, Manoj K; Phillips, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a common stored-product pest found worldwide. Phosphine, hydrogen phosphide (PH3), is the most commonly used fumigant for stored grains, for which genetically based resistance has been recorded for several pest species. This study assessed phosphine resistance in 25 T. castaneum populations from across the United States and Canada using a discriminating dose bioassay. Dose-mortality assays were conducted with adults from seven of these populations to categorize weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Phosphine resistance was detected in 12 out of the 25 populations, and the frequency of resistance within populations varied from 2% in Victoria, TX, to 100% in Red Level, AL. Two resistant populations from Kansas that had been sampled three years earlier were found to have similar resistance frequencies in the current study. None of the four Canadian populations had any detectable resistance among the insects tested. Resistance ratio calculations from LC50 value in resistant populations relative to the LC50 for the laboratory susceptible strain allowed resistance phenotypes to be assigned as either weak resistance, at 5- to 26-fold resistance relative to susceptible, or strong resistance at 95- to 127-fold relative to susceptible. This study suggests that proper resistance assessment techniques can help to determine occurrence of phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum and can further characterize the strength of resistance present. These data can be used to support resistance management programs that consider either cessation or modification of phosphine fumigation to control T. castaneum. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Roles of the Wnt-Antagonists Axin and Lrp4 during Embryogenesis of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prühs, Romy; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard

    2017-10-15

    In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the Wnt-signaling pathway is essential for numerous processes in embryogenesis and during adult life. Wnt activity is fine-tuned at various levels by the interplay of a number of Wnt-agonists (Wnt ligands, Frizzled-receptors, Lrp5/6 coreceptors) and Wnt-antagonists (among them Axin, Secreted frizzled and Lrp4) to define anterior-posterior polarity of the early embryo and specify cell fate in organogenesis. So far, the functional analysis of Wnt-pathway components in insects has concentrated on the roles of Wnt-agonists and on the Wnt-antagonist Axin. We depict here additional features of the Wnt-antagonist Axin in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum . We show that Tc-axin is dynamically expressed throughout embryogenesis and confirm its essential role in head development. In addition, we describe an as yet undetected, more extreme Tc-axin RNAi-phenotype, the ectopic formation of posterior abdominal segments in reverse polarity and a second hindgut at the anterior. For the first time, we describe here that an lrp4 ortholog is involved in axis formation in an insect. The Tribolium Lrp4 ortholog is ubiquitously expressed throughout embryogenesis. Its downregulation via maternal RNAi results in the reduction of head structures but not in axis polarity reversal. Furthermore, segmentation is impaired and larvae develop with a severe gap-phenotype. We conclude that, as in vertebrates, Tc-lrp4 functions as a Wnt-inhibitor in Tribolium during various stages of embryogenesis. We discuss the role of both components as negative modulators of Wnt signaling in respect to axis formation and segmentation in Tribolium .

  20. The ascomycete genus Sordaria

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, J.; Arx, von, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sordaria is restricted to coprophilous, soil-, or seed-borne Pyrenomycetes with aseptate, elongate ascospores with a gelatinous, amorphous sheath. The genus is redescribed and a key to fourteen accepted species is given. A checklist of all taxa described as Sordaria is added.

  1. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  2. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A.

  3. Two new species of Corticeus from Mexico and honduras (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Triphlehorn; John C. Moser

    1970-01-01

    The genus Cortiecus Piller and Mitterpacher is represented on every continent except Antartica. Blackwelder (1945, p. 533) lists 10 species from Central and South America and Arnett (1963, p. 685) lists 13 from the United States. Most occur with bark beetles (Family Scolytidae), but their roles are poorly understood. Some authors have called them...

  4. Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: An extreme case to preserve Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleóptera: Tenebrionidae: Un caso extremo a conservar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME PIZARRO-ARAYA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Choros Archipelago includes three islands: Choros, Damas and Gaviota and it is part of The Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve. These insular ecosystems are within the Chilean transitional coastal (25°-32° S. Prior researches in the archipelago reported a species of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera endemic to Choros island (29°15' S, 71°32' W described as Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerability of this species in the archipelago through Conservation Priority Index (CPI, Environmental Ministery of Chile (MMA and Red List of IUCN. We concluded that G. granulipennis is Endangered by CPI index, and Vulnerable by MMA of Chile. Additionally, this species can be classiffied with Deficient Data (DD by IUCN because many of data are impossible or difficult to obtain for insects and can overestimate or underestimate the risk of extinction of this species. We consider important to monitoring the continuity of this species and the protection of habitat, for which we propose not allow access the tourists and eradication of European rabbit.El archipiélago de Los Choros, conformado por las islas Choros, Damas y Gaviota forma parte de la Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt y está situado dentro del desierto costero transicional de Chile (25°-32° S. Estudios recientes realizados en el archipiélago dan cuenta de una especie endémica de Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera de la isla Choros (29°15' S, 71°32' O descripta como Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la prioridad de conservación de esta especie en el archipiélago mediante el análisis del Índice de Prioridad de Conservación (CPI, clasificación del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (MMA de Chile y lista roja de la IUCN. Nuestros resultados sostienen que esta especie puede ser catalogada en categoría En peligro por el índice CPI y Vulnerable según el MMA. Según criterios

  5. INSECTICIDAL TOXICITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE, CAMPHOR AND EUGENOL ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. Ingeneral, fumigant activity of all three compounds was lower in comparison to contact application, with the best activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by camphor and eugenol on all three developmental stages of T. castaneum. However, lower activity was recorded for fumigation of the space 50% filled with wheat grain for all three tested compounds on all three stages, with the best activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by camphor and eugenol, whereas eugenol showed no toxicity to the adult stage. The activity of 1,8-cineole and eugenol in the space 50% filled with wheat grain decreased by 3.5 and 32 times, respectively, whereas the activity of camphor had no significant difference on the larvae. Toxicity of the tested compounds on pupae T. castaneum was either lethal or directly affected to metamorphosis pupae. There were significant differences observed in the efficacy of the tested compounds on the gender of the pupae, with the most markedly differences for 1,8-cineole, followed by camphor and the minimal for eugenol. Males were more sensitive to the applied compounds, whereas females had more deformed units, especially in the fumigation treatment with camphor. The most tolerant stage on the contact and fumigant application of all compounds was the pupae stage. Eugenol and 1,8-cineole had influence on the reduction of T. castaneum progeny emergence, whereas camphor had no such effect. Due to a high potential of 1,8-cineole for the control of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (at all

  6. A mannitol/sorbitol receptor stimulates dietary intake in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Takada

    Full Text Available In insects, perception of chemical stimuli is involved in the acceptance or rejection of food. Gustatory receptors (Grs that regulate external signals in chemosensory organs have been found in many insects. Tribolium castaneum, a major pest of stored products, possesses over 200 Gr genes. An expanded repertoire of Gr genes appears to be required for diet recognition in species that are generalist feeders; however, it remains unclear whether T. castaneum recognizes a suite of chemicals common to many products or whether its feeding is activated by specific chemicals, and whether its Grs are involved in feeding behavior. It is difficult to determine the food preferences of T. castaneum based on dietary intake due to a lack of appropriate methodology. This study established a novel dietary intake estimation method using gypsum, designated the TribUTE (Tribolium Urges To Eat assay. For this assay, T. castaneum adults were fed a gypsum block without added organic compounds. Sweet preference was determined by adding sweeteners and measuring the amount of gypsum in the excreta. Mannitol was the strongest activator of T. castaneum dietary intake. In a Xenopus oocyte expression, TcGr20 was found to be responsible for mannitol and sorbitol responses, but not for responses to other tested non-volatile compounds. The EC50 values of TcGr20 for mannitol and sorbitol were 72.6 mM and 90.6 mM, respectively, suggesting that TcGr20 is a feasible receptor for the recognition of mannitol at lower concentrations. We used RNAi and the TribUTE assay to examine whether TcGr20 expression was involved in mannitol recognition. The amounts of excreta in TcGr20 dsRNA-injected adults decreased significantly, despite the presence of mannitol, compared to control adults. Taken together, our results indicate that T. castaneum adults recognized mannitol/sorbitol using the TcGr20 receptor, thereby facilitating the dietary intake of these compounds.

  7. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  8. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  9. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  10. Insecticidal Activities of Tunisian Halophytic Plant Extracts against Larvae and Adults of Tribolium confusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mighri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh plants were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sixteen aerial part extracts of Frankenia laevis, Statice echioides, Suaeda fructicosa and Tamarix boveana were obtained using organic solvents of increasing polarity and tested for their insect growth, antifeedant and toxicity effects. Responses varied with plant material, extract type, insect stage and exposition time. Larval growth inhibition was significantly induced by chloroformic, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis. On the other hand, all extracts of S. fructicosa and the methanolic ones of the four plants tested didn't show any significant activity. In addition, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis presented antifeedant property. S. fructicosa seemed to be, however, slightly attractive to the flour beetle. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. By using ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis, mortality reached respectively 97, 87, 97 and 80%, when applied at a dose of 1%, mixed with the insect diet.

  11. Entomocidal activity of microwave energy & some aqueous plant extracts against Tribolium castaneum Herbst & Trogoderma granarium Everts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, W. N. A.; Amin, A. H.; Khidr, S. K.; Ismail, A. Y.

    2017-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of microwave radiation and aqueous plant extracts against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum & khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. The larvae stage with dried fruits (black raisin, red raisin, fig and apricot) were subjected to microwave radiation at different power levels (280,560 and 840) watt for three exposure times (10, 30 and 50) seconds. Mortalities increased with an increase of concentration or exposure time or both. Thus, highest mortality 90% was achieved at 840 watt power output and exposure time 50 second for both aforementioned species. Likewise, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, mint Mentha canadensis and myrtle Myrtus communis were studied for their toxicity effect on mortality of larval stage at three dosages (12500, 25000 and 50000) ppm for different exposure times (1, 2, 3 and 7) days. The larvae of khapra beetle were more resistant to the insecticidal activity of plant extracts in comparison with red flour beetle larvae. The LC50 values were varied in accordance to plant extracts types and concentrations within the four interval times of exposure. The LC50 values for both khapra & red flour beetles were (47234.07 & 5760.90) ppm respectively on black raisin after 7 days exposure to eucalyptus aqueous extract.

  12. Effect of different diets on development and Radiosensitivity of Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U; Mazhar, A.; Shahid, M.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the effect of different diets on the development and radio-sensitivity of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results revealed that development, losses and sensitivity varied significantly (P< 0.05) with respect to diet. Developmental period was highest (43.5 days) in wheat starch and lowest (22 days) in wheat flour + 5% yeast (Standard diet). Significantly higher progeny (948) was produced in barley and lower (105.3) in wheat starch. Maximum adult weight (37.35 mg/20 adults) was recorded in sorghum and minimum (33.4) in starch. Percent weight loss was highest (21.25 ) in barley and lowest (8.0) in starch. Barley flour was found as the best diet. Radiosensitivity in relation to diet indicated that adults reared on wheat starch were most sensitive. Comparing the dose response, insect mortality was dose and diet dependent. However, 2.5 kGy proved quite lethal. No significant effect of radiation was observed on moisture and protein contents of the diets except reducing sugars. (author)

  13. A selfish gene chastened: Tribolium castaneum Medea M4 is silenced by a complementary gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M Scott

    2014-04-01

    Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) of Tribolium castaneum are autosomal factors that act maternally to cause the death of any progeny that do not inherit them. This selfish behavior is thought to result from a maternally expressed poison and zygotically expressed antidote. Medea factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor, H, have a negative interaction consistent with complementary genes of the Dobzhansky-Muller model for post-zygotic isolation. This negative interaction may result from H suppression of Medea zygotic antidote, leaving zygotes incompletely protected from maternal poison. I report here a test of the hypothesis that H also suppresses the Medea maternal poison. Viable F1 females were generated from a cross of Medea M4 strain males to H strain females. These females, heterozygous for both M4 and H, failed to express M4 maternal lethal activity when crossed to their male sibs. Transmission of non-M4 homologues from these females was confirmed using a dominant transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein eye color marker, tightly linked in cis to M4. M4 beetles, lacking H, were selected from the F2 population. Female descendants of these clearly expressed M4 maternal lethal activity, indicating restoration of this activity after H was segregated away. I conclude that H, or a factor tightly linked to H, suppresses Medea M4 maternal poison.

  14. Effect of selection and gamma-irradiation on fecundity in Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.P.; Raheja, K.L.; Verma, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the joint effect of selection and gamma irradiation on a polygenic trait like egg production in Tribolium castaneum, a 3 x 3 x 2 fractorial experiment with 3 levels of selection, viz. O, high (S 1 ), and low (S 2 ); 3 levels of irradiation, viz. 0,1 1500R (R 1 ) 2300R(R 2 ); and 2 replicates with 24 females in each cell, was set up. The data were collected on 721 females of parental generation subjected to selection and radiation and the subsequent progeny generation. A significant divergence of 11.6 eggs were observed due to high and low selection methods. There was no difference between control and R 1 radiation dose. The R 2 radiation dose depressed the egg production of the progeny significantly. There was a linear decrease in egg number in the progeny with an increase in dose level of radiation in parents; this is indicative of significant number of gene mutations effecting a quantitative trait like egg production. It is suggested that reduction in fecundity in the progeny of parents subjected to gamma-irradiation can possibly arise due to either (i) molecular rearrangement at a point on the chromosome leading to gene mutation or (ii) chromosome breakage with subsequent rearrangement of gene position or both. (author)

  15. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-10-30

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.

  16. Insecticidal efficacy of silica nanoparticles against Rhyzopertha dominica F. and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee Masumeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays were conducted to assess the effects of two silicon dioxide nanoparticles of Aerosil® and Nanosav against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica F. and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Silica nanoparticles were applied at the rates of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg · kg−1 on wheat and peeled barley. The mortality was counted after 1, 2, 3, and 7 days of exposure. Another experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of food source on the survival of beetles after exposure to silica nanoparticles. Adults were exposed to silica nanoparticles at the rate of 0.2 mg · cm−2 for 1 and 2 days on filter paper inside plastic Petri dishes, respectively. After exposure, the initial mortality was counted and live individuals of both species were held for a week in empty glass vials or vials containing wheat and wheat flour, respectively. Silica nanoparticles have high toxicity on R. dominica and T. confusum adults. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. confusum. However, the mortality of both species increased with increasing concentrations and time exposed to each concentration. At low concentrations, Aerosil® was more effective than Nanosav. Silica nanoparticles were more effective in wheat grains than barley. Results indicated that the initial mortality was so high that the impact of food source on delay mortality was unclear in most cases. Silica nanoparticles were efficient against tested species and can be used effectively in a stored grain integrated pest management program.

  17. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2010-01-01

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  18. Signaling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Zels

    Full Text Available Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca²⁺ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection.

  19. Signaling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zels, Sven; Verlinden, Heleen; Dillen, Senne; Vleugels, Rut; Nachman, Ronald J; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca²⁺ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection.

  20. Identification of maternally-loaded RNA transcripts in unfertilized eggs of Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuss Kevin M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal RNAs play a critical role in early development. Variation in the diversity and levels of maternally derived gene transcripts may be central to the origin of phenotypic novelty -- a longstanding problem in evolution and development. By studying maternal transcriptomes within and between divergent species, a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on maternal RNA allocation is possible. Results We present the first maternal transcriptome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Using a tiled whole-genome microarray, we found that 58.2% of T. castaneum genes are maternally loaded into eggs. Comparison of known Drosophila melanogaster maternal genes to our results showed widespread conservation of maternal expression with T. castaneum. Additionally, we found that many genes previously reported as having sex or tissue specific expression in T. castaneum were also maternally loaded. Identification of such pleiotropy is vital for proper modeling and testing of evolutionary theory using empirical data. The microarray design also allowed the detection of 2315 and 4060 novel transcriptionally active regions greater in length than 100 bp in unfertilized and fertilized T. castaneum eggs, respectively. These transcriptionally active regions represent novel exons of potentially unknown genes for future study. Conclusions Our results lay a foundation for utilizing T. castaneum as a model for understanding the role of maternal genes in evolution.

  1. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  3. The influence of synthetic food additives and surfactants on the body weight of larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Martynov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The broad spectrum of negative effects of food additives and surfactants on living organisms and the environment in general indicate a necessity of a detailed study on this issue. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of food additives and surfactants in a concentration of 350 mg/kg of fodder on the body weight of third age Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae larvae. A significant change in the body weight of T. molitor larvae was observed when they consumed a diet containing 350 mg/kg of sodium glutamate, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate. We observed a tendency towards increase in body weight after addition of the food colouring Allura Red, saccharin, benzoic acid, betaine, emulsifying wax, AOS and SLES, and also we observed a decrease in body weight after addition of Tartrazine and Indigo Carmine in the same concentration. Out of the 18 tested food additives, 3 significantly stimulated an increase in the body weight of third age T. molitor larvae, and 3 manifested the same effect at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in mass on average by 43–58% over the 14-day experiment, and 2 caused decrease in the body weight of larvae. Also, the 4 studied surfactants manifested a tendency towards increase in the body weight of T. molitor. This study on the impact of food additives and surfactants on organisms of insects is of great significance for protecting rare species of insects.

  4. Avaliação proteica e parâmetros populacionais de Cynaeus angustus Le Conte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Pedro Peixoto

    2016-08-01

    Protein Evaluation and Static life Table Cynaeus angustus (LeConte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Abstract. Cynaeus angustus (LeConte is characterized as a pest of stored grain, there is several food substrates on their feeding ecology including corn, wheat, sorghum and soybeans. But there is no record of their habits in peanut in natura, so the aim of this study was to present the static life table, to C. angustus in laboratory conditions using as substrate the peanut, and evaluate the protein composition in different stages of development C. angustus. The quantification of proteins was taken by microbiureto method and qualitative method was done per electrophoretic method. Protein quantitation indicated an increase of its values during development of insects: larvae 38,22 mg/mL, pupae 47,53 mg/mL and adults 60,00 mg/mL. It was possible to observe the electrophoretic profile C. angustus showed a significant increase in the variety of proteins (29-700 kDa on the different stages of the insect. Data obtained from the population analysis indicate that C. angustus shows higher initial survival rates, high biotic potential and continuous developing in favorable conditions showing potential growing conditions and, that can be used as a nutritional source such as mentioned for other species of the same family.

  5. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae) fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio,José Cola; Beserra,Eduardo Barbosa; Molina-Rugama,Adrián José; Zanuncio,Teresinha Vinha; Pinon,Tobias Baruc Moreira; Maffia,Vanessa Pataro

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. mol...

  6. Phenological stage effect on phenolic composition and repellent potential of Mentha pulegium against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne

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    Nidhal Salem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate for the first time the phenological stage effect on polyphenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium as well as their antioxidant capacities and insecticidal potentials against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne. Methods: Crude methanol extracts from pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium aerial parts were evaluated for their antiradical, reducing power activities and repellent potentials against selected coleopteran insects during different phenological stages. Results: Phenolic contents of pennyroyal aerial parts and their antioxidant effects were significantly dependent on maturity stage of the plant. The maximum of phenol production was reached during the full flowering stage. Apigenin was the major phenol in Mentha pulegium with an amount of 6.01 mg/g of dry vegetable matter during this period. Nevertheless, at fructification stage, the highest antioxidant activity was not related to high phenolic content. The repulsive effect of pennyroyal extract showed that Lasioderma serricorne was more susceptible to pennyroyal extract than Tribolium castaneum with corresponding median repellent dose values of 0.124 and 0.006 mg/mL respectively. Moreover, great differences in insect repulsion depending on extract concentrations, exposure time and developmental stage was observed. For the lowest concentration (0.125 mg/mL, the repellent effect against Tribolium reached its maximum (90% during the fructification stage (after 24 h of exposure while this repellent effect was 80% during the vegetative stage. Conclusions: Due to the strong insecticidal potential of pennyroyal extracts, this study highlights the therapeutic properties of this plant and encourages its use as a safer, environmental-friendly and efficient insecticide in food industry.

  7. The genus Vitex: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditio...

  8. Neurotoxic Effects of Linalool and β-Pinene on Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerlis Pajaro-Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1, GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl, GABA-gated ion channel (Grd, glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl, and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2 were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied. For linalool and β-pinene, the repellent concentration 50 (RC50 values were 0.11 µL/cm2 and 0.03 µL/cm2, respectively. Both compounds induced overexpression of Hiscl2 gen in adult insects, and β-pinene also promoted the overexpression of Grd and the Ace1 gene. However, β-pinene and linalool had little potential to dock on computer-generated models for GABA-gated ion channel LCCH3, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha1 and alpha2, and putative octopamine/tyramine receptor proteins from T. castaneum as their respective binding affinities were marginal, and therefore the repellent action probably involved mechanisms other than direct interaction with these targets. Results indicated that β-pinene was more potent than linalool in inducing insect repellency, and also had a greater capacity to generate changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal transmission.

  9. Determining lethal dose of gamma radiation on different stages of Tribolium Cosmonauts H b s t

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfagharieh, H.R.; Majd, F.; Torshyzie, M.; Babaie, M.

    1992-10-01

    Pest infestation causes great losses to stored grain through out the world. This is specially true in developing countries where the technology is less advanced, and climatic conditions are extremely favourable for the development of pests. Irradiation is on approved method of direct control for stored-product insect in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and in dictation are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products and other dry food commodities. Radiation doses required to kill or sterilized the most important storage pests in all stages are known. However irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radiosensitivity of stored-product insects shows the different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern. The effect of irradiation on insects are many, and varied, depending primarily on the species, stage, age and physical factors. The aim is to survey the effect of gamma radiation on stored pest, which can categorized under following classes: 1-The effect of gamma radiation on different stages grow of tribolium castaneum (H B S T); 2-Determination of lethal doses.; 3-The study of gamma radiation on products. In summary these information indicated that fairly low dosages of gamma radiation could be used on commodities such as bulk grain in which some infestation by insect stages of irradiation would be required on products such package foods where hundred percent mortality must be obtain. (author)

  10. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Role of oxygen in enhancement in repair of radiation injuries in Tribolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was determined for various biological responses in Tribolium confusum McGill Black. The biological responses included acute lethality of the adults and larvae; sexual sterilization of the male and female adults; fecundity of the females and hatchability of their eggs as well as the competitiveness of the males. The OER for acute lethality for the male and female adults was found to be 2.25-2.38, regardless of the type of inert gas used to achieve anaerobiosis. Acute lethality for the larvae showed an OER of 2.79. The OER for male and female sexual sterilization was 2.35 and 3.37 respectively. With irradiation carried out in oxygen, the results suggested that at the tissue level of the adults and the male reproductive organ, there is a certain degree of hypoxia. Sexual sterilization of the males by radiation is attributed to the induction of dominant lethal mutation in the sperms, and that of the females involves a combination of dominant lethals and decreased egg production. The OER for egg hatchability at a hatchability level of 50% of the control for irradiated females was 4.0, a surprisingly higher value than that of any other biological responses studied. The OER for fecundity of irradiated females and for male competitiveness were roughly estimated to be 2.8 and 2.3-2.7 respectively. Since the OER for male sexual sterilization is basically the same as that for acute lethality for adults, it is expected that the competitiveness, which depends on the amount of somatic damage by radiation, will not be protected to a much greater extent by anaerobic irradiation than sterilization. It is clearly demonstrated that OER values are specific for the particular end point scored. Even within the same organism, different OER can be obtained with different biological responses

  13. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. molitor larvae than on M. domestica larvae. Regardless of diet, S. cincticeps showed better reproduction and longevity in the second generation in laboratory conditions.Foram avaliadas, em duas gerações, a reprodução e a longevidade de Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ou Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae a 24,7 ± 1,1ºC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 12 h. O peso de adultos recém emergidos, o período de oviposição, o número de posturas, de ovos totais e a longevidade de fêmeas de S. cincticeps foram maiores com larvas de Z. confusa ou T. molitor que com M. domestica. Independentemente do tipo de presa, S. cincticeps mostrou melhor performance reprodutiva e longevidade na segunda geração.

  14. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved

  15. Self-selection of two diet components by Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Tedders, W L

    2011-10-01

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Relative consumption of wheat bran and dry potato flakes was determined among larvae feeding on four different ratios of these components (10, 20, 30, and 40% potato). Groups of early instars were provided with a measured amount of food and the consumption of each diet component was measured at the end of 4 wk and again 3 wk later. Consumption of diet components by T. molitor larvae deviated significantly from expected ratios indicating nonrandom self-selection. Mean percentages of dry potato consumed were 11.98, 19.16, 19.02, and 19.27% and 11.89, 20.48, 24.67, and 25.97% during the first and second experimental periods for diets with 10, 20, 30, and 40% potato, respectively. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in the four diet mixtures in a no-choice experiment. The diets were compared among each other and a control diet of wheat bran only. Doubling time was significantly shorter in groups consuming 10 and 20% potato than the control and longer in groups feeding on 30 and 40% potato. The self-selected ratios of the two diet components approached 20% potato, which was the best ratio for development and second best for population growth. Our findings show dietary self-selection behavior in T. molitor larvae, and these findings may lead to new methods for optimizing dietary supplements for T. molitor.

  16. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteome response of Tribolium castaneum larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin producing strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Contreras

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Tc larvae was determined against spore-crystal mixtures of five coleopteran specific and one lepidopteran specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin producing strains and those containing the structurally unrelated Cry3Ba and Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa proteins were found toxic (LC(50 values 13.53 and 6.30 µg spore-crystal mixture/µL flour disc, respectively. Using iTRAQ combined with LC-MS/MS allowed the discovery of seven novel differentially expressed proteins in early response of Tc larvae to the two active spore-crystal mixtures. Proteins showing a statistically significant change in treated larvae compared to non-intoxicated larvae fell into two major categories; up-regulated proteins were involved in host defense (odorant binding protein C12, apolipophorin-III and chemosensory protein 18 and down-regulated proteins were linked to metabolic pathways affecting larval metabolism and development (pyruvate dehydrogenase Eα subunit, cuticular protein, ribosomal protein L13a and apolipoprotein LI-II. Among increased proteins, Odorant binding protein C12 showed the highest change, 4-fold increase in both toxin treatments. The protein displayed amino acid sequence and structural homology to Tenebrio molitor 12 kDa hemolymph protein b precursor, a non-olfactory odorant binding protein. Analysis of mRNA expression and mortality assays in Odorant binding protein C12 silenced larvae were consistent with a general immune defense function of non-olfactory odorant binding proteins. Regarding down-regulated proteins, at the transcriptional level, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cuticular genes were decreased in Tc larvae exposed to the Cry3Ba producing strain compared to the Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa producing strain, which may contribute to the developmental arrest that we observed with larvae fed the Cry3Ba producing strain. Results demonstrated a distinct host transcriptional regulation depending upon the Cry toxin treatment. Knowledge

  18. Aplikasi Microwave untuk Disinfestasi Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. serta Pengaruhnya terhadap Warna dan Karakteristik Amilografi Terigu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Pratiwi Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the amount of microwave energy used for the disinfestation of T. castaneum and to observe its effect on discoloration and amilographic characteristic of treated wheat flour. Damages due to T. castaneum attack during storage caused physical and chemical changes in the wheat flour. The physical damage from this attack wasthe color change of the wheat flour, whereas chemical damage was caused by lipase enzyme activity and benzokuinon derived from the secretion of T. castaneum. The study was conducted on the wheat flour that was unfumigated in it smilling stage. The contamination of the wheat flour was artificially made by giving cultured T. castaneum, which were consisted of 10 males and 10 females, into 50 g as well as 100 g of wheat flour. After 42 days of storage time, the study showed that the mortality rate of untreated samples was 0 % both for 50 g and 100 g samples. The moisture showed an increase, while color-brightness level and viscosity peak were decreased. All of samples that were treated by 23.76 kJ, 24.00 kJ, 31.68 kJ and 36.00 kJ of microwave energy indicated 100% mortality of T. castaneum, whereas the color brightness, the amilographic peak, and moisture were decreased both on the mass of 50 g and 100 g after H+42 storage time.   ABSTRAK Aplikasi microwave telah dipelajari untuk disinfestasi Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. dan pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik warna dan amilografi tepung terigu. Kerusakan karena serangan T. castaneum selama penyimpanan menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan fisik dan kimiawi tepung. Kerusakan fisik berupa terjadinya perubahan warna tepung, sedangkan kerusakan kimiawi karena adanya aktifitas enzim lipase dan benzokuinon yang berasal dari hasil sekresi T. castaneum. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan tepung yang tidak di fumigasi pada tahap milling. Kontaminasi pun dilakukan dengan memberikan biakan T. castaneum masing-masing 10 jantan dan 10 betina ke dalam 50 g dan 100 g

  19. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  20. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  1. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  2. The genus Vitex: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  3. A Tenebrionid beetle’s dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Germán H.; Flores, Gustavo E.; Román, Nicolás Martínez; Podestá, Darío; Mazzanti, Renato; Miyashiro, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005–2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET). The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/). Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina), also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patag

  4. A Tenebrionid beetle’s dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Cheli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005–2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET. The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/. Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina, also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patag

  5. Effect of varing media on the susceptibility of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Parvathy; Sethi, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum adults reared on five food media viz., wheat, jowar, barley, maize and Bengal gram flour to gamma radiation was studied. The LD 50 values based on mortality observed 12 days after irradiation ranged from 4206 rads for beetles reared on Bengal gram to 9826 rads for those reared on jowar. On the basis of LD 50 values, the relative susceptibility of beetles reared on these foods was Bengal gram > barley> maize > wheat > jowar. Delayed response to irradiation (8000 rads) as indicated by LT 50 values also showed that insects reared on Bengal gram were more susceptible than those obtained from other media. On the basis of lower adult emergence and prolonged development period, Bengal gram was found to be much inferior food as compared to the rest. (author)

  6. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  7. Effects of Variable Dose-Rates on Radiation Damage in the Rust-Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst; Effets du debit de dose sur les dommages radioinduits chez le tenebrion roux (Tribolium Castaneum Herbst); Vliyanie razlichnykh moshchnostej doz na radiatsionnoe povrezhdenie krasnogo muchnogo zhuka, Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst); Radio lesiones que sufre el Tribolium Castaneum Herbst cuando se le somete a dosis de radiaciones de diversas intensidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, K. K.; Subramanyam, G. [Biology Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1963-09-15

    In order to find out whether a change in dose-rate would significantly alter a radiation response, eggs as well as the adults of Tribolium castaneum were tested for viability and fertility respectively after exposure to gamma radiation at different dose-rates. The doses employed were 2000 and 5000 rad and the dose-rates ranged from 126 rad/h to 140 000 rad/h. It was observed that with an increase in dose-rate there was a decline in the fertility of the adults. Similarly the viability of the eggs was considerably reduced as the dose-rate increased, but at very high dose-rates there was a significant increase in viability. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author) [French] En vue de determiner si une variation du debit de dose modifie de maniere significative la reponse aux rayonnements, on a fait des essais sur des oeufs et des adultes de Tribolium castaneum, dont on a etudie respectivement la viabilite et la fecondite apres exposition a des doses de rayons gamma d'intensites differentes. On a administre des doses de 2000 et 5000 rad, le debit de dose variant de 126 a 140 000 rad/h. On a constate que la fecondite des adultes diminuait a mesure que le debit de dose augmentait. De meme, la viabilite des oeufs etait considerablement reduite a mesure que le debit de dose augmentait, mais pour des debits de dose tres eleves la viabilite augmentait sensiblement. Les auteurs analysent les donnees obtenues. (author) [Spanish] Para averiguar si un cambio en la intensidad de la dosis produce alteraciones fundamentales en la radiosensibilidad, se comprobo la viabilidad de los huevecillos y la fertilidad de los adultos de Tribolium castaneum despues de exponerlos a dosis de radiaciones gamma de intensidad diferente. Las dosis empleadas fueron 2000 y 5000 rad, y las intensidades oscilaron entre 126 rad/h y 140 000 rad/h. Al aumentar la intensidad de la dosis se produce una disminucion de la fertilidad de los adultos. De modo similar, la viabilidad de los

  8. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  9. Radiobiological studies on eggs of the rice weevil (Tribolium confusum) after exposure to heavy primary particles of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis explains the radiation effects observed during the holometabolism of Tribolium confusum after exposure of the eggs to heavy primary particles of cosmic radiation, i.e. to atomic nuclei of relatively high energy with a mass greater than helium atoms. The first section describes the technical layout of the BIOSTACK experiment and the fixation of the Tribolium eggs and the positioning of the nuclear track detectors. This part is followed by the description of methods used to detect the eggs hit by the heavy nuclei, and their isolation and subsequent growth. Terrestrial irradiation of eggs with x-rays served as a control, as well as unirradiated egg cultures. The amount of larvae produced from incubated eggs hit by heavy nuclei was 66%, that of eggs exposed to cosmic background radiation was 69%, and that produced by the control culture kept on the earth was 87%. Investigations of egg samples during various stages of embryogenesis showed differences in the histological findings of the various groups, especially between the two groups of the BIOSTACK experiment. The letality of larvae in the period from emergence up to pupal stage was relatively high (50%) in the group hit by heavy nuclei, especially when compared to the other BIOSTACK experimental group, where this percentage was 10%, and to the terrestrial control group (3%). Also, vitality of larvae of the first group was considerably reduced. In the pupal stage, the letality observed in all three test groups was relatively low with 2-4%. From the animals produced from eggs hit by heavy nuclei, only 25% were still alive after 4 months, from the other space flight group these were 75%, and from the terrestrial control group 93%. Also, the animals from the first group showed a significant increase in bodily anomalies. (orig./MG) [de

  10. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  11. Phylogeny of the Genus Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Patrick M.; DeSalle, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phylogenetic relationships among taxa is key to designing and implementing comparative analyses. The genus Drosophila, which contains over 1600 species, is one of the most important model systems in the biological sciences. For over a century, one species in this group, Drosophila melanogaster, has been key to studies of animal development and genetics, genome organization and evolution, and human disease. As whole-genome sequencing becomes more cost-effective, there is increasing interest in other members of this morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally diverse genus. Phylogenetic relationships within Drosophila are complicated, and the goal of this paper is to provide a review of the recent taxonomic changes and phylogenetic relationships in this genus to aid in further comparative studies. PMID:29716983

  12. A dual role for nanos and pumilio in anterior and posterior blastodermal patterning of the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Cerny, Alexander C; Schoppmeier, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Abdominal patterning in Drosophila requires the function of Nanos (nos) and Pumilio (pum) to repress posterior translation of hunchback mRNA. Here we provide the first functional analysis of nanos and pumilio genes during blastodermal patterning of a short-germ insect. We found that nos and pum in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum crucially contribute to posterior segmentation by preventing hunchback translation. While this function seems to be conserved among insects, we provide evidence that Nos and Pum may also act on giant expression, another gap gene. After depletion of nos and pum by parental RNAi, Hunchback and giant remain ectopically at the posterior blastoderm and the posterior Krüppel (Kr) domain is not being activated. giant may be a direct target of Nanos and Pumilio in Tribolium and presumably prevents early Kr expression. In the absence of Kr, the majority of secondary gap gene domains fail to be activated, and abdominal segmentation is terminated prematurely. Surprisingly, we found Nos and Pum also to be involved in early head patterning, as the loss of Nos and Pum results in deletions and transformations of gnathal and pre-gnathal anlagen. Since the targets of Nos and Pum in head development remain to be identified, we propose that anterior patterning in Tribolium may involve additional maternal factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bordasia Krapov., new Malvaceae genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordasia bicornis Krapov. new genus and species is described from northwestern ParaguayanChaco. It is related to Sida from which it differs by the mericarp with two apical horns, by theleaves dimorphic and coriaceous and by the fannel-shaped calyx

  14. The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedijn, K.B.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br. is shown to be a Basidiomycete. Wiesnerina Höhn. and Dimorphocystis Corner are regarded synonymous. The type species A. thwaitesii Berk. & Br. is redescribed with D. capitatus Corner as synonym. The following new combinations are proposed: A. horrida (Höhn.) Boedijn,

  15. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Waves System in Repellency of Red Beetle of Flour (Tribolium castaneum Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increase of world population, lack of food sources, and need for food security, protection of agricultural products against losses, drought, pests, and diseases, all seems to be necessary more than ever. During the years, grains have been the main food of humans, especially wheat, barley, rice, and corn. So production and storage of these products is important for societies. One of the main problems in this field is protecting the grains in stores until consuming or planting them again. Annually, over hundreds of millions tons of grains are lost by pests present in stores and not observing the scientific principles of storing. Control of insects and pests during storage as a destructive factor of stored products by harmless methods is necessary. There are restrictions in use of chemically control methods against pests in stores. Therefore in recent decades, physically control methods have attracted a lot of attentions. The purpose of using physically control methods is eliminating pests with minimum destructive effect on the environment. These methods directly affect on pests or change their living situations and create an unsafe environment for them. One of the tools that indirectly affect pests is ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves which can properly penetrate in air and porous areas. These waves are completely safe for the environment and cause no damage to the environment. Ultrasonic waves as new safe strategy in insect control can prepare unsafe areas for annoying insects and agricultural pests. The main characteristics of ultrasonic waves are safe for humans and environment. Materials and Methods: In this study, experiments were carried out to assess the repellent impact of ultrasonic waves on one important storage pest, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbs. The system, which produces ultrasonic waves, includes distributor of ultrasonic waves, power supply, central processor, oscillator, display

  16. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y adulto. La selección para aumentar el cociente indicado es un método para maximizar

  17. Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3

    OpenAIRE

    Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh

    2016-01-01

    We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.

  18. A review of the genus Erycibe Roxb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    In this paper I intend to give a review of the genus Erycibe Roxb. in. which all the names published in the genus will be accounted for. The representatives from Malaysia have been dealt with more extensively in the revision of the genus in Flora Malesiana, Ser. I, Vol. 4, 4th instalment, 1953, pp.

  19. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  20. Scavenging in the genus Natrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ayres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scavenging is reported as an unusual behaviour of snakes. However, it is likely more common than is supposed. Here I report the use of dead newts as prey source by water snakes of the genus Natrix at a dam in north-western Spain. Juveniles and adults viperine snakes (Natrix maura, and also an adult grass snake (Natrix natrix were found feeding on newt carcasses.

  1. Sodium Solute Symporter and Cadherin Proteins Act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba Toxin Functional Receptors in Tribolium castaneum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M. Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

  2. Effect of irradiation and exposure to nitrogen on the mortality of adults. Tribolium confusum J. du V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Aminian, B.; Bali, C.

    1986-09-01

    For insect control irradiation can be improved by combination with other methods in order to limit the dose and hence to preserve the sensory qualities of some foods like fresh fruits, or to kill more rapidly the adult stage for avoiding the risk that a shipment be rejected because of the presence of living insects. The effect of irradiation with long exposure to inert gaz has not been reported yet. This study presents preliminary results on Tribolium confusum. Irradiation alone from 120 to 1000 Gy killed 100% of adults T. confusum in 12 to 15 days. At 60 Gy 10% insects were living after 28 days and at 40 Gy no mortality was observed. Mortality of adults T. confusum observed 10 days after exposure to nitrogen increased with the exposure time. 100 % mortality was reached for 17 hours exposure. When insects were exposed to nitrogen before or after irradiation synergic effects were observed. The greatest efficiency was obtained when insects were irradiated at 600 Gy after 9 hr exposure. When insects were exposed to nitrogen during irradiation the protective effectt of a short exposure (1/2 hr) was observed only for low doses (< 60 Gy). For a long exposure (9 hr) early irradiation at 600 Gy was more efficient than late irradiation

  3. Toxicity of several contact insecticides to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Andrić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to detect possible alteration in susceptibility of two field Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations (sampled in a warehouse in Nikinci and a silo in Jakovo to dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin and bifenthrin after previous selection with the LD80 of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Data from the topical application bioassays show that chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic insecticide to T. castaneum adults of the Nikinci population selected with pirimiphosmethyl and deltamethrin, while malathion was the weakest, and both selection procedures changed/reduced significantly only the toxicity of deltamethrin and bifenthrin, increasing their resistance ratios (RR at the LD50 from 1.1 to 1.8 (bifenthrin and from 0.9 to 2.2 (deltamethrin. Deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide for Jakovo adults selected with the LD80 of pirimiphosmethyl, while malathion was again the least toxic. Selection of that population had no effect on insecticide toxicity, except of malathion, which had a rise in RR at the LD50 from 26.0 to 29.8.

  4. Gene silencing in Tribolium castaneum as a tool for the targeted identification of candidate RNAi targets in crop pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Eileen; Fishilevich, Elane; Tenbusch, Linda; Frey, Meghan L F; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Billion, Andre; Worden, Sarah E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Lo, Wendy; Schulenberg, Greg; Valverde-Garcia, Pablo; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Narva, Kenneth E

    2018-02-01

    RNAi shows potential as an agricultural technology for insect control, yet, a relatively low number of robust lethal RNAi targets have been demonstrated to control insects of agricultural interest. In the current study, a selection of lethal RNAi target genes from the iBeetle (Tribolium castaneum) screen were used to demonstrate efficacy of orthologous targets in the economically important coleopteran pests Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Meligethes aeneus. Transcript orthologs of 50 selected genes were analyzed in D. v. virgifera diet-based RNAi bioassays; 21 of these RNAi targets showed mortality and 36 showed growth inhibition. Low dose injection- and diet-based dsRNA assays in T. castaneum and D. v. virgifera, respectively, enabled the identification of the four highly potent RNAi target genes: Rop, dre4, ncm, and RpII140. Maize was genetically engineered to express dsRNA directed against these prioritized candidate target genes. T 0 plants expressing Rop, dre4, or RpII140 RNA hairpins showed protection from D. v. virgifera larval feeding damage. dsRNA targeting Rop, dre4, ncm, and RpII140 in M. aeneus also caused high levels of mortality both by injection and feeding. In summary, high throughput systems for model organisms can be successfully used to identify potent RNA targets for difficult-to-work with agricultural insect pests.

  5. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman; Friesen

    1999-05-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M1 and M4, were by far the most prevalent, M4 being the predominant type. M2 and M3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M1 could be genetically segregated from M4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M1 factor invariably co-occurred with M4 in field populations, whereas M4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity.

  6. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klébea Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.

  7. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M; Alshukri, Baida M H; Ahmad, Munawar S; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Awwad, Mohammed H; Salama, Elham M; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, Martin G

    2016-07-14

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30-60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control.

  8. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M.; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3–6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. - Highlights: • The mortality of T. castaneum increased with an increase of the radiation dose. • R. officinalis was more toxic to T. castaneum than P. atriplicifolia. • Gamma radiation and essential oils could be used as combined methods in IPM. • Combination of radiation with essential oils made a synergistic effect. • The synergistic effect of the R–G was much more appropriate from P–G

  9. Use of Gamma Irradiation for the Control of the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in Bread Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.

  10. Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism Are Essential for Early Embryonic Development of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237

  11. MicroRNA-dependent regulation of metamorphosis and identification of microRNAs in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xiong, Wenfeng; Li, Chengjun; Zhai, Mengfan; Li, Yao; Ma, Fei; Li, Bin

    2017-10-01

    To date, although some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in the holometabolism insect Tribolium castaneum, large numbers of miRNAs still require investigation. Knocking down Dicer-1 (Dcr-1) and Argonaute-1 (Ago-1) in late larvae impaired miRNA synthesis, affected the juvenile hormone pathway by up-regulating Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel-homolog1 (Kr-h1) transcript levels, and resulted in a series of defects in T. castaneum development and metamorphosis. Thus, high-throughput Illumina/Solexa sequencing was performed with a mixed sample of eight key developmental stages of T. castaneum. In total, 1154 unique miRNAs were discovered containing 274 conserved miRNAs belong to 68 miRNA families, 108 known candidate miRNAs and 772 novel miRNAs. Genome locus analysis showed that miRNA clusters are more abundant in T. castaneum than other species. The results indicated that RNAi of Dcr-1 and Ago-1 in T. castaneum resulted in miRNA-induced metamorphosis defects. Furthermore, large numbers of novel miRNAs were discovered in T. castaneum and localized to T. castaneum genome loci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  13. Differences in Attack Avoidance and Mating Success between Strains Artificially Selected for Dispersal Distance in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentarou Matsumura

    Full Text Available Individuals of both dispersal and non-dispersal types (disperser and non-disperser are found in a population, suggesting that each type has both costs and benefits for fitness. However, few studies have examined the trade-off between the costs and benefits for the types. Here, we artificially selected for walking distance, i.e., an indicator of dispersal ability, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and established strains with longer (L-strains or shorter (S-strains walking distances. We then compared the frequency of predation by the assassin bug Amphibolus venator and the mating frequency of the selected strains. L-strain beetles suffered higher predation risk, than did S-strain beetles. L-strain males had significantly increased mating success compared to S-strain males, but females did not show a significant difference between the strains. The current results showed the existence of a trade-off between predation avoidance and mating success associated with dispersal types at a genetic level only in males. This finding can help to explain the maintenance of variation in dispersal ability within a population.

  14. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasilievich Pinevich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  15. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  16. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  17. An updated review on the Oenothera genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sumitra; Kaur, Rupinder; Sharma, Surendra Kr

    2012-07-01

    Oenothera genus (Onagraceae) has been used as a folk remedy since ancient times for the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, neuralgia, skin diseases, and hepatic and kidney diseases. Different chemical constituents like lipids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenes have been isolated from this genus. The various notable pharmacological activities reported from the genus are antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, thrombolytic and antidiarrhoeal. The present paper is to summarize the worldwide reported biological activities and phytoconstituents associated with this genus for about 50 years and highlight the medicinally important species belonging to this genus so that these species can be further explored and used as therapeutic agents for various diseases.

  18. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  19. Assortative mating and directional or stabilizing selection for a non-linear function of traits in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G

    1993-01-12

    Assortative or random mating following selection in either direction on a non-linear index (experiment 1) or stabilizing selection for pupal length (experiment 2) were carried out for five generations in two lines of Tribolium castaneum (A and R, respectively), with three replicates each. The selected proportion was 25% in all lines. In experiment 1, the selection criterion was designed to increase the aggregate value of adult weight and the first- and second-order powers of pupal length. The A and R lines gave significant responses for the aggregate value (184 ± 6 and 161 ± 14, respectively), pupal length (0.74 ± 0.02 and 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively), and adult weight (0.79 ± 0.03 and 0.78 ± 0.12, respectively). Although the A line was not significantly better than the R line, there was a consistent advantage for assortative mating over random mating, the mean response for aggregate value and pupal length being approximately 1.15 times greater for the A line. In experiment 2 the selection criterion was the square of the deviation from the mean pupal length (stabilizing selection); both lines did not show any change for pupal length. The phenotypic variance showed a significant decrease in the A and R lines, due to a decrease in between-family variance. The assortatively and randomly mated lines were similar for these changes in phenotypic variation. RESUMEN: Aparemiento clasificado y selección direccional o estabilizante para una función no lineal en Tribolium. Dos líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas direccionalmente para un índice no lineal (experimento 1) o estabilizantemente para longitud de pupa (experimento 2), apareando los animales seleccionados clasificadamente (A) o aleatoriamente (R). Había tres repeticiones por experimento y línea, siendo la proporción de selección el 25%. En el experimento 1, el objetivo de selección incluía el peso adulto así como la longitud de pupa y su cuadrado. Ambas líneas dieron respuesta

  20. Coleoptera,Tenebrionidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... cycle de développement a été suivi de la ponte jusqu'à l'apparition des adultes pour déterminer les différentes paramètres biodémographiques. .... ainsi que la durée du cycle de développement de l'insecte et entraîne une plus grande ...... 311-333 in Krebs J.R. et Davies N.B.. (éds.), Behavioural ecology.

  1. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Steiner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species.

  2. Chemical composition, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of Schinus molle L. leaf and fruit essential oils against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Farag, Mohamed A; Gayed, Sabah H El; Harraz, Fathalla M H

    2010-02-01

    Fruit and leaf essential oils of Schinus molle showed insect repellent and insecticidal activity against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum. In these oils, 65 components were identified by GC-MS analysis. Hydrocarbons dominated the oil composition with monoterpenes occurring in the largest amounts in fruits and leaves, 80.43 and 74.84%, respectively. p-Cymene was identified as a major component in both oils. The high yield and efficacy of S. molle essential oil against T. granarium and T. castaneum suggest that it may provide leads for active insecticidal agents.

  3. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...... have, e.g. production of mycotoxins. (Firsvad et al. (2009)) A clade of Stemphylium spp. i.e. S. herbarum, S. alfalfae, S. sedicola, S. tomatonis and S. vesicariumare troublesome to distinguish as they share both morphological and molecular characteristics. This study has focused on using chemotaxonomy...

  4. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  5. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  6. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Tribolium confusum Larvae Mediate Trail Following and Host Recognition in the Ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Hilker, Monika

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic wasps which attack insects infesting processed stored food need to locate their hosts hidden inside these products. Their host search is well-known to be guided by host kairomones, perceived via olfaction or contact. Among contact kairomones, host cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) may provide reliable information for a parasitoid. However, the chemistry of CHC profiles of hosts living in processed stored food products is largely unknown. Here we showed that the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis uses CHCs of its host Tribolium confusum, a worldwide stored product pest, as kairomones for host location and recognition at short range. Chemical analysis of T. confusum larval extracts by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed a rich blend of long-chain (C25-C30) hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, mono-, and dimethylalkanes. We further studied whether host larvae leave sufficient CHCs on a substrate where they walk along, thus allowing parasitoids to perceive a CHC trail and follow it to their host larvae. We detected 18 CHCs on a substrate that had been exposed to host larvae. These compounds were also found in crude extracts of host larvae and made up about a fifth of the CHC amount extracted. Behavioral assays showed that trails of host CHCs were followed by the parasitoids and reduced their searching time until successful host recognition. Host CHC trails deposited on different substrates were persistent for about a day. Hence, the parasitoid H. sylvanidis exploits CHCs of T. confusum larvae for host finding by following host CHC trails and for host recognition by direct contact with host larvae.

  7. Multiple resistance to pirimiphos-methyl and bifenthrin in Tribolium castaneum involves the activity of lipases, esterases, and laccase2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio, Alison Henrique Ferreira; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Cardoso, Kátia Aparecida Kern; Drosdoski, Sandro Daniel; Kulza, Rodrigo Amaral; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Lapenta, Ana Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Several recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms that confer insecticide resistance on insect pests. However, little is known about multiple resistance in red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) at molecular level. The multiple resistance is characterized as resistance to different classes of insecticides that have different target sites, and is mediated by several enzymatic systems. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in multiple resistance of T. castaneum to bifenthrin (pyrethroid [Pyr]) and pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate [Org]). We used artificial selection, biochemical and in silico approaches including structural computational biology. After five generations of artificial selection in the presence of bifenthrin (F5Pyr) or pirimiphos-methyl (F5Org), we found high levels of multiple resistance. The hierarchical enzymatic cluster revealed a pool of esterases (E), lipases (LIPs) and laccase2 (LAC2) potentially contributing to the resistance in different ways throughout development, after one or more generations in the presence of insecticides. The enzyme-insecticide interaction network indicated that E2, E3, LIP3, and LAC2 are enzymes potentially required for multiple resistance phenotype. Kinetic analysis of esterases from F5Pyr and F5Org showed that pirimiphos-methyl and specially bifenthrin promote enzyme inhibition, indicating that esterases mediate resistance by sequestering bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Our computational data were in accordance with kinetic results, indicating that bifenthrin has higher affinity at the active site of esterase than pirimiphos-methyl. We also report the capability of these insecticides to modify the development in T. castaneum. Our study provide insights into the biochemical mechanisms employed by T. castaneum to acquire multiple resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fraga

    Full Text Available Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 and hexokinase (HexA genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  9. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cytochrome P450 (CYP genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively, permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold, whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  10. Next generation sequencing based transcriptome analysis of septic-injury responsive genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boran Altincicek

    Full Text Available Beetles (Coleoptera are the most diverse animal group on earth and interact with numerous symbiotic or pathogenic microbes in their environments. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a genetically tractable model beetle species and its whole genome sequence has recently been determined. To advance our understanding of the molecular basis of beetle immunity here we analyzed the whole transcriptome of T. castaneum by high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. Here, we demonstrate that the Illumina/Solexa sequencing approach of cDNA samples from T. castaneum including over 9.7 million reads with 72 base pairs (bp length (approximately 700 million bp sequence information with about 30× transcriptome coverage confirms the expression of most predicted genes and enabled subsequent qualitative and quantitative transcriptome analysis. This approach recapitulates our recent quantitative real-time PCR studies of immune-challenged and naïve T. castaneum beetles, validating our approach. Furthermore, this sequencing analysis resulted in the identification of 73 differentially expressed genes upon immune-challenge with statistical significance by comparing expression data to calculated values derived by fitting to generalized linear models. We identified up regulation of diverse immune-related genes (e.g. Toll receptor, serine proteinases, DOPA decarboxylase and thaumatin and of numerous genes encoding proteins with yet unknown functions. Of note, septic-injury resulted also in the elevated expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins or cytochrome P450s supporting the view that there is crosstalk between immune and stress responses in T. castaneum. The present study provides a first comprehensive overview of septic-injury responsive genes in T. castaneum beetles. Identified genes advance our understanding of T. castaneum specific gene expression alteration upon immune-challenge in particular and may help to understand beetle immunity

  11. A Defensin from the Model Beetle Tribolium castaneum Acts Synergistically with Telavancin and Daptomycin against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Conery, Annie L; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Kim, Wooseong; Johnston, Tatiana; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a common insect pest and has been established as a model beetle to study insect development and immunity. This study demonstrates that defensin 1 from T. castaneum displays in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of defensin 1 against 11 reference and clinical staphylococcal isolates was between 16-64 μg/ml. The putative mode of action of the defensin peptide is disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antibacterial activity of defensin 1 was attenuated by salt concentrations of 1.56 mM and 25 mM for NaCl and CaCl2 respectively. Treatment of defensin 1 with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) at concentrations 1.56 to 3.13 mM abolished the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that also target the bacterial cell envelope such as telavancin and daptomycin, the MIC of the peptide was as low as 1 μg/ml. Moreover, when tested against an S. aureus strain that was defective in D-alanylation of the cell wall, the MIC of the peptide was 0.5 μg/ml. Defensin 1 exhibited no toxicity against human erythrocytes even at 400 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of the peptide was validated in a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA liquid infection assay. These results suggest that defensin 1 behaves similarly to other cationic AMPs in its mode of action against S. aureus and that the activity of the peptide can be enhanced in combination with other antibiotics with similar modes of action or with compounds that have the ability to decrease D-alanylation of the bacterial cell wall.

  12. A Defensin from the Model Beetle Tribolium castaneum Acts Synergistically with Telavancin and Daptomycin against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a common insect pest and has been established as a model beetle to study insect development and immunity. This study demonstrates that defensin 1 from T. castaneum displays in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of defensin 1 against 11 reference and clinical staphylococcal isolates was between 16-64 μg/ml. The putative mode of action of the defensin peptide is disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antibacterial activity of defensin 1 was attenuated by salt concentrations of 1.56 mM and 25 mM for NaCl and CaCl2 respectively. Treatment of defensin 1 with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT at concentrations 1.56 to 3.13 mM abolished the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that also target the bacterial cell envelope such as telavancin and daptomycin, the MIC of the peptide was as low as 1 μg/ml. Moreover, when tested against an S. aureus strain that was defective in D-alanylation of the cell wall, the MIC of the peptide was 0.5 μg/ml. Defensin 1 exhibited no toxicity against human erythrocytes even at 400 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of the peptide was validated in a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA liquid infection assay. These results suggest that defensin 1 behaves similarly to other cationic AMPs in its mode of action against S. aureus and that the activity of the peptide can be enhanced in combination with other antibiotics with similar modes of action or with compounds that have the ability to decrease D-alanylation of the bacterial cell wall.

  13. The genus Retiboletus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Liang, Zhi-Qun; Wu, Gang; Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Zhu L; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Retiboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions and sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (tef1a). Six lineages are recovered among the collections studied. Five of these are documented and presented in the present paper, including three new species and two new combinations. The remaining species is not described due to the paucity of material. The specimens from China identified as "R. ornatipes" or "R. retipes" are in fact R. sinensis or R. kauffmanii, those labeled "R. griseus" are either R. fuscus or R. pseudogriseus A key to all known taxa of the genus is provided. Phylogenetic relationships of taxa within Retiboletus are partially resolved. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that allied species of Retiboletus between eastern Asia and North/Central America are common but there are no Retiboletus species common to both continents. Species of Retiboletus in Japan and southern China are conspecific or closely related. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. 2+1 gravity for genus >1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.E.; Regge, T.

    1991-01-01

    We analysed the algebra of observables for the simple case of a genus 1 initial data surface Σ 2 for 2+1 De Sitter gravity. Here we extend the analysis to higher genus. We construct for genus 2 the group of automorphisms H of the homotopy group π 1 induced by the mapping class group. The group H induces a group D of canonical transformations on the algebra of observables which is related to the braid group for 6 threads. (orig.)

  15. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.

    Speciation
    It is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity o...

  16. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  17. THE GENUS TEIJSMANNIODENDRON KOORDERS (VERBENACEAE

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present notes on Teijsmanniodendron are based on a study of the spec- imens from Herbarium Bogoriense and the Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Garden. 2. The taxonomic value of the principal characters and their variation are discussed. Each of the species recognized is annotated. 3. A delimitation and subdivision of the genus in two sections,  Plurifoliolatae Kosterm.  and 'Unifoliolatae Kosterm  is proposed. 4. A key to the 12 species and 1 variety distinguished, is included. 5. One new species is provisionally described (but not named, and one new variety, Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum var. auriculatum Kosterm, is published. 6. The following new combinations are made: Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum B. Clarke Kosterm,, T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm. T. holophyllum (Bak. Kos- term, T.novoguineense (Kan. & Hatus. Kosterm., T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., T. smilacifolium (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., and T. subspieatum (Hallier f. Kosterm. 7. The genus Xerocarpa H. 3. Lam (non Spach is rejected; its only species, X. avicenniaefoliola H. J. Lam, is referred to Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr. Bakh. In addition, the following reductions are made: Teijsmanniodendron mono- phyllum Kurata = T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm.; Vitex bankae H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh., V. bogoriensis H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh.; V. koordersii H. J. Lam t= T. pteropodum (Miq. Bakh.; V. tetragona Hallier f. = T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm.; V. venosa H. J. Lam = T. coriaceum (C. B. Clarke Kosterm. Possible identity of T. longifolium (Merr. Merr. and T. bogoriense is suggested: the identity of T. simplicifolium Merr. and T. smilacifolium (H. H-, W. Pears. Kosterm. is indicated as probable. 8. Vitex subspicata Hallier f. and V. holophylla Bak. included by Lam in vitex hollrungii Warb. are reinstated as distinct species of Teijsmanniodendron.

  18. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  19. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  20. Locomotor activity of Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae on Chilean sandy beaches Actividad locomotora de Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, enebrionidae en playas arenosas chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JARAMILLO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The locomotor activity of the beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae was studied on the surface of the substrate in two sandy beaches of the Chilean coast: one in north central (ca. 29ºS and the other in south central Chile (ca.39ºS. During the summer period of 1991 the circadian locomotor activity was studied in the southern beach, while during that of 1997 in both beaches. To analyze the activity, pitfall traps were used which were ordered along two transects extended between the upper beach and the resurgence zone. The traps were checked (i.e. collection of captured insects every two hours for a total period of 26 hours. The results showed that the adults of P. maculata were mostly active during the night hours, whereas the larvae were active during both, the day and night. Studies carried out in the beach located in south central Chile show that differences in the tidal range (neap vs. spring tides do not affect the activity patterns. During the locomotor activity, adult and larvae move to lower intertidal levels than those usually occupied while buried. Results of laboratory experiments using actographs under conditions of darkness and constant temperature, suggest that adults and larvae of P. maculata presented a circadian rhythm similar to that observed in the field experiments. It is concluded that P. maculata presents a behaviour that appear to be under control of an endogenous rhythm, without showing differences in the circadian rhythm of activity when beaches located at different latitudes are comparedSe estudió la actividad locomotriz del escarabajo Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae sobre la superficie del sustrato de dos playas arenosas de la costa de Chile: una en el centro norte (ca. 29ºS y otra en el centro sur (ca. 39ºS. Durante el período estival de 1991 se estudió la actividad locomotriz circadiana en la playa del centro sur y durante el de 1997 en ambas playas. Para analizar

  1. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  2. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  3. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  4. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Susanne; Marciniak, Pawel; Köhler, Rene; Nachman, Ronald J; Suh, Charles P-C; Predel, Reinhard

    2018-03-01

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs. With the differential processing of the CAPA-precursor in Z. atratus we found a perfect example of completely different products cleaved from a single neuropeptide precursor in different cells. The CAPA precursor in abdominal ganglia of this species yields primarily periviscerokinins (PVKs) whereas processing of the same precursor in neurosecretory cells of the subesophageal ganglion results in CAPA-tryptoPK and a novel CAPA-PK. Particularly important was the detection of that CAPA-PK which has never been observed in the CNS of insects before. The three different types of CAPA peptides (CAPA-tryptoPK, CAPA-PK, PVK) each represent potential ligands which activate different receptors. In contrast to the processing of the CAPA precursor from Z. atratus, no indications of a differential processing of the CAPA precursor were found in A. g. grandis. These data suggest that rapid evolutionary changes regarding the processing of CAPA precursors were still going on when the different beetle lineages diverged. The sequence of the single known PVK of A. g. grandis occupies a special position within the known PVKs of insects and might serve asa basis to develop lineage-specific peptidomimetics capable of disrupting physiological processes regulated by PVKs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalaki, M P; Athanassiou, C G; Steenberg, Tove

    2007-01-01

    moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The fungus was added in stored wheat at two dose rates, 200 and 400 ppm, at two temperature levels, 20 and 25 °C alone or in combination with the diatomaceous earth formulation SilicoSec®. Mortality of the exposed individuals was measured after...... 7, 14 and 21 d of exposure. For both T. confusum adults and larvae, mortality was higher at 20 than at 25 °C. In the case of T. confusum larvae, after 14 d of exposure, mortality on wheat treated with the highest dose of P. fumosoroseus with SilicoSec® was signiWcantly higher than that of Silico...

  7. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  9. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , sections and genus of Aspergillus. The work uncovers a large genomic diversity across all studied groups of species. The genomic diversity was especially evident on the section level, where the proteins shared by all species only represents ⇠55% of the proteome. This number decreases even further, to 38......, sections Nigri, Usti and Cavericolus, clade Tubingensis, and species A. niger. It lastly uses these results to predict genetic traits that take part in fungal speciation. Within a few years the Aspergillus whole-genus sequencing project will have published all currently-accepted Aspergillus genomes......Aspergillus is a highly important genus of saprotrophic filamentous fungi. It is a very diverse genus that is inextricably intertwined with human a↵airs on a daily basis, holding species relevant to plant and human pathology, enzyme and bulk chemistry production, food and beverage biotechnology...

  10. Infinite genus surfaces and irrational polygonal billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Ferrán

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the natural invariant surface associated with the billiard game on an irrational polygonal table is homeomorphic to the Loch Ness monster, that is, the only orientable infinite genus topological real surface with exactly one end.

  11. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  12. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  13. Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cristofori

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].

  14. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  15. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  16. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  17. Patrones biogeográficos de los tenebriónidos epigeos (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae del Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés, Argentina: implicaciones para su conservación Biogeographic patterns of epigean tenebrionids (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from Protected Natural Area Península Valdés, Argentina: implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Carrara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre los patrones biogeográficos de los tenebriónidos epigeos (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae que habitan el Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (Chubut, Argentina, basado en datos de colecciones y material recolectado en viajes a la zona. Se presenta una lista exhaustiva de las especies en la que se consigna el grado de adaptación a la aridez de cada una de ellas; un análisis de la calidad del inventario y la estimación de la riqueza total de especies; una evaluación de los patrones de distribución y riqueza, y la identificación de áreas de significativa mayor riqueza o hotspots. Los resultados indicaron que 25 especies con diferente grado de adaptación a la aridez habitan la península, aunque se estima que la riqueza total del área debería ser de 27. Además, se reconoció que los rangos de distribución de los tenebriónidos siguen una distribución log-normal y que sólo 3 especies son endémicas. Espacialmente, la riqueza se distribuyó de forma agregada en la península y se determinaron 10 hotspots. Finalmente, considerando que en la península Valdés están permitidas actividades productivas que originan una importante degradación del hábitat, se examina la implicancia de los resultados para la conservación de los tenebriónidos epigeos.We conducted a study of the biogeographic patterns of epigean tenebrionids (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae that inhabit the Protected Natural Area Península Valdés (Chubut, Argentina, based on data obtained from collections and collecting trips. We present a comprehensive species list, where we detail the degree of adaptation to aridity shown by each species, an analysis of the quality of the inventory, an estimation of total species richness, and an evaluation of distribution and richness patterns, with the identification of areas of significantly greater richness or "hotspots". The results indicated that 25 species with different degrees of adaptation to aridity

  18. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  19. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  20. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens....... Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...... of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted...

  1. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21-0.47+0.43 on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36-0.17+0.46.

  2. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  3. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  4. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  5. THE GENUS TRIGONOSPORA (THELYPTERIDACEAE IN MALESIA

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    RE Holttum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus is discussed, and the Malesian species distinguished and described. Two new combinations are effected, Trigono-spora calcarata (Bl. Holtt. and T. koorderSiiH (Chr. Holtt.; the latter is here recognized for the first time as closely related to T. calcarata,.

  6. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

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    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  7. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  8. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  9. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

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    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  10. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthew, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    A revision of the genus in its entire range of distribution is presented. Out of more than 50 published specific names, 9 species (with 13 subspecies or varieties) are recognized, in addition to 4 new species and one new subspecies. The two subgenera Pentamastixia and Tetramastixia of Wangerin

  11. Chloothamnus, a neglected genus of Bambusaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1936-01-01

    Chloothamnus BUSE ap. MIQUEL, Pl. Jungh. 1854, 386 — Oreiostachys GAMBLE ap. KOORDERS, Verh. Kon. Ak. Wet. 16, 1908, 657.. Hab.: Malay Archipelago. 1. C. chilianthus BUSE, l.c., type species of the genus — Schizostachyum chilianthum (BUSE) KURZ, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 39, ii, 1870, 88 — non Melocanna

  12. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  13. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  14. A revision of the genus Phacellaria (Santalaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    On several occasions the author received specimens for determination under the name of Loranthaceae, which in reality appeared to be Phacellarias, usually parasitic on Loranthaceae. When trying to name these Phacellarias, he preceived how difficult it was to survey the literature of the genus.

  15. Conspectus of the genus Amyema Tieghem (Loranthaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1992-01-01

    The Australasian/Malesian genus Amyema is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the species of the Malesian region, as a precursor to a treatment of Loranthaceae for Flora Malesiana. Amyema comprises 92 species, and is distributed from the southeast Asian mainland (Malaya, Thailand) throughout

  16. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Cylindrocladiella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Shivas, R.G.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cylindrocladiella was established to accommodate Cylindrocladium-like fungi that have small, cylindrical conidia and aseptate stipe extensions. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and to a lesser extent on DNA sequence comparisons of the internal

  17. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  18. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  19. Records of the genus Coccygidium Saussure (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccygidium arabica sp. nov., (Hym., Braconidae, Agathidinae) is described from Saudi Arabia. Morphological diagnostic characters of the new species were figured and compared with those of the related species Coccygidium angostura. The genus Coccygidium Saussure is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia.

  20. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  1. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  2. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  3. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) The genus Psycharium Herrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Psycharium is revised for the first time. Until now, only a drawing of the female type species was known. The male and female of the type species, P. pellucens Herrich-Schaffer, and four new species, montanum, kammanassiense, bamardi and natalense,are comprehensively described. A key to the species of ...

  4. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough,.

  5. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melodinus is an important genus comprising of approximately 53 species of medicinal plants (Apocynaceae). Some species have been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of meningitis in children, rheumatic heart diseases, and diuresis, as well as a decongestive against migraine and sinusitis. This paper is a ...

  6. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  7. A study in the genus Vulpia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1937-01-01

    In conclusion, we propose the following nomenclatural alterations. For a good classification, the genus Vulpia is to be accepted as a member of the Festuceae. Various names of Vulpia are fixed according to our present rules of nomenclature, viz. V. bromoides (L.) GRAY, V. membranacea (L.) LINK, V.

  8. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  9. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other...

  10. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars

  11. Studies on the Genus Orbitolina (Foraminiferida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1963-01-01

    The genus Orbitolina is described in detail and is shown to be represented by one species only: Orbitolina lenticularis (Blumenbach). This species can be subdivided into form-groups, based on the characteristics of the megalospheric embryonic apparatus. The evolution of the species is orthogenetic.

  12. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I,

  13. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  14. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  15. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  16. The Genus Diporochaeta (Oligochaeta Megascolecidae) in Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, B.G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Perionychella is reassigned to Diporochaeta as a junior synonym. 9 new species are added to the 8 previously known Queensland species of Diporochaeta, all of which are redescribed, bringing the generic total for Australia to 77 named species. Distribution of the genus is disjunct, the Queensland

  17. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  18. The phyletic status of the genus Planaria (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Gourbault, Nicole

    1978-01-01

    The amphiatlantic distribution of the genus Planaria is incompatible with our current hypothesis of the historical biogeography of freshwater planarians. New anatomical studies suggest the possibility that the genus is not strictly monophyletic; new karyological data are strongly corroborative of

  19. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  20. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  1. Pesticidal and pest repellency activities of a plant derived triterpenoid 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene against Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored grain-based products, and cause severe damage to cereal grains throughout the world. The present investigation was aimed to determine the pesticidal and pest repellent activities of 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene against T. castaneum. The compound 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene is a triterpenoid which was isolated from the roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud. Surface film technique was used for pesticidal screening, whereas, pest repellency property of the triterpenoid was determined by filter paper disc method. RESULTS: At 24 hours of exposure duration, significant mortality records (80% and 86% were observed at doses 0.88 and 1.77 mg/cm². No significant change in mortality records was observed when duration of exposure was increased up to 48 hours. The triterpenoid showed significant repellency activity at doses 0.47 and 0.94 mg/cm². CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the triterpenoid 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene possess both pesticidal and pest repellency activities against T. castaneum and can be used in controlling the pest of grain-based products.

  2. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, R.W.; Friesen, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M 1 and M 4 , were by far the most prevalent, M 4 being the predominant type. M 2 and M 3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M 1 could be genetically segregated from M 4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M 1 factor invariably co-occurred with M 4 in field populations, whereas M 4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M 1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity. (author)

  3. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunçbilek, A.Ş.; Kansu, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD50 and LD99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD50 and SD99.9)

  4. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunçbilek, Aydin Ş.; Kansu, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD 50 and LD 99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD 50 and SD 99.9 ). (author)

  5. Genetic variation and co-variation for fitness between intra-population and inter-population backgrounds in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W.; Wade, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids from crosses between populations of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, express varying degrees of inviability and morphological abnormalities. The proportion of allopatric population hybrids exhibiting these negative hybrid phenotypes varies widely, from 3% to 100%, depending upon the pair of populations crossed. We crossed three populations and measured two fitness components, fertility and adult offspring numbers from successful crosses, to determine how genes segregating within populations interact in inter-population hybrids to cause the negative phenotypes. With data from crosses of 40 sires from each of three populations to groups of 5 dams from their own and two divergent populations, we estimated the genetic variance and covariance for breeding value of fitness between the intra- and inter-population backgrounds and the sire × dam-population interaction variance. The latter component of the variance in breeding values estimates the change in genic effects between backgrounds owing to epistasis. Interacting genes with a positive effect, prior to fixation, in the sympatric background but a negative effect in the hybrid background cause reproductive incompatibility in the Dobzhansky-Muller speciation model. Thus, the sire × dam-population interaction provides a way to measure the progress toward speciation of genetically differentiating populations on a trait by trait basis using inter-population hybrids. PMID:21044199

  6. The lethal giant larvae Gene in Tribolium castaneum: Molecular Properties and Roles in Larval and Pupal Development as Revealed by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We identified and characterized the TcLgl gene putatively encoding lethal giant larvae (Lgl protein from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. Analyses of developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns revealed that TcLgl was constitutively expressed. To examine the role of TcLgl in insect development, RNA interference was performed in early (1-day larvae, late (20-day larvae, and early (1-day pupae. The early larvae injected with double-stranded RNA of TcLgl (dsTcLgl at 100, 200, and 400 ng/larva failed to pupate, and 100% mortality was achieved within 20 days after the injection or before the pupation. The late larvae injected with dsTcLgl at these doses reduced the pupation rates to only 50.3%, 36.0%, and 18.2%, respectively. The un-pupated larvae gradually died after one week, and visually unaffected pupae failed to emerge into adults and died during the pupal stage. Similarly, when early pupae were injected with dsTcLgl at these doses, the normal eclosion rates were reduced to only 22.5%, 18.0%, and 11.2%, respectively, on day 7 after the injection, and all the adults with abnormal eclosion died in two days after the eclosion. These results indicate that TcLgl plays an essential role in insect development, especially during their metamorphosis.

  7. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  8. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joergen Ellegard; Penner, Robert C.; Reidys, Christian

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  9. A Comprehensive review on the genus Plumbago with focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genus Plumbago distributed in warm tropical regions throughout the world is the largest genus in Plumbaginaceae. Medicinal plants are characteristic to the genus Plumbago and are cultivated and utilized worldwide. Plumbago auriculata Lam. is common in South Africa and is often cultivated for its ...

  10. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  11. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from

  12. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W

    2014-06-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage.

  14. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Gwénaëlle Bontonou; Claude Wicker-Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular...

  15. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  16. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  17. The pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2017-07-01

    The pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species is presented; some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  20. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  1. Population growth rate and genetic variability of small and large populations of Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) following multigenerational exposure to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina

    2015-07-01

    We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.

  2. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  3. Hox genes require homothorax and extradenticle for body wall identity specification but not for appendage identity specification during metamorphosis of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of segment identity is a key developmental process that allows for divergence along the anteroposterior body axis in arthropods. In Drosophila, the identity of a segment is determined by the complement of Hox genes it expresses. In many contexts, Hox transcription factors require the protein products of extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as cofactors to perform their identity specification functions. In holometabolous insects, segment identity may be specified twice, during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. To glean insight into the relationship between embryonic and metamorphic segmental identity specification, we have compared these processes in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which develops ventral appendages during embryogenesis that later metamorphose into adult appendages with distinct morphologies. At metamorphosis, comparisons of RNAi phenotypes indicate that Hox genes function jointly with Tc-hth and Tc-exd to specify several region-specific aspects of the adult body wall. On the other hand, Hox genes specify appendage identities along the anteroposterior axis independently of Tc-hth/Tc-exd and Tc-hth/Tc-exd specify proximal vs. distal identity within appendages independently of Hox genes during this stage. During embryogenesis, Tc-hth and Tc-exd play a broad role in the segmentation process and are required for specification of body wall identities in the thorax; however, contrasting with results from other species, we did not obtain homeotic transformations of embryonic appendages in response to Tc-hth or Tc-exd RNAi. In general, the homeotic effects of interference with the function of Hox genes and Tc-hth/Tc-exd during metamorphosis did not match predictions based on embryonic roles of these genes. Comparing metamorphic patterning in T. castaneum to embryonic and post-embryonic development in hemimetabolous insects suggests that holometabolous metamorphosis combines patterning processes of both late embryogenesis and

  4. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  5. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  6. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  7. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  8. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  9. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  10. Heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia and the description of the new genus Parafumarolamoeba (Vahlkampfiidae; Heterolobosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Zhang, Junling; De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2015-08-01

    Heterolobosean amoebae are common and diverse members of soil protist communities. In this study, we isolated seven strains of amoebae from soil samples taken in Tibet (at high altitude), Sardinia and the Netherlands, all resembling to belong to a similar heterolobosean morphospecies. However, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rDNA, revealed a high heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia to which six of the isolates belong. Some unnamed strains, of which the sequences had been published before, are also included within the genus Allovahlkampfia. One Allovahlkampfia isolated in the Netherlands harbors a twin-ribozyme, containing a His-Cys box, similar to the one found in strain BA of Allovahlkampfia. The other SSU rDNA sequence grouped in phylogenetic analyses with sequences obtained in environmental sequencing studies as sister to the genus Fumarolamoeba. This phylogenetic placement was supported by analyses of the 5.8S rDNA leading us to describe it as a new genus Parafumarolamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  12. [Advance in chemical constituents of genus Clematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yang, Depo

    2009-10-01

    Progresses in the studies on chemical constituents of Clematis L. (belonging to the family Ranunculaceae) were systematiically reviewed in this article. The plants in this genus have a wide spectrum of constituents as follows: triterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, volatile oils, steroids, organic acids, macrocyclic compounds and phenols, etc., among which triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids and lignans are the main components. The triterpenoid saponins are mainly oleanolic type and hederagenin type, most of which are bidesmosidic saponins, substituted with oligosaccharide chains at both C-3 and C-28, and some are substituted with acetyl, caffeoyl, isoferuloyl, p-methoxy cinnamyl and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl groups in the oligosaccharide chains. The flavonoids from Clematis species are mainly flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, xanthones and their glucosides (sugar moieties are connected to the aglycone through either the oxygen or the carbon atoms), the aglycones of which are mainly apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin. The lignans from Clematis are mainly eupomatene lignans, cyclolignans, monoepoxylignans, bisepoxylignans and lignanolides. Clematis spp. are rich in resources, however, studies on their chemical constituents have only been carried out on twenty or so spp. As a result, it is necessary to expand our study on other spp. from this genus for better utilization of medicinal resources.

  13. Diterpenes from the Marine Algae of the Genus Dictyota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayun; Li, Hong; Zhao, Zishuo; Xia, Xue; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-11

    Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.

  14. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Machado; Henrique Machado; Lone Gram

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationship...

  15. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Koh, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Oliveco set-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A 1 /sup (1)/ Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface

  16. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  17. Comparative Genomics of Bacteriophage of the Genus Seuratvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazinas, Pavelas; Redgwell, Tamsin; Rihtman, Branko

    2017-01-01

    polB and terL showed these bacteriophages to be closely related to members of the genus Seuratvirus. We performed a core-gene analysis using the 14 new and four closely related genomes. A total of 58 core genes were identified, the majority of which has no known function. These genes were used...... to construct a core-gene phylogeny, the results of which confirmed the new isolates to be part of the genus Seuratvirus and expanded the number of species within this genus to four. All bacteriophages within the genus contained the genes queCDE encoding enzymes involved in queuosine biosynthesis. We suggest...

  18. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  19. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Żyła

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: O. jakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and O. baissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphum baissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  20. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  1. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  2. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are 'whale-fall specialists.'

  3. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down

  4. A revision of the genus Microtypus Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čapek, M.; Achterberg, van C.

    1992-01-01

    The genus Microtypus Ratzeburg, 1848 (Braconidae: Microtypinae) is revised, its species are keyed, and a new species, M. petiolatus van Achterberg spec. nov. is described. The type species is redescribed and fully illustrated. The genus Similearinus Glowacki & Karpinski, 1967 is a new junior synonym

  5. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T.

  6. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  7. Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Reijiro; Yoshii, Hisahiro; Ojima, Shuichi; Paul, S.K.

    1989-07-01

    Quantum field theory for b-c systems is formulated on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We make use of the formalism recently developed by Krichever and Novikov. Hamiltonian is defined properly, and the Ward-Takahashi identities are derived on higher-genus Riemann surfaces. (author)

  8. Seiridium (Sporocadaceae): an important genus of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthond, G.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Seiridium includes multiple plant pathogenic fungi well-known as causal organisms of cankers on Cupressaceae. Taxonomically, the status of several species has been a topic of debate, as the phylogeny of the genus remains unresolved and authentic ex-type cultures are mostly absent. In the

  9. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  10. On the entropy of random surfaces with arbitrary genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.; Krzywicki, A.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the susceptibility critical exponent γ for Polyakov random surfaces with arbitrary genus, using the Liouville theory to one-loop order. Some rigorous results obtained for special dimensionalities in a discrete version of the model are also noted. In all cases γ grows linearly with the genus of the surface. (orig.)

  11. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  12. PCR identification of Fusarium genus based on nuclear ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have developed two taxon-selective primers for quick identification of the Fusarium genus. These primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r were designed by comparing the aligned sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of a range of Fusarium species. The primers showed good specificity for the genus Fusarium, ...

  13. Natural genetic variation in Calligonum Tunisian genus analyzed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Calligonum genus is one of the most economically important resources of the Tunisian desert, playing an important role in the lives of desert local population. A great range of genetic diversity could be seen in diverse populations of this genus which are spread all over Tunisian areas. DNA-based molecular markers are ...

  14. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over C C . Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over R R , with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism ...

  15. Genetic diversity within the genus Cynotilapia and its phylogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cynotilapia's unicuspid teeth, a unique character used to delineate it from all other mbuna genera, leaves evolutionary biologists wondering which is the closest relative to this genus among mbuna cichlids. This genus has only two described species out of the 10-13 species/taxa, whereby the undescribed taxa are either ...

  16. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  17. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North. America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  18. Phylogeny of the genus Morus (Urticales: Moraceae) inferred from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F sequences were acquired from 13 mulberry genotypes belonging to nine species and three varieties, and one paper mulberry. The later belongs to genus B. papyrifera, designed as outgroup, and were analyzed. Within the genus Morus, the sequence diversity of ITS was ...

  19. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)

  20. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanne A. Healy; Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus...

  1. Non-abelian bosonization in higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, I.G.; Yu, M.

    1988-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the character formulas of the SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra to higher genus Riemann surfaces. With this construction, we show that the modular invariant partition funciton of the SO(4) k = 1 Wess-Zumino model is equivalent, in arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces, to that of free fermion theory. (orig.)

  2. Florae Malesianae Precursores XXX. The genus Scleria in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1961-01-01

    After Boeckeler's treatise on the species of Scleria known in his day (5), no comprehensive study on the genus has ever been published. The preparation of an up-to-date monograph would be an arduous task, not only owing to the large size of the genus, but also to the numerous problems encountered in

  3. A taxonomic revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ietswaart, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Origanum (Labiatae, Saturejeae). As this difficult genus was never before monographed, a revisional study was much needed. The data presented are mainly based on the study of herbarium specimens and in some cases of living ones.

  4. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  5. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Chun Li; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Nian-Kai Zeng; Bang Feng; Zhu L. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has...

  6. The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis, by Steenstrup in 1857 for a specimen stranded on the Danish coast in 1853. In 1880, Verrill gave the first description of the genus. Pfeffer (1912) related this history and also mentioned that traditional narratives and illustrations of the 16th century had.

  7. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number

  8. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tc-knirps plays different roles in the specification of antennal and mandibular parasegment boundaries and is regulated by a pair-rule gene in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Drosophila larval head is evolutionarily derived at the genetic and morphological level. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, development of the larval head more closely resembles the ancestral arthropod condition. Unlike in Drosophila, a knirps homologue (Tc-kni) is required for development of the antennae and mandibles. However, published Tc-kni data are restricted to cuticle phenotypes and Tc-even-skipped and Tc-wingless stainings in knockdown embryos. Hence, it has remained unclear whether the entire antennal and mandibular segments depend on Tc-kni function, and whether the intervening intercalary segment is formed completely. We address these questions with a detailed examination of Tc-kni function. Results By examining the expression of marker genes in RNAi embryos, we show that Tc-kni is required only for the formation of the posterior parts of the antennal and mandibular segments (i.e. the parasegmental boundaries). Moreover, we find that the role of Tc-kni is distinct in these segments: Tc-kni is required for the initiation of the antennal parasegment boundary, but only for the maintenance of the mandibular parasegmental boundary. Surprisingly, Tc-kni controls the timing of expression of the Hox gene Tc-labial in the intercalary segment, although this segment does form in the absence of Tc-kni function. Unexpectedly, we find that the pair-rule gene Tc-even-skipped helps set the posterior boundary of Tc-kni expression in the mandible. Using the mutant antennaless, a likely regulatory Null mutation at the Tc-kni locus, we provide evidence that our RNAi studies represent a Null situation. Conclusions Tc-kni is required for the initiation of the antennal and the maintenance of the mandibular parasegmental boundaries. Tc-kni is not required for specification of the anterior regions of these segments, nor the intervening intercalary segment, confirming that Tc-kni is not a canonical ‘gap-gene’. Our finding that a gap gene orthologue is

  10. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  11. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  12. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M; Ryder, O A

    1986-11-01

    Employing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction-endonuclease maps as the basis of comparison, we have investigated the evolutionary affinities of the seven species generally recognized as the genus Equus. Individual species' cleavage maps contained an average of 60 cleavage sites for 16 enzymes, of which 29 were invariant for all species. Based on an average divergence rate of 2%/Myr, the variation between species supports a divergence of extant lineages from a common ancestor approximately 3.9 Myr before the present. Comparisons of cleavage maps between Equus przewalskii (Mongolian wild horse) and E. caballus (domestic horse) yielded estimates of nucleotide sequence divergence ranging from 0.27% to 0.41%. This range was due to intraspecific variation, which was noted only for E. caballus. For pairwise comparisons within this family, estimates of sequence divergence ranged from 0% (E. hemionus onager vs. E. h. kulan) to 7.8% (E. przewalskii vs. E. h. onager). Trees constructed according to the parsimony principle, on the basis of 31 phylogenetically informative restriction sites, indicate that the three extant zebra species represent a monophyletic group with E. grevyi and E. burchelli antiquorum diverging most recently. The phylogenetic relationships of E. africanus and E. hemionus remain enigmatic on the basis of the mtDNA analysis, although a recent divergence is unsupported.

  14. The genus Cuscuta L. in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Aistova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of published data, herbarium collections  and  our  own  research  the  overview  of  the spread  of  7  dodder  species  (genus  Cuscuta  on  the territory of  of the Russian Far East and East Asia is given. The  history  of  research  dodders  on  the  territory  of  the Russian Far East, ecological and spreading peculiarities are described. Certain eurytopic species (C. campestris Yunck., C. japonica Choisy and C. europaea L. growing on the territory of the Russian Far East have plasticity and  rapid  adaptive  response  for  changing  ecological and  geographical  conditions.  C.  epilinum  Weihe, C. epithymum (L. Nathh., C. tinei Insenga have not been naturalized in the Russian Far East.

  15. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  16. Sutorius: a new genus for Boletus eximius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Nuhn, Mitchell; Fechner, Nigel A; Osmundson, Todd W; Soytong, Kasem; Arora, David; Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Sutorius is described as a new genus of Boletaceae to accommodate Boletus robustus originally named illegitimately by C.C. Frost from eastern North America. The legitimate name, Boletus eximius, provided by C.H. Peck, has been used since for a dark purple to chocolate brown bolete with finely scaly stipe and reddish brown spore deposit. This iconic taxon has been documented on five continents. Despite the straightforward species identification from morphology, the interpretation of stipe macro-morphology and spore color has led to equivocal generic placement. Phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding large subunit rRNA and translation elongation factor 1α confirm Sutorius as a unique generic lineage in the Boletaceae. Two species are recognized based on multiple accessions: S. eximius, represented by collections from North America, Costa Rica, Guyana, Indonesia and Japan (molecular data are lacking for only the Guyanan and Japanese material); and S. australiensis, represented by material from Queensland, Australia. Additional collections from Zambia and Thailand represent independent lineages, but sampling is insufficient to describe new species for these entities.

  17. On the toroidal compactifications of bosonic strings in higher genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    For the bosonic string in a higher genus, compactified on the maximal torus of a simply laced Lie group, we discuss a possibility to construct an operator formalism involving only those operators that are well-defined globally over the whole Riemann surface. We find, in particular, higher genus extensions of (some combinations of) the vertex operators for the Kac-Moody algebra. This allows us to derive the relation between the Sugawara and Virasoro constructions of the energy-momentum tensor on Riemann surfaces, and to propose an operator mechanism underlying the construction of group current correlation functions in higher genus. (orig.)

  18. Early Homo and the role of the genus in paleoanthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villmoare, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The history of the discovery of early fossils attributed to the genus Homo has been contentious, with scholars disagreeing over the generic assignment of fossils proposed as members of our genus. In this manuscript I review the history of discovery and debate over early Homo and evaluate the various taxonomic hypotheses for the genus. To get a sense of how hominin taxonomy compares to taxonomic practice outside paleoanthropology, I compare the diversity of Homo to genera in other vertebrate clades. Finally, I propose a taxonomic model that hews closely to current models for hominin phylogeny and is consistent with taxonomic practice across evolutionary biology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  19. Review of the Genus Pimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed Korean species of the genus Pimpla and confirmed 12 species. In this genus, 36 species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, eight species were from Korea. Also, we report four species, Pimpla albociliata Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla femorella Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla kaszabi (Momoi, 1973 and Pimpla melanacrias Perkins, 1941, which were newly recorded for the first time from Korea. Among them, Pimpla nipponica Uchida, 1928 is recorded from United States and the Nearctic region for the first time. A key to Korean species of the genus Pimpla, diagnoses and illustrations of adult external structures are provided.

  20. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  1. Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subrahmanyam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales with its type species A. variosporum, is described from India. The new genus is distinct in producing dimorphic sporangia and multispored, acolumellate and globose macrosporangia with persistent, thin peridium. Sparingly, portions of the sporangial wall at the top and bottom of the sporangia are dissolved at maturity to release the sporangiospores whilst, in its close ally Gilbertella, the sporangium breaks open via a longitudinal suture. Further, the smaller sporangia (microsporangia are without a longitudinal suture and produce variable number of spores. The sporangiospores are pale brown, longitudinally striated without any appendages. Besides, the new genus produces neither rhizoids nor zygospores.

  2. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  3. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  4. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  5. Anticancer Activity Of Plant Genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Emilio Kalonio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of this genus are used both empirically and scientifically as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiviral, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antitumor. Results of the molecular docking simulation of chemical content of these plants could potentially provide an anticancer effect. This paper aims to review the anticancer activity of plant genus Clerodendrum based on scientific data. The method used in this study is the literature study. Searches were conducted online (in the database PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar and on various books (Farmakope Herbal Indonesia and PROSEA. A total 12 plants of the genus Clerodendrum have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo, thus potentially to be developed as a source of new active compounds with anticancer activity.

  6. Higher genus correlators from the hermitian one-matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Chekhov, L.; Makeenko, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    We develop an iterative algorithm for the genus expansion of the hermitian NxN one-matrix model (is the Penner model in an external field). By introducing moments of the external field, we prove that the genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends only on 3g-2+m lower moments (3g-2 for the partition function). We present the explicit results for the partition function and the one-loop correlator in genus one. We compare the correlators for the hermitian one-matrix model with those at zero momenta for c=1 CFT and show an agreement of the one-loop correlators for genus zero. (orig.)

  7. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.......Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...

  8. Rational Points on Curves of Genus 2: Experiments and Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    I will present results of computations providing statistics on rational points on (small) curves of genus 2 and use them to present several conjectures. Some of them are based on heuristic considerations, others are not.

  9. Degenerate conformal theories on higher-genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional degenerate field theories on higher-genus surfaces are investigated. Objects are built on the space of moduli, whose linear combinations are hypothetically conformal blocks in degenerate theories

  10. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan [University of Strasbourg; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanov, Pavel S. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  12. A new genus and species of Ceratocanthidae from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Usambara Mountains (Tanzania), is described. The morphology of the clypeus and mesoepisternum is discussed, also with reference to other Ceratocanthidae. The affinities of the genus are discussed, and ...

  13. New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus (Cyprinidae): an independent origin of specialized scraping forms in the adjacent drainage systems of Ethiopia inferred from mtDNA analysis.

  14. BRST quantization of superconformal theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman Kuang

    1992-01-01

    A complex contour integral method is constructed and applied to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization procedure of string theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces with N=0 and 1 Krichever-Novikov (KN) algebras. This method makes calculations very simple. It is shown that the critical spacetime dimension of the string theories on a genus-g Riemann surface equals that of the string theories on a genus-zero Riemann surface, and that the 'Regge intercepts' in the genus-g case are α(g)=1-3/4g-9/8g 2 and 1/2-3/4g-17/16g 2 for bosonic strings and superstrings, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Some enigmatic aspects of the marine cyanobacterial genus, Trichodesmium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Trichodesmium, an important nitrogen fixing marine genus has some coupled features that appear contrasting, either in their operational requirements or ecological dominance e.g. N2 fixation and photosynthesis take place in the same trichome, former...

  16. Title: Inventory of the genus Craterellus from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Table 1: Described species in the genus Craterellus Persoon as of year 2017. S/ ..... lamps. Each observed mushroom was photographed insitu, prior to picking from .... with other chanterelle mushrooms in the open market in the region.

  17. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci in the little free tailed bat, Chaerephon pumilus s. l. (Molossidae) from South Eastern Africa. Theshnie Naidoo, Angus Macdonald, Jennifer M Lamb ...

  18. Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum are generally considered to be host specialists. We determined the phylogenetic relationships between species of Leccinum from Europe and North America based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  19. Title: Inventory of the genus Craterellus from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    This study presents a preliminary inventory of the genus ... INTRODUCTION. Miombo ..... Sampling methods complies with that of. Tibuhwa (2010 ... in the floor of mixed miombo woodland species in ..... 2000 Concise description of Craterellus.

  20. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I.; Armitage, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided. PMID:21594025

  1. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Arefina-Armitage

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae, is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided.

  2. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Alexander B.; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F.; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus...

  3. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

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    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  4. Elliptic genus of singular algebraic varieties and quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the basic properties of various versions of the two-variable elliptic genus with special attention to the equivariant elliptic genus. The main applications are to the elliptic genera attached to non-compact GITs, including the theories regarding the elliptic genera of phases on N  =  2 introduced in Witten (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 403 159-222).

  5. On genus-two solutions for the ILW equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutiya, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of theta function solutions of genus two for the intermediate long-wave equation is established. A numerical example is also presented. The method basically goes along with Krichever's construction of theta function solutions for soliton equations, such as the Kronecker product equation. This idea leads us to a question whether a Riemann surface exists which allows a peculiar abelian integral of the third kind. The answer is affirmative at least for genus-two curves.

  6. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-01-01

    Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográf...

  7. Genus of total graphs from rings: A survey

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    T. Tamizh Chelvam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a commutative ring. The total graph T Γ ( R of R is the undirected graph with vertex set R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if x + y is a zero divisor in R . In this paper, we present a survey of results on the genus of T Γ ( R and three of its generalizations. Keywords: Commutative ring, Total graph, Cayley graph, Genus, Planar

  8. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (= Oedmannia Thunb., Vascoa DC., Pelecynthis E. Mey), a relatively poorly known papilionoid legume genus, is presented. Rafnia (family Fabaceae, tribe Crotalarieae) is subendemic to the fynbos region of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, with one species having a distribution area reaching into KwaZulu-Natal. The species delimitation has been unsatisfactory, and the relationships among the taxa uncertain. Rafnia is ...

  9. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

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    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  10. Phylogenomic re-assessment of the thermophilic genus Geobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Habibu; Lebre, Pedro; Blom, Jochen; Cowan, Don; De Maayer, Pieter

    2016-12-01

    Geobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming obligate thermophiles. The descriptions and subsequent affiliations of the species in the genus have mostly been based on polyphasic taxonomy rules that include traditional sequence-based methods such as DNA-DNA hybridization and comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Currently, there are fifteen validly described species within the genus. The availability of whole genome sequences has provided an opportunity to validate and/or re-assess these conventional estimates of genome relatedness. We have applied whole genome approaches to estimate the phylogenetic relatedness among the sixty-three Geobacillus strains for which genome sequences are currently publicly available, including the type strains of eleven validly described species. The phylogenomic metrics AAI (Average Amino acid Identity), ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) and dDDH (digital DNA-DNA hybridization) indicated that the current genus Geobacillus is comprised of sixteen distinct genomospecies, including several potentially novel species. Furthermore, a phylogeny constructed on the basis of the core genes identified from the whole genome analyses indicated that the genus clusters into two monophyletic clades that clearly differ in terms of nucleotide base composition. The G+C content ranges for clade I and II were 48.8-53.1% and 42.1-44.4%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the Geobacillus species currently residing within clade II be considered as a new genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Hayata glandulifera (Orchidaceae, New Genus and Species From Northern Vietnam

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    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available New orchid related to Cheirostylis, Goodyera, Rhomboda and Zeuxine discovered in lowland central part of northern Vietnam is described in rank of separate genus Hayata. Proposed genus differs from Goodyera in 2 separate lateral stigmas; in not hairy hypochile; in massive, knob-like mesochile and in large 2-lobed, dentate epichile. It differs from Cheirostylis in large flowers with completely free sepals (newer forming tube; in peculiar bunches of capitate glands on lateral walls of hypochile and in not swollen succulent rhizome forming normal adventitious roots, not modified into ridges or pillows covered by root hairs. From Rhomboda discovered genus differs in absence of any keels on the lip; in specific papillae bunches inside hypochile and in not winged column. New genus may be also close to Zeuxine, from which it differs in plant habit, large flowers, large dentate lobes of epichile and in specific shape of stelidia and rostellar arms. Described plant not fits well with any genera of subtribe Goodyerinae and certainly desires generic segregation. Besides Vietnamese plant, described genus includes H. tabiyahanensis from Taiwan and H. sherriffii from Bhutan. Standard taxonomical treatment of new genus and key for its species identification is presented in the paper.

  12. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

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    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  13. The chemistry and pharmacology of Cleome genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus. These plants of Cleome genus are often used as conventional drugs to treat several ailments therefore information on analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anticancer, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, wound healing and psychopharmacological activity etc were compiled. Literature regarding the compounds isolated and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers in the last 40 years who worked on different species belonging to genus Cleome was summarized in the present review. On the basis of references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cleome species, describing compounds previously reported current trends and future prospects. From a wellbeing point of view, species belonging toCleome genus presents an excellent option for curing variety of ailments in human beings due to its isolated phytocompounds that reveal significant biological activities or for developing a variety of new pharmaceutical products. The observed pharmacological activities and no toxicity profile of extracts obtained from species of Cleome genus support the statement that these extracts might be used in the formation of new formulations that can be

  14. An investigation of self-incompatibility within the genus Restrepia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Helen J; McCrea, Alison R; Baldwin, Timothy C

    2015-03-01

    • The genus Restrepia (Orchidaceae) is indigenous to montane rain forests of Central and South America. Recently, as habitat has fragmented and wild populations dwindled, the chances for successful cross-pollination within the genus have been reduced. Since cultivated species of Restrepia have been vegetatively propagated, they remain genetically close to those in the wild, making ex situ collections of the genus useful model populations for investigating breeding systems. Restrepia are found in clade B of the Pleurothallidinae, the only clade in which self-incompatibility (SI) has not yet been confirmed. In the current study, private collections of Restrepia were used to study the operation of SI within the genus to assist future ex situ conservation of this and related genera.• A variety of self-pollination, intraspecific, and interspecific crosses were performed across the genus, and pollen tube growth was studied.• Individual species exhibited varying degrees of SI. Self-pollinations performed across 26 species in the genus produced few viable seeds, with the exception of R. aberrans. Viable "filled" seeds with embryos were shown to require an intraspecific cross. Primary hybrids between species produced >90% seeds with embryos that germinated well.• The type of SI operating within the genus was considered to be best explained by gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) with interspecific variation in its phenotypic expression. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to SI in the Pleurothallidinae and conservation strategies for Restrepia and related genera. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species ofArachis (A. hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa. In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by seedling specimens. Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69 species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil. We soon discovered that the most significant characters ofArachis lay in their underground structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls. We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features. We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between

  16. Higher genus partition functions of meromorphic conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Volpato, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the higher genus vacuum amplitudes of a meromorphic conformal field theory determine the affine symmetry of the theory uniquely, and we give arguments that suggest that also the representation content with respect to this affine symmetry is specified, up to automorphisms of the finite Lie algebra. We illustrate our findings with the self-dual theories at c = 16 and c = 24; in particular, we give an elementary argument that shows that the vacuum amplitudes of the E 8 x E 8 theory and the Spin(32)/Z 2 theory differ at genus g = 5. The fact that the discrepancy only arises at rather high genus is a consequence of the modular properties of higher genus amplitudes at small central charges. In fact, we show that for c ≤ 24 the genus one partition function specifies already the partition functions up to g ≤ 4 uniquely. Finally we explain how our results generalise to non-meromorphic conformal field theories.

  17. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Synnema-Producing Genus Synnemapestaloides

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    Kyoko Watanabe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synnemapestaloides rhododendri, the type species of the genus Synnemapestaloides, is a pathogen of Rhododendron brachycarpum. This fungus produces six-celled conidia with appendages at both end cells, and are generated by annellidic conidiogenous cells on the synnema. These conidial structures are similar to those of the genus Pestalotia. The monotypic genus Synnemapestaloides is currently classified in the family Amphisphaeriaceae solely based on conidial morphology. Here we demonstrate that Synnemapestaloides represents a distinct genus in the family Sporocadaceae (Amphisphaeriales based on differences in the nucleotide sequences of the partial large subunit rDNA gene, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, and the partial β-tubulin. The genus most closely related to Synnemapestaloides is Seimatosporium and the species most similar to Synnemapestaloides rhododendri is Seim. foliicola which produces short synnema-like conidiomata (sporodochia. These results demonstrate that Seim. foliicola should be transferred to Synnemapestaloides, and also demonstrate that Sporocadaceae can have synnematal in addition to pycnidial and acervular conidiomata.

  19. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus

  20. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  1. Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.-x.

    2017-01-01

    A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and

  2. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Alexander B; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium , as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this genus was because of its role as a plant pathogen or another ecological role. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  3. Higher genus correlators for the complex matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Kristhansen, C.F.; Makeenko, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an iterative scheme which allows us to calculate any multi-loop correlator for the complex matrix model to any genus using only the first in the chain of loop equations. The method works for a completely general potential and the results contain no explicit reference to the couplings. The genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends on a finite number of parameters, namely at most 4g - 2 + m. The authors find the generating functional explicitly up to genus three. The authors show as well that the model is equivalent to an external field problem for the complex matrix model with a logarithmic potential

  4. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  5. KOSTERMANSIA SOEGENG A NEW GENUS IN BGMBACACEAE (Durioneae*

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    W. SOEGENG REKSODIHARDJO

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available In working up the genus Coelostegia, I received on loan from the ForestResearch Institute at Kepong, Malaya abundant material of a species whichWyatt-Smith was unable to place. Dr. Kostermans pointed out to me thatmost likely the specimens belonged to a new genus, related to CoelostegiaI have taken the liberty to name the genus after Dr. A. J. G. H. Kostermanswho has been devoting time and energy teaching me taxonomy, and whoJias taken up the burden of the development of taxonomic botany in In-donesia.I am indebted to Prof. Dr. C. G. G. J. van Steenis and to Dr. R. GBakhuizen van den Brink Jr., who have kindly helped me in preparing theLatin diagnoses.

  6. Notes on the genus Paramignya: Phytochemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninh The Son

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Paramignya belongs to Rutaceae family, with interesting secondary metabolites, comprising main classes of compounds coumarin and coumarin glycosides, acridone alkaloids, tirucallane and tirucallane glycosides, phenols, and flavonoids, as well as several compounds limonoid, lignin glycoside and sterol. Paramignya species has been employing as folk medicines against hepatitis, diabetes, cancer, nose infections. Many bioactive reported such as cytotoxic assay, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiumor cancer, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities indicated either Paramignya extracts, fractions, or isolated compounds to become valuable resources for natural new drug developments. However, no evidences are reported for general view about this genus. In current paper, we exhibit overview almost of isolated components and biological evaluations from this genus. These findings are important to improve the values of these medicinal plants for the health benefit, drug discovery and guideline for future researches.

  7. The genus Cordia: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects

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    Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments.

  8. The genus Macroditassa (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae in Brazil

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    Jorge Fontanella-Pereyra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the Brazilian species of the genus Macroditassa Malme (Apocynaceae- sclepiadoideae is presented. The genus belongs to the subfamily Asclepiadoideae R.Br. ex Burnett, tribe Asclepiadeae (R.Br. Duby, subtribe Metastelmatinae Endl. ex Meisn. and is the most closely related to the Ditassa R.Br. genus. Macroditassa has 14 taxa of which 11 are found in Brazil, where they occurr in the Atlantic forest, disturbed areas, clearings and gullies, "cerrado", "cerradão", "campo rupestre",  campos" (high-altitude savannas and sandy coast plains ("restingas". In this paper the identification key of the taxa, descriptions and illustrations, data on flowering and fruiting, as well as maps showing the geographic distribution are presented.

  9. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Boerhavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2016-04-22

    The genus Boerhavia is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world including Mexico, America, Africa, Asia, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands and Australia. The genus Boerhavia is extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners for treatments of hepatitis, urinary disorders, gastro intestinal diseases, inflammations, skin problems, infectious diseases and asthma. Present review focused on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Boerhavia genus to support potential scope for advance ethnopharmacological study. Information on the Boerhavia species was collected from classical books on medicinal plants, pharmacopoeias and scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar, Web of Science and others. Also scientific literatures based on ethnomedicinal surveys, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, published papers from Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Springer, ACS as well as Wiley publishers and reports by government bodies and documentations were assessed. A total of 180 compounds from Boerhavia genus were isolated of which B. diffusa alone shared around 131 compounds and for most of which it is currently an exclusive source. In the genus, phenolic glycosides and flavonoids contribute approximately 97 compounds. These includes eupalitin, rotenoids like boeravinones, coccineons, alkaloid i.e. betanin and punarnavine etc., showing vital pharmaceutical activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Boerhavia is an important genus with wide range of medicinal uses. However, most of the available scientific literatures have lacked relevant doses, duration and positive controls for examining bioefficacy of extracts and its active compounds. In some studies, taxonomic errors were encountered. Moreover, there is need for accurate methods in testing the safety and ethnomedicinal validity of Boerhavia species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  11. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur , amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  12. Molecular Signatures and Phylogenomic Analysis of the Genus Burkholderia: Proposal for Division of this Genus into the Emended Genus Burkholderia Containing Pathogenic Organisms and a New Genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. Harboring Environmental Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman eSawana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which are not reliably distinguished by the available biochemical or molecular characteristics. We report here results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequences, Burkholderia species grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs that are uniquely found in different clades of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia species. The second main clade (Clade II composed of the environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 of the identified CSIs. Additionally, our work has also identified 3 CSIs that are specific for the Burkholderia cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the Burkholderia pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for the demarcation of different groups of Burkholderia spp. and for development of novel diagnostic assays for the clinically important members of the group. Based upon the results from different lines of studies, a division of the genus Burkholderia into two genera is proposed. In this new proposal, the emended genus Burkholderia will contain only the clinically relevant and phytopathogenic Burkholderia species, whereas all other Burkholderia spp. are transferred to a new genus

  13. Landau-Ginzburg Orbifolds, Mirror Symmetry and the Elliptic Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, P.; Henningson, M.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the elliptic genus for arbitrary two dimensional $N=2$ Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds. This is used to search for possible mirror pairs of such models. We show that if two Landau-Ginzburg models are conjugate to each other in a certain sense, then to every orbifold of the first theory corresponds an orbifold of the second theory with the same elliptic genus (up to a sign) and with the roles of the chiral and anti-chiral rings interchanged. These orbifolds thus constitute a possible mirr...

  14. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  15. [Taxonomy and evolution of the genus Pratylenchoides (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Iu

    2007-01-01

    The amended diagnosis of the genus Pratylenchoides and list of its valid species with synonyms are given. All the efficient diagnostic characters are listed. Modern taxonomic standard for the description of Pratylenchoides species is proposed; it may be used also in taxonomic databases. Tabular and text keys for all species of the genus are given. Five following groups are considered within the genus Pratylenchoides. The group arenicola differs from other groups in the primitive adanal bursa type; the groups magnicauda, crenicauda, ritteri, and megalobatus differ from each other in the position of cardium along the body axis in relation to the pharyngeal gland nuclei, pharynx types are named according to the stages of its evolution from the primitive tylenchoid pharynx (cardium situated posteriorly) to the advanced hoplolaimoid one (cardium situated anteriorly). Diagnoses and species compositions of the groups are given. Basing on the matrix of species characters, the dendrogram has been generated for all species of Pratylenchoides and for all characters (UPGMA, distance, mean character difference, random, characters ordered). Taking in view that the PAUP software gives equal weights to all characters, including the most important ones which define the prognostic species groups, the separate dendrograms for each prognostic species group were generated using the same above mentioned tree parameters. On the base of the records of Pratylenchoides species the matrices of plant host ranges, geographic distribution, and preferred soil-climatic conditions were developed. The dendrograms of the faunal similarities were generated using these matrices, with conclusions on a possible origin and evolution of the genus. The genus evolved from the flood lands with swampy soils and prevalence of dicotyledons (herbaceous Lamiaceae and woody Salicaceae families) to the forest mainland communities with balanced humidity and predominance of herbaceous Poaceae and Fabaceae with woody

  16. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  17. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  18. Large N elliptic genus and AdS/CFT Correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Jan de

    1998-01-01

    According to one of Maldacena's dualities, type IIB string theory on AdS 3 x S 3 x K3 is equivalent to a certain N = (4, 4) superconformal field theory. In this note we compute the elliptic genus of the boundary theory in the supergravity approximation. A finite quantity is obtained once we introduce a particular exclusion principle. In the regime where the supergravity approximation is reliable, we find exact agreement with the elliptic genus of a sigma model with target space K3 N /S N

  19. Formulae for Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The ideal class group of hyperelliptic curves can be used in cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this article we present explicit formulae to perform the group operations for genus 2 curves. The formulae are completely general but to achieve the lowest number of operations we...... treat odd and even characteristic separately. We present 3 different coordinate systems which are suitable for different environments, e.g. on a smart card we should avoid inversions while in software a limited number is acceptable. The presented formulae render genus two hyperelliptic curves very...

  20. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine.......85-17.21) compared with placebo or no intervention. There was no significant difference on clearance of serum HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA between Phyllanthus and IFN. Phyllanthus species were better than nonspecific treatment or other herbal medicines for the clearance of serum HBsAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA, and liver enzyme...

  1. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  2. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  3. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The members of the endemic African genus EndochilusWeise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalissp. nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for iden- tification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. PMID:25373218

  4. On the identity of two new species of the genus coleoscirus (acari: cunaxidae) with annotations on the genus from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.H.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult females of two new Cunaxid mites, Coleoscirus raviensis n.sp. and Coleoscirus tobaensis n.sp. were collected during the taxonomic exploration of the mite fauna of the family Cunaxidae from Punjab- Pakistan. The new species were compared with 9 already describes species of the same genus from Pakistan. A Comprehensive key of all the known species of this genus from Pakistan has been prepared to incorporate the new species. A ceremonial description and illustration of main body characteristics, geographical distribution, host range and distinguishing remarks are also given. (author)

  5. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  6. Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Is Commonly Present within the Genus Limnohabitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasalický, Vojtěch; Zeng, Yonghui; Piwosz, Kasia; Šimek, Karel; Kratochvilová, Hana; Koblížek, Michal

    2018-01-01

    The genus Limnohabitans ( Comamonadaceae , Betaproteobacteria ) is a common and a highly active component of freshwater bacterioplanktonic communities. To date, the genus has been considered to contain only heterotrophic species. In this study, we detected the photosynthesis genes pufLM and bchY in 28 of 46 strains from three Limnohabitans lineages. The pufM sequences obtained are very closely related to environmental pufM sequences detected in various freshwater habitats, indicating the ubiquity and potential importance of photoheterotrophic Limnohabitans in nature. Additionally, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 5 potentially photoheterotrophic Limnohabitans strains, to gain further insights into their phototrophic capacity. The structure of the photosynthesis gene cluster turned out to be highly conserved within the genus Limnohabitans and also among all potentially photosynthetic Betaproteobacteria strains. The expression of photosynthetic complexes was detected in a culture of Limnohabitans planktonicus II-D5 T using spectroscopic and pigment analyses. This was further verified by a novel combination of infrared microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. IMPORTANCE The data presented document that the capacity to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis is common among the members of the genus Limnohabitans , indicating that they may have a novel role in freshwater habitats. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  8. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Carey, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the Greater Antilles, the Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Bahama Islands, and the Turks and Caicos islands occurs a group of moderate to very large lizards of the iguanid genus Cyclura. These ground iguanas form a conspicuous element of the herpetofaunas of their respective

  9. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taryn

    School of Life Sciences, New Biology Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University Road, Westville, KwaZulu-Natal. 3630, South ... Afro-tropical members of the Old World genus Otomops, ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research – an update. ... guide to using and evaluating microsatellite markers. Ecol.

  10. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Tubakia s. lat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Uwe; Nakashima, C.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, Ewald; Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Rooney-Latham, S.; Blomquist, C.L.; Haas, J; Marmolejo, J

    2018-01-01

    The genus Tubakia is revised on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. The phylogenetic affinity of Tubakia to the family Melanconiellaceae (Diaporthales) was recently postulated, but new analyses based on sequences retrieved from material of the type species of Tubakia, T. dryina,

  11. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H.

  12. A review of the palm genus Acrocomia: Neotropical green gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Acrocomia, popularly known as macaw palm or macaúba, occurs in savanna areas and open forests of tropical America, with distribution from Central to southern South America. They are important oleaginous palm trees, due to their role in ecosystems, local economies, and their potential for b...

  13. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.T. Jennings; A.D. Austin; N.M. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    The Australian xiphydriid woodwasp genus, previously known only from a single species, A. australiensis Riek, is revised. A second distinctive species from Carnarvon National Park in southcentral Queensland, A. fasciculata Jennings & Austin, sp. nov., is described, and a key to separate the males of the two species is provided.

  14. Ruwenzoria, a new genus of the Xylariaceae from Central Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence of a ...

  15. Korean species of the genus Perlomyia Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Leuctridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murányi, Dávid; Jeon, Mi Jeong; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Seo, Hong Yul

    2014-11-04

    Eight species of the genus Perlomyia (Plecoptera: Leuctridae) are reported from Korea, six are new records for the Korean Peninsula. Two species, known only as unassociated females are described under informal unnamed designations. Previous Korean records are discussed, taxonomic characters of the Korean specimens and Korean distribution are presented for these species. Zoogeographic notes on the Asian Perlomyia are also given.

  16. Evolution of the leukotoxin promoter in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Davies, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    of the leukotoxin promoter among representatives of the five species within genus Mannheimia. We also consider how the evolution of the leukotoxin operon fits with the evolution and maintenance of virulence. Results: The alignment of the intergenic regions upstream of the leukotoxin genes showed significant...

  17. Substrates specialization in lipid compounds and hydrocarbons of Marinobacter genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonin, P.; Vieira, C.; Grimaud, R.; Militon, C.; Cuny, P.; Lima, O.; Guasco, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Michotey, V.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of petroleum contamination and of burrowing macrofauna on abundances of Marinobacter and denitrifiers was tested in marine sediment mesocoms after 3 months incubation. Quantification of this genus by qPCR with a new primer set showed that the main factor favoring Marinobacter abundance

  18. Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epicholë.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtmann, Adrian; Bacon, Charles W; Schardl, Christopher L; White, James F; Tadych, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Nomenclatural rule changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, adopted at the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011, provide for a single name to be used for each fungal species. The anamorphs of Epichloë species have been classified in genus Neotyphodium, the form genus that also includes most asexual Epichloë descendants. A nomenclatural realignment of this monophyletic group into one genus would enhance a broader understanding of the relationships and common features of these grass endophytes. Based on the principle of priority of publication we propose to classify all members of this clade in the genus Epichloë. We have reexamined classification of several described Epichloë and Neotyphodium species and varieties and propose new combinations and states. In this treatment we have accepted 43 unique taxa in Epichloë, including distinct species, subspecies, and varieties. We exclude from Epichloë the two taxa Neotyphodium starrii, as nomen dubium, and Neotyphodium chilense, as an unrelated taxon.

  19. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 52 - 56°C with the primers ITS-9 and ITS-6 or Trn-L and Trn-F. Polymerase chain .... The sub-genus Prunus has also relatively good support (81%) including .... Stevens, Michael J, Donoghue (1999). Plant Systematics. A.

  20. Comparative genomic analysis reveals ecological differentiation in the genus Carnobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskandar, Christelle F.; Borges, Frédéric; Taminiau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    was used as a model genus to elucidate the genetic basis of these colonization differences. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene meta-barcoding data showed that C. maltaromaticum followed by C. divergens are the most prevalent species in foods derived from animals (meat, fish, dairy products), and in the gut...

  1. South American freshwater needlefishes (Belonidae) of the genus Pseudotylosurus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collete, B.B.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudotylosurus Fernández Yépez is considered a valid genus of Belonidae based on the following combination of characters: depressed caudal peduncle; long narrow side branches to lateral line; pleural ribs attached to fourth vertebra; nasal papilla spatulate; lower pharyngeal plate and upper

  2. Distribution, diversity and conservation of the genus Aloe in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity patterns indicate a high concentration of taxa in three areas that are identified as Aloe hot spots and thus of high priority for conservation of the genus: The Kulal–Nyiro–Ndotos–Marsabit area in the north, the Taita-Shimba Hills zone to the southeast and the Naivasha–Baringo area in the Rift Valley. Most of the ...

  3. Polystomatidae (Monogenea) parasitic in the anuran genus Kassina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation into the parasite loads of several anuran species in the central and eastern parts of the Orange Free State led to the discovery of another new South African species of Polystoma, harboured in running frogs of the genus Kassina which has not previously been known as a host of adult polystomes. Detailed ...

  4. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the

  5. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams. VIII. The genus Jensenia Lindb. (Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronde, van der Keympe

    1980-01-01

    A study of recent material of the dendroid thallose liverwort genus Jensenia (Metzgeriales) from the Colombian Andes revealed the existence of three taxa in the area: J. erythropus (Gott.) Grolle var. erythropus, J. erythropus var. nobandae van der Gronde var. nov. and J. florschuetzii van der

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIV. Guaianolides in the genus Leuzea DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaianolides were found in three species of the genus Leuzea DC. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from L. rhapontica subg. helenifolia (Gren, Gordon Holub and L. rhaponticoides Graells. From L. carthamoides (Willd. DC., chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin, janerin, cebellin E and repdiolide were obtained.

  7. Checklist of the fish parasitic genus Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current knowledge of the 85 species in the genus Cichlidogyrus, collected worldwide, including their hosts, localities and authors, is summarised in a table. Although these parasites occur mainly in Africa, representatives have been recorded on cichlids in Mexico. Their distribution and host specificity are commented on.

  8. Karyotype analyses of the species of the genus Jurinea Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, karyotype analyses of 13 species belonging to the genus Jurinea Cass. (Compositae) and grown naturally in Turkey were conducted. These taxa include Jurinea alpigena C. Koch, Jurinea ancyrensis Bornm., Jurinea aucherana DC., Jurinea cadmea Boiss., Jurinea cataonica Boiss. and Hausskn., Jurinea ...

  9. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough, many related ...

  10. The taxonomic status of giant sengis ( genus Rhynchocyon ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sengis (elephant-shrews) of Mozambique are poorly known, especially the taxonomic status of the giant sengis, genus Rhynchocyon. Currently, Rhynchocyon from Mozambique are thought to be chequered sengis, R. cirnei with specimens from the central coastal areas being placed in the subspecies R. c. cirnei, while ...

  11. A new genus of Odontopygid Millipeds from Tanzania (Diplopoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new generic taxon Calyptomastix is proposed to accommodate the type species Odontopyge kakandae Kraus, 1958, and, tentatively, Odontopyge dorsalis Carl, 1909, Haplothysanus leviceps Attems, 1909, and Spirostreptus pardalis Gerstäcker, 1873, all from Tanzania. This genus is defined by the broad basal ...

  12. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Tacca : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tacca is an important genus comprising of approximately 15 species of the medicinal plants (Taccaceae). The plants are used in traditional medicine to relieve pains of the body and stomach, as an antidote for food poisoning as well as for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical studies have ...

  13. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  14. Hurleyella, a new genus of Nearctic Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon; Harold Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Hurleyella and two new species, H. cumberlandensis and H. brooksi are described from the Nearctic. Hurleyella resembles the subfamily Medeterinae in having the legs bare of major setae, a depressed posterior mesonotum, and concave dorsal postcranium, but the complex male genitalia is unlike the relatively simple structure of...

  15. Studies on the genus Atriplex L. (Amaranthaceae) in Italy. IV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the genus Atriplex L. (Amaranthaceae) in Italy. IV. Atriplex bocconei Guss. – Atriplex bocconei Guss. is here typified on one herbarium specimen kept in NAP. The identity of the species is also clarified on the basis of literature analysis and examination of type material and other specimens that allowed to include it ...

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in genus Gloriosa L. | Maroyi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to test the monophyly of the genus Gloriosa L., the chloroplast region trnL-trnF sequences were employed using Baeometra uniflora, Hexacyrtis dickiana, Neodregea glassii, Onixotis punctata, Onixotis stricta, Ornithoglossum parviflorum, Ornithoglossum undulatum, Ornithoglossum viride, Ornithoglossum ...

  17. The genus Calvatia ('Gasteromycetes', Lycoperdaceae): A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several members of the fungal puffball genus Calvatia Fr. have found widespread use amongst various cultures world-wide, especially as sources of food and/or traditional medicine. Hitherto the biotechnological potential of only a handful of Calvatia species, namely C. cyathiformis, C. craniiformis, C. excipuliformis, C.

  18. Chemosyndromes in the lichen genus Teloschistes (Teloschistaceae, Lecanorales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Frödén, P.

    2002-01-01

    , and isofulgidin occurred together with some compounds of unknown identity in varying proportions in T. flavicans, T. peruensis, T. stellatus, and one unnamed taxon. Nine chemosyndromes were found in the genus. Most species had only one chemosyndrome, but T. flavicans s. lat. had six syndromes. The geographical...

  19. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux's criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in .

  20. On the African species of the genus Psychopsis Newm. (Osmylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der H.W.

    1907-01-01

    This remarkable genus, only recorded from Australia and the Old World, was represented by one species in central Africa, Psychopsis zebra Brauer, Ann. Hofmuseum Wien, IV, p. 102 (1889). I had not seen this species before this year, when I purchased, from the London naturalist W. F. H. Rosenberg, a

  1. Pollen Ultrastructure of Genus Dendrobium Orchids as a Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Dwi Apriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anggrek genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu genus dari divisi spermatophyta yang merupakan kelompok tumbuhan yang berkembang dengan menggunakan biji. Tumbuhan berbiji tentu memiliki bunga sebagai alat perkembangan generatifnya. Perkembangan generatif pada bunga artinya pertemuan antara sel gamet jantan dan sel gamet betina. Sel gamet betina pada tumbuhan dihasilkan oleh putik, sedangkan sel gamet jantan disebut serbuk sari atau pollen. Genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu kekayaan alam Indonesia, jumlahnya diperkirakan mencapai 275 spesies. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana ultrastruktur pollen anggrek genus Dendrobium dari sepuluh spesies yang diamati menggunakan SEM. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan unit pollen untuk semua spesies yaitu kategori pollinia, sedangkan untuk polaritas pollen adalah apolar. Jenis aperture kesepuluh spesies yang diamati mempunyai aperture dengan pola yang tidak beraturan dan lebih dari enam yang disebut colpate. Bentuk pollen dari semua spesies yang diteliti bentuknya adalah subprolate hingga prolate dan ukuran pollen termasuk dalam kategori minuta hingga media. Ornamentasi pollen atau skluptur pollen tidak teridentifikasi dikarenakan ukuran pollen yang terlalu kecil, permukaan pollen terlihat kurang jelas. Sumber belajar yang digunakan adalah atlas.

  2. Quantitative variation for apomictic reproduction in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, O.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Sharbel, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The evolution of asexual seed production (apomixis) from sexual relatives is a great enigma of plant biology. The genus Boechera is ideal for studying apomixis because of its close relation to Arabidopsis and the occurrence of sexual and apomictic species at low ploidy levels

  3. Revision of the genus Diaphorocera Heyden, 1863 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Cerocomini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turco, F.; Bologna, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphorocera, a Saharo-Sindian genus belonging to the tribe Cerocomini, is revised and a new synonymy is proposed. A cladistic classification is proposed as well, on a set of adult morphological characters. The available bionomical records, both original and from literature, concerning phenology,

  4. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  5. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    convex boundary embeds in a closed symplectic 4-manifold. ... We shall apply Theorem 1.2 in particular to study the 4-genus of a link in S3 by proving ...... [13] Honda Ko, Factoring nonrotative T 2×I layers, Erratum: On the classification of tight.

  6. Stemodia L. (Scrophulariaceae, a Newly Naturalized Genus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shou Liang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia verticillata (Mill. Hassl. (Scrophulariaceae was found in the lowlands of northern Taiwan. This represents a new naturalization not only for this species but also for the genus on this island. A taxonomic account of S. verticillata is treated in this study. A line-drawing, distribution map and photographs of this species are also provided to aid in identification.

  7. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    10 Jan 2011 ... b: Subgenus Trifoliastrum: Calyx campanulate and pod inflated. c: Subgenus Foenum-graecum: Calyx tubular and pod not inflated. Several investigators have attempted to employ the taxonomy of the genus Trigonella; Sirjaev (1935) has given in Latin an elaborate and systematic account of its taxonomy.

  8. On five new species of the genus Ichthyurus, Westw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1879-01-01

    Of the above mentioned genus of Malacoderm Coleoptera, founded in 1848 by Westwood in his Cabinet of Oriental Entomology, twelve species have hitherto been described, all Natives of the Old World and distributed as follow: Sierra Leone (West Africa): one ¹); Moulmein (East-Indies): two ²); Ceylon:

  9. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  10. Counting Semisimple Orbits of Finite Lie Algebras by Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Fulman, Jason

    1999-01-01

    The adjoint action of a finite group of Lie type on its Lie algebra is studied. A simple formula is conjectured for the number of split semisimple orbits of a given genus. This conjecture is proved for type A, and partial results are obtained for other types. For type A a probabilistic interpretation is given in terms of card shuffling.

  11. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The genus Prunus L. is an important plant for fruit production and it includes plums, apricots, cherries, almonds ... classification and placement of different genera under different sub-families. ... cultivated primarily or their beautiful flowers, such as ..... described the character evolution in the 37 Prunus and 8.

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  13. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  16. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal

    2012-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  17. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C.

  18. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  19. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  20. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool...

  1. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2018-01-10

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  2. Redescripción y consideraciones biogeográfcas de dos especies de Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae de ambientes montanos del centro de Argentina y Chile Redescription and biogeographic considerations of two species of Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from mountain environments of central Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. Silvestro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El género neotropical Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprende 61 especies distribuidas desde el centro de Perú y sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, revisamos dos especies de Scotobius que habitan el oeste de las provincias de San Juan, Mendoza y Neuquén (Argentina y en Chile central, a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes y las montañas extra-andinas en Argentina: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 y S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969. Se proveen redescripciones utilizando nuevos caracteres morfológicos y se proporcionan fotografías de los adultos y de los pronotos. Se consigna la distribución geográfica, rangos altitudinales y las provincias biogeográficas en las que habitan estas especies. Se utiliza un modelo predictivo de distribución de especies para proponer hipótesis sobre los factores que influencian la distribución espacial y que explicarían la alopatría de ambas especies.The Neotropical genus Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprises 61 species distributed from central Peru and southern Brazil to southern Argentine and Chile. In this contribution two species of Scotobius: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 and S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969, that inhabit in western San Juan, Mendoza, and Neuquén provinces (Argentina and in central Chile, along the “Cordillera de los Andes” and extra-Andean mountains in Argentina, are revised. Redescriptions using new morphological data and photographs of habitus and pronota are provided. This article informs about the geographic distribution, altitudinal ranges and the biogeographic provinces that these species inhabit. A predictive model of species distribution is presented to propose hypothesis about the factors that influence the space distribution and the allopatry of these two species.

  3. Revision of the genus 'Microbrotula' (Teleostei: Bythitidae), with description of two new species and a related new genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Following recent systematic revisions of Anderson (2005, 2007), seven species of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) have been described, all from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean. Six of these species are here recognised as valid: M. bentleyi, M. greenfieldi, M. punicea, M. quee...

  4. Two new species of genus Hydrosmittia Ferrington & Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-06-08

    The genus Hydrosmittia from China is reviewed. Two new species H. continalinea sp. n. and H. sipinata sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Key to known male imagines of genus Hydrosmittia worldwide is provided.

  5. Description of a new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Rehmat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae, Litus assamensis sp. nov., is described from Assam, India.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is also given. 

  6. Neocampanella, a new corticioid fungal genus, and a note on Dendrothele bispora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen K. Nakasone; David S. Hibbett; Greta Goranova

    2009-01-01

    The new genus Neocampanella (Agaricales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is established for Dentocorticium btastanos Boidin & Gilles, a crustose species, and the new combination, Neocampanella blastanos, is proposed. Morphological and molecular studies support the recognition of the new genus and its close...

  7. Baltileuctra gen. nov., a new genus of Leuctridae (Insecta: Plecoptera) in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2018-04-10

    A new genus and species of the stonefly family Leuctridae, Baltileuctra foraminis gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a well-preserved male specimen from the Eocene Baltic amber. The new genus possesses typical characters of Leuctridae but has diagnostic characters of the thoracic sclerites and terminalia. The relationship between the new genus and other leuctrids is briefly discussed.

  8. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-19

    In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru.

  9. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  10. Taxonomic revision of the afrotropical genus Megatrigon Johnson, 1898 (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doczkal, Dieter; Radenković, Snežana; Lyneborg, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The genus-group taxon Megatrigon Johnson, 1898, stat. nov., is revised and treated as a valid genus within the Merodontini (= Eumerini). Extensive diagnoses are given for the genus and for its three constituent species groups: argenteus group [11 spp.], nivalis group [monotypic], sexfasciatus group...

  11. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  12. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Jiao Jiao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2015-09-15

    The genus Uncaria belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which mainly distributed in tropical regions, such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Southeast America. Their leaves and hooks have long been thought to have healing powers and are already being tested as a treatment for asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and rheumatism. The present review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria to support for further therapeutic potential of this genus. To better understanding this genus, information on the stereo-chemistry and structure-activity relationships in indole alkaloids is also represented. The literature study of this review is based on various databases search (SCIFinder, Science Direct, CNKI, Wiley online library, Spring Link, Web of Science, PubMed, Wanfang Data, Medalink, Google scholar, ACS, Tropicos, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, The New York Botanical Garden, African Plants Database at Genera Botanical Garden, The Plant List and SEINet) and library search for Biological Abstract and some local books on ethnopharmacology. 19 species of the genus Uncaria are found to be important folk medicines in China, Malaysia, Phillippines, Africa and Southeast America, etc, and have been served for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism, hyperpyrexia, hypertension and headaches, etc. More than 200 compounds have been isolated from Uncaria, including indole alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, etc. As characteristic constituents, indole alkaloids have been considered as main efficacy component for hypertension, epilepsy, depressant, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, pharmacokinetic and metabolism investigation reveal that the indole alkaloids are likely to be absorbed, metabolized and excreted at early time points. Moreover, the specific inhibition of CYP isozymes can regulate their hydroxylation metabolites

  13. A Review of Recent Research Progress on the Astragalus Genus

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    Xiaoxia Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge. Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch. Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for “qi deficiency” syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  14. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Bruno S.; Carvalho, Felix D.; Guilhermino, Lucia M.; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed

  15. The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure (Crustacea: Ostracoda in northeastern Argentina

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    Analía R. Díaz

    Full Text Available The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure, 1858 is a typical representative of the Neotropical ostracod fauna that occupies lotic and lentic environments including temporary and permanent ponds. Up to the present, four species have been recorded in Argentina: C. iheringi (Sars, C. incisa (Claus and C. leuckarti (Claus, and C. symmetrica (Vávra. Temporary and permanent ponds of this region were sampled for ostracods, using a fine mesh net. Three species belonging to the genus Chlamydotheca were collected of which C. arcuata (Sars is recorded for first time for the Chacoan region. Limb morphology was studied under light microscope and line drawings were made using camera lucida. Valves were photographed under scanning electron microscope and redescriptions of C. arcuata and C. iheringi are provided and distributional aspects of the species sampled are discussed.

  16. Ortholog prediction of the Aspergillus genus applicable for synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Theobald, Sebastian

    of genotype-to-phenotype. To achieve this, we have developed orthologous protein prediction software that utilizes genus-wide genetic diversity. The approach is optimized for large data sets, based on BLASTp considering protein identity and alignment coverage, and clustering using single linkage of bi......The Aspergillus genus contains leading industrial microorganisms, excelling in producing bioactive compounds and enzymes. Using synthetic biology and bioinformatics, we aim to re-engineer these organisms for applications within human health, pharmaceuticals, environmental engineering, and food......-directional hits. The result is orthologous protein families describing the genomic and functional features of individual species, clades and the core/pan genome of Aspergillus; and applicable to genotype-to-phenotype analyses in other microbial genera....

  17. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  18. Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Arnebia Forssk. (Boraginaceae in India

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    Kumar Ambrish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arnebia Forssk. in India is taxonomically studied based on field surveys, collection of live plants, consultation of herbarium and literature. The genus is represented in India by 10 taxa including 8 species and 2 varieties viz., Arnebia bhattacharyyae K. Ambrish & S.K. Srivast., A. benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don I.M. Johnst., A. euchroma ( Royle I.M. Johnst., A. guttata Bunge, A. hispidissima (Sieber ex Lehm. A.DC., A. linearifolia A.DC., A. griffithii Boiss., A. nandadeviensis K. Chandra Sek. & R.S. Rawal , A. euchroma var. grandis (Bornm. Kazmi and A. guttata var. thomsonii (C.B. Clarke Kazmi, distributed in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in North-West Himalaya to Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan in India. Dichotomous keys to all the species in India along with taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and images of most of the species including type and their economic importance are provided.

  19. Revision of the genus Intybia (Coleoptera, Malachiidae from Japan

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    Hiroshi Ikeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Japanese species of the genus Intybia are revised taxonomically, with the examination of the endophallic structure. Eight species, including one new species Intybia donan sp. nov. from Yonaguni-jima, are recognized. All species are described or redescribed with a key and figures. The endophallic structure contains one primary sclerite (gonoporal piece, three secondary sclerites (ligula, semi-gonoporal piece, and spinous plate in some species, and a membranous basal area densely covered with many spines (spinous area. Based on the structures of the endophallus, the Japanese members of the genus are divided into two species groups (the histrio and pelegrini groups. The pelegrini species group is furthermore subdivided into three subgroups (subgroups 1–3. New distributional records are as follows: I. histrio from Hachijô-jima and Tanega-shima; I. niponica from Sakhalin and I. takaraensis from Tokuno-shima and Amami-Ôshima.

  20. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

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    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  1. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    , meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species....... We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and Gen...

  2. Genus two partition functions of extremal conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Yin Xi

    2007-01-01

    Recently Witten conjectured the existence of a family of 'extremal' conformal field theories (ECFTs) of central charge c = 24k, which are supposed to be dual to three-dimensional pure quantum gravity in AdS 3 . Assuming their existence, we determine explicitly the genus two partition functions of k = 2 and k = 3 ECFTs, using modular invariance and the behavior of the partition function in degenerating limits of the Riemann surface. The result passes highly nontrivial tests and in particular provides a piece of evidence for the existence of the k = 3 ECFT. We also argue that the genus two partition function of ECFTs with k ≤ 10 are uniquely fixed (if they exist)

  3. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

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    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  4. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  5. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográfica del Páramo de Colombia. Este género se reconoce por los élitros subcuadrados y con una conspicua carena declivital y es considerado similar a Puranius Germain y Acrorius Kirsch. El género y especie son descritos, ilustrados y comparados con los otros Rhytirrhinini de Colombia.

  6. TREE-FERNS OF THE GENUS CYATHEA IN JAVA

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    R. E. HOLTTUM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A full taxonomic study of the genus Cyathea has recently been publish-ed in Flora Malesiana (Ser. II, vol. 1, part 2, Dec. 1963. In that work thegenus is construed in a broad sense, to include Alsophila and Hemitelia(also Gymnosphaera and Schizocaena of Copeland's Genera Filicum, theotal number of species being 191, and a new subdivision of this compre-hensive genus is proposed. The keys in Flora Malesiana, dealing with sucha large number of species, are complex, and not very easy to use for localpurposes. I have therefore made a simpler key to cover the species ofava only, and hope this will be of service to botaniists in Java.

  7. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Bruno S. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal) and Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bruno@ufp.pt; Carvalho, Felix D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Toxicologia da Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal); Van Stappen, Gilbert [Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed.

  8. Current Status of Genus Bryum Hedw. in Eastern Himalaya, India

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    Pooja Bansal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical study on the genus Bryum Hedw., an acrocarpous moss of family Bryaceae, revealed the occurrence of 21 species from seven state of eastern Himalaya: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and West Bengal. Among these twenty one species, B. argenteum var. griffithii (Muell. Hal. Gangulee, B. billardieri Schwaegr., B. pallescens Schleich. ex Schwaegr., B. pseudotriquetrum (Hedw. P. Gaertn., B. Meyer & Scherb., B. pseudotriquetrum var. subrotundum (Brid. Gangulee and B. reflexifolium (Ochi Ochi are new additions to Meghalaya; B. billardieri Schwaegr. to Manipur while B. apiculatum Schwaegr., B. caespiticium Hedw. and B. pseudotriquetrum var. subrotundum (Brid. Gangulee are new for West Bengal. Identification key to all the known species of the genus occurring in eastern Himalaya, alongwith the notes on their ecology and distribution have been provided.

  9. Phylogeny of the genus Stephomyia Tavares, 1916 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    V. C. Maia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stephomyia Tavares, 1916 comprises seven species, all Neotropical: S. clavata (Tavares, 1920; S. epeugeniae Gagné, 1994; S. espiralis Maia, 1993; S. mina Maia, 1993; S. rotundifoliorum Maia, 1993; S. tetralobae Maia, 1993; and S. eugeniae (Felt, 1913. In the present study, a cladistic analysis based upon adult, pupa, larva and gall morphological characters as well as host plant data is carried out in order to discuss the monophyly of the genus and the relationships among the known species. The Stephomyia monophyly was supported by eight synapomorphies: five homoplastic characters and three non-homoplastic characters. Analyzes showed S. clavata with great instability within the genus, probably due to lack of larva, pupa and female data, so S. clavata was deactivated in analyze. The topology found was (S. mina ((S. eugeniae + S. epeugeniae (S. tetralobae (S. rotundifoliorum + S. espiralis.

  10. THE MYRMICINE ANT GENUS ALLOMERUS MAYR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    FERNÁNDEZ FERNANDO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Allomerus Mayr is revised. The genus isapparently monophyletic based on the antennal club confi guration. I recognize 8 species(4 described as new: Allomerus brevipilosus n. sp. (Brazil, A. decemarticulatusMayr (Brazil, French Guiana, A. dentatus n. sp. (Venezuela, A. maietae n. sp.(Brazil, A. octoarticulatus Mayr (=A. tuberculatus Forel n. syn. = A. octoarticulatusvar. demerarae W. M. Wheeler n. syn. = A. novemarticulatus Wheeler & Mann n.syn. [Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru], A. septemarticulatus Mayrstatus rev. (Brazil, A. undecemarticulatus n. sp. (Venezuela and A. vogeli Kempf(Venezuela, Brazil. Better knowledge of the taxonomy of Allomerus is needed tounderstand the apparently sporadic differences in antennal fl agellomere number andspeciation processes that are probably linked to plant cavity colonization.

  11. Genus-Wide Assessment of Lignocellulose Utilization in the Extremely Thermophilic Genus Caldicellulosiruptor by Genomic, Pangenomic, and Metagenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura L; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Izquierdo, Javier A; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Loder, Andrew J; Conway, Jonathan M; Elkins, James G; Podar, Mircea; Clum, Alicia; Jones, Piet C; Piatek, Marek J; Weighill, Deborah A; Jacobson, Daniel A; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2018-05-01

    Metagenomic data from Obsidian Pool (Yellowstone National Park, USA) and 13 genome sequences were used to reassess genus-wide biodiversity for the extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor The updated core genome contains 1,401 ortholog groups (average genome size for 13 species = 2,516 genes). The pangenome, which remains open with a revised total of 3,493 ortholog groups, encodes a variety of multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). These include three cellulases with GH48 domains that are colocated in the glucan degradation locus (GDL) and are specific determinants for microcrystalline cellulose utilization. Three recently sequenced species, Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain Rt8.B8 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor morganii ), Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus strain NA10 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor naganoensis ), and Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain Wai35.B1 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor danielii ), degraded Avicel and lignocellulose (switchgrass). C. morganii was more efficient than Caldicellulosiruptor bescii in this regard and differed from the other 12 species examined, both based on genome content and organization and in the specific domain features of conserved GHs. Metagenomic analysis of lignocellulose-enriched samples from Obsidian Pool revealed limited new information on genus biodiversity. Enrichments yielded genomic signatures closely related to that of Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis , but there was also evidence for other thermophilic fermentative anaerobes ( Caldanaerobacter , Fervidobacterium , Caloramator , and Clostridium ). One enrichment, containing 89.8% Caldicellulosiruptor and 9.7% Caloramator , had a capacity for switchgrass solubilization comparable to that of C. bescii These results refine the known biodiversity of Caldicellulosiruptor and indicate that microcrystalline cellulose degradation at temperatures above 70°C, based on current information, is limited to certain members of this genus that produce GH48 domain

  12. The genus Anterhynchium in the Philippine Islands (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Selis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 from the Philippine Islands is presented. Two species are recorded: A. astrophilum Giordani Soika, 1996 and A. townesi van der Vecht, 1963. Anterhynchium astrophilum is recorded for the first time since its description, A. flavomarginatum townesi is raised to species rank (A. townesi stat. nov. and its unknown male is described. A key to the species and new distributional records are provided.

  13. Infinite-genus surfaces and the universal Grassmannian

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Simon

    1995-01-01

    Correlation functions can be calculated on Riemann surfaces using the operator formalism. The state in the Hilbert space of the free field theory on the punctured disc, corresponding to the Riemann surface, is constructed at infinite genus, verifying the inclusion of these surfaces in the Grassmannian. In particular, a subset of the class of $O_{HD}$ surfaces can be identified with a subset of the Grassmannian. The concept of flux through the ideal boundary is used to study the connection bet...

  14. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  15. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

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    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  16. Phylogenetic position and emended description of the genus Methylovorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Ivanova, Ekaterina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2005-03-01

    The genus Methylovorus, currently represented by the restricted facultative methylotroph Methylovorus glucosotrophus Govorukhina and Trotsenko 1991 and the obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays Doronina et al. 2001, is here established by direct sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes and DNA-DNA hybridization to be clearly separated from the extant ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway methylobacteria and to form a distinct branch within the beta-Proteobacteria.

  17. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  18. Dew Point Temperature Affects Ascospore Release of Allergenic Genus Leptosphaeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sadyś, M.; Kaczmarek, J.; Grinn-Gofron, A.; Rodinkova, V.; Prikhodko, A.; Bilous, E.; Strzelczak, A.; Herbert, Rob; Jedryczka, M.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Leptosphaeria contains numerous fungi that cause the symptoms of asthma and also parasitize wild and crop plants. In search of a robust and universal forecast model, the ascospore concentration in air was measured and weather data recorded from 1 March to 31 October between 2006 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in three European countries of the temperate climate, i.e., Ukraine, Poland, and the UK. Out of over 150 forecast models produced using artificial neural networks (ANNs...

  19. Chemical diversity and antiviral potential in the pantropical Diospyros genus

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrat , Laure-Anne; Eparvier , Véronique; Eydoux , Cécilia; Guillemot , Jean-Claude; Stien , Didier; Litaudon , Marc

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A screening using a dengue replicon virus-cell-based assay was performed on 3563 ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts from different parts of 1500 plants. The screening led to the selection of species from the genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), among which 25 species distributed in tropical areas showed significant inhibitory activity on dengue virus replication.A metabolic analysis was conducted from the UPLC-HRMS profiles of 33 biologically active and inactive plant extracts, an...

  20. Dryopsis (Dryopteridaceae, A Fern Genus New to Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hui Ding

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryopsis clarkei (Baker Holttum & P.J. Edwards, representing the whole genus, is reported new to Vietnam. A detailed description, including the variation of gross morphology, spore morphology, and chromosome counts, is provided by means of words as well as photographs or drawings. Dryopsis clarkei is for the first time demonstrated to be a sexual diploid (2n = 82, with rather stable morphology except for the length of stipe.