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Sample records for genus narceus evidence

  1. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: Evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data

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    Marek Paul E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. Results The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. Conclusion The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical

  2. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data.

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    Walker, Matt J; Stockman, Amy K; Marek, Paul E; Bond, Jason E

    2009-01-30

    Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical distribution modeling strengthens the conclusions drawn from the

  3. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Oxyuridomorpha: Coronostomatidae) from the Indigenous Milliped Narceus gordanus (Chamberlain, 1943) (Diplopoda: Spirobolida) in Ocala National Forest, Florida

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    Phillips, Gary; Bernard, Ernest C.; Pivar, Robert J.; Moulton, John K.; Shelley, Rowland M.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four individuals of Narceus gordanus (Diplopoda: Spirobolidae) were collected in Ocala National Forest, FL, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each specimen was dissected to extract the intestine, which was removed and examined for parasitic nematodes. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. was collected from the hindgut and midgut of 10 specimens, and its morphology was examined with brightfield, differential interference contrast, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. This species is separated from other Coronostoma spp. by the following characteristics: body length less than 3 mm; head sense organs pit-like; first annule long, extending past middle of corpus, width similar to that of second annule; basal bulb pyriform; eggs larger than 60 × 50 µm. This species is the first North American record for the genus Coronostoma, which is removed from Thelastomatoidea: Thelastomatidae and reassigned to Coronostomatidae on the basis of presumed apomorphies. A key is provided for known Coronostoma spp. The superfamily Coronostomatoidea is re-established for Coronostomatidae and Traklosiidae.

  4. The myxomycete genus Schenella: morphological and DNA sequence evidence for synonymy with the gasteromycete genus Pyrenogaster.

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    Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Gaither, Thomas W; Miller, Dennis L; Lado, Carlos; Keller, Harold W

    2005-01-01

    The genus Schenella has proven difficult to classify since its description as a new genus in 1911. Macbride placed it with the Myxomycetes but it was unclear with which myxomycete, if any, it should be grouped. Recent identification of abundant samples of Schenella has aided a re-evaluation of its classification as a myxomycete. Morphological evidence based on light and scanning electron microscopy of recently collected specimens and on the type specimen of Macbride suggested that it might be synonymous with the gasteromycete Pyrenogaster Analysis of DNA sequences from freshly isolated samples indicates that the genus Schenella is related closely to an anciently diverged, monophyletic group of fungi that includes several gasteromycete genera, among them Geastrum, Sphaerobolus and Pseudocolus. Comparisons of the morphology and DNA sequences of authentically identified specimens of Pyrenogaster atrogleba indicate that it is synonymous with Schenella simplex. The nomenclatural implications of this discovery are discussed.

  5. Evidence for ecological flexibility in the cosmopolitan genus Curtobacterium

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    Alexander Bennett Chase; Philip Arevalo; Polz, Martin F.; Renaud Berlemont; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus...

  6. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Alexander B.; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F.; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium, as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this ...

  7. Evidence for ecological flexibility in the cosmopolitan genus Curtobacterium

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    Alexander Bennett Chase

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus to ask whether its high abundance in our soil system is in accordance with its role as a plant pathogen or if alternative ecological roles are needed. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems globally. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  8. Chloroplast DNA evidence for the origin of the genus Heterogaura from a species of Clarkia (Onagraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Restriction-site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the morphologically distinct and monotypic genus Heterogaura and the related speciose genus Clarkia (Onagraceae), both native to California. Of the 605 restriction sites surveyed, a total of 119 mutations were identified. Of these, 55 were shared by at least two species and were used to construct a most parsimonious phylogenetic tree. This analysis, as well as one based on a distance metric, provided evidence that Heterogaura and C...

  9. No Evidence of Hendra Virus Infection in the Australian Flying-fox Ectoparasite Genus Cyclopodia.

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    Vidgen, M E; Edson, D W; van den Hurk, A F; Field, H E; Smith, C S

    2017-05-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes potentially fatal respiratory and/or neurological disease in both horses and humans. Although Australian flying-foxes of the genus Pteropus have been identified as reservoir hosts, the precise mechanism of HeV transmission has yet to be elucidated. To date, there has been limited investigation into the role of haematophagous insects as vectors of HeV. This mode of transmission is particularly relevant because Australian flying-foxes host the bat-specific blood-feeding ectoparasites of the genus Cyclopodia (Diptera: Nycteribiidae), also known as bat flies. Using molecular detection methods, we screened for HeV RNA in 183 bat flies collected from flying-foxes inhabiting a roost in Boonah, Queensland, Australia. It was subsequently demonstrated that during the study period, Pteropus alecto in this roost had a HeV RNA prevalence between 2 and 15% (95% CI [1, 6] to [8, 26], respectively). We found no evidence of HeV in any bat flies tested, including 10 bat flies collected from P. alecto in which we detected HeV RNA. Our negative findings are consistent with previous findings and provide additional evidence that bat flies do not play a primary role in HeV transmission. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus

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    Luigi De Masi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  11. Evidence of repeated and independent saltational evolution in a peculiar genus of sphinx moths (Proserpinus: Sphingidae.

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    Daniel Rubinoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saltational evolution in which a particular lineage undergoes relatively rapid, significant, and unparalleled change as compared with its closest relatives is rarely invoked as an alternative model to the dominant paradigm of gradualistic evolution. Identifying saltational events is an important first-step in assessing the importance of this discontinuous model in generating evolutionary novelty. We offer evidence for three independent instances of saltational evolution in a charismatic moth genus with only eight species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian search criteria offered congruent, well supported phylogenies based on 1,965 base pairs of DNA sequence using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the nuclear genes elongation factor-1 alpha and wingless. Using a comparative methods approach, we examined three taxa exhibiting novelty in the form of Batesian mimicry, host plant shift, and dramatic physiological differences in light of the phylogenetic data. All three traits appear to have evolved relatively rapidly and independently in three different species of Proserpinus. Each saltational species exhibits a markedly different and discrete example of discontinuous trait evolution while remaining canalized for other typical traits shared by the rest of the genus. All three saltational taxa show insignificantly different levels of overall genetic change as compared with their congeners, implying that their divergence is targeted to particular traits and not genome-wide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such rapid evolution of novel traits in individual species suggests that the pace of evolution can be quick, dramatic, and isolated--even on the species level. These results may be applicable to other groups in which specific taxa have generated pronounced evolutionary novelty. Genetic mechanisms and methods for assessing such relatively rapid changes are postulated.

  12. Fossil and Genetic Evidence for the Polyphyletic Nature of the Planktonic Foraminifera "Globigerinoides", and Description of the New Genus Trilobatus

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    Spezzaferri, Silvia; Kucera, Michal; Pearson, Paul Nicholas; Wade, Bridget Susan; Rappo, Sacha; Poole, Christopher Robert; Morard, Raphaël; Stalder, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic foraminifera are one of the most abundant and diverse protists in the oceans. Their utility as paleo proxies requires rigorous taxonomy and comparison with living and genetically related counterparts. We merge genetic and fossil evidence of “Globigerinoides”, characterized by supplementary apertures on spiral side, in a new approach to trace their “total evidence phylogeny” since their first appearance in the latest Paleogene. Combined fossil and molecular genetic data indicate that this genus, as traditionally understood, is polyphyletic. Both datasets indicate the existence of two distinct lineages that evolved independently. One group includes “Globigerinoides” trilobus and its descendants, the extant “Globigerinoides” sacculifer, Orbulina universa and Sphaeroidinella dehiscens. The second group includes the Globigerinoides ruber clade with the extant G. conglobatus and G. elongatus and ancestors. In molecular phylogenies, the trilobus group is not the sister taxon of the ruber group. The ruber group clusters consistently together with the modern Globoturborotalita rubescens as a sister taxon. The re-analysis of the fossil record indicates that the first “Globigerinoides” in the late Oligocene are ancestral to the trilobus group, whereas the ruber group first appeared at the base of the Miocene with representatives distinct from the trilobus group. Therefore, polyphyly of the genus "Globigerinoides" as currently defined can only be avoided either by broadening the genus concept to include G. rubescens and a large number of fossil species without supplementary apertures, or if the trilobus group is assigned to a separate genus. Since the former is not feasible due to the lack of a clear diagnosis for such a broad genus, we erect a new genus Trilobatus for the trilobus group (type species Globigerina triloba Reuss) and amend Globoturborotalita and Globigerinoides to clarify morphology and wall textures of these genera. In the new

  13. Genus-wide physicochemical evidence of extracellular crystalline silver nanoparticles biosynthesis by Morganella spp.

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    Rasesh Y Parikh

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether extracellular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs production is a genus-wide phenotype associated with all the members of genus Morganella, or only Morganella morganii RP-42 isolate is able to synthesize extracellular Ag nanoparticles. To undertake this study, all the available Morganella isolates were exposed to Ag+ ions, and the obtained nanoproducts were thoroughly analyzed using physico-chemical characterization tools such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. It was identified that extracellular biosynthesis of crystalline silver nanoparticles is a unique biochemical character of all the members of genus Morganella, which was found independent of environmental changes. Significantly, the inability of other closely related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae towards AgNPs synthesis strongly suggests that AgNPs synthesis in the presence of Ag+ ions is a phenotypic character that is uniquely associated with genus Morganella.

  14. Searching for speciation genes: molecular evidence for selection associated with colour morphotypes in the Caribbean reef fish genus Hypoplectrus.

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    Ben G Holt

    Full Text Available Closely related species that show clear phenotypic divergence, but without obvious geographic barriers, can provide opportunities to study how diversification can occur when opportunities for allopatric speciation are limited. We examined genetic divergence in the coral reef fish genus Hypoplectrus (family: Serranidae, which comprises of 10-14 morphotypes that are distinguished solely by their distinct colour patterns, but which show little genetic differentiation. Our goal was to detect loci that show clear disequilibrium between morphotypes and across geographical locations. We conducted Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular analysis to quantify genetic differentiation among, and selection between, morphotypes. Three loci were consistently divergent beyond neutral expectations in repeated pair-wise morphotype comparisons using two different methods. These loci provide the first evidence for genes that may be associated with colour morphotype in the genus Hypoplectrus.

  15. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

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    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  16. Genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus Campylobacter.

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    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-09-04

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology.

  17. Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences.

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    Liu, Ping-Li; Wan, Qian; Guo, Yan-Ping; Yang, Ji; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum L. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) is a genus with rapid speciation. It comprises about 40 species, most of which are distributed in East Asia. Many of these are narrowly distributed and habitat-specific. Considerable variations in morphology and ploidy are found in this genus. Some species have been the subjects of many studies, but the relationships between Chrysanthemum and its allies and the phylogeny of this genus remain poorly understood. In the present study, 32 species/varieties from Chrysanthemum and 11 from the allied genera were analyzed using DNA sequences of the single-copy nuclear CDS gene and seven cpDNA loci (psbA-trnH, trnC-ycf6, ycf6-psbM, trnY-rpoB, rpS4-trnT, trnL-F, and rpL16). The cpDNA and nuclear CDS gene trees both suggest that 1) Chrysanthemum is not a monophyletic taxon, and the affinity between Chrysanthemum and Ajania is so close that these two genera should be incorporated taxonomically; 2) Phaeostigma is more closely related to the Chrysanthemum+Ajania than other generic allies. According to pollen morphology and to the present cpDNA and CDS data, Ajania purpurea is a member of Phaeostigma. Species differentiation in Chrysanthemum appears to be correlated with geographic and environmental conditions. The Chinese Chrysanthemum species can be divided into two groups, the C. zawadskii group and the C. indicum group. The former is distributed in northern China and the latter in southern China. Many polyploid species, such as C. argyrophyllum, may have originated from allopolyploidization involving divergent progenitors. Considering all the evidence from present and previous studies, we conclude that geographic and ecological factors as well as hybridization and polyploidy play important roles in the divergence and speciation of the genus Chrysanthemum.

  18. Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences.

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    Ping-Li Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum L. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae is a genus with rapid speciation. It comprises about 40 species, most of which are distributed in East Asia. Many of these are narrowly distributed and habitat-specific. Considerable variations in morphology and ploidy are found in this genus. Some species have been the subjects of many studies, but the relationships between Chrysanthemum and its allies and the phylogeny of this genus remain poorly understood. In the present study, 32 species/varieties from Chrysanthemum and 11 from the allied genera were analyzed using DNA sequences of the single-copy nuclear CDS gene and seven cpDNA loci (psbA-trnH, trnC-ycf6, ycf6-psbM, trnY-rpoB, rpS4-trnT, trnL-F, and rpL16. The cpDNA and nuclear CDS gene trees both suggest that 1 Chrysanthemum is not a monophyletic taxon, and the affinity between Chrysanthemum and Ajania is so close that these two genera should be incorporated taxonomically; 2 Phaeostigma is more closely related to the Chrysanthemum+Ajania than other generic allies. According to pollen morphology and to the present cpDNA and CDS data, Ajania purpurea is a member of Phaeostigma. Species differentiation in Chrysanthemum appears to be correlated with geographic and environmental conditions. The Chinese Chrysanthemum species can be divided into two groups, the C. zawadskii group and the C. indicum group. The former is distributed in northern China and the latter in southern China. Many polyploid species, such as C. argyrophyllum, may have originated from allopolyploidization involving divergent progenitors. Considering all the evidence from present and previous studies, we conclude that geographic and ecological factors as well as hybridization and polyploidy play important roles in the divergence and speciation of the genus Chrysanthemum.

  19. Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.

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    Naidu, R A; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Boyko, V; Reddy, A S; Dawson, W O; Reddy, D V

    1998-01-01

    Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus.

  20. Phylogeny, systematics and biogeography of the genus panolis (lepidoptera: noctuidae based on morphological and molecular evidence.

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    Houshuai Wang

    Full Text Available The genus Panolis is a small group of noctuid moths with six recognized species distributed from Europe to East Asia, and best known for containing the widespread Palearctic pest species P. flammea, the pine beauty moth. However, a reliable classification and robust phylogenetic framework for this group of potentially economic importance are currently lacking. Here, we use morphological and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA, nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha to reconstruct the phylogeny of this genus, with a comprehensive systematic revision of all recognized species and a new one, P. ningshan sp. nov. The analysis results of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferring methods for the combined morphological and molecular data sets are highly congruent, resulting in a robust phylogeny and identification of two clear species groups, i.e., the P. flammea species group and the P. exquisita species group. We also estimate the divergence times of Panolis moths using two conventional mutation rates for the arthropod mitochondrial COI gene with a comparison of two molecular clock models, as well as reconstruct their ancestral areas. Our results suggest that 1 Panolis is a young clade, originating from the Oriental region in China in the Late Miocene (6-10Mya, with an ancestral species in the P. flammea group extending northward to the Palearctic region some 3-6 Mya; 2 there is a clear possibility for a representative of the Palearctic clade to become established as an invasive species in the Nearctic taiga.

  1. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus).

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    Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Sai; Zhong, Jia; Wang, Weimin

    2016-11-24

    The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity) that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1) energy metabolism; (2) signal transduction; (3) membrane; and (4) cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na⁺ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  2. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus

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    Shaokui Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1 energy metabolism; (2 signal transduction; (3 membrane; and (4 cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na+ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  3. Taxonomic position of Lovenella gracilis (Clarke, 1882 (Lovenellidae, Hydrozoa: new evidences of microanatomy justify its maintenance in the genus Lovenella (Hincks, 1868

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    Thaís Pires-Miranda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lovenella gracilis Clarke, 1882 is one of the 15 nominal species referred to the genus Lovenella Hincks, 1868, characterized by the presence of a basal line demarcating the separation between operculum and hydrotheca. However, Lovenella gracilis apparently does not have the demarcating line under light microscopy - therefore, the resurrection of the genus Dipleuron Brooks, 1882 was proposed to accommodate this species. The goal of this study is redescribe the polyp of L. gracilis trying to resolve this doubtful taxonomical status. Fertile colonies were collected in the intertidal zone of Rio Grande do Norte and Santa Catarina States, representing the first record of the species for the South Atlantic. Scanning electron microcopy of L. gracilis has shown a tenuous demarcation between operculum and hydrotheca, corroborating its position in the genus Lovenella. Considering the new evidences presented, we propose the maintenance of the species L. gracilis in the genus Lovenella, and corroborate the synonymy of Dipleuron and Lovenella.

  4. Phenetic relationship of Genus Knema, Horsfieldia, and Myristica in Java based on pollen morphological evidence

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    ARRIJANI

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the research were to support taxonomic evidence data in particular of palinology spesies classified in Myristicaceae family at Java and determine phenetic relationship as an effort of increasing objectivity and repeatability of classification result. Pollen was collected in Herbarium Bogoriense and Bogor Botanical Garden, and prepared for light and Scanning Electron Microscope. Acetolysis method was used for light microscopy of the pollen preparation, and coating with gold was prepared for SEM. Phenetic relationship determined using coefficients of correlation and association.

  5. Evidence for a close phylogenetic relationship between Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease, and the genus Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J; Collins, M D

    1994-04-01

    The 16S rRNA gene sequence of Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease, was determined in order to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between this organism and other low-G + C-content gram-positive bacteria. A comparative sequence analysis revealed that M. pluton is a close phylogenetic relative of the genus Enterococcus.

  6. Cryptolepiota, a new sequestrate genus in the Agaricaceae with evidence for adaptive radiation in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley R. Kropp; Steve Albee-Scott; Michael A. Castellano; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on nLSU and ITS sequence data indicate that the sequestrate genus Gigasperma is polyphyletic. Gigasperma cryptica, which is known only from New Zealand, has affinities with the Cortinariaceae whereas G. americanum and two additional undescribed taxa from western North America are...

  7. The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jennifer R; Read, Charmaine I; van Herwerden, Lynne; Bellwood, David R

    2012-02-01

    We examined how peripherally isolated endemic species may have contributed to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago biodiversity hotspot by reconstructing the evolutionary history of the wrasse genus Anampses. We identified three alternate models of diversification: the vicariance-based 'successive division' model, and the dispersal-based 'successive colonisation' and 'peripheral budding' models. The genus was well suited for this study given its relatively high proportion (42%) of endemic species, its reasonably low diversity (12 species), which permitted complete taxon sampling, and its widespread tropical Indo-Pacific distribution. Monophyly of the genus was strongly supported by three phylogenetic analyses: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA and nuclear S7 sequences. Estimates of species divergence times from fossil-calibrated Bayesian inference suggest that Anampses arose in the mid-Eocene and subsequently diversified throughout the Miocene. Evolutionary relationships within the genus, combined with limited spatial and temporal concordance among endemics, offer support for all three alternate models of diversification. Our findings emphasise the importance of peripherally isolated locations in creating and maintaining endemic species and their contribution to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of symbionts in feather-feeding lice of the genus Columbicola: evidence for repeated symbiont replacements

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wendy A.; Oakeson, Kelly F.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.; Carter, Tamar; Smith, Kari L; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Dale H Clayton; Dale, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Background Many groups of insects have obligate bacterial symbionts that are vertically transmitted. Such associations are typically characterized by the presence of a monophyletic group of bacteria living in a well-defined host clade. In addition the phylogeny of the symbiotic bacteria is typically congruent with that of the host, signifying co-speciation. Here we show that bacteria living in a single genus of feather lice, Columbicola (Insecta: Phthiraptera), present an exception to this ty...

  9. Evidence for high degrees of specialisation, evolutionary diversity, and morphological distinctiveness in the genus Bremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Runge, Fabian; Hong, Seung-Beom; Telle, Sabine; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2011-02-01

    Bremia lactucae is one of the most important pathogens in lettuce production. Recent molecular studies revealed considerable genetic variation in this species complex. However, only few accessions from the same host have been examined for most species and no study investigating the morphological distinctiveness of phylogenetic lineages of Bremia has so far been reported. Thus it is believed that morphological species delimitation in Bremia is not feasible. In the present study, multiple accessions of neglected species, which had been described decades ago, but have not been widely accepted, were investigated, considering both multi-gene phylogenies and morphological characters. All previously described species from host genera other than Lactuca investigated, Bremia microspora, Bremia ovata, Bremia saussureae, and Bremia sonchicola, could be confirmed as distinct, host-specific entities. Also, morphological characteristics of their conidiophores and conidia allowed delimitation of these species. Therefore, not only the wide species concept to merge all Bremia species on the Asteraceae under B. lactucae is inappropriate but also their delimitation on the basis of morphological characters seems feasible. In addition, it has been shown that Bremia elliptica is phylogenetically distinct from the other species infecting the genus Lactuca, B. lactucae. It is therefore concluded that B. lactucae is most likely limited to Lactuca sativa and closely-related species, and that most species of Bremia are highly host specific. This finding might stimulate the search for durable resistance genes in genera closely related to the genus Lactuca and in divergent species of the genus itself.

  10. Population genetics of Agave cocui: evidence for low genetic diversity at the southern geographic limit of genus Agave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-01-01

    The Agave genus embraces many species with outstanding ecological and economic importance in the arid regions of the Americas. Even though this genus covers a broad geographic distribution, our knowledge on the population genetics of species is concentrated in taxa located in North America. Recently, it has been demonstrated that plant domestication decreases levels of genetic diversity in managed populations and increases population structure with respect to wild populations. We examined levels of allozyme diversity (N = 17 loci) and population structure of Agave cocui, the species at the southern limit of distribution of the genus. We sampled 7 wild populations (N = 30-35 individuals per population) representative of the geographic distribution of the species in Venezuela. Among the agaves studied, A. cocui has some of the lowest estimates of genetic diversity (H(e)[species] = 0.059, H(e)[population] = 0.054) reported until present. We propose that this condition is probably linked to the recent origin of this species in arid and semiarid regions of Colombia and Venezuela, probably through one or a few founder events. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity were associated with small populations in very restricted arid patches; but also with overexploitation of rosettes for production of fermented drinks and fibers. Santa Cruz de Pecaya, one of the 2 centers of economic use of agaves in northwestern Venezuela presented one of the lowest values of genetic variability, a sign suggesting that human impact represents a significant threat to the available genetic pool that this species possesses in the region.

  11. Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M Vieira

    Full Text Available The bryozoan genus Scrupocellaria comprises about 80 species in the family Candidae. We propose a hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among species assigned to Scrupocellaria to serve as framework for a phylogenetic classification using 35 morphological characters. Our results suggest that the genus Scrupocellaria is polyphyletic. Scrupocellaria s. str. is redefined according to four morphological features: vibracular chamber with a curved setal groove, ooecium with a single ectooecial fenestra, two axillary vibracula, and a membranous operculum with a distinct distal rim. Thus, the genus includes only 11 species: Scrupocellaria aegeensis, Scrupocellaria delilii, Scrupocellaria harmeri, Scrupocellaria incurvata, Scrupocellaria inermis, Scrupocellaria intermedia, Scrupocellaria jullieni, Scrupocellaria minuta, Scrupocellaria puelcha, Scrupocellaria scrupea, and Scrupocellaria scruposa. The monophyly of Cradoscrupocellaria is supported and five new genera are erected: Aquiloniella n. gen., Aspiscellaria n. gen., Paralicornia n. gen., Pomocellaria n. gen. and Scrupocaberea n. gen. Two other new genera, Bathycellaria n. gen. and Sinocellaria n. gen., are erected to accommodate two poorly known species, Scrupocellaria profundis Osburn and Scrupocellaria uniseriata Liu, respectively. Scrupocellaria congesta is tentatively assigned to Tricellaria. Fifteen species are reassigned to Licornia: Licornia cookie n. comb., Licornia micheli n. comb., Licornia milneri n. comb., Licornia curvata n. comb., Licornia diegensis n. comb., Licornia drachi n. comb., Licornia mexicana n. comb., Licornia pugnax n. comb., Licornia raigadensis n. comb., Licornia regularis n. comb., Licornia resseri n. comb., Licornia securifera n. comb., Licornia spinigera n. comb., Licornia tridentata n. comb., and Licornia wasinensis n. comb. Notoplites americanus n. name is proposed as a replacement name for Scrupocellaria clausa Canu & Bassler. Three fossil species are

  12. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Cuban cave-fishes of the genus Lucifuga: evidence for cryptic allopatric diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Machado, Erik; Hernández, Damir; García-Debrás, Alfredo; Chevalier-Monteagudo, Pedro; Metcalfe, Cushla; Bernatchez, Louis; Casane, Didier

    2011-11-01

    Underground environments are increasingly recognized as reservoirs of faunal diversity. Extreme environmental conditions and limited dispersal ability of underground organisms have been acknowledged as important factors promoting divergence between species and conspecific populations. However, in many instances, there is no correlation between genetic divergence and morphological differentiation. Lucifuga Poey is a stygobiotic fish genus that lives in Cuban and Bahamian caves. In Cuba, it offers a unique opportunity to study the influence of habitat fragmentation on the genetic divergence of stygobiotic species and populations. The genus includes four species and one morphological variant that have contrasting geographical distributions. In this study, we first performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Lucifuga Cuban species using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The mitochondrial phylogeny revealed three deeply divergent clades that were supported by nuclear and morphological characters. Within two of these main clades, we identified five lineages that are candidate cryptic species and a taxonomical synonymy between Lucifuga subterranea and Lucifuga teresinarum. Secondly, phylogeographic analysis using a fragment of the cytochrome b gene was performed for Lucifuga dentata, the most widely distributed species. We found strong geographical organization of the haplotype clades at different geographic scales that can be explained by episodes of dispersal and population expansion followed by population fragmentation and restricted gene flow. At a larger temporal scale, these processes could also explain the diversification and the distribution of the different species.

  13. Rapid postglacial diversification and long-term stasis within the songbird genus Junco: phylogeographic and phylogenomic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Guillermo; Aleixandre, Pau; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Milá, Borja

    2016-12-01

    Natural systems composed of closely related taxa that vary in the degree of phenotypic divergence and geographic isolation provide an opportunity to investigate the rate of phenotypic diversification and the relative roles of selection and drift in driving lineage formation. The genus Junco (Aves: Emberizidae) of North America includes parapatric northern forms that are markedly divergent in plumage pattern and colour, in contrast to geographically isolated southern populations in remote areas that show moderate phenotypic divergence. Here, we quantify patterns of phenotypic divergence in morphology and plumage colour and use mitochondrial DNA genes, a nuclear intron, and genomewide SNPs to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of the genus to infer relative rates of evolutionary divergence among lineages. We found that geographically isolated populations have evolved independently for hundreds of thousands of years despite little differentiation in phenotype, in sharp contrast to phenotypically diverse northern forms, which have diversified within the last few thousand years as a result of the rapid postglacial recolonization of North America. SNP data resolved young northern lineages into reciprocally monophyletic lineages, indicating low rates of gene flow even among closely related parapatric forms, and suggesting a role for strong genetic drift or multifarious selection acting on multiple loci in driving lineage divergence. Juncos represent a compelling example of speciation in action, where the combined effects of historical and selective factors have produced one of the fastest cases of speciation known in vertebrates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Limnohabitans genus harbors generalistic and opportunistic subtypes: evidence from spatiotemporal succession in a canyon-shaped reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezberová, Jitka; Jezbera, Jan; Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel

    2017-08-25

    We studied the diversity of Limnohabitans using Reverse Line Blot Hybridization with Limnohabitans lineage-specific probes in the freshwater canyon-shaped Římov Reservoir (CZ). To examine the succession of distinct lineages we performed two studies: (i) an intensive spring sampling program at the lacustrine part of the Římov Reservoir (from ice melt through a phytoplankton peak to the clear water phase), and (ii) a seasonal study (April to November) when the occurrence of distinct Limnohabitans lineages was related to the inherent longitudinal heterogeneity of the reservoir. Significant spatiotemporal changes in the composition of distinct Limnohabitans lineages allowed for the identification of 'generalists' that were always present throughout the whole season as well as 'specialists' that appeared in the reservoir only for limited periods of time or irregularly. Our results indicate that some phytoplankton groups, such as cryptophytes or cyanobacteria, and zooplankton composition were the major factors modulating the distribution and dynamics of distinct Limnohabitans lineages. The highest Limnohabitans diversity was observed during the spring algal bloom, whereas the lowest was during the summer cyanobacterial bloom. The microdiversity also markedly increased upstream in the reservoir, being highest at the inflow, thus likely reflecting strong influences of the watershed.Importance The genus Limnohabitans is a member of typical freshwater bacterioplankton and is believed to play a significant role in inland freshwater habitats. This work is unique in detecting and tracing different closely related lineages of this bacterial genus in its natural conditions using the semi-quantitative Reverse Line Blot Hybridization method, and in discovering the factors influencing the microdiversity, subtype alternations and seasonality. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  16. Myxobolus turpisrotundus (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) spores with caudal appendages: investigating the validity of the genus Henneguya with morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Whipps, Christopher M; Gu, Z M; Zeng, L B

    2010-08-01

    Spores of the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang 2009 were observed for the first time bearing caudal appendages. Most spores had the typical Myxobolus spp. morphology, but approximately 10% of spores possessed a spore body that was slightly elongated with a short tail projecting from the spore valve. In other spores, the tail was much more clearly visible and elongate. The spore body of these unusual spores is consistent in morphology and dimension to the normal spores of M. turpisrotundus. Both spore types were found within individual cysts, and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene sequence from parasite cysts of this type was nearly identical to the previously published sequence of M. turpisrotundus from allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). The phenomenon of Myxobolus spores with caudal appendages provides additional evidence that the use of this character to separate Myxobolus and Henneguya into distinct genera is not reflective of an evolutionarily accurate classification scheme. Phylogenetic analysis of ssrDNA sequence from Myxobolus and Henneguya species showed clustering of species in some locations of the tree, but ultimately these genera are intermixed. The use of a single character to delineate species in the two most species-rich myxozoan genera has been consistently challenged where DNA analyses are used. The present finding of a single species bearing both Myxobolus-type and Henneguya-type spores emphasizes the inadequacy of this classification scheme, and highlights the need for careful consideration of these variable characteristics when describing myxozoan species.

  17. Evidence for the presence of key chlorophyll-biosynthesis-related proteins in the genus Rubrobacter (Phylum Actinobacteria) and its implications for the evolution and origin of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Khadka, Bijendra

    2016-02-01

    Homologs showing high degree of sequence similarity to the three subunits of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase enzyme complex (viz. BchL, BchN, and BchB), which carries out a central role in chlorophyll-bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) biosynthesis, are uniquely found in photosynthetic organisms. The results of BLAST searches and homology modeling presented here show that proteins exhibiting a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to the BchB and BchN proteins are also present in organisms from the high G+C Gram-positive phylum of Actinobacteria, specifically in members of the genus Rubrobacter (R. x ylanophilus and R. r adiotolerans). The results presented exclude the possibility that the observed BLAST hits are for subunits of the nitrogenase complex or the chlorin reductase complex. The branching in phylogenetic trees and the sequence characteristics of the Rubrobacter BchB/BchN homologs indicate that these homologs are distinct from those found in other photosynthetic bacteria and that they may represent ancestral forms of the BchB/BchN proteins. Although a homolog showing high degree of sequence similarity to the BchL protein was not detected in Rubrobacter, another protein, belonging to the ParA/Soj/MinD family, present in these bacteria, exhibits high degree of structural similarity to the BchL. In addition to the BchB/BchN homologs, Rubrobacter species also contain homologs showing high degree of sequence similarity to different subunits of magnesium chelatase (BchD, BchH, and BchI) as well as proteins showing significant similarity to the BchP and BchG proteins. Interestingly, no homologs corresponding to the BchX, BchY, and BchZ proteins were detected in the Rubrobacter species. These results provide the first suggestive evidence that some form of photosynthesis either exists or was anciently present within the phylum Actinobacteria (high G+C Gram-positive) in members of the genus Rubrobacter. The significance of these results concerning the

  18. Snake venomics of Lachesis muta rhombeata and genus-wide antivenomics assessment of the paraspecific immunoreactivity of two antivenoms evidence the high compositional and immunological conservation across Lachesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Molina-Sánchez, Pedro; Zorita, Virginia; Madrigal, Marvin; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Núñez, Vitelbina; Andrés, Vicente; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2013-08-26

    We report the proteomic analysis of the Atlantic bushmaster, Lachesis muta rhombeata, from Brazil. Along with previous characterization of the venom proteomes of L. stenophrys (Costa Rica), L. melanocephala (Costa Rica), L. acrochorda (Colombia), and L. muta muta (Bolivia), the present study provides the first overview of the composition and distribution of venom proteins across this wide-ranging genus, and highlights the remarkable similar compositional and pharmacological profiles across Lachesis venoms. The paraspecificity of two antivenoms, produced at Instituto Vital Brazil (Brazil) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica) using different conspecific taxa in the immunization mixtures, was assessed using genus-wide comparative antivenomics. This study confirms that the proteomic similarity among Lachesis sp. venoms is mirrored in their high immunological conservation across the genus. The clinical and therapeutic consequences of genus-wide venomics and antivenomics investigations of Lachesis venoms are discussed. The proteomics characterization of L. m. rhombeata venom completes the overview of Lachesis venom proteomes and confirms the remarkable toxin profile conservation across the five clades of this wide-ranging genus. Genus-wide antivenomics showed that two antivenoms, produced against L. stenophrys or L. m. rhombeata, exhibit paraspecificity towards all other congeneric venoms. Our venomics study shows that, despite the broad geographic distribution of the genus, monospecific antivenoms may achieve clinical coverage for any Lachesis sp. envenoming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Division of the genus Borrelia into two genera (corresponding to Lyme disease and relapsing fever groups) reflects their genetic and phenotypic distinctiveness and will lead to a better understanding of these two groups of microbes (Margos et al. (2016) There is inadequate evidence to support the division of the genus Borrelia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.001717).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Alan G; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2017-01-27

    This rebuttal Letter responds to a Letter in the IJSEM by Margos et al. challenging division of the genus Borrelia into two genera. We discuss here point-by-point the issues raised by Margos et al. and show that much of their criticism is unfounded and in several cases based on misreading of the presented results. We summarize here the extensive evidence based on genomic, genetic and phenotypic properties showing that the members of the family Borreliaceae (containing mainly the genus Borrelia) comprises two distinct and cohesive groups of microbes, differing in diseases they cause and other phenotypes. Prior to the proposed division, Borrelia spp. causing Lyme disease (LD) were already functionally treated as a distinct group, referred to as "B. burgdorferi sensu lato" to distinguish them from the other cluster of Borrelia spp. which includes all known species causing relapsing fever (RF). With the more explicit division of Borreliaceae species into two genus level groups, which are distinguishable from each other based on numerous unique genetic and molecular characteristics, the attention can now be focused on the biological significance of different molecular characteristics differentiating the two groups. The clear distinction of the LD and the RF groups of microbes based on numerous highly reliable markers, which are expected to be present even in uncharacterized members of these two groups, should aid in the improved diagnosis as well treatment of both these diseases, which is hindered by the conflation of a common name for agents causing two different types of diseases.

  20. Detection and characterization of a novel rhabdovirus in Aedes cantans mosquitoes and evidence for a mosquito-associated new genus in the family Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Lühken, Renke; Jöst, Hanna; Jansen, Stephanie; Börstler, Jessica; Rieger, Toni; Krüger, Andreas; Yadouleton, Anges; de Mendonça Campos, Renata; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Ferreira, Davis Fernandes; Garms, Rolf; Becker, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-09-21

    Thanks to recent advances in random amplification technologies, metagenomic surveillance expanded the number of novel, often unclassified viruses within the family Rhabdoviridae. Using a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) tool, we identified a novel rhabdovirus in Aedes cantans mosquitoes collected from Germany provisionally named Ohlsdorf virus (OHSDV). The OHSDV genome encodes the canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORF in the P gene. Sequence analysis indicated that OHSDV exhibits a similar genome organization and characteristics compared to other mosquito-associated rhabdoviruses (Riverside virus, Tongilchon virus and North Creek virus). Complete L protein based phylogeny revealed that all four viruses share a common ancestor and form a deeply rooted and divergent monophyletic group within the dimarhabdovirus supergroup and define a new genus, tentatively named Ohlsdorfvirus. Although the Ohlsdorfvirus clade is basal within the dimarhabdovirus supergroup phylogeny that includes genera of arthropod-borne rhabdoviruses, it remains unknown if viruses in the proposed new genus are vector-borne pathogens. The observed spatiotemporal distribution in mosquitoes suggests that members of the proposed genus Ohlsdorfvirus are geographically restricted/separated. These findings increase the current knowledge of the genetic diversity, classification and evolution of this virus family. Further studies are needed to determine the host range, transmission route and the evolutionary relationships of these mosquito-associated viruses with those infecting vertebrates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Is the mega-diverse genus Ocyptamus (Diptera, Syrphidae) monophyletic? Evidence from molecular characters including the secondary structure of 28S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, Ximo; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rojo, Santos

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships between two New World Syrphinae taxa (Diptera, Syrphidae), i.e. the highly diverse genus Ocyptamus and the large genus Toxomerus, were analysed based on molecular characters. The monophyly of both taxa was tested and the taxonomic status of included subgenera and species groups was examined. Toxomerus constitutes the monogeneric tribe Toxomerini with more than 140 described species, while Ocyptamus (tribe Syrphini) is a very diverse genus (over 300 spp.) with multiple recognised subgenera and species groups. Sequence data from three gene regions were used: the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The secondary structure of two expansion segments (D2, D3) of the ribosomal 28S RNA gene is presented for the family Syrphidae and used for the first time in a multiple sequence alignment. Molecular data were analysed using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Toxomerus was always recovered as monophyletic within Ocyptamus, and relationships to other New World taxa such as Salpingogaster (Eosalpingogaster) were well-supported. Only the subgenera and species groups of Ocyptamus were consistently recovered as monophyletic lineages, thus the apparent non-monophyly of Ocyptamus demands reclassification of this clade. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Bredenkamp; A. E. van Wyk

    2003-01-01

    Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are give...

  3. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  4. Analysis of the RNA of Potato yellow vein virus: evidence for a tripartite genome and conserved 3'-terminal structures among members of the genus Crinivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livieratos, I C; Eliasco, E; Müller, G; Olsthoorn, R C L; Salazar, L F; Pleij, C W A; Coutts, R H A

    2004-07-01

    Double-stranded RNA preparations produced from potato plants graft-inoculated with a Peruvian isolate of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV; genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) contain five RNA species denoted RNA 1, RNA 2, RNA 3, x and y of approximately 8, 5.3, 3.8, 2.0 and 1.8 kbp, respectively. The complete nucleotide sequences of PYVV RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and Northern hybridization analysis showed that PYVV RNA 1 contained the replication module and an additional open reading frame (p7), while two distinct species, RNAs 2 and 3, contain the Closteroviridae hallmark gene array. Pairwise comparisons and phylogeny of genome-encoded proteins showed that PYVV shares significant homology with other criniviruses but is most closely related to the Trialeurodes vaporariorum-vectored Cucumber yellows virus. Secondary structure prediction of the 3'-untranslated regions of all three PYVV RNAs revealed four conserved stem-loop structures and a 3'-terminal pseudoknot structure, also predicted for all fully characterized members of the genus Crinivirus and some members of the genera Closterovirus and Ampelovirus.

  5. Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Suhua; DU Yaqing; D. E. Boufford; GONG Xun; HUANG Yelin; HE Hanghang; ZHONG Yang

    2003-01-01

    The chloroplast gene matK and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA from Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China, and 6 genera of Verbenaceae and 13 genera of Lamiaceae were sequenced. The phylogenetic signal and validity outgroups were measured and evaluated by means of the relatively apparent synapomorphy analysis (RASA). Independent and combined phylogenetic analyses for the matK and ITS sequences were performed using the maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor- joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods, indicating that Schnabelia oligophylla and Caryopteris terniflora form a sister-group relationship. The Caryopteris complex is not shown to be a monophyly because Trichostema, C. paniculata and C. forrestii are paraphyletic to the clade containing the remaining members of the complex. A monophyly of Ajugoideae proposed by Cantino et al., including 8 genera in this study, is strongly supported and the closest relatives of Schnabelia are in the Ajugoideae (Lamiaceae), especially near Caryopteris terniflora. The polygenetic analyses also showed that the genera of Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae sampled in this tudy are phylogenetically mixed and the genus Avicennia is distant to other genera of Verbenaceae. RASA and combined analysis can be used as effective approaches to determining the relationships among phylogenetically complex groups.

  6. Mitogenome Sequencing in the Genus Camelus Reveals Evidence for Purifying Selection and Long-term Divergence between Wild and Domestic Bactrian Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandesan, Elmira; Fitak, Robert R; Corander, Jukka; Yadamsuren, Adiya; Chuluunbat, Battsetseg; Abdelhadi, Omer; Raziq, Abdul; Nagy, Peter; Stalder, Gabrielle; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Burger, Pamela A

    2017-08-30

    The genus Camelus is an interesting model to study adaptive evolution in the mitochondrial genome, as the three extant Old World camel species inhabit hot and low-altitude as well as cold and high-altitude deserts. We sequenced 24 camel mitogenomes and combined them with three previously published sequences to study the role of natural selection under different environmental pressure, and to advance our understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus Camelus. We confirmed the heterogeneity of divergence across different components of the electron transport system. Lineage-specific analysis of mitochondrial protein evolution revealed a significant effect of purifying selection in the concatenated protein-coding genes in domestic Bactrian camels. The estimated dN/dS < 1 in the concatenated protein-coding genes suggested purifying selection as driving force for shaping mitogenome diversity in camels. Additional analyses of the functional divergence in amino acid changes between species-specific lineages indicated fixed substitutions in various genes, with radical effects on the physicochemical properties of the protein products. The evolutionary time estimates revealed a divergence between domestic and wild Bactrian camels around 1.1 [0.58-1.8] million years ago (mya). This has major implications for the conservation and management of the critically endangered wild species, Camelus ferus.

  7. Colonization and diversification of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae, Pholcidae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos: evidence for long-term occupancy yet rapid recent speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Arnedo, Miquel A; Ribera, Carles

    2008-08-01

    Macaronesian archipelagos stand apart from other oceanic islands reputed as laboratories for the study of evolution by their proximity to the mainland, lack of subsidence, and steep ecological gradients. The genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805, commonly known as daddy-long-leg spiders, is one of the most speciose arthropod groups in the region, with 25 endemic species. In the present study, we use information from four mitochondrial genes, along with morphological data, to examine the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns of the genus in the region. Phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of Macaronesian Pholcus including the Moroccan species Pholcus vachoni and hence a single colonization event in the archipelagos. Madeira colonizers most likely originated from the Canaries, and a back-colonization of the nearby mainland receives further support. Estimated lineage divergence times suggest a long-time presence of Pholcus in the region, but also reveal that most present-day species are the result of recent, and probably rapid, speciation events. Diagnostic characters among Macaronesian Pholcus are confined to structures involved in copulation. Coupled with the extremely high diversification rate, the highest recorded for spiders, these copulatory characters suggest that sexual selection has played a key role in the local diversification of Pholcus in Macaronesia.

  8. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of São Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.

  9. Evolution of habitat preference and nutrition mode in a cosmopolitan fungal genus with evidence of interkingdom host jumps and major shifts in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Samuels, Gary J

    2013-10-01

    Host jumps by microbial symbionts are often associated with bursts of species diversification driven by the exploitation of new adaptive zones. The objective of this study was to infer the evolution of habitat preference (decaying plants, soil, living fungi, and living plants), and nutrition mode (saprotrophy and mycoparasitism) in the fungal genus Trichoderma to elucidate possible interkingdom host jumps and shifts in ecology. Host and ecological role shifts were inferred by phylogenetic analyses and ancestral character reconstructions. The results support several interkingdom host jumps and also show that the preference for a particular habitat was gained or lost multiple times. Diversification analysis revealed that mycoparasitism is associated with accelerated speciation rates, which then suggests that this trait may be linked to the high number of species in Trichoderma. In this study it was also possible to infer the cryptic roles that endophytes or soil inhabitants play in their hosts by evaluating their closest relatives and determining their most recent ancestors. Findings from this study may have implications for understanding certain evolutionary processes such as species radiations in some hyperdiverse groups of fungi, and for more applied fields such as the discovery and development of novel biological control strategies. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. The genus Squamanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, C.

    1965-01-01

    By transferring Cystoderma paradoxum Smith & Sing. and Vaginata umbonata Sumst. to the genus Squamanita and the description of the new species, S. pearsonii, the number of species of that genus is raised from two to five. In addition two more species of Squamanita are provisionally described. An

  11. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  12. The genus Idertia (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - The genus Idertia belongs to the subfamily Ochnoideae, tribe Ochneae, subtribe Ouratinae. This paper aims at a full taxonomic revision and a critical evaluation of the taxonomic position of the genus along with its diagnostic characters. Methods - All characters are studied usi

  13. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    among salmonids validates Parahucho (Japanese huchen) as a distinct monotypic genus.

  14. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  15. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  16. The upper reaches of the largest river in Southern China as an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants: Evidences from Asia-endemic genus Hiptage (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity hotspot at the Guizhou–Yunnan–Guangxi borders is a distribution centre of tropical plants in China. It spans the whole upper reaches of Zhujiang River, the largest river in Southern China. In this paper, I aimed to explore the roles of the river in the spread and diversification of tropical plants in this area, using the Asia-endemic genus Hiptage Gaertn. (Malpighiaceae as an example. Two diversity and endemism centres of Hiptage are recognized: Indo-China Peninsula and upper reaches of Zhujiang River (UZJ. The area-adjusted endemism index further indicates UZJ as the most important distribution region of endemic species since UZJ has a very small area (~210,000 km2 but six out of the total seven species are narrow endemics. UZJ is located at the northern edge of distribution ranges of Hiptage, which resulted mainly from the north-west–south-east river systems of UZJ promoting northward spreads of this tropical genus. The highly-fragmented limestone landscapes in this region may promote habitat isolation and tends to be the main driving factor for origins of these endemic species. Hiptage is also distinctive for its highly-specialized pollination system, mirror-image flowers, which probably facilitates species diversification via floral and pollination isolation. Other studies also found UZJ as a major diversification centre of the tropical plant families Gesneriaceae and Begoniaceae. Thereafter, it is concluded that UZJ is an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants in China, which contributes significantly to the origin and maintenance of the unique biodiversity in the area.El hotspot de biodiversidad en las fronteras de las provincias Guizhou-Yunnan- Guangxi es un centro de distribución de plantas tropicales en China. Se extiende por toda la cuenca alta del río Zhujiang, el mayor río del sur de China. En este artículo, se explora el papel del río en la propagación y la diversificación de las plantas tropicales

  17. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  18. The Genus Alpinia: A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Zhang; Jian-Guang Luo; Ling-Yi Kong

    2016-01-01

    Genus Alpinia consists of over 250 species, which are widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. Many plants of genus Alpinia have been used for thousands of years to treat digestive system diseases and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemical research on this genus has led to the isolation of different kinds of diarylheptanoids, terpenes triterpenoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, and flavonoids. Experimental evidences revealed that both the crude extracts and pure constituents isolated f...

  19. Evidence of prokaryote like protein associated with nickel resistance in higher plants: horizontal transfer of TonB-dependent receptor/protein in Betula genus or de novo mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, G; Nkongolo, K K

    2017-04-01

    Mechanisms of metal resistance have been reported in many plants but knowledge in woody species is scarce. The TonB-dependent receptors family (TBDTs) is a large group of proteins that facilitate the transport of molecules across the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Some evidence exists that TBDTs are involved in metal stress. The existence of a TonB-like mechanism in non-prokaryotes has not been established. The recent development of the Betula papyrifera (white birch) transcriptome has allowed the discovery of genes involved in plant adaptation to stress. The main objective of the present study was to identify novel genes associated with nickel resistance in B. papyrifera. Our results from next generation sequencing and RT-qPCR analyses show that genes involved in transport activities are upregulated in nickel-resistant genotypes compared with susceptible forms. Detailed analysis of gene expression and genome analysis shows for the first time the existence of a TonB-dependent receptor and TonB-like family protein in non-prokaryotes. In addition, we have found that these proteins are associated with nickel resistance in B. papyrifera. Our experiments suggest that the TonB-dependent receptor may be exclusive to the Betula genus, suggesting that Betula species may have acquired the gene via horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes or fungi.

  20. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  1. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  2. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Dav

  3. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  4. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of

  5. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  6. The genus Faradaya (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de R.P.J.; Mabberley, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    A revision of the genus Faradaya F. Muell. (Labiatae) is presented with taxonomic history, keys, full descriptions, distribution maps and ecological and ethnobotanical notes. Only three species are recognised: F. amicorum (Seem.) Seem., F. lehuntei (Home ex Baker) A.C. Sm. and F. splendida F. Muell.

  7. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A. latic

  8. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  9. The Genus Alpinia: A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genus Alpinia consists of over 250 species, which are widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. Many plants of genus Alpinia have been used for thousands of years to treat digestive system diseases and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemical research on this genus has led to the isolation of different kinds of diarylheptanoids, terpenes triterpenoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, and flavonoids. Experimental evidences revealed that both the crude extracts and pure constituents isolated from the genus Alpinia exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, cardiovascular, and digestive system protective effects. Here, we summarize the phytochemistry and pharmacology investigation of the genus Alpinia, which can provide reference for further research and drug development.

  10. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  11. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  12. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  13. A new genus of leafhopper subtribe Paraboloponina (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with molecular phylogeny of related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Naresh M; Shashank, Pathour R; Sinha, Twinkle

    2017-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus Chandra and species Chandra dehradunensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are described, illustrated from India and placed in the subtribe Paraboloponina (Cidadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini). This genus is closely associated with the genus Parabolopona Webb but differs in shape of the head, placement of antennae, male genitalia and molecular analysis using Histone H3 and COI genes confirmed the difference. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Chandra is discussed using morphological characters and preliminary molecular evidence of the new genus and related genus Parabolopona.

  14. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  15. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  16. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  17. Genus Distributions of Moebius Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德明

    2005-01-01

    The genus distribution of a graph is a polynomial whose coefficients are the partition of the number of embeddings with respect to the genera. In this paper,the genus distribution of Moebius ladders is provided which is an infinite class of 3-connected simple graphs.

  18. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  19. Composite Genus One Belyi Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a demand for explicit genus 1 Belyi maps from physics, we give an efficient method of explicitly computing genus one Belyi maps by (1) composing covering maps from elliptic curves to the Riemann surface with the simpler, univariate, genus zero Belyi maps as well as by (2) composing further with isogenies of the elliptic curve. This gives many new explicit dessins on the doubly periodic plane, including several which have been realized in the physics literature as so-called brane-tilings in the context of quiver gauge theories.

  20. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  1. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  2. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

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    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  3. The genus Vitex: A review

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    Anita Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  4. The genus Cladosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K; Braun, U; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2012-06-15

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada

  5. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  6. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  7. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  8. The genus Cyclidiopsis: an obituary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew S; Triemer, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Since its creation in 1917 the genus Cyclidiopsis, and its validity, has been a source of debate among euglenid taxonomists. While many authors have supported its legitimacy, various other authors have considered it to be a subgenus of Astasia or even promoted its complete dissolution. In this study, we have sequenced the small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA of Cyclidiopsis acus, the type species for the genus. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that C. acus grouped with taxa from the genus Lepocinclis, which necessitated the removal of this taxon from Cyclidiopsis and into Lepocinclis as Lepocinclis cyclidiopsis nom. nov. After an extensive literature search it was determined that only two other previously described Cyclidiopsis taxa were morphologically distinct, and the rest were reassigned as synonyms of L. cyclidiopsis. These findings prompted a re-examination of the initial description of Cyclidiopsis, and it was determined that the morphological characters establishing the genus as a distinct group were no longer valid in light of current phylogenetic analyses and the emended generic description for Lepocinclis. Therefore, the remaining two taxa were formally moved to the genus Lepocinclis as L. crescentia comb. nov. and L. pseudomermis comb. nov.

  9. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  10. Revision of the genus Philoplitis Nixon (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Philoplitis Nixon is revised. Three new species, P. masneri Fernández-Triana & Goulet, sp. n., P. punctatus Fernández-Triana & Goulet, sp. n., and P. striatus Fernández-Triana & Goulet, sp. n. are described, and a key is provided to the World species. The genus, previously known only from the Oriental region, is here recorded from the Afrotropical region. Evidence suggests that its included species are broadly found in rainforest areas of the Old World tropics. Clarification and suggestions about some character states previously used with Philoplitis within the context of Microgastrinae phylogenetic studies are also provided.

  11. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  12. Fricke Lie algebras and the genus zero property in Moonshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Scott

    2017-10-01

    We give a new, simpler proof that the canonical actions of finite groups on Fricke-type Monstrous Lie algebras yield genus zero functions in generalized Monstrous Moonshine, using a Borcherds–Kac–Moody Lie algebra decomposition due to Jurisich. We describe a compatibility condition, arising from the no-ghost theorem in bosonic string theory, that yields the genus zero property. We give evidence for and against the conjecture that such a compatibility for symmetries of the Monster Lie algebra gives a characterization of the Monster group.

  13. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Sleptsov, A; Smirnov, A

    2013-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis:the Casimir operators are beta-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is rather straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond this family additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpol...

  14. Strong embeddings of minimum genus

    CERN Document Server

    Mohar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A "folklore conjecture, probably due to Tutte" (as described in [P.D. Seymour, Sums of circuits, Graph theory and related topics (Proc. Conf., Univ. Waterloo, 1977), pp. 341-355, Academic Press, 1979]) asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph can be embedded on a surface of its own genus in such a way that the face boundaries are cycles of the graph. In this paper we consider closed 2-cell embeddings of graphs and show that certain (cubic) graphs (of any fixed genus) have closed 2-cell embedding only in surfaces whose genus is very large (proportional to the order of these graphs), thus providing plethora of strong counterexamples to the above conjecture. The main result yielding such counterexamples may be of independent interest.

  15. A phylogenetic framework for root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda): Evidence from 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S ribosomal RNA genes and morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, Sergei A; Ragsdale, Erik J; Mullens, Teresa; Roberts, Philip A; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, James G

    2008-08-01

    The root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 are migratory endoparasites of plant roots, considered among the most widespread and important nematode parasites in a variety of crops. We obtained gene sequences from the D2 and D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA partial and 18S rRNA from 31 populations belonging to 11 valid and two unidentified species of root lesion nematodes and five outgroup taxa. These datasets were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The alignments were generated using the secondary structure models for these molecules and analyzed with Bayesian inference under the standard models and the complex model, considering helices under the doublet model and loops and bulges under the general time reversible model. The phylogenetic informativeness of morphological characters is tested by reconstruction of their histories on rRNA based trees using parallel parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the 28S D2-D3 dataset with 145 accessions for 28 species and 18S dataset with 68 accessions for 15 species confirmed among large numbers of geographical diverse isolates that most classical morphospecies are monophyletic. Phylogenetic analyses revealed at least six distinct major clades of examined Pratylenchus species and these clades are generally congruent with those defined by characters derived from lip patterns, numbers of lip annules, and spermatheca shape. Morphological results suggest the need for sophisticated character discovery and analysis for morphology based phylogenetics in nematodes.

  16. Paleobiogeography and taxonomy of the genus Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: a review and new evidences Paleobiogeografía y taxonomía del género Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: una revisión y nuevas evidencias

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    LEYLA CÁRDENAS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The muricid gastropod Concholepas concholepas, known in Chile as 'loco', is an important component of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities, and is one of the main invertebrates targeted by small-scale fishers (divers in Chile. Because of its ecological importance and economical value, numerous studies have been conducted to describe its life history, ecology and to understand population dynamics, fishery and management. However, little effort has been done to address the causal factor (s behind its current geographic distribution and moreover little is known about the past distribution of the different species in the genus. In this paper, first we review the paleobiogeography, historical relationships, taxonomy and geographical distribution of Concholepas species, so to contribute in the reconstruction on the past history of the genus. Second, we discuss the robustness of using shell traits when classifying specimens of the genus Concholepas. Third, we evaluate the taxonomic status of C. concholepas including samples from Peru, the continental coast of Chile and Juan Fernández Archipelago, using a molecular approach. Four main conclusions are reached: (1 the evolutionary history of the genus Concholepas has been characterized by successive phenotypically different forms where the fossils species appear to be distinguishable states in the same evolving lineage; (2 the historical biogeography of Concholepas was probably the result of a southward direction process of expansions and extinctions, with the ancestral species being located in south-central Peru; (3 C. concholepas corresponds to a single taxonomic unit along its continental geographical range of distribution; (4 the mtDNA variation present in C. concholepas does not support the existence of the subspecies C. concholepas fernandizianus in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. We suggest that these results should be considered in future ecological, fishery, management and conservation

  17. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  18. Convex-Faced Combinatorially Regular Polyhedra of Small Genus

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    Jörg M. Wills

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorially regular polyhedra are polyhedral realizations (embeddings in Euclidean 3-space E3 of regular maps on (orientable closed compact surfaces. They are close analogues of the Platonic solids. A surface of genus g ≥ 2 admits only finitely many regular maps, and generally only a small number of them can be realized as polyhedra with convex faces. When the genus g is small, meaning that g is in the historically motivated range 2 ≤ g ≤ 6, only eight regular maps of genus g are known to have polyhedral realizations, two discovered quite recently. These include spectacular convex-faced polyhedra realizing famous maps of Klein, Fricke, Dyck, and Coxeter. We provide supporting evidence that this list is complete; in other words, we strongly conjecture that in addition to those eight there are no other regular maps of genus g, with 2 ≤ g ≤ 6, admitting realizations as convex-faced polyhedra in E3. For all admissible maps in this range, save Gordan’s map of genus 4, and its dual, we rule out realizability by a polyhedron in E3.

  19. THE GENUS BURRETIODENDRON* Rehder (Tiliaceae

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    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Burretwdendron are recognized, of which B. siamensis and B. yunnanensis are new to science. The distributional area of the genus covers Siam (one species, Yunnan (two species, Kweichow (one species;  Kwangsi (three species  and Tonkin (two species. B. tonkinensis is reduced to the synonymy of B. hsienmu. A key to the species is presented.

  20. Additions to the genus Acoridium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, Oakes

    1937-01-01

    The genus Acoridium is characterized by an extraordinary history. The original species, A. tenellum, a native of the Philippine Islands, was described at length from a fruiting specimen in 1843 by Nees von Esenbeck and referred to the Philydraceae. This treatment was prompted by the aspect of the pl

  1. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  2. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensen Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  3. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  4. Rank and genus of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tao

    2011-01-01

    We construct a counterexample to the Rank versus Genus Conjecture, i.e. a closed orientable hyperbolic 3-manifold with rank of its fundamental group smaller than its Heegaard genus. Moreover, we show that the discrepancy between rank and Heegaard genus can be arbitrarily large for hyperbolic 3-manifolds. We also construct toroidal such examples containing hyperbolic JSJ pieces.

  5. The genus Stixis (Capparaceae). A census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1963-01-01

    For a long time, the genus Stixis has been known in the Indian Floras under the name Roydsia, until Pierre monographed it in 1887. Several of Pierre’s species have in the present paper been reduced, leaving Stixis a genus comprising 7 species and 1 subspecies. The genus, which is very uniform, exten

  6. The genus Phytophthora anno 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Brouwer, Henk; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Govers, Francine

    2012-04-01

    Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35).

  7. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  8. THE HYPHOMYCETE GENUS DACTYLARIA SACC.

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    MIEN A. RIFAI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An emended delimitation of the genus Dactylaria Sacc. is proposed andthe two accepted species, which are non-predaceous and dematiaceous,are redescribed and illustrated. The affinity of many nematode-trappingspecies currently classified in Dactylaria with the didymosporous generaArthrobotrys Corda, Candelabrella Rifai & R. C. Cooke and Genicularia,Rifai & R. C. Cooke is discussed and the scopes of the latter genera areenlarged, and consequently several new combinations are made.

  9. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  10. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  11. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  12. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  13. On the new monotypic wolf spider genus Ovia gen. nov. (Araneae: Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2017-01-17

    A new monotypic wolf spider genus, Ovia gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate a misplaced species: Pardosa procurva Yu & Song, 1988. Ovia procurva comb. nov. is redescribed, illustrated and designated as the type species for the genus. The subfamily placement of the new genus is discussed and it is considered as a member of Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 and possibly closely related to Alopecosa Simon, 1885. The presence of an apical process (spur) on the median apophysis is proposed as the putative synapomorphy of Ovia gen. nov. The possible sister-taxon relationship of Ovia gen. nov. with Alopecosa is discussed and evidence on the occurrence of sexual dimorphism and mating plug within the genus are presented. Ovia gen. nov. is assumed to be of Holarctic origin, from which it has migrated to the Indomalayan region. Additionally, a current distribution map for the genus is provided.

  14. The Genus Alpinia:A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jie Zhang; Jian-Guang Luo; Ling-Yi Kong

    2016-01-01

    Genus Alpinia consists of over 250 species, which are widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. Many plants of genus Alpinia have been used for thousands of years to treat digestive system diseases and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemical research on this genus has led to the isolation of different kinds of diarylheptanoids, terpenes triterpenoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, and flavonoids. Experimental evidences revealed that both the crude extracts and pure constituents isolated from the genus Alpinia exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, cardiovascular, and digestive system protective effects. Here, we summarize the phytochemistry and pharmacology investigation of the genus Alpinia, which can provide reference for further research and drug development.

  15. Mathieu Moonshine in the elliptic genus of K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Hohenegger, Stefan; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    It has recently been conjectured that the elliptic genus of K3 can be written in terms of dimensions of Mathieu group {mathbb{M}_{24}} representations. Some further evidence for this idea was subsequently found by studying the twining genera that are obtained from the elliptic genus upon replacing dimensions of Mathieu group representations by their characters. In this paper we find explicit formulae for all (remaining) twining genera by making an educated guess for their general modular properties. This allows us to identify the decomposition of all expansion coefficients in terms of dimensions of {mathbb{M}_{24}} -representations. For the first 500 coefficients we verify that the multiplicities with which these representations appear are indeed all non-negative integers. This represents very compelling evidence in favour of the conjecture.

  16. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  17. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  18. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  19. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  20. Operculomyces is a new genus in the order Rhizophydiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martha J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E

    2011-01-01

    In recent years molecular phylogenies based on analyses of rDNA sequences have advanced knowledge of the Chytridiomycota, but much alpha taxonomic work remains. We have discovered an operculate chytrid that molecular phylogenies placed in the Rhizophydiales, an order that currently contains a single operculate species, the rest having inoperculate zoospore release. Because descriptions of genera in the Chytridiomycota now rely on transmission electron microscopic features of the zoospore as well as molecular evidence we studied the zoospore ultrastructure of the isolate to confirm its placement in the Rhizophydiales and to evaluate it as a new genus. Its suite of ultrastructural characters confirmed its placement within the Rhizophydiales, and its J-shaped, multilayered spur and the position of the nonflagellate centriole at a slight angle to the kinetosome make it unique within the Rhizophydiales, thus supporting molecular evidence indicating that the isolate represents a new genus. Herein we describe zoospore ultrastructure and scanning electron and light microscopic level morphology of this monocentric, endogenous, operculate chytrid and describe it as a new genus and species, Operculomyces laminatus.

  1. Sexual coevolution in the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, G

    2010-06-01

    Sexual conflict has recently been proposed as a driving force behind the rapid diversification of genitalia among sexually reproducing organisms. In traumatically inseminating insects, males stab females in the side of the body with needle-like genitalia, ejaculating into their body cavity. Such mating is costly to females and has led to the evolution of cost-reducing 'paragenitalia' in some species. Whereas some consider this evidence of sexually antagonistic coevolution, others remain unconvinced. Variation in the reproductive morphology of both sexes - particularly males - is alleged to be negligible, contradicting the expectations of a coevolutionary arms race. Here, we use a phylogeny of the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius to show that external female paragenitalia have evolved multiply across the genus and are correlated with changes in male genital shape. This pattern is characteristic of an evolutionary arms race driven by sexual conflict.

  2. The genus Allium. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for the pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and, in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of the genus Alliums, in addition to having certain characteristics, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. In addition to there being variation of flavor between different alliums, there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. Of course, these are of importance to the consumer and food technologist-processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set this against data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength", will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been much studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area and also will touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertent components of animal diets, tainting of milk and other food products. It is our

  3. Resurrection of the genus Haplanthus (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanasekaran, G.; Murthy, G.V.S.; Deng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic morphological study of Andrographis (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae) in India has revealed that the genus Haplanthus is distinct from Andrographis. We resurrect the genus Haplanthus here with four species, one of which contains three varieties. Five new combinations are proposed: H. laxifl

  4. A monograph of the genus Evolvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1934-01-01

    The great difficulties arising in the identification of a number of plants belonging to the genus Evolvulus, which plants were found in several recent collections of Convolvulaceae and were kindly entrusted to me for study, induced me to submit this genus to a further examination. It soon proved how

  5. A new genus of Lindsaeoid ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.U.

    1957-01-01

    In revising the New World representatives of the genus Lindsaea, the author came across a fern specimen from Borneo preserved in the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, that did not seem to fit into any described genus. It had been described as Schizoloma stortii v. A. v. R., but in the author’s opinion the gen

  6. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  7. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  8. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  9. Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Campanula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.

    1964-01-01

    De Candolle (1830) divided the genus Campanula into two large sections on basis of the presence or absence of calyx-appendages between the calyx-lobes. Boissier (1875) attached great value to the mode of dehiscence of the capsule, and divided the genus into two sections. None of the existing classif

  10. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  11. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  12. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  13. Review of the Genus Andropogon (Poaceae: Andropogoneae in America Based on Cytogenetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Nagahama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Andropogon is a pantropical grass genus comprising 100–120 species and found mainly in the grasslands of Africa and the Americas. In the new world the genus is represented by approximately sixty (diploids or hexaploids species grouped in three sections. The hexaploid condition occurs only in the Americas and the full process of this origin is still uncertain, although cytogenetic analysis coupled with taxonomic evidence have provided strong support for new hypothesis. Stebbins proposed the first hypothesis suggesting that the origin of polyploidy in species of Andropogon in North America resulted from duplication of the genome of some diploid species, and then by intergeneric crosses with species of a related genus. Since then, numerous studies were performed to clarify the evolutionary history of the genus in America. In this paper, we present a review of cytogenetic studies in the American Andropogon species during the last four decades.

  14. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  15. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of the Genus Tovomita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Specchiulli, Maria Carmela; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    The genus Tovomita (Fam. Clusiaceae) comprises 45 species mainly found in tropical regions of Central and South America. Most of the species of the title genus have been used for centuries as natural remedies. Phytochemicals isolated from Tovomita spp. include prenylated and unprenylated benzophenones and xanthones. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view what is reported in the past and current literature about the properties of phytopreparations and individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Tovomita genus.

  16. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2011. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Bioteknologi 8: 86-98. Beberaapa spesies dari genus Artocarpus (Moraceae telah diteliti kandungan bahan alamnya. Metabolit sekunder yang berhasil diisolasi dari genus Artocarpus terdiri dari terpenoid, flavonoid, stilbenoid, arilbenzofuran, neolignan, dan adduct Diels-Alder. Kelompok flavonoid merupakan senyawa yang paling banyak ditemukan dari tumbuhan Artocarpus. Senyawa flavonoid yang telah berhasil diisolasi dari tumbuhan Artocarpus memiliki kerangka yang beragam seperti calkon, flavanon, flavan-3-ol, flavon sederhana, prenilflavon, oksepinoflavon, piranoflavon, dihidrobenzosanton, furanodi hidrobenzosanton, piranodihidrobenzosanton, kuinonosanton, siklolopentenosanton, santonolid, dihidrosanton.

  17. Genus llex L.: Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yi; Xiao-ling Zhao; Yong Peng; Pei-gen Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The genus llex L. has been used as remedies in traditional Chinese medicine in Aquifoliaceae and beverages for thousands of years due to abundant pharmaceutical bioactivities. There are 600 species in genus llex L. containing various compounds such as terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, etc. Three species, I. cornuta, I. chinensis, and I. rotunda have been admitted in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 to treat dyspepsia, stomatitis, and hyperactivity cough and protect the liver and kidney. Recent studies showed that several species have been daily drunk to promote human health and prevent cardiovascular diseases in the folk. Here we reviewed the genus llex L. in phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and pharmacology.

  18. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The genus of a type of graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the joint tree model introduced by Liu, the genera of further types of graphs not necessary to have certain symmetry can be obtained. In this paper, we obtain the genus of a new type of graph with weak symmetry. As a corollary, the genus of complete tripartite graph K n,n,l (l≥n≥2) is also derived. The method used here is more direct than those methods, such as current graph, used to calculate the genus of a graph and can be realized in polynomial time.

  20. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  1. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  3. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  4. Monograph of the genus Phylacium (Leguminosae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, Mirjam

    1978-01-01

    In the genus Phylacium 2 species are recognized. Special attention is paid to the morphology of the inflorescence; full descriptions are given with plates and a map, showing the distribution of both species.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the genus Acanthephippium (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This is a revision of the genus Acanthephippium Blume. Eleven species are recognised. Seven names are here for the first time reduced to synonymy (A. lycaste, A. odoratum, A. papuanum, A. pictum, A. simplex, A. sinense, and A. thailandicum).

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  7. Cosmetic crossings of genus one knots

    CERN Document Server

    Balm, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We show that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for the negatively twisted, positive Whitehead doubles of all knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 10 crossings.

  8. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  9. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J. J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well as preliminary IUCN Red List assessments. New combinations for nine species formerly assigned to the genus Ouratea and/or Gomphia are proposed: C. andongensis, C. glomeratum, C. longestipulatum, C. ...

  10. A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the genus Peganum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Cheng, Xuemei; Wang, Changhong

    2017-05-05

    The plants of the genus Peganum have a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, jaundice, colic, lumbago, and many other human ailments. Additionally, the plants can be used as an amulet against evil-eye, dye and so on, which have become increasingly popular in Asia, Iran, Northwest India, and North Africa. The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and drug interaction of the genus Peganum in order to assess the ethnopharmacological use and to explore therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research. Information on studies of the genus Peganum was gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pudmed, Web of Science, CNKI and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from some local books, PhD and MS's dissertations. The genus Peganum has played an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. The main bioactive metabolites of the genus include alkaloids, flavonoids, volatile oils, etc. Scientific studies on extracts and formulations revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities, antitumor, anti-hypertension, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antiparasidal, anti-leishmaniasis, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Based on this review, there is some evidence for extracts' pharmacological effects on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, cancer, diabetes, hypertension. Some indications from ethnomedicine have been confirmed by pharmacological effects, such as the cholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and DNA topoisomerase inhibitory activities, hypoglycemic and vasodilation effects of this genus. The available literature showed that most of the activities of the genus Peganum can be attributed to the active alkaloids. Data regarding

  11. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  12. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  13. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  14. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  15. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  16. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  17. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana: Description of one new genus and species (Scorpiones: Chactidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species, Spinochactas mitaraka gen. n., sp. n. (Chactidae) are described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of the new genus and species brings further evidence of the biogeographic pattern of distribution presented by some elements of the family Chactidae endemic to the Tepuys or to the Inselberg formations of South America.

  18. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  19. The genus Hymenocrater: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ahadi, Hamideh; Hashemi, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. (Lamiaceae) contains over 21 species in the world. Some species have been used in folk medicine around the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Hymenocrater. This review brings together most of the available scientific research regarding the genus Hymenocrater. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Hymenocrater species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Springer Link and books, without limiting the dates of publication. General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Hymenocrater spp., phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, essential oil and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic works and those using languages other than English or Persian have been excluded. The genus Hymenocrater contains essential oil. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are important constituents of this genus. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the species of the genus Hymenocrater showed antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. This review discusses the current knowledge of Hymenocrater species that review therapeutic potential, especially their effects on the cancer cells and gaps offering opportunities for future research.

  20. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  1. Random matrix theory and higher genus integrability: the quantum chiral Potts model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angles d' Auriac, J.Ch. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, BP 166, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: dauriac@polycnrs-gre.fr; Maillard, J.M.; Viallet, C.M. [LPTHE, Tour 16, Paris (France)]. E-mails: maillard@lpthe.jussieu.fr; viallet@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2002-06-14

    We perform a random matrix theory (RMT) analysis of the quantum four-state chiral Potts chain for different sizes of the chain up to size L 8. Our analysis gives clear evidence of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) statistics, suggesting the existence of a generalized time-reversal invariance. Furthermore, a change from the (generic) GOE distribution to a Poisson distribution occurs when the integrability conditions are met. The chiral Potts model is known to correspond to a (star-triangle) integrability associated with curves of genus higher than zero or one. Therefore, the RMT analysis can also be seen as a detector of 'higher genus integrability'. (author)

  2. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  3. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacios-Rios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  4. The genus Craterium (Myxomycetes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an extended list of species of the genus Craterium, hitherto found in Poland.In the monograph on Polish slime moulds Krzemieniewska (1960 3 species and 1 variety of that genus were mentioned. Lately, the following two new species have been recorded: Craterium concinnum Rex. and C. brunneum Nann.-Bremek. Craterium muscorum Ing, reported earlier under the name of Badhamia rubiginosa (Chevall Rostaf. is also included in the present paper. All together, with Cratoium aureum (Schumach. Rostaf. rarely occurring in Poland, and widespread C. minutum (Leers Fr., C. leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar with its variety scyphoides (Cooke et Balf. G. Lister, the number of taxa of the genus Craterium in Poland increased up to 7.

  5. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  6. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  7. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  8. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  9. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Han; BAI Yun

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus,among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings,and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications.In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers.Our results show that in general case,a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings.In particular,a connected cubie graph G of order n always has at least (√2)m+n+α/2 distinct maximum genus embeddings,where α and m denote,respectively,the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T.What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e.,the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other.In fact,as applications,we show that for a sufficient large natural number n,there are at least C2n/4 many genus embeddings for complete graph Kn with n=4,7,10 (mod12),where C is a constance depending on the Value of n of residue 12.These results improve the bounds obtained by Korzhik and Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  10. The genus Meira: phylogenetic placement and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Tomas Allen; Aime, M Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The genus Meira currently contains three recently described species of mite-associated basidiomycete yeasts from Israel and Japan and is placed in the Exobasidiomycetes (Ustilaginomycotina) Incertae sedis. A previously undescribed species of Meira was isolated from the phylloplane of a magnolia leaf in Louisiana, USA. Herein, we describe Meira miltonrushii sp. nov. and include phylogenetic analyses from three rDNA loci to resolve the placement of Meira. This study provides evidence that Meira belongs to the family Brachybasidiaceae in the Exobasidiales and supports the placement of another mite-associated yeast genus, Acaromyces, within Cryptobasidiaceae (Exobasidiales). We also examine sequences produced by numerous environmental studies that suggest Meira species can be found as endophytes of many plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a member of the genus Meira in North America.

  11. Ecological range shift in the polyploid members of the South American genus Fosterella (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule, Juraj; Wagner, Natascha D; Weising, Kurt; Zizka, Georg

    2017-08-01

    The distribution of polyploidy along a relatively steep Andean elevation and climatic gradient is studied using the genus Fosterella L.B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) as a model system. Ecological differentiation of cytotypes and the link of polyploidy with historical biogeographic processes such as dispersal events and range shift are assessed. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of nuclei and flow cytometry were used to estimate the ploidy levels of 159 plants from 22 species sampled throughout the distribution range of the genus. Ecological differentiation among ploidy levels was tested by comparing the sets of climatic variables. Ancestral chromosome number reconstruction was carried out on the basis of a previously generated phylogeographic framework. This study represents the first assessment of intrageneric, intraspecific and partially intrapopulational cytotype diversity in a genus of the Bromeliaceae family. In Fosterella , the occurrence of polyploidy was limited to the phylogenetically isolated penduliflora and rusbyi groups. Cytotypes were found to be ecologically differentiated, showing that polyploids preferentially occupy colder habitats with high annual temperature variability (seasonality). The combined effects of biogeographic history and adaptive processes are presumed to have shaped the current cytotype distribution in the genus. The results provide indirect evidence for both adaptive ecological and non-adaptive historical processes that jointly influenced the cytotype distribution in the predominantly Andean genus Fosterella (Bromeliaceae). The results also exemplify the role of polyploidy as an important driver of speciation in a topographically highly structured and thus climatically diverse landscape.

  12. Diospyros, an under-utilized, multi-purpose plant genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Patel, Seema; Khan, Ajmal; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Bawazeer, Saud; Ahmad, Khalid; Muhammad, Naveed; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2017-07-01

    The genus Diospyros from family Ebenaceae has versatile uses including edible fruits, valuable timber, and ornamental uses. The plant parts of numerous species have been in use as remedies in various folk healing practices, which include therapy for hemorrhage, incontinence, insomnia, hiccough, diarrhea etc. Phytochemical constituents such as terpenoids, ursanes, lupanes, polyphenols, tannins, hydrocarbons, and lipids, benzopyrones, naphthoquinones, oleananes, and taraxeranes have been isolated from different species of this genus. The biological activities of these plants such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antihypertensive, cosmeceutical, enzyme-inhibitory etc. have been validated by means of an in vitro, in vivo, and clinical tests. As a rich reserve of pharmacologically important components, this genus can accelerate the pace of drug discovery. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to survey and summarize the recent literature pertaining to the medicinal and pharmacological uses of Diospyros, and to select experimental evidence on the pharmacological properties of this genus. In addition, the review also aims at identifying areas that need development to make use of this genus, especially its fruit and phytochemicals as means for economic development and for drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...

  14. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped

  15. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The

  16. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, de, J.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for comparison.

  17. Endocomia, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The new genus Endocomia, ranging from South China to New Guinea, is described, keyed out and discussed among the other four Southeast Asiatic genera of Myristicaceae, viz. Knema, Myristica, Gymnacranthera, and Horsfieldia. Endocomia was formerly included in Horsfieldia under the name H. macrocoma, a

  18. Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand

  19. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for compar

  20. The composite genus Blumea, a taxonomic revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randeria, Aban J.

    1960-01-01

    My first acquaintance with the genus Blumea was made in December of 1949. On one of my taxonomy field trips then, and many more subsequently, I encountered these weedy, yellow-flowered composites. Perhaps what most helped to attract my attention was their relative abundance and their characteristic

  1. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  2. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  3. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  4. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  5. The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Adamonytė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.

  6. The genus Alfonsiella Waterston (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a tribute to Prof. Dr. L. D. Brongersma, in remembrance of the years I served as his deputy in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. The genus Alfonsiella was described by Waterston (1920) for A. fimbriata, a series of females of which were collected at Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika. I

  7. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  8. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  9. A revision of the genus Podococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Sunderland, T.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the palm genus Podococcus (Arecaceae) is presented. Two species are recognised: P. barteri, a species relatively widespread in a coastal band from Nigeria to the D. R. Congo and P. acaulis, a species previously considered conspecific to P. barteri, almost exclusively confined

  10. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The genu

  11. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  12. Note on the Genus Microsicydium Bleeker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, F.P.

    1929-01-01

    This genus was established by Dr. P. BLEEKER in 1874 1) for fishes belonging to the phalanx Sicydiini having the caracteristics: „Dentes intermaxillares stipitati apice clavati obtusi, inframaxillares serie interna parvi aequales, serie externa aciculares. Maxilla inferior cirris nullis. Squamae cap

  13. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  14. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  15. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  16. Bark beetles in the genus Dendroctonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2008-01-01

    The genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), originally described by Erichson in 1836, currently includes 19 species that are widely distributed. Seventeen species occur between Arctic North America and northwestern Nicaragua, and an additional two species are in northern Europe and Asia. Dendroctonus species attack and infest conifer hosts (Pinaceae...

  17. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  18. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Price, H. James; Dillon, Sally L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; Rooney, William L.; Ross, Larry; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  19. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars of T. gesneriana L . and of Darwin hybrids, the latter of which are obtai

  20. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I, volum

  1. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  2. Farrowia, a new genus in the Chaetomiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The new genus Farrowia D. Hawksw. is described to accommodate Chaetomium longicolleum Krzem. & Badura and C. longirostre (Farrow) L. Ames, species formerly incorrectly referred to Chaetoceratostoma Turc. & Maffei. These two species are united under the name F. longicollea (Krzem. & Badura) D. Hawksw

  3. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well a

  4. Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, A.P.; Razafimandimbison, S.G.; Andriambololonera, S.

    2011-01-01

    Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erecti

  5. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Sleptsov, A.; Stern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from

  7. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  8. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped a

  9. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  10. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  11. An account of the fern genus Belvisia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.H.; Franken, N.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Belvisia is revised. Two species are transferred from Lemmaphyllum to Belvisia, and two species are reduced to varieties. The genus now includes eight species, reaching from tropical Africa to China, Polynesia, and Australia.

  12. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  13. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  14. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  15. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus, among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings, and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications. In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers. Our results show that in gen-eral case, a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings. In particular, a connected cubic graph G of order n always has at least 2~1/2m+n+ α2 distinct maximum genus embeddings, where α and m denote, respectively, the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T . What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e., the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other. In fact, as applications, we show that for a suffcient large natural number n, there are at least C2 n4 dmeapneyn dgienngu os ne mthbee vdadliuneg soffonrocf ormespidleutee 1g2r.a pThh eKsen rwesiuthlt sn i m≡p r4o,v 7e, 1th0e ( mbooudn1d2)s, owbthaeirnee dC b iys Ka ocroznhsikta anncde Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  16. Evolution of a genetic incompatibility in the genus Xiphophorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Samuel V; Hunt, Patrick J; Garcia-De-Leon, Francisco J; Juenger, Thomas E; Schartl, Manfred; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Genetic incompatibilities are commonly observed between hybridizing species. Although this type of isolating mechanism has received considerable attention, we have few examples describing how genetic incompatibilities evolve. We investigated the evolution of two loci involved in a classic example of a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) incompatibility in Xiphophorus, a genus of freshwater fishes from northern Central America. Hybrids develop a lethal melanoma due to the interaction of two loci, an oncogene and its repressor. We cloned and sequenced the putative repressor locus in 25 Xiphophorus species and an outgroup species, and determined the status of the oncogene in those species from the literature. Using phylogenetic analyses, we find evidence that a repeat region in the proximal promoter of the repressor is coevolving with the oncogene. The data support a hypothesis that departs from the standard BDM model: it appears the alleles that cause the incompatibilities have coevolved simultaneously within lineages, rather than in allopatric or temporal isolation.

  17. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  18. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european sp

  19. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  20. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assu...

  1. The strong symmetric genus of the finite Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group G is the smallest genus of a closed orientable topological surface on which G acts faithfully as a group of orientation preserving automorphisms. In this paper we complete the calculation of the strong symmetric genus for each finite Coxeter group excluding the group E8.

  2. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ixonanthes (Linaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this revision 3 species are recognized for the Southeast Asian, mainly Malesian, genus Ixonanthes Jack (Linaceae). No new species are described, while 29 names have been placed into synonymy. It is proposed to unite the African genus Phyllocosmus Klotzsch with the American genus Ochthocosmus

  3. Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific

  4. Remarks on the Lower Bounds for the Average Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a graph of maximum degree at most four. By using the overlap matrix method which is introduced by B. Mohar, we show that the average genus of G is not less than 1/3 of its maximum genus, and the bound is best possible. Also, a new lower bound of average genus in terms of girth is derived.

  5. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly.

  6. Gene order phylogeny of the genus Prochlorococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using gene order as a phylogenetic character has the potential to resolve previously unresolved species relationships. This character was used to resolve the evolutionary history within the genus Prochlorococcus, a group of marine cyanobacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Orthologous gene sets and their genomic positions were identified from 12 species of Prochlorococcus and 1 outgroup species of Synechococcus. From this data, inversion and breakpoint distance-based phylogenetic trees were computed by GRAPPA and FastME. Statistical support of the resulting topology was obtained by application of a 50% jackknife resampling technique. The result was consistent and congruent with nucleotide sequence-based and gene-content based trees. Also, a previously unresolved clade was resolved, that of MIT9211 and SS120. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to use gene order data to resolve a bacterial phylogeny at the genus level. It suggests that the technique is useful in resolving the Tree of Life.

  7. Monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero

    CERN Document Server

    Goulden, I P; Novak, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of the branched covers counted by the Hurwitz numbers, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone join-cut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.

  8. Genus Schistochila Dumort. (Schistochilaceae, Marchantiophyta in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Juengprayoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genus Schistochila Dumort. in Thailand is presented, based on the study of fresh and herbarium specimens. Five species are recognized, namely S. aligera (Nees & Blume J.B. Jack & Steph., S. blumei (Nees Trevis., S. nuda Horik., S. sciurea (Nees Schiffn., and S. yakushimensis Ohnishi & Deguchi. In addition, a key to species, descriptions and line drawings are provided, and notes on the ecology and geographical distribution of the species.

  9. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  10. The minimal genus problem in rational surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xu'an

    2006-01-01

    [1]Kronheimer P B,Mrowka T S.The genus of embedding surfaces in the projective plane.Math Res Lett,1994,1:797-808[2]Lawson T.The minimal genus problem.Expo Math,1997,15:385-431[3]Li B H.Representing nonnegative homology classes of CP2#n-CP2 by minimal genus smooth embedding.Trans Amer Soc,1999,352(9):4155-4169[4]Ruberman D.The minimal genus of an embedding surface of non-negative square in a rational surface.Turkish J Math,1996,20:129-133[5]Wall C T C.On the orthogonal groups of unimodular quadratic forms Ⅱ.Crelle Jour,1963,213:122-136[6]Gao H.Representing homology classes of almost definite 4-manifolds.Topology Appl,1993,52:109-120[7]Kikuchi K.Positive 2-spheres in 4-manifolds of signature (1,n).Pacific Jour Math,1993,160:245-258[8]Li B H,Li T J.Smooth minimal genera for small negative classes in CP2#n-CP2 with n ≤ 9.Topology Appl,2003,132(1):1-15[9]Friedman R,Morgan J.On the diffeomorphism types of certain algebraic surfaces.Journal of Differential Geometry,1988,27(3):371-398[10]Kac V G.Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras.3rd ed.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990[11]Li T J,Liu A.Symplectic structure on ruled surfaces and generalized adjunction formula.Math Res Lett,1995,2:453-471

  11. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Gwénaëlle Bontonou; Claude Wicker-Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular...

  12. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  13. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here.

  14. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

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    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  15. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  16. The Pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2017-03-21

    We present the pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species, some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2009-10-01

    The plants of genus Ajuga are evergreen, clump-forming rhizomatous perennial or annual herbaceous flowering species, with Ajuga being one of the 266 genera of the family Lamiaceae. There are at least 301 species of the genus Ajuga with many variations. These plants, growing in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America, are used in gardens as ground cover or border for their foliage and beautiful flowers. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for fever, toothache, dysentery, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, as anthelmintic, diuretic and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial agents. They are also used as insect growth inhibitor s. A large number of compounds have been isolated from the Ajuga plants, including phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes and diterpenoids, triterpenes, sterols, anthocyanidin-glucosides and iridoid glycosides, withanolides, flavonoids, triglycerides and essential oils. These compounds possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anabolic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and vasorelaxing activity, as well as antifeedant and insect growth-inhibitory properties. Thus, genus Ajuga has significant medicinal and economic importance.

  18. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  19. Revision of genus Steindachneridion (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

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    Julio Cesar Garavello

    Full Text Available After several years collecting in the type-localities and studying representative samples of genus Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919 from Brazilian and foreign museums, a taxonomic revision of the Recent species of the genus is presented, including the description of a new species from the rio Iguaçu, above the great falls. Steindachneridion species are large sized fishes, reaching 1000 mm total length or more, and sharing some anatomical characters that, at least tentatively, support the monophyly of the genus. In addition to the general features found in the Pimelodidae, the species S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, and S. melanodermatum, new species, share the shape of the vomer tooth plates, six to eight branched rays in the dorsal-fin, and a low number of gill-rakers. All species, except fossil ones, are redescribed and a key for their identification is provided.

  20. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2n - 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  1. A new genus, Atlanteuptychia gen. nov., for Euptychia ernestina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André V. L. Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Atlanteuptychia Freitas, Barbosa & Mielke, gen. nov. is proposed for Euptychia ernestina Weymer, 1911 and illustrated. This taxon lacks the posterior projection of the tegumen, a synapomorphy of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, and does not share morphological synapomorphies with Cyllopsis R. Felder, 1869 and Paramacera Butler, 1868, two Central American genera apparently closely related to Euptychia ernestina, based on molecular data. This evidence supports the proposition of a new genus endemic to the Atlantic Forest, A. ernestina stat. nov.

  2. A new genus and species of Macrosiphini (Hemiptera, Aphididae from China, living on Isodon eriocalyx

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    Bin Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aphid genus Nigritergaphis gen. n. is described, and N. crassisetosa sp.n. on Isodon eriocalyx (Dunn Kudô (Lamiaceae from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated. The new species curls and distorts the leaves of this important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, and is evidently specific to this host. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

  3. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

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    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  4. Systematics, phylogeny and biology of a new genus of Lithocolletinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) associated with Cistaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prins, Jurate; Davis, Donald R; De Coninck, Eliane; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Triberti, Paolo

    2013-10-27

    The gracillariid genus Triberta gen. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854) is described to accommodate two species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822: Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) comb. nov. and T. cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) comb. nov. Triberta cistifoliella bona sp. is restored from synonymy based on morphological characters. The new genus is biologically associated with the plant family Cistaceae of the order Malvales and is endemic to the Palaearctics. Our molecular analysis of eleven nuclear genes failed to unambiguously place Triberta in the lithocolletine phylogeny, but revealed that this genus is distinct from either clade Phyllonorycter + Cremastobombycia and Cameraria. The distinctiveness of Triberta is also supported by inferred traits in wing venation, micro morphology of the last instar larva, pupa, genital morphology of the adult and life history. A key to the species of Triberta is provided. The interspecific homogeneity in external morphology, coupled with minor differences in genital traits, an apparent narrow specialization on Cistaceae host plants, restricted geographical range and molecular evidence based on multi-nuclear genes jointly suggest that the generic diversification of Triberta is a relatively old phenomenon and driven strongly by host selection.

  5. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are preliminarily re-assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria in the current volume. The results suggest that all four species in the genus are threatened at some level (suggested Red List status ranges from Vulnerable for S. chinensis and S. sahulensis to Critically Endangered for S. teuszii).

  6. Genus paracoccidioides: Species recognition and biogeographic aspects.

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    Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3, and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3 were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11-32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides.

  7. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

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    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  8. Genus Microsporum dermatophytes in Eastern Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorák, J; Otcenásek, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors presented a taxonomic survey of dermatophytes of the genus Microsporum. From the 19 species described so far, they isolated ten species in the region of Eastern Bohemia. Only the species Microsporum cookei and M. gypsem are considered to be endemic species. The remaining are regarded as imported dermatophytes which are not able to maintain their existence permanently in the conditions of the mentioned region. Data on the findings of the individual species were completed by the authors' remarks on their primary hosts and/or substrates of heterotrophy, frequency of occurrence and geographical distribution.

  9. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

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    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  10. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections...... Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker...

  11. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  12. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  13. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  14. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  15. Regeneration and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus = [Regeneratie en genetische transformatie in het genus Vitis =

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, L.

    1997-01-01


    This work is a contribution to the development of regeneration systems and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus and opens interesting perspectives to the application of molecular techniques for study interesting traits, as well as for genetic improvement of

  16. Heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia and the description of the new genus Parafumarolamoeba (Vahlkampfiidae; Heterolobosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Zhang, Junling; De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2015-08-01

    Heterolobosean amoebae are common and diverse members of soil protist communities. In this study, we isolated seven strains of amoebae from soil samples taken in Tibet (at high altitude), Sardinia and the Netherlands, all resembling to belong to a similar heterolobosean morphospecies. However, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rDNA, revealed a high heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia to which six of the isolates belong. Some unnamed strains, of which the sequences had been published before, are also included within the genus Allovahlkampfia. One Allovahlkampfia isolated in the Netherlands harbors a twin-ribozyme, containing a His-Cys box, similar to the one found in strain BA of Allovahlkampfia. The other SSU rDNA sequence grouped in phylogenetic analyses with sequences obtained in environmental sequencing studies as sister to the genus Fumarolamoeba. This phylogenetic placement was supported by analyses of the 5.8S rDNA leading us to describe it as a new genus Parafumarolamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  18. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Machado; Lone Gram

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationship...

  19. Elliptic Genus of E-strings

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Joonho; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2014-01-01

    We study a family of 2d N=(0,4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be computed for arbitrary number of E-strings, and we compute them explicitly for low numbers. We test our predictions against the partially known results from topological strings, as well as from the instanton calculus of 5d Sp(1) gauge theory. Given the relation to topological strings, our computation provides the all genus partition function of the refined topological strings on the canonical bundle over 1/2 K3.

  20. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus.

  1. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm.

  2. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, N; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi.

  3. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

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    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  4. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...... stack size with nucleotides so that no two consecutive nucleotides are basepaired and show that is algebraic. In particular, we prove that , where . Thus, for stack size at least two, the genus only enters through the sub-exponential factor, and the slow growth rate compared to the number of RNA...

  5. First recognition of the genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida) from North America (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Johnson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The brachiopod genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke, 1893, is recognized for the first time in North America, where it is represented by a new species described here. V. langenstrasseni. This occurrence extends not only the geographic range of the genus, but also the lower age and stratigraphic limit into the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian). Previously, the oldest known species was the type, V. cheiropteryx d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 1842, from the Givetian (late Middle Devonian) of Germany. Internal structures of V. langenstrasseni n.sp. are similar to those of genera in the ambocoeliid subfamily Rhynchospiriferinae, providing the first good evidence of a systematic relationship. -Authors

  6. Revision of the genus Philonome Chambers and its proposed reassignment to the family Tineidae (Lepidoptera, Tineoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheon Sohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The New World genus Philonome Chambers, 1874 is revised. This genus comprises twelve species, seven of which are described as new: two species, P. nigrescens sp. n. and P. wielgusi sp. n., from the United States; four species, P. albivittata sp. n., P. curvilineata sp. n., P. kawakitai sp. n., and P. lambdagrapha sp. n., from French Guiana; and one species, P. penerivifera sp. n., from Brazil. Lectotypes are designated for Philonome clemensella Chambers, 1874 and P. rivifera Meyrick, 1915. Partially on evidence of their head morphology and particularly from molecular evidence, the genus Philonome, previously associated with Bucculatricidae or Lyonetiidae, is reassigned to Tineidae. A possible systematic position of Philonome within Tineidae is discussed. Eurynome Chambers, 1875, is synonymized with Argyresthia Hübner, 1825 (Argyresthiidae. Photographs of adults and illustrations of genitalia, when available, are provided for all described species of Philonome and two species previously misplaced in Philonome, Argyresthia luteella (Chambers, 1875 and Elachista albella (Chambers, 1877. In addition, DNA barcodes were used for the delimitation of most species.

  7. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  8. Revision of genus Steindachneridion (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

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    Julio Cesar Garavello

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available After several years collecting in the type-localities and studying representative samples of genus Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919 from Brazilian and foreign museums, a taxonomic revision of the Recent species of the genus is presented, including the description of a new species from the rio Iguaçu, above the great falls. Steindachneridion species are large sized fishes, reaching 1000 mm total length or more, and sharing some anatomical characters that, at least tentatively, support the monophyly of the genus. In addition to the general features found in the Pimelodidae, the species S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, and S. melanodermatum, new species, share the shape of the vomer tooth plates, six to eight branched rays in the dorsal-fin, and a low number of gill-rakers. All species, except fossil ones, are redescribed and a key for their identification is provided.Após vários anos coletando nas localidades tipo e estudando amostras representativas de museus brasileiros e estrangeiros, é apresentada uma revisão taxonômica das espécies Recentes do gênero Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919, incluindo a descrição de uma espécie nova da bacia do rio Iguaçu, acima das Cataratas do Iguaçu. Em comum, os adultos de todas as espécies apresentam grande porte, até 1000 mm ou mais de comprimento padrão e compartilham alguns caracteres anatômicos discutidos neste estudo, que pelo menos preliminarmente suportam o monofiletismo do gênero. Além das características gerais de Pimelodidae, S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 e S. melanodermatum, espécie nova, têm em comum a forma das placas dentígeras do

  9. The Geobacillus Pan-Genome: Implications for the Evolution of the Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidt, Oliver K; Pierneef, Rian; Gomri, Amin M; Adesioye, Fiyin; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Kharroub, Karima; Cowan, Don A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus is comprised of a diverse group of spore-forming Gram-positive thermophilic bacterial species and is well known for both its ecological diversity and as a source of novel thermostable enzymes. Although the mechanisms underlying the thermophilicity of the organism and the thermostability of its macromolecules are reasonably well understood, relatively little is known of the evolutionary mechanisms, which underlie the structural and functional properties of members of this genus. In this study, we have compared 29 Geobacillus genomes, with a specific focus on the elements, which comprise the conserved core and flexible genomes. Based on comparisons of conserved core and flexible genomes, we present evidence of habitat delineation with specific Geobacillus genomes linked to specific niches. Our analysis revealed that Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus share a high proportion of genes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that horizontal gene transfer is a major factor deriving the evolution of Geobacillus from Bacillus, with genetic contributions from other phylogenetically distant taxa.

  10. The Geobacillus pan-genome: implications for the evolution of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Keoagile Ignatius Bezuidt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Geobacillus is comprised of a diverse group of spore-forming Gram-positive thermophilic bacterial species and is well known for both its ecological diversity and as a source of novel thermostable enzymes. Although the mechanisms underlying the thermophilicity of the organism and the thermostability of its macromolecules are reasonably well understood, relatively little is known of the evolutionary mechanisms, which underlie the structural and functional properties of members of this genus. In this study, we have compared 29 Geobacillus genomes, with a specific focus on the elements, which comprise the conserved core and flexible genomes. Based on comparisons of conserved core and flexible genomes, we present evidence of habitat delineation with specific Geobacillus genomes linked to specific niches. Interestingly, our analysis has shown that horizontal gene transfer is a major factor deriving the evolution of Geobacillus from Bacillus, with genetic contributions from other phylogenetically distant taxa.

  11. Notes on the genus Libellulosoma Martin, 1906, and related genera (Odonata: Anisoptera: Corduliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Günther; Legrand, Jean

    2013-12-09

    The holotype of Libellulosoma minuta, until now regarded as the unique specimen of this monotypic genus and considered lost for half a century, was found again in the dragonfly collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. A second specimen, also from Madagascar (probably East Madagascar) was found in the collection René Martin together with the holotype. A redescription, including the structure of the secondary copulatory apparatus, is provided. The genus Libellulosoma is closely related to the genera Pentathemis and Aeschnosoma, and its membership in the clade Aeschnosomata is well supported. Evidence from biogeography, the fossil record, and phylogeny indicates that this group, possible sister group of remaining Corduliidae s.s., was probably already present in the Early Cretaceous.

  12. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  13. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  14. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  15. [CITRULLINUREIDASE GENE DIVERSITY IN THE GENUS FRANCISELLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V S; Bakhteeva, I V; Pavlov, V M; Mokrievich, A N

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the results, of the in silico analysis of the genetic diversity of the citrullinureidase gene (ctu) in two species of bacteria of the genus Francisella: tularensis (ssp. tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, novicida) and philomiragia. The strains of the Central Asiatic subspecies possessing the citrullinureidase activity differ in the gene ctu from the ssp tularensis Schu by three nucleotide substitutions leading to two insignificant amino acid substitutions in the encoded polypeptide. In the strain F. tularensis of the ssp. holarctica the gene ctu encodes inactive enzyme, which is probably due to amino acid substitutions: 151 Gly --> Asp, 183 Pro --> Leu, 222 Asp --> Asn. Except for the Japan biovar bacteria, in all strains of the Holarctic subspecies there are two stop codons in the gene ctu. The bacteria of the subspecies novicida contain the ctu gene only in the strain 3523, whereas the other strains contain the gene FTN_0827 encoding the C-N hydrolase, which probably provides the citrullinureidase activity.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics of the hummingbird genus Coeligena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Juan Luis; Remsen, J V; Alvarez-Rebolledo, Mauricio; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the understanding of biological radiations along tropical mountains depend on the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we present a species-level molecular phylogeny based on a multilocus dataset for the Andean hummingbird genus Coeligena. We compare this phylogeny to previous hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and use it as a framework to understand patterns in the evolution of sexual dichromatism and in the biogeography of speciation within the Andes. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based mostly on similarities in coloration conflicted with our molecular phylogeny, emphasizing the unreliability of color characters for phylogenetic inference. Two major clades, one monochromatic and the other dichromatic, were found in Coeligena. Closely related species were either allopatric or parapatric on opposite mountain slopes. No sister lineages replaced each other along an elevational gradient. Our results indicate the importance of geographic isolation for speciation in this group and the potential interaction between isolation and sexual selection to promote diversification.

  17. Environmental Origin of the Genus Bordetella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Linz, Bodo; Harvill, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Bordetella include human and animal pathogens that cause a variety of respiratory infections, including whooping cough in humans. Despite the long known ability to switch between a within-animal and an extra-host lifestyle under laboratory growth conditions, no extra-host niches of pathogenic Bordetella species have been defined. To better understand the distribution of Bordetella species in the environment, we probed the NCBI nucleotide database with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from pathogenic Bordetella species. Bacteria of the genus Bordetella were frequently found in soil, water, sediment, and plants. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Bordetella recovered from environmental samples are evolutionarily ancestral to animal-associated species. Sequences from environmental samples had a significantly higher genetic diversity, were located closer to the root of the phylogenetic tree and were present in all 10 identified sequence clades, while only four sequence clades possessed animal-associated species. The pathogenic bordetellae appear to have evolved from ancestors in soil and/or water. We show that, despite being animal-adapted pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Bordetella hinzii have preserved the ability to grow and proliferate in soil. Our data implicate soil as a probable environmental origin of Bordetella species, including the animal-pathogenic lineages. Soil may further constitute an environmental niche, allowing for persistence and dissemination of the bacterial pathogens. Spread of pathogenic bordetellae from an environmental reservoir such as soil may potentially explain their wide distribution as well as frequent disease outbreaks that start without an obvious infectious source. PMID:28174558

  18. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  19. Revision of the genus Paratropus Gerstaecker (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    1997-01-01

    The myrmecophilous and termitophilous genus Paratropus Gerstaecker is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 80, of which 31 species are described as new: P. arriagadai (Tanzania), P. bakxi (Zaire), P. baloghi (Congo, Zaire, Rua

  20. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  1. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  2. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Chun Li; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Nian-Kai Zeng; Bang Feng; Zhu L. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has...

  3. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticol

  4. Note on the genus Barteria Hook. f. (Flacourtiaceae or Passifloraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1974-01-01

    The discrimination of species in the genus Barteria has become more and more difficult with the increasing number of collections in recent years. To explain his treatment of the genus in the forthcoming 2nd part of the Flacourtiaceae in the ‘Flore d’Afrique Central (Zaire-Rwanda-Burundi)’, the autho

  5. The phyletic status of the genus Planaria (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Gourbault, Nicole

    1978-01-01

    The amphiatlantic distribution of the genus Planaria is incompatible with our current hypothesis of the historical biogeography of freshwater planarians. New anatomical studies suggest the possibility that the genus is not strictly monophyletic; new karyological data are strongly corroborative of th

  6. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number o

  7. Constant factor approximation to the bounded genus instances of ATSP

    CERN Document Server

    Gharan, Shayan Oveis

    2009-01-01

    We give a constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem when the underlying undirected graph of the Held-Karp linear programming relaxation of the problem has orientable bounded genus. Our result also implies the weak version Goddyn's conjecture on the existence of thin trees on graphs with orientable bounded genus.

  8. Genus-zero Whitham hierarchies in conformal-map dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alonso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luism@fis.ucm.es; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-10-26

    A scheme for solving quasiclassical string equations is developed to prove that genus-zero Whitham hierarchies describe the deformations of planar domains determined by rational conformal maps. This property is applied in normal matrix models to show that deformations of simply-connected supports of eigenvalues under changes of coupling constants are governed by genus-zero Whitham hierarchies.

  9. Tsiangia, a new genus based on Gaertnera Hongkongensis (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    But, P. Pui-Hay; Hsue, Hsiang-hao; Li, Ping-T’ao

    1986-01-01

    Detailed examination of the holotype and isotype of Gaertnera hongkongensis Seemann led to the conclusion that this species does not belong to Gaertnera nor to Randia. A new genus, Tsiangia, is proposed to accommodate the new combination Tsiangia hongkongensis. This new genus is retained in Rubiacea

  10. Revision of the genus Paratropus Gerstaecker (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    1997-01-01

    The myrmecophilous and termitophilous genus Paratropus Gerstaecker is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 80, of which 31 species are described as new: P. arriagadai (Tanzania), P. bakxi (Zaire), P. baloghi (Congo, Zaire,

  11. A note on the genus Liocranium Ogilby (Pisces, Scorpaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Liocranium was established by Ogilby (1903) to contain a new species of scorpion-fish from the east coast of Queensland: L. praepositum. The genus remained monotypic until McCulloch (1921) placed Paracentropogan scorpio Ogilby in it, a species also described from the Queensland coast. Whit

  12. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanne A. Healy; Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus...

  13. A revision of the genus Cratoxylum Bl. (Guttiferae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogelein, A.J.F.

    1967-01-01

    A complete revision is given of the Indo-Malesian genus Cratoxylum. The subdivision of the genus into 3 sections, as given by Engler (1925) and Corner (1939), has been found correct. The characters by which these sections are discriminated concern the interpetiolar scars on the twig, the type of ven

  14. Log-concavity of the genus polynomials of Ringel Ladders

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    Jonathan L Gross

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Ringel ladder can be formed by a self-bar-amalgamation operation on a symmetric ladder, that is, by joining the root vertices on its end-rungs. The present authors have previously derived criteria under which linear chains of copies of one or more graphs have log-concave genus polyno- mials. Herein we establish Ringel ladders as the first significant non-linear infinite family of graphs known to have log-concave genus polynomials. We construct an algebraic representation of self-bar-amalgamation as a matrix operation, to be applied to a vector representation of the partitioned genus distribution of a symmetric ladder. Analysis of the resulting genus polynomial involves the use of Chebyshev polynomials. This paper continues our quest to affirm the quarter-century-old conjecture that all graphs have log-concave genus polynomials.

  15. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The evolution of queen pheromones in the ant genus Lasius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, L; Lanfear, R; d'Ettorre, P

    2013-07-01

    Queen pheromones are among the most important chemical messages regulating insect societies yet they remain largely undiscovered, hindering research into interesting proximate and ultimate questions. Identifying queen pheromones in multiple species would give new insight into the selective pressures and evolutionary constraints acting on these ubiquitous signals. Here, we present experimental and comparative evidence that 3-methylalkanes, hydrocarbons present on the queen's cuticle, are a queen pheromone throughout the ant genus Lasius. Interspecific variation in the chemical profile is consistent with 3-methylalkanes evolving more slowly than other types of hydrocarbons, perhaps due to differential selection or evolutionary constraints. We argue that the sensory ecology of the worker response imposes strong stabilizing selection on queen pheromones relative to other hydrocarbons. 3-Methylalkanes are also strongly physiologically and genetically coupled with fecundity in at least one Lasius species, which may translate into evolutionary constraints. Our results highlight how honest signalling could minimize evolutionary conflict over reproduction, promoting the evolution and maintenance of eusociality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  18. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  19. A review of the genus Hyoscyamus (Solanaceae in Iran

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    شادی حاج رسولیها

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hyoscyamus is belonging to the family Solanaceae. This genus with 12-19 species has a wide range of distribution in Iran. In different flora, some species of this genus are synonym due the similar morphology. Three subgenera are introduced for genus namely Hyoscyamus, Parahyoscyamus and Dendrotrichon in Iran. For accurate survey done the general review on this genus. For morphological studies the images of calyx species were plotted with stereo microscope with specified enlarge. For numerical taxonomy studies 42 qualitative and quantitative morphological characters were selected and analyzed with SPSS software with three methods cluster, PCA and FA. Then the results of analysis compared and reconciled with data from various studies conducted on this genus. Survey data confirmed the approximation of two species H.tenuicaulis and H. bornmulleri and H. bornmulleri is the synonym of H. tenuicaulis. Also, H. malekianus transferred from subgen. Parahyoscyamus to subgen. Dendrotrichon. Finally, a key to all species of the genus Hyoscyamus in Iran is provided.

  20. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-11-30

    Acrochaeta based on features of the head, thorax and abdomen. An inner clade (Acrochaeta flaveola species group) within the genus was clearly recovered based on characters of male and female terminalia. There is good evidence for the paraphyly of Merosargus with Acrochaeta as a subclade, demanding a wider study of the subfamily for a sound solution for the genus Merosargus.

  1. Phylogeny of the paleotropical fern genus Lepisorus (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiopsida) inferred from four chloroplast DNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Qi, Xin-ping; Xiang, Qiao-ping; Heinrichs, Jochen; Schneider, Harald; Zhang, Xian-chun

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the paleotropical genus Lepisorus (Polypodiaceae) were investigated using plastid DNA sequences from four regions: rbcL, rps4 and rps4-trnS IGS, trnL intron plus trnL-F IGS, rbcL-atpB IGS. Over 4000 nucleotides were sequenced for 77 specimens belonging to 54 species. Each cpDNA region was analyzed separately and combined into a single dataset. All phylogenetic analyses, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference of phylogeny, revealed the paraphyly of Lepisorus with the monotypic Drymotaenium miyoshianum and of the paleotropical genus Belvisia nested within the Lepisorus clade. Nine well-supported major clades were found. The phylogenetic results provided new evidence for the sectional classification of Lepisorus. The evolution of three morphological characters, clathrateness of rhizome scales, margin of rhizome scales and defoliated leaves, and the evolution of the karyotype, were reconstructed to identify lineage specific phenotypic character states or combination of characters. Unique character combinations, rather than synapomorphies, were found to be of systematic value in sectional delimitation. The variation of chromosome numbers is largely due to a single aneuploidy event instead of a stepwise reduction during the evolutionary history of this genus.

  2. A Late Cretaceous Piper (Piperaceae) from Colombia and diversification patterns for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila; Carvalho, Mónica R; Madriñán, Santiago; Jaramillo, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    Documented fossil floras in the neotropics are sparse, yet their records provide evidence on the spatial and temporal occurrence of taxa, allowing for testing of biogeographical and diversification scenarios on individual lineages. A new fossil Piper from the Late Cretaceous of Colombia is described here, and its importance for assessing diversification patterns in the genus is addressed. Leaf architecture of 32 fossil leaf compressions from the Guaduas Formation was compared with that of 294 extant angiosperm species. The phylogenetic position of the fossil named Piper margaritae sp. nov. was established based on leaf traits and a molecular scaffold of Piper. The age of the fossil was independently used as a calibration point for divergence time estimations. Natural affinities of P. margaritae to the Schilleria clade of Piper indicate that the genus occurred in tropical America by the Late Cretaceous. Estimates of age divergence and lineage accumulation reveal that most of the extant diversity of the genus accrued during the last ∼30 Myr. The recent radiation of Piper is coeval with both the Andean uplift and the emergence of Central America, which have been proposed as important drivers of diversity. This pattern could exemplify a recurrent theme among many neotropical plant lineages. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

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    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  4. Evolution of asexual reproduction in leaves of the genus Kalanchoë.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcês, Helena M P; Champagne, Connie E M; Townsley, Brad T; Park, Soomin; Malhó, Rui; Pedroso, Maria C; Harada, John J; Sinha, Neelima R

    2007-09-25

    Plant somatic cells have the remarkable ability to regenerate an entire organism. Many species in the genus Kalanchoë, known as "mother of thousands," develop plantlets on the leaf margins. Using key regulators of organogenesis (STM) and embryogenesis (LEC1 and FUS3) processes, we analyzed asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë leaves. Suppression of STM abolished the ability to make plantlets. Here, we report that constitutive plantlet-forming species, like Kalanchoë daigremontiana, form plantlets by coopting both organogenesis and embryogenesis programs into leaves. These species have a defective LEC1 gene and produce nonviable seed, whereas species that produce plantlets only upon stress induction have an intact LEC1 gene and produce viable seed. The latter species are basal in the genus, suggesting that induced-plantlet formation and seed viability are ancestral traits. We provide evidence that asexual reproduction likely initiated as a process of organogenesis and then recruited an embryogenesis program into the leaves in response to loss of sexual reproduction within this genus.

  5. Durinskia baltica (Dinophyceae), a newly recorded species and genus from China, and its systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi ZHANG; Guo-Xiang LIU; Zheng-Yu HU

    2011-01-01

    A freshwater dinoflagellate was identified as Durinskia baltica (Levander) Carty & Cox by morphological characteristics,with the plate formula:Po,x,4',2a,6'',5c,4s,5''',2''''.Durinskia was a newly recorded dinoflagellate genus for China with two anterior intercalary plates and six characteristic precingular plates.Partial sequences of the small and large subunit ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences for the dinoflagellate cells were obtained from field samples.Molecular phylogenetic results indicated Durinskia species could cluster into a monophyletic group,which were distinct from Peridinium species.According to morphological and molecular evidence,it was agreed that the genus Durinskia was separated from the genus Peridinium,which could be a polyphyletic group.In addition,D.baltica was an infrequent diatom-harboring dinoflagellate which was known to possess an endosymbiotic diatom or diatom-like alga.The phylogenetic analyses indicated that D.baltica had a close affinity with Peridiniopsis penardii and P.niei,common freshwater bloom-forming species in China.

  6. The genus Allium--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.

  7. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Murcia, Antonio J; Monera, Arturo; Saavedra, M Jose; Oncina, Remedios; Lopez-Alvarez, Monserrate; Lara, Erica; Figueras, M Jose

    2011-05-01

    A broad multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) of the representative diversity of a genus offers the opportunity to incorporate concatenated inter-species phylogenies into bacterial systematics. Recent analyses based on single housekeeping genes have provided coherent phylogenies of Aeromonas. However, to date, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis has never been tackled. In the present study, the intra- and inter-species phylogenetic relationships of 115 strains representing all Aeromonas species described to date were investigated by MLPA. The study included the independent analysis of seven single gene fragments (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD), and the tree resulting from the concatenated 4705 bp sequence. The phylogenies obtained were consistent with each other, and clustering agreed with the Aeromonas taxonomy recognized to date. The highest clustering robustness was found for the concatenated tree (i.e. all Aeromonas species split into 100% bootstrap clusters). Both possible chronometric distortions and poor resolution encountered when using single-gene analysis were buffered in the concatenated MLPA tree. However, reliable phylogenetic species delineation required an MLPA including several "bona fide" strains representing all described species.

  8. Topological Censorship and Higher Genus Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, G J; Witt, D M; Woolgar, E

    1999-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in black holes whose asymptotic geometry approaches that of anti-de Sitter spacetime, we give a proof of topological censorship applicable to spacetimes with such asymptotic behavior. Employing a useful rephrasing of topological censorship as a property of homotopies of arbitrary loops, we then explore the consequences of topological censorship for horizon topology of black holes. We find that the genera of horizons are controlled by the genus of the space at infinity. Our results make it clear that there is no conflict between topological censorship and the non-spherical horizon topologies of locally anti-de Sitter black holes. More specifically, let D be the domain of outer communications of a boundary at infinity ``scri.'' We show that the principle of topological censorship (PTC), that every causal curve in D having endpoints on scri can be deformed to scri, holds under reasonable conditions for timelike scri, as it is known to do for a simply connected null scri. We then show...

  9. THE GENUS VIBURNUM (CAPRIFOLIACEAE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KERN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. In the following pages an account of the genus Viburnum in Malaysia is presented. 2. The distribution of its species is briefly discussed and a map relating to it added. 3. The main part of the present paper consists of keys to the sections and species, followed by a systematic treatment of the 16 species admitted for the region. 4. Three new subsections are proposed, viz. Viburnum subsect. Punctata Kern, subsect. Sambucina Kern, and subsect. Lutescentia Kern. Viburnum subseries Coriacea Maxim, is reduced to the rank of a subsection. 5. Three species and two varieties are described as new, viz. Viburnum ampli- ficatum Kern, V. clemensae Kern, V. hispidulum Kern, V. coriaceum, var. longiflorutn Kern, and V. sambucinum var. subglabrum Kern. 6. The following species are reduced to the rank of varieties: Viburnum flori- bundum Merr. has become V. luzonicum var. floribundum (Merr. Kern, and V. sinu- atum Merr. has become V. luzonicum var. sinuatum (Merr. Kern. 7. The following reductions'to synonymy are made: Viburnum longistamineum Ridl. to V. sambucinum- var. subglabrum Kern; V. sumatranum Miq., V.villosum Ridl., and V. inopinatum Craib all to V. sambucinum var. tovientosum Hallier f.; V. forbesii Fawc. partly to V. sambucimim Bl., partly to V. coriaceum BL; and V. zippelii Miq. to V. japonicum (Thunb. Spr. 8. Emended descriptions of Viburnum beccarii Gamble and of V. junghuhnii Miq. are given.

  10. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  11. [Advances of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Myristica genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Kang, Wen-Yi; Yan, Wen-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The genus Myristica (Myristicaceae) consists of 120 species, which were distributed in South Asia, from west Polynesia, Oceania, eastern India to the Philippines. Phytochemical studies showed that 164 compounds including a majority of lignans, along with phenglpropanoids, flavonoids and phenolics, have been isolated from this genus, which exhibited anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hyperglycemic and hepatic protective activities. This article summarizes research progress of the chemical compositions and their pharmacological activities from this genus, which could provide reference for the in-depth development and utilization of the Myristica plants.

  12. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  13. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids.

  14. toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.

  15. Bioactive phytoconstituents and plant extracts from genus Heliotropium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium is a genus of herbs and rarely shrubs of family Boraginaceae. Heliotropium species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gout, rheumatism and as antiseptic, febrifuge, cholagogue, anti-inflammatory and healing agents. The alkaloids mainly pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the main constituents of Heliotropium species, which are responsible for several biological activities viz. anti-tumoural, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. Phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and quinones have also been reported in this genus. The present review summarizes the various biological studies done on the extracts and bioactive phytoconstituents from the plants of the genus Heliotropium over the past few decades.

  16. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: M. pilifer Marseul, M. loretoensis (Bruch, comb. n., M. seagorum sp. n., M. carltoni sp. n., M. marseuli sp. n., and M. flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae, but it is possible that related ants host all the species.

  17. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae

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    Dan Qian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  18. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O; DUYFEES, B.E.E. & VAN DER HAM, R.W.J.M. 2006. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas. Reinwardtia 12(3: 219 – 222.– A new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Morotai (Indonesia is described. The genus is defined by unique characters, including large sepals, much longer than the petals, and it has distinctly cucurbitoid pollen features. The only species is Anangia macrosepala W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. 

  19. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas

    OpenAIRE

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde; Brigitta E. E. Duyfjes; RWJM Van Der Ham

    2006-01-01

    DE WILDE, W.J.J.O; DUYFEES, B.E.E. & VAN DER HAM, R.W.J.M. 2006. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas. Reinwardtia 12(3): 219 – 222.– A new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Morotai (Indonesia) is described. The genus is defined by unique characters, including large sepals, much longer than the petals, and it has distinctly cucurbitoid pollen features. The only species is Anangia macrosepala W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. 

  20. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  1. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes.

  2. Phenylobacterium muchangponense sp. nov., isolated from beach soil, and emended description of the genus Phenylobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong-Sik; Roh, Dong-Hyun

    2012-04-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated strain A8T, was isolated from the beach soil of Muchangpo, Korea. Cells were rod-shaped (0.5-0.6×0.7-1.3 µm) and colonies were colourless, circular with entire edges and had a glistening surface. The isolate grew optimally at 25-35 °C and did not require NaCl for growth. Strain A8T could not assimilate acetate, DL-lactate, succinate, antipyrine or chloridazon, but weakly assimilated L-phenylalanine. Major fatty acids were summed feature 7 (comprising C18:1ω7c/ω9t/ω12t), C16:0 and summed feature 4 (comprising C16:1ω7c/ iso-C15:0 2-OH). The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10 and the DNA G+C content was 72.3 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that strain A8T belonged to the family Caulobacteraceae, class Alphaproteobacteria and was most closely related to type strains of members of the genus Phenylobacterium (95.7-97.1 % similarity). Signature nucleotides and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence also suggested that strain A8T was affiliated with the genus Phenylobacterium. Low DNA-DNA relatedness values (3.0±1.8-11.5±3.2 %) indicated that strain A8T represented a distinct species that was separated from other type strains in the genus Phenylobacterium. On the basis of evidence from a polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain A8T (=KACC 15042T=LMG 25973T) represents the type strain of a novel species, Phenylobacterium muchangponense sp. nov. An emended description of the genus Phenylobacterium is also presented.

  3. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil

  4. New species of the earthworm genus Zapatadrilus (Clitellata, Acanthodrilidae) from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Gabriela; Fragoso, Carlos; Monteros, Alejandro Espinosa DE Los; Sánchez-Ramos, Gerardo; Lara-Villalón, Manuel; Yañez-Pacheco, Manuel DE Jesús; Lázaro-Castellanos, Jesús Omar; James, Samuel W

    2016-11-10

    Three new species of the earthworm genus Zapatadrilus are described from Tamaulipas, Mexico: Zapatadrilus aurelius sp. nov., Zapatadrilus huastecus sp. nov., and Zapatadrilus montezumensis sp. nov. Delimitation of the new species was supported by morphological and molecular (genetic distances) evidence. Diagnostic characters of the three new species include: tubulo-racemose prostates in segments 18 and 20, penial setae absent, typhlosole present and intestine beginning in 17/18. Z. montezumensis sp. nov. is separated by its metandric condition, Z. aurelius sp. nov. by the last hearts in 13 and Z. huastecus sp. nov. by the shape of the spermathecae and patterns of genital markings.

  5. A NEW GENUS OF AMYCTERINI FROM THE PILBARA REGION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: CYCLOMINAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Xenommamycterus gen. nov. is described/diagnosed, and Talaurinus capito Pascoe, 1874 is designated its type-species. This genus is considered monospecific at present. Its distribution appears to be restricted to the tropical rock desert of the western Pilbara region of Western Australia, based on available specimens. Evidence suggests that F.H. DuBoulay collected the holotype of T. capito, and that its type-locality of “Champion Bay” is in error for Nickol Bay. Limited observations on its imaginal food-plants, behaviour, habitat preferences and relationships are provided, as well as possible reasons for the evolution of its unusual eye structure.

  6. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  7. Quaternion Algebras over Curves of Genus One Without Rational Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Pumpl(u)n

    2005-01-01

    Quaternion algebras over curves of genus one without rational points over perfect fields of characteristic not two are classified. As a consequence, all quaternion algebras over the function field of such a curve, which are unramified everywhere, are classified.

  8. Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuchma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.

  9. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  10. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhananjoy

    Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus of ... as primitive/ancestral types of chromosomes into either subtelocentric or small metacentrics leads to speciation or simply new ..... The features are quite common in the.

  11. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  12. Some enigmatic aspects of the marine cyanobacterial genus, Trichodesmium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Trichodesmium, an important nitrogen fixing marine genus has some coupled features that appear contrasting, either in their operational requirements or ecological dominance e.g. N2 fixation and photosynthesis take place in the same trichome, former...

  13. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  14. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  15. Notes on genus Eurydoxa Filipjev (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYUN Bong-Kyu; YAN Shan-chun; LI Cheng-de

    2003-01-01

    Genus Eurydoxa Filipjev in China is reviewed and noted for the first time. Based on the present study, two species are recognized, including rhodopa Diakonoff and advena Filipjev. All available information for the species is reviewed and provided.

  16. Is Stringaspidiotus Macgillivray (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) An Accepted Genus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Stringaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921 is synonymized with Pseudaonidia Cockerell, 1897 as a junior subjective synonym and the type species of Stringaspidiotus (Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) curculiginis) is redescribed and illustrated....

  17. Contribution to the genus Xanthocorus Miyatake (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Chilocorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    The genus Xanthocorus Miyatake, 1970 consists of three species from China, including two new species described here: Xanthocorusnigrosuturalis sp. n. and Xanthocorusmucronatus sp. n. A key to identification of species is given. Diagnoses, detailed descriptions, illustrations, and distributions are provided.

  18. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...... misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan-and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity...

  19. Quadratic differentials in low genus: exceptional and non-varying

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    We give an algebraic way of distinguishing the components of the exceptional strata of quadratic differentials in genus three and four. The complete list of these strata is (9, -1), (6,3,-1), (3,3,3, -1) in genus three and (12), (9,3), (6,6), (6,3,3) and (3,3,3,3) in genus four. This result is part of a more general investigation of disjointness of Teichmueller curves with divisors of Brill-Noether type on the moduli space of curves. As a result we show that for many strata of quadratic differentials in low genus the sum of Lyapunov exponents for the Teichmueller geodesic flow is the same for all Teichmueller curves in that stratum.

  20. Description of a new species of the Rhynchophorous genus Oxyrhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, W.

    1880-01-01

    Elongatus, fuliginosus, opacus, fossulis luteo-pulverosis sparsutus. Sutura alba, prothoracis basi atomis albis adspersa. — Long. 10 mm. rostr. excl. Of a narrower shape than the other known species of the genus.

  1. The second pluri-genus of smoothable Gorenstein surface singularities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Stephen; S.; T.

    2010-01-01

    For complete intersection isolated surface singularities, Okuma gave a formula for the second plurigenus relating geometry genus, Milnor number and Tjurina number. We generalize Okuma’s theorem to Gorenstein smoothable surface singularities.

  2. Two New Treehoppers of the Genus Sipylus (Homoptera, Membracidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Masami, HAYASHI; Toshitsugu, ENDO; Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, Saitama University

    1990-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Sipylus, sphyrna and piceus, are described from North Thailand and the Malay Peninsula, respectively. Some remarks on the species are given in comparison with S. truncaticornis FUNKHOUSER and auriculatus FUNKHOUSER.

  3. Higher genus correlators from the hermitian one-matrix model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambjoern, J. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Chekhov, L. (Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (Russia)); Makeenko, Yu. (Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia))

    1992-05-28

    We develop an iterative algorithm for the genus expansion of the hermitian NxN one-matrix model (is the Penner model in an external field). By introducing moments of the external field, we prove that the genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends only on 3g-2+m lower moments (3g-2 for the partition function). We present the explicit results for the partition function and the one-loop correlator in genus one. We compare the correlators for the hermitian one-matrix model with those at zero momenta for c=1 CFT and show an agreement of the one-loop correlators for genus zero. (orig.).

  4. Epigenomic diversification within the genus Lupinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J.; Hasterok, Robert; Schmitz, Robert J.; Naganowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment. In order to gain a better understanding of the epigenetic organisation of genomes in lupins we applied the immunostaining of methylated histone H3 and DNA methylation as well as whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. We revealed variations in the patterns of chromatin modifications at the chromosomal level among three crop lupins, i.e. L. angustifolius (2n = 40), L. albus (2n = 50) and L. luteus (2n = 52), and the legume model plant Medicago truncatula (2n = 16). Different chromosomal patterns were found depending on the specific modification, e.g. H3K4me2 was localised in the terminal parts of L. angustifolius and M. truncatula chromosomes, which is in agreement with the results that have been obtained for other species. Interestingly, in L. albus and L. luteus this modification was limited to one arm in the case of all of the chromosomes in the complement. Additionally, H3K9me2 was detected in all of the analysed species except L. luteus. DNA methylation sequencing (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) of aforementioned crop but also wild lupins such as L. cosentinii (2n = 32), L. digitatus (2n = 36), L. micranthus (2n = 52) and L. pilosus (2n = 42) supported the range of interspecific diversity. The examples of epigenetic modifications illustrate the diversity of lupin genomes and could be helpful for elucidating further epigenetic changes in the evolution of the lupin genome. PMID:28640886

  5. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  6. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  7. The genus Allium--Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However, only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for their pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of alliums, in addition to being characteristic, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. As well as there being variation of flavor between different alliums there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. These are, of course, of importance to the consumer and food technologist/processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set against this data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength," will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been extensively studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area; it will also touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally, mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertant components of animal diets, tainting of milk, and other food products. It is our intention to review

  8. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-07-30

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley.

  9. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  10. Morphometrics of genus Caluromys (Didelphimorphia : Didelphidae) in northern South America

    OpenAIRE

    López Fuster, María José; Pérez Hernández, Roger; Ventura Queija, Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the morphometric relationships between different forms of the woolly opossum, genus Caluromys, in northern South America by means of univariate and multivariate analyses of skull characters. Results revealed that specimens from Trinidad and northern Venezuela differ substantially in size and shape from other representatives of the genus. Thus, we propose that they should be attributed to Caluromys trinitatis rather to C. philander. Consequently, the specific name given by Thomas (...

  11. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticola (Indonesia: Irian Jaya), T. angustifrons (Indonesia: Irian Jaya?), T. arriagadai (Philippines), T. aukei (W. Malaysia, Sabah), T. bertiae (India), T. boukei (Sabah), T. brevis (Sabah), T. capilla...

  12. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle; Indranil Biswas

    2008-02-01

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{C}$. Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{R}$, with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism classes of stable real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of even rank. We also classify all isomorphism classes of real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of rank one.

  13. Bounds for Siegel Modular Forms of genus 2 modulo $p$

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Dohoon; Kikuta, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Sturm obtained the bounds for the number of the first Fourier coefficients of elliptic modular form $f$ to determine vanishing of $f$ modulo a prime $p$. In this paper, we study analogues of Sturm's bound for Siegel modular forms of genus 2. We show the resulting bound is sharp. As an application, we study congruences involving Atkin's $U(p)$-operator for the Fourier coefficients of Siegel mdoular forms of genus 2.

  14. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  15. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticola (Indonesia: Irian Jaya), T. angustifrons (Indonesia: Irian Jaya?), T. arriagadai (Philippines), T. aukei (W. Malaysia, Sabah), T. bertiae (India), T. boukei (Sabah), T. brevis (Sabah), T. capilla...

  16. A new genus Mesophlaeoba (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Acridinae, Mesophlaeoba Kumar and Usmani gen. n. based on type species Mesophlaeoba usmanii Kumar and Usmani sp. n., is described and illustrated from India. The description was based on both conventional morphological and genital characters. The new genus is closely related to Phlaeoba Stal, 1861 but differs from it in presence of filiform antennae, absence of median carinula of fastigium of vertex and rounded posterior margin of pronotum.

  17. Phylogenomic re-assessment of the thermophilic genus Geobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Habibu; Lebre, Pedro; Blom, Jochen; Cowan, Don; De Maayer, Pieter

    2016-12-01

    Geobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming obligate thermophiles. The descriptions and subsequent affiliations of the species in the genus have mostly been based on polyphasic taxonomy rules that include traditional sequence-based methods such as DNA-DNA hybridization and comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Currently, there are fifteen validly described species within the genus. The availability of whole genome sequences has provided an opportunity to validate and/or re-assess these conventional estimates of genome relatedness. We have applied whole genome approaches to estimate the phylogenetic relatedness among the sixty-three Geobacillus strains for which genome sequences are currently publicly available, including the type strains of eleven validly described species. The phylogenomic metrics AAI (Average Amino acid Identity), ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) and dDDH (digital DNA-DNA hybridization) indicated that the current genus Geobacillus is comprised of sixteen distinct genomospecies, including several potentially novel species. Furthermore, a phylogeny constructed on the basis of the core genes identified from the whole genome analyses indicated that the genus clusters into two monophyletic clades that clearly differ in terms of nucleotide base composition. The G+C content ranges for clade I and II were 48.8-53.1% and 42.1-44.4%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the Geobacillus species currently residing within clade II be considered as a new genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Genus identification of toxic plant by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shuji; Nishi, Katsuji

    2011-03-01

    Some plants have toxicities that are dangerous for humans. In the case of poisoning by toxic plants, a rapid and easy screening test is required for accurate medical treatment or forensic investigation. In this study, we designed specific primer pairs for identification of toxic plants, such as subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, genus Illicium, and genus Scopolia, by internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Allied species of target plants, foods, and human DNA were not detected, but each primer pair provided a specific PCR product from the target plant using real-time PCR. This method can detect the subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, and genus Scopolia with template DNA of 10 pg, respectively, and genus Illicium with 1 pg. Furthermore, each primer pair provided the exact PCR product from digested target plants in artificial gastric fluid. When a trace unknown plant sample in forensic investigation is collected from stomach contents, this PCR assay may be useful for screening toxic plants.

  19. Observations on colony formation by the cosmopolitan phytoplankton genus Phaeocystis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verity, Peter G.; Medlin, Linda K.

    2003-12-01

    Few marine phytoplankton have heteromorphic life cycles and also often dominate the ecosystems in which they occur. The class Prymnesiophyceae contains a notable exception: the genus Phaeocystis includes three species that form gelatinous colonies but also occur within their ranges as solitary cells. Phaeocystis antarctica and P. pouchetii are exclusively high latitude taxa, and are notable for regionally tremendous blooms of the colony stage. P. globosa occurs circumglobally, yet its colony blooms primarily are confined to colder waters within its range. Three additional species are warm water forms that have been reported only as solitary cells or loose aggregations that bear little resemblance to the organized colonies of the other taxa. Interpretation of existing data indicates that resource availability (light, temperature and nutrients) by itself is not sufficient to explain this distinction between cold-water colony-forming taxa and warm water solitary cell taxa, nor why colony development in P. globosa is essentially a spatially restricted phenomenon within a much broader geographic range. Colony development by P. globosa in situ has been observed at temperatures ≥20 °C, but only rarely and generally under conditions of seasonally or anthropogenically elevated nutrient supply. Data presented here demonstrate colony development at 20-22 °C in natural plankton communities from oligotrophic waters that were pre-screened through 63 μm mesh (i.e. lacking mesozooplankton and large microzooplankton), but not in unscreened communities containing microzooplankton and >63 μm zooplankton. Reduction of colony proliferation at higher temperatures by mesozooplankton grazing remains as an intriguing possibility that is consistent with available evidence to help explain differences in latitudinal extent of in situ colony development. These data are interpreted within a theoretical framework regarding the potential advantages and disadvantages of the two life cycle

  20. Pseudolygocoris punctulatus, a New Genus and a New Species of the Miridae from Japan (Heteroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohide, YASUNAGA; Biological Laboratory, Hokkaido University of Education

    1995-01-01

    A new genus and species of the Miridae, Pseudolygocoris punctulatus, is described from Japan. This genus is characterized by the long erect hairs densely covering the dorsal surface, slender and linear antennae, distinct deep punctures on the pronotum, hairy tibiae that lack the spines and genital structure. The present new genus resembles a large Holarctic genus Lygocoris REUTER and a Nearctic Tropidosteptes UHLER.

  1. New ophiostomatoid genus from Protea infructescences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, GJ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available using the restriction enzymes Eco RI, Hae II, Pst I, Sal I, Sma I and Xba I. By constructing restriction maps, phylogenetic relationships between these species were determined. From the data, it was evident that C. proteae and O. capense...

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2013-05-01

    The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species.

  3. Phylogenetic Systematics, Biogeography, and Ecology of the Electric Fish Genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Carlos David; Waddell, Joseph C.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    A species-level phylogenetic reconstruction of the Neotropical bluntnose knifefish genus Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) is presented, based on 60 morphological characters, approximately 1100 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytb gene, and approximately 1000 base pairs of the nuclear rag2 gene. The phylogeny includes 28 species of Brachyhypopomus and nine outgroup species from nine other gymnotiform genera, including seven in the superfamily Rhamphichthyoidea (Hypopomidae and Rhamphichthyidae). Parsimony and Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of the genus, and identify nine robust species groups. Homoplastic osteological characters associated with diminutive body size and occurrence in small stream habitats, including loss of squamation and simplifications of the skeleton, appear to mislead a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters alone–resulting in the incorrect placing of Microsternarchus + Racenisia in a position deeply nested within Brachyhypopomus. Consideration of geographical distribution in light of the total evidence phylogeny indicates an origin for Brachyhypopomus in Greater Amazonia (the superbasin comprising the Amazon, Orinoco and major Guiana drainages), with subsequent dispersal and vicariance in peripheral basins, including the La Plata, the São Francisco, and trans-Andean basins of northwest South America and Central America. The ancestral habitat of Brachyhypopomus likely resembled the normoxic, low-conductivity terra firme stream system occupied by many extant species, and the genus has subsequently occupied a wide range of terra firme and floodplain habitats including low- and high-conductivity systems, and normoxic and hypoxic systems. Adaptations for impedance matching to high conductivity, and/or for air breathing in hypoxic systems have attended these habitat transitions. Several species of Brachyhypopomus are eurytopic with respect to habitat occupancy and these generally

  4. Phylogenetic Systematics, Biogeography, and Ecology of the Electric Fish Genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; de Santana, Carlos David; Waddell, Joseph C; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2016-01-01

    A species-level phylogenetic reconstruction of the Neotropical bluntnose knifefish genus Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) is presented, based on 60 morphological characters, approximately 1100 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytb gene, and approximately 1000 base pairs of the nuclear rag2 gene. The phylogeny includes 28 species of Brachyhypopomus and nine outgroup species from nine other gymnotiform genera, including seven in the superfamily Rhamphichthyoidea (Hypopomidae and Rhamphichthyidae). Parsimony and Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of the genus, and identify nine robust species groups. Homoplastic osteological characters associated with diminutive body size and occurrence in small stream habitats, including loss of squamation and simplifications of the skeleton, appear to mislead a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters alone-resulting in the incorrect placing of Microsternarchus + Racenisia in a position deeply nested within Brachyhypopomus. Consideration of geographical distribution in light of the total evidence phylogeny indicates an origin for Brachyhypopomus in Greater Amazonia (the superbasin comprising the Amazon, Orinoco and major Guiana drainages), with subsequent dispersal and vicariance in peripheral basins, including the La Plata, the São Francisco, and trans-Andean basins of northwest South America and Central America. The ancestral habitat of Brachyhypopomus likely resembled the normoxic, low-conductivity terra firme stream system occupied by many extant species, and the genus has subsequently occupied a wide range of terra firme and floodplain habitats including low- and high-conductivity systems, and normoxic and hypoxic systems. Adaptations for impedance matching to high conductivity, and/or for air breathing in hypoxic systems have attended these habitat transitions. Several species of Brachyhypopomus are eurytopic with respect to habitat occupancy and these generally

  5. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  6. Out-of-Africa origin and dispersal-mediated diversification of the butterfly genus Junonia (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodandaramaiah, U; Wahlberg, N

    2007-11-01

    The relative importance of dispersal and vicariance in the diversification of taxa has been much debated. Within butterflies, a few studies published so far have demonstrated vicariant patterns at the global level. We studied the historical biogeography of the genus Junonia (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae) at the intercontinental level based on a molecular phylogeny. The genus is distributed over all major biogeographical regions of the world except the Palaearctic. We found dispersal to be the dominant process in the diversification of the genus. The genus originated and started diversifying in Africa about 20 Ma and soon after dispersed into Asia possibly through the Arabian Peninsula. From Asia, there were dispersals into Africa and Australasia, all around 5 Ma. The origin of the New World species is ambiguous; the ancestral may have dispersed from Asia via the Beringian Strait or from Africa over the Atlantic, about 3 Ma. We found no evidence for vicariance at the intercontinental scale. We argue that dispersal is as important as vicariance, if not more, in the global diversification of butterflies.

  7. An investigation of self-incompatibility within the genus Restrepia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Helen J; McCrea, Alison R; Baldwin, Timothy C

    2015-03-01

    • The genus Restrepia (Orchidaceae) is indigenous to montane rain forests of Central and South America. Recently, as habitat has fragmented and wild populations dwindled, the chances for successful cross-pollination within the genus have been reduced. Since cultivated species of Restrepia have been vegetatively propagated, they remain genetically close to those in the wild, making ex situ collections of the genus useful model populations for investigating breeding systems. Restrepia are found in clade B of the Pleurothallidinae, the only clade in which self-incompatibility (SI) has not yet been confirmed. In the current study, private collections of Restrepia were used to study the operation of SI within the genus to assist future ex situ conservation of this and related genera.• A variety of self-pollination, intraspecific, and interspecific crosses were performed across the genus, and pollen tube growth was studied.• Individual species exhibited varying degrees of SI. Self-pollinations performed across 26 species in the genus produced few viable seeds, with the exception of R. aberrans. Viable "filled" seeds with embryos were shown to require an intraspecific cross. Primary hybrids between species produced >90% seeds with embryos that germinated well.• The type of SI operating within the genus was considered to be best explained by gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) with interspecific variation in its phenotypic expression. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to SI in the Pleurothallidinae and conservation strategies for Restrepia and related genera. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. A genus-level taxonomic review of primitively segmented spiders (Mesothelae, Liphistiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spider suborder Mesothelae, containing a single extant family Liphistiidae, represents a species-poor and ancient lineage. These are conspicuous spiders that primitively retain a segmented abdomen and appendage-like spinnerets. While their classification history is nearly devoid of phylogenetic hypotheses, we here revise liphistiid genus level taxonomy based on original sampling throughout their Asian range, and on the evidence from a novel molecular phylogeny. By combining morphological and natural history evidence with phylogenetic relationships in the companion paper, we provide strong support for the monophyly of Liphistiidae, and the two subfamilies Liphistiinae and Heptathelinae. While the former only contains Liphistius Schiödte, 1849, a genus distributed in Indonesia (Sumatra, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, we recognize and diagnose seven heptatheline genera, all but three removed from the synonymy of Heptathela: i Ganthela Xu & Kuntner, gen. n. with the type species G. yundingensis Xu, sp. n. is known from Fujian and Jiangxi, China; ii a rediagnosed Heptathela Kishida, 1923 is confined to the Japanese islands (Kyushu and Okinawa; iii Qiongthela Xu & Kuntner, gen. n. with the type species Q. baishensis Xu, sp. n. is distributed disjunctly in Hainan, China and Vietnam; iv Ryuthela Haupt, 1983 is confined to the Ryukyu archipelago (Japan; v Sinothela Haupt, 2003 inhabits Chinese areas north of Yangtze; vi Songthela Ono, 2000 inhabits southwest China and northern Vietnam; and vii Vinathela Ono, 2000 (Abcathela Ono, 2000, syn. n.; Nanthela Haupt, 2003, syn. n. is known from southeast China and Vietnam.

  9. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  10. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  12. F-theory on Genus-One Fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various $SU(5)\\times U(1)^n$ and $E_6$ models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a $\\tau$-function on the base as well as an $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same $\\tau$-function and $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now. Six-dimensional anomaly cancellation as well as Witten's zero-mode count on wrapped branes both imply corrections to the usual F-theory dictionary for some of these models. In particular, n...

  13. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  14. The genus Litsea in traditional Chinese medicine: an ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Li, Guo-Hui; Chen, Bang-Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Hong-Lei; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Ren, Dong-Mei; Shen, Tao

    2015-04-22

    The genus Litsea, mainly distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions, has been used in traditional and indigenous Chinese medicines for the treatment of diarrhea, stomachache, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, diabetes, edema, cold, arthritis, asthma, pain, traumatic injury, etc. for a long history. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary on the ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the Litsea species used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Based on these data, evidences supporting their ethnopharmacological effectiveness are illustrated, and opportunities for the future research and development as well as the therapeutic potential of this genus are analyzed to highlight the gaps in our knowledge that deserves further investigation. Information on the Litsea species was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Web of Science and CNKI) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information was also obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. Twenty plants of the genus Litsea are found to be important traditional medicines in China, and have a long medicinal application for diarrhea, stomachache, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, diabetes, edema, cold, arthritis, asthma, pain, traumatic injury, etc. Over 200 ingredients have been identified from these 20 Litsea species used in TCM, and flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids are considered as the characteristic and bioactive constituents. The crude extracts and the isolated metabolites of these medicinal plants have exhibited some in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antimicrobial, hepatoprotection, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, anticholelithogenic, as well as function on central nervous system, etc. The extensive literature survey reveals Litsea species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the species and biogeography of the characid genus Oligosarcus Günther, 1864 (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alexandre Cunha; Menezes, Naércio Aquino

    2015-04-23

    The characid genus Oligosarcus consists of 20 described species distributed throughout most of South American river basins below 14º south latitude. This study focus on the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oligosarcus based on the analysis of osteological characters to provide data to discuss the biogeographic history of the genus. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree with 152 steps (CI= 0.355 and RI= 0.600). The 18 included Oligosarcus species were hierarchically organized into 17 clades. A minimal age of 15 Ma for the genus is suggested based on the putatively cladogenetic event represented by the continued shortening of the Eastern Cordillera that established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau and was responsible for cladogenesis between the common ancestor of O. schindleri + O. bolivianus versus the remaining congeners. There is a pronounced disjunction in the upland species distribution by the lowland areas of the Chaco-Pantanal basin. This indicates that upland habitats (headwater streams) are preferential habitats for a set of species including O. argenteus, O. bolivianus, O. brevioris, O. paranensis, O. perdido, O. pintoi, O. planaltinae, O. brevioris, and O. schindleri. Fragmentation of populations of O. pintoi and O. perdido are at least 2.5 Ma old, since the origin of the upper Paraguay depression clearly promoted the present-day observed disjunction in the distribution of these species. The lowland Oligosarcus species are all included in a single clade but the obtained results suggest that fragmentation of upland versus lowland components of the genus was not causally related to a single vicariant event. The available fossil record of Oligosarcus indicates that the genus already occurred in the coastal plain at about 2.3 to 1.25 Ma. The sister-group relationship between O. hepsetus and O. longirostris provided additional evidences of the so-called historical affinities between the SE Brazilian

  16. Pollen morphology of the genus Cornukaempferia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piyaporn SAENSOUK; Pranom CHANTARANOTHAI; Piyada THEERAKULPISUT

    2009-01-01

    Cornukaempferia is a recently described genus of Zingiberaceae which only occurs in Thailand as a rare genus with limited geographical distribution. Only three species have been described so far, including a recently described new species, C. larsenii. These three species are morphologically very similar and additional data on other biological aspects are useful for the elucidation of their relationship. Pollen morphology of all three species of genus Cornukaempferia has been studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains are monad, spherical, inaperturate. The exine sculpture is echinate with psilate between the spines for C. aurantiflora and C. longipetiolata, or echinate with regulate between the spines for C. larsenii. This obser-vation helps support the taxonomic status of C. larsenii.

  17. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  18. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  19. Genus Monilinia on Pome and Stone Fruit Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of the genus Monilinia are common plant pathogens that endangerpome and stone fruit production worldwide. In Serbia, two species of this genus are widelydistributed – M. laxa and M. fructigena, while M. fructicola, which is officially on the A2 EPPOList of quarantine pest organisms in Europe and on the 1A part I List of quarantine pest organismsin Serbia, has so far been detected only on stored apple and nectarine fruits. The mostimportant control measures against these pathogens include chemical control in combinationwith adequate cultural practices, particularly under favourable conditions for diseasedevelopment. Concerning that species of this genus can cause significant economic losses,knowledge of the pathogen biology, disease epidemiology and pathogen-host interactionsis a necessary prerequisite for stable and profitable production of pome and stone fruits.

  20. A palynotaxonomic study of the genus Filipendula (Rosaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangtae LEE; Meekyung KANG; Kyeong-In HEO; Wen-Li CHEN; Chunghee LEE

    2009-01-01

    Pollen grains from 15 species (18 taxa) of the genus Filipendula were examined with light and scan-ning electron microscopy. It was revealed that the pollen grains are isopolar, tricolporate, with scabrate or scabrate-microechinate surface. The pollen morphology was compared with the conventional classification sys-tems of the genus by different authors, and supported Shimizu's system (1961), in which the genus was divided into three subgenera. The monotypic subgen. Hypogyna is characterized by pollen lacking fastigium and thickened costae colpi. The other monotypic subgen. Filipendula differs from others by pollen having larger grain, larger pore size, longitudinally elliptic fastigium and thickened costae colpi. The largest subgen. Ulmaria is distinguished by pollen having rounded or latitudinally elliptic fastigium and thickened costae colpi. Sectional classification was not supported by the pollen morphology due to insufficient variability.

  1. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  2. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  3. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Boerhavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2016-04-22

    The genus Boerhavia is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world including Mexico, America, Africa, Asia, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands and Australia. The genus Boerhavia is extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners for treatments of hepatitis, urinary disorders, gastro intestinal diseases, inflammations, skin problems, infectious diseases and asthma. Present review focused on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Boerhavia genus to support potential scope for advance ethnopharmacological study. Information on the Boerhavia species was collected from classical books on medicinal plants, pharmacopoeias and scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar, Web of Science and others. Also scientific literatures based on ethnomedicinal surveys, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, published papers from Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Springer, ACS as well as Wiley publishers and reports by government bodies and documentations were assessed. A total of 180 compounds from Boerhavia genus were isolated of which B. diffusa alone shared around 131 compounds and for most of which it is currently an exclusive source. In the genus, phenolic glycosides and flavonoids contribute approximately 97 compounds. These includes eupalitin, rotenoids like boeravinones, coccineons, alkaloid i.e. betanin and punarnavine etc., showing vital pharmaceutical activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Boerhavia is an important genus with wide range of medicinal uses. However, most of the available scientific literatures have lacked relevant doses, duration and positive controls for examining bioefficacy of extracts and its active compounds. In some studies, taxonomic errors were encountered. Moreover, there is need for accurate methods in testing the safety and ethnomedicinal validity of Boerhavia species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Neopachylus (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Moreira Montemor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Neopachylus Roewer, 1913 together with keys to the species for both males and females are presented. Gephyropachylus marginatus Mello-Leitão, 1931 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Neopachylus serrinha Soares & Soares, 1947, and Huralvius incertus Mello-Leitão, 1935 is considered a synonym of Neopachylus nebulosus (Mello-Leitão, 1936. This genus is restricted to southern Brazil, occurring in states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

  5. Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich(Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae

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    Paschoal C. Grossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae. The South American genus Altitatiayus Weinreich is revised and now includes six species, A. rotundatus (Boileau, A. ruficollis (Lüderwaldt, A. godinhorum (Bomans & Arnaud, A. dulceae (Bomans & Arnaud, A. trifurcatus (Grossi & Racca-Filho and A. koikei sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Brazil. All species are described and illustrated. For the first time male and female genitalia are illustrated for five species and observations on the behavior of two species are included.

  6. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale violet flowers in panicle-, umbel-, or spike-like cymes. The pedicels and ovaries are nearly always connate. Rennellia is confined to tropical rain forests in SE Asia, Sumatra, and Borneo. The genus...

  7. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...... over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...

  9. Review of the genus Agria (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ming; Chen, Yi-ou; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Agria mihalyii (Rohdendorf and Verves, 1978) is recorded from China for the first time, and both sexes are thoroughly documented using a combination of illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscopy images. The generic affiliation is corroborated from an expanded definition of genus...... Agria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, and a key to males of the two known species from China is provided. The distribution of coeloconic sensilla on the male pre- and postgonite are shown to possess significant diagnostic and phylogenetic information in this genus....

  10. Revision of the neotropical genus Sendaphne Nixon (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae

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    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus of parasitoid wasps Sendaphne (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae is revised and the following six new species are described, all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield: anitae, bennetti, broadi, dianariaspennae, penteadodiasae, and rogerblancoi. The greatest species richness is found in northern South America, but the genus extends north to 23° N in Mexico. Most species have been collected in rainforest below altitudes of 900 m, with only a few species found in cloud forests up to 1900 m. Nothing is known of the host caterpillars for these parasitoid wasps.

  11. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-05-20

    The members of the endemic African genus Endochilus Weise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalis sp nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for identification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  12. Evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Pedersen, A. G.; Christensen, H.;

    2005-01-01

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines compositi......The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines...

  13. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  14. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  15. A study on the genus Digitaria (Poaceae in Iran

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    Mohammad Amini Rad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In current research, the genus Digitaria has been studied in Iran. As a results, D. ischaemum, D. sanguinalis, D. sabulosa, D. ciliaris, D. nodosa with D. violascens which is reported for the first time from Iran here, are confirmed for the flora of Iran. In addition, the record of D. stricta from Iran is rejected as referable to D. violascens after the studying their specimens. Finally, a key to all species of the genus Digitaria in Iran along with morphological descriptions of species are provided.

  16. Landau-Ginzburg Orbifolds, Mirror Symmetry and the Elliptic Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, P.; Henningson, M.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the elliptic genus for arbitrary two dimensional $N=2$ Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds. This is used to search for possible mirror pairs of such models. We show that if two Landau-Ginzburg models are conjugate to each other in a certain sense, then to every orbifold of the first theory corresponds an orbifold of the second theory with the same elliptic genus (up to a sign) and with the roles of the chiral and anti-chiral rings interchanged. These orbifolds thus constitute a possible mirr...

  17. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Henry; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddlepoints for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  18. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Neoconocephalus (orthoptera, tettigoniidae and the evolution of temperate life histories.

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    Robert L Snyder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The katydid genus Neoconocephalus (25+ species has a prominent acoustic communication system and occurs in large parts of the Neotropics and Nearctic. This group has been subject of numerous behavioral, physiological, and evolutionary studies of its acoustic communication system. Two distinct life histories occur in this group: The tropical life history incorporates multiple generations/year and direct egg development without environmental triggers. Temperate life history is characterized by overwintering in the egg stage, cold trigger of egg development, and one generation/year. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the genus to (1 determine the evolutionary history of the temperate life history, and (2 to support comparative studies of evolutionary and physiological problems in this genus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP, and sequences of two nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. The analysis included 17 ingroup and two outgroup species. AFLP and mitochondrial data provided resolution at the species level while the two nuclear loci revealed only deeper nodes. The data sets were combined in a super-matrix to estimate a total evidence tree. Seven of the temperate species form a monophyletic group; however, three more temperate species were placed as siblings of tropical species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses support the reliability of the current taxonomic treatment of the Neoconocephalus fauna of Caribbean, Central, and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction of life history traits was not conclusive, however at least four transitions between life histories occurred among our sample of species. The proposed phylogeny will strengthen conclusions from comparative work in this group.

  19. Out of Africa: Phylogeny and biogeography of the widespread genus Acanthodactylus (Reptilia: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Carranza, Salvador; Sindaco, Roberto; Moravec, Jiří; Trape, Jean-François; Meiri, Shai

    2016-10-01

    Acanthodactylus lizards are among the most diverse and widespread diurnal reptiles in the arid regions spanning from North Africa across to western India. Acanthodactylus constitutes the most species-rich genus in the family Lacertidae, with over 40 recognized species inhabiting a wide variety of dry habitats. The genus has seldom undergone taxonomic revisions, and although there are a number of described species and species-groups, their boundaries, as well as their interspecific relationships, remain largely unresolved. We constructed a multilocus phylogeny, combining data from two mitochondrial (12S, cytb) and three nuclear (MC1R, ACM4, c-mos) markers for 302 individuals belonging to 36 known species, providing the first large-scale time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus. We evaluated phylogenetic relationships between and within species-groups, and assessed Acanthodactylus biogeography across its known range. Acanthodactylus cladogenesis is estimated to have originated in Africa due to vicariance and dispersal events from the Oligocene onwards. Radiation started with the separation into three clades: the Western and scutellatus clades largely distributed in North Africa, and the Eastern clade occurring mostly in south-west Asia. Most Acanthodactylus species diverged during the Miocene, possibly as a result of regional geological instability and climatic changes. We support most of the current taxonomic classifications and phylogenetic relationships, and provide genetic validity for most species. We reveal a new distinct blanfordii species-group, suggest new phylogenetic positions (A. hardyi, A. masirae), and synonymize several species and subspecies (A. lineomaculatus, A. boskianus khattensis and A. b. nigeriensis) with their phylogenetically closely-related species. We recommend a thorough systematic revision of taxa, such as A. guineensis, A. grandis, A. dumerilii, A. senegalensis and the pardalis and erythrurus species-groups, which exhibit high

  20. Current state of knowledge on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Hymenaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Pone Kamdem; Baptista Ferreira, Sabrina; Roland Kaiser, Carlos

    2017-07-12

    Plants of the genus Hymenaea (Fabaceae) are used in South American and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like cough, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal colic, pulmonary weakness, asthma, anemia, sore throat, and for the treatment of kidney problems, viral related disorders, chronic cystitis, bronchitis, and bladder infections. Some Hymenaea species are also used as vermifuge, and for the treatment of arthritis, and inflammation conditions. This review deals with updated information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of ethnomedicinally important Hymenaea species in order to provide an input for the future research prospects. Literature available in various recognized databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, SciFinder, Scopus, Springer, Wiley, ACS, Scielo and Web of Science, as well as from theses, dissertations, books, reports, and other relevant websites (www.theplantlist.org), are surveyed, analysed, and included in this review. Herein, the literature related to chemical constituents and pharmacological activities were searched in November 2016. The literature provided information on ethnopharmacological uses of the South American and African species of the genus Hymenaea (e.g., H. courbaril, H. stigonocarpa, H. onblogifolia, H. martiana, H. parvifolia (South America) and H. verrucosa (African species)) for the treatment of multi-factorial diseases. From these plant species, more than 130 compounds, including fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids, phthalides, phenolic acids, procyanidins and coumarins were identified. Experimental evidences confirmed that the Hymenaea spp. could be used in treating inflammatory disorders, asthma, diarrhea, and some microbial infections. However, reports on the toxicity of Hymenaea species remain scarce. Plants of this genus have offered bioactive samples, both from crude extracts and pure compounds, thus substantiating their effectiveness in traditional medicine

  1. The millipede genus Caucasodesmus Golovatch, 1985, with the description of a new species from the Crimea, Ukraine (Polydesmida, Diplopoda, Trichopolydesmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Golovatch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hitherto monotypic genus Caucasodesmus is new to the Ukrainian list due to the discovery of C. tauricus sp. n. in a cave in the Crimea. The new species is easily distinguished from C. inexpectatus Golovatch, 1985, the type, and only other, known species of this genus, in the abundantly setose collum and following metaterga, and more elaborate gonopods. The status of Caucasodesmus, which shows in the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea where it definitely belongs such evident generic-level apomorphies as the absence of bacilliform sensilla on antennomeres 5 and 7, of a cannula on the gonocoxite, and of a seminal groove on a biramous gononod telopodite (apparently, both latter characters are functionally correlated to each other, is refined by formally reassigning it to the family Trichopolydesmidae.

  2. The millipede genus Caucasodesmus Golovatch, 1985, with the description of a new species from the Crimea, Ukraine (Polydesmida, Diplopoda, Trichopolydesmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei I

    2011-04-29

    The hitherto monotypic genus Caucasodesmus is new to the Ukrainian list due to the discovery of Caucasodesmus tauricussp. n. in a cave in the Crimea. The new species is easily distinguished from Caucasodesmus inexpectatus Golovatch, 1985, the type, and only other, known species of this genus, in the abundantly setose collum and following metaterga, and more elaborate gonopods. The status of Caucasodesmus, which shows in the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea where it definitely belongs such evident generic-level apomorphies as the absence of bacilliform sensilla on antennomeres 5 and 7, of a cannula on the gonocoxite, and of a seminal groove on a biramous gononod telopodite (apparently, both latter characters are functionally correlated to each other), is refined by formally reassigning it to the family Trichopolydesmidae.

  3. Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changbao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya, which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C

  4. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  5. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  6. 'Species' from two different butterfly genera combined into one: description of a new genus of Euptychiina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae with unusually variable wing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Victor Lucci Freitas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sepona Freitas and Barbosa, gen. nov. is proposed for the Neotropical satyrine butterfly species Euptychia punctataWeymer, 1911 and its junior subjective synonyms Euptychia griseolaWeymer, 1911 and Taygetis indecisa Ribeiro, 1931. The new genus has a distinctive wing pattern and shape of the valvae in the male genitalia, the latter being a unique autapomorphy within the subtribe Euptychiina. Based on molecular data, this genus is not sister to any other single euptychiine genus, instead appearing as the sister to all remaining genera in the Taygetis clade. The present paper illustrates the complexity of the taxonomy of Euptychiina, and the importance of using different sources of evidence in taxonomic studies.

  7. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-04-23

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia.

  8. Species delimitation in the continental forms of the genus Epicrates (Serpentes, Boidae integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Rivera

    Full Text Available Until recently, the genus Epicrates (Boidae presented only one continental species, Epicrates cenchria, distributed in Central and South America, but after a taxonomic revision using morphologic characters five species were recognized: E. cenchria, E. crassus, E. maurus, E. assisi, and E. alvarezi. We analyzed two independent data sets, environmental niche models and phylogeny based on molecular information, to explore species delimitation in the continental species of this genus. Our results indicated that the environmental requirements of the species are different; therefore there are not evidences of ecological interchangeability among them. There is a clear correlation between species distributions and the major biogeographic regions of Central and South America. Their overall distribution reveals that allopatry or parapatry is the general pattern. These evidences suggest that habitat isolation prevents or limits gene exchange among them. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the continental Epicrates are monophyletic, being E. alvarezi the sister species for the remaining two clades: E. crassus-E. assisi, and E. maurus-E. cenchria. The clade grouping the continental Epicrates is the sister taxon of the genus Eunectes and not of the Caribbean Epicrates clade, indicating that the genus is paraphyletic. There is a non-consistent pattern in niche evolution among continental Epicrates. On the contrary, a high variation and abrupt shifts in environmental variables are shown when ancestral character states were reconstructed on the sequence-based tree. The degree of genetic and ecological divergence among continental Epicrates and the phylogenetic analyses support the elevation to full species of E. cenchria, E. crassus, E. maurus, E. assisi, and E. alvarezi.

  9. Molecular adaptation during adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian endemic genus Schiedea.

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    Maxim V Kapralov

    Full Text Available "Explosive" adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena. The rate of phenotypic and ecological adaptations is extremely fast during such events, suggesting that many genes may be under fairly strong selection. However, no evidence for adaptation at the level of protein coding genes was found, so it has been suggested that selection may work mainly on regulatory elements. Here we report the first evidence that positive selection does operate at the level of protein coding genes during rapid adaptive radiations. We studied molecular adaptation in Hawaiian endemic plant genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae, which includes closely related species with a striking range of morphological and ecological forms, varying from rainforest vines to woody shrubs growing in desert-like conditions on cliffs. Given the remarkable difference in photosynthetic performance between Schiedea species from different habitats, we focused on the "photosynthetic" Rubisco enzyme, the efficiency of which is known to be a limiting step in plant photosynthesis.We demonstrate that the chloroplast rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of Rubisco enzyme, evolved under strong positive selection in Schiedea. Adaptive amino acid changes occurred in functionally important regions of Rubisco that interact with Rubisco activase, a chaperone which promotes and maintains the catalytic activity of Rubisco. Interestingly, positive selection acting on the rbcL might have caused favorable cytotypes to spread across several Schiedea species.We report the first evidence for adaptive changes at the DNA and protein sequence level that may have been associated with the evolution of photosynthetic performance and colonization of new habitats during a recent adaptive radiation in an island plant genus. This illustrates how small changes at the molecular level may change ecological species performance and helps us to understand the molecular bases of extremely

  10. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-07-15

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu.

  11. Revision of the genus Cleistanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    The Philippine species of the euphorbiaceous genus Cleistanthus are revised. Sixteen species are recognised for this archipelago of which two are recorded from there for the first time. The oldest available combination from the Philippines [C. orgyalis (Blanco) Merr.] remains obscure and three colle

  12. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H. nitidu

  13. Resurrection of Angelesia, a Southeast Asian genus of Chrysobalanaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sothers, C.A.; Prance, G.T.

    2014-01-01

    Licania subg. Angelesia is composed of only three species restricted to Southeast Asia and is currently delimited as one of four subgenera of Licania, a species-rich genus of mostly Neotropical taxa. Molecular phylogenetic studies involving Chrysobalanaceae have revealed that Licania is polyphyletic

  14. A new genus of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The fossil genus of rove beetles Apticaxgen.n. with two new species, A. volanssp.n. and A. solidussp.n., is described from the Nova Olinda Member of the Crato Formation in north-eastern Brazil (Aptian–Albian, dated as 125–99.6 Ma old). Both species belong to the clade Staphylininae + Paederinae i...

  15. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...

  16. The genus Lentinus (Basidiomycetes from India - an annotated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapan Kumar Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of species of genus Lentinus has been presented in this paper. On scrutiny of the latest authentic literature and mycobank record, out of a total of 41 documented species from India, 20 were found to be valid species while 21 were invalid species which were found to be synonyms. 

  17. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  18. Revision of the genus Tropobracon Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Tropobracon Cameron, 1905 (Braconidae: Braconinae) is revised and its species are keyed. The type species is re-described and fully illustrated. Two new species are described: T. comorensis spec. nov. from the Comores and T. infuscatus spec. nov. from Hong-Kong. Bracon dorsalis Matsumura,

  19. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale v

  20. The structure of the tautological ring in genus one

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We prove Getzler's claims about the tautological ring of stable curves of genus one, i.e. that the tautological ring coincides with the even cohomology ring, and that all relations between generators follow from the WDVV relation and Getzler's relation.

  1. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...

  2. On the species of the Phalanger-genus Pseudochirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1884-01-01

    Pseudochirus is a well-defined genus of Phalangers, which, up to this time, embraced three species: cookii, bernsteinii and albertisii. Pseudochirus viverrinus Ogilby (1837), from Van Diemen’s Land, is regarded as specifically distinct from Ps. cookii Desmarest (1817), from the Australian Continent.

  3. Biosystematics of the Malagasy frogs. II. The genus Boophis (Rhacophoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper concerns the genus Boophis Tschudi, 1938 ( = Malagasy Rhacophorus Kuhl & Van Hasselt, 1822). Apart from a reconsidering of adult morphology, certain new taxonomic characters, such as the colouration in life, the morphology of the tadpole and some mating calls, are presented. Karyotypes an

  4. Termites of the Genus Odontotermes are Optionally Keratophagous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Visser, Sara N. de; Mayemba, Emilian P.; Olff, Han

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested experimentally whether the consumption of mammalian hooves by termites of the genus Odontotermes is a mere incidental, previously overlooked event, or whether higher termites frequently exploit hooves of ungulates as a supplementary food source. The experiment was conducted i

  5. Revision of the genus Tropobracon Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Tropobracon Cameron, 1905 (Braconidae: Braconinae) is revised and its species are keyed. The type species is re-described and fully illustrated. Two new species are described: T. comorensis spec. nov. from the Comores and T. infuscatus spec. nov. from Hong-Kong. Bracon dorsalis Matsumura,

  6. On five new species of the genus Ichthyurus, Westw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1879-01-01

    Of the above mentioned genus of Malacoderm Coleoptera, founded in 1848 by Westwood in his Cabinet of Oriental Entomology, twelve species have hitherto been described, all Natives of the Old World and distributed as follow: Sierra Leone (West Africa): one ¹); Moulmein (East-Indies): two ²); Ceylon: t

  7. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C.

  8. The ITS2 of the genus Bulinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Stothard, J. R.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater snail genus Bulinus has been intensively investigated due to its role as intermediate host for trematode blood flukes that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis in man and livestock. Owing to taxonomic ambiguities within Bulinus, attention has often focused upon species...

  9. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIV. Guaianolides in the genus Leuzea DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaianolides were found in three species of the genus Leuzea DC. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from L. rhapontica subg. helenifolia (Gren, Gordon Holub and L. rhaponticoides Graells. From L. carthamoides (Willd. DC., chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin, janerin, cebellin E and repdiolide were obtained.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Hispaniolan Snake Genus Hypsirhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1971-01-01

    One of the least known of the endemic Hispaniolan colubrid snake genera is Hypsirhynchus. The genus was proposed by GUNTHER (1858) for one specimen of a new snake, purportedly from the island of Barbados, to which he gave the name H. ferox. COPE (1862) later described H. scalaris from Hispaniola (ty

  11. Composition law and nodal genus-2 curves in P$^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, S; Ruan, Y; Katz, Sheldon; Qin, Zhenbo; Ruan, Yongbin

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been great interest in the application of composition laws to problems in enumerative geometry. Using the moduli space of stable maps, we compute the number of irreducible, reduced, nodal, degree-d genus-2 plane curves whose normalization has a fixed complex structure and which pass through 3d - 2 general points in \\Bbb P^2.

  12. Revision of the genus Diaphorocera Heyden, 1863 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Cerocomini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turco, F.; Bologna, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphorocera, a Saharo-Sindian genus belonging to the tribe Cerocomini, is revised and a new synonymy is proposed. A cladistic classification is proposed as well, on a set of adult morphological characters. The available bionomical records, both original and from literature, concerning phenology, el

  13. Infrageneric classification of the genus Helictochloa Romero Zarco (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Zarco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An infrageneric classification of the genus Helictochloa Romero Zarco (Poaceae) is presented. Three sections are recognized and two new combinations are proposed Unión Europea (fondos FEDER) Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Junta de Andalucía: Plan Andaluz de Investigación

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  15. Siegel modular forms of genus 2 and level 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cléry, F.; van der Geer, G.; Grushevsky, S.

    2015-01-01

    We study vector-valued Siegel modular forms of genus 2 on the three level 2 groups Γ[2] ◁ Γ1[2] ◁ Γ0[2] ⊂ Sp(4, ℤ). We give generating functions for the dimension of spaces of vector-valued modular forms, construct various vector-valued modular forms by using theta functions and describe the structu

  16. Reassessing Vermisporium (Amphisphaeriaceae), a genus of foliar pathogens of eucalypts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, P.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pascoe, I.G.; Keane, P.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Vermisporium presently accommodates 13 species, 11 of which are associated with leaf spots of eucalypts in the Southern Hemisphere. Vermisporium is chiefly distinguished from Seimatosporium (Amphisphaeriaceae) on the basis of a short exogenous basal appendage, and the absence of a recognis

  17. First case of neonatal bacteremia due to Dyella genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakima, Nesrine; Bidet, Philippe; Lopez, Maureen; Rioualen, Stéphane; Carol, Agnès; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    We describe the first case of sepsis due to a yet unnamed species of Dyella genus associated to gastrointestinal perforation in a premature newborn. The rarity of such environmental bacteria in human infection, their misidentification with classical methods and their antibiotic resistance represent real challenges for both microbiologists and clinicians.

  18. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; hide

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  19. Chamber behavior of double Hurwitz numbers in genus 0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadrin, S.; Shapiro, M.; Vainshtein, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study double Hurwitz numbers in genus zero counting the number of covers CP1 → CP1 with two branching points with a given branching behavior. By the recent result due to Goulden, Jackson and Vakil, these numbers are piecewise polynomials in the multiplicities of the preimages of the branching poi

  20. The tantulocarid genus Arcticotantalus removed from Basipodellidae into Deoterthridae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Kirkegaard, Maja; Olesen, JØrgen

    2009-01-01

    is tentatively placed in Deoterthridae based on the mode of formation of the male trunk sac, the pattern of ornamentation on the tergites and cephalic shield, and the number of setae on the thoracopods and caudal rami. It is suggested that the genus Arcticotantulus Kornev, Tchesunov & Rybnikov, 2004 is removed...

  1. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  2. The identity of the genus Austrobuxus Miq. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    During a geographical survey of the genus Buxus in Malaysia I came across the name Buxus nitidus (Miq.) Hall. ƒ. Med. Rijksherb. n. 37 (1918) 16. This is based on a plant from Sumatra, collected by Teysmann (HB 769) on the coast of Sibolga, and described by Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 444—44

  3. Contribution to the genus Xanthocorus Miyatake (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Chilocorini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Xanthocorus Miyatake, 1970 consists of three species from China, including two new species described here: X. nigrosuturalis sp. n. and X. mucronatus sp. n. A key to identification of species is given. Diagnoses, detailed descriptions, illustrations, and distributions are provided.

  4. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  5. A revision of the genus Humboldtia Vahl (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanjappa, M.

    1986-01-01

    The genus Humboldtia Vahl is revised and a key to the six species and one variety recognised; their descriptions and distributions are given. All the taxa are confined to Western Ghats in India, except H. laurifolia, which extends southwards into Sri Lanka.

  6. A REVISION OF THE GENUS SPATHOLOBUS (LEGUMINOSAE- PAPILIONOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Jeannette

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the S. E. Asiatic genus Spatholobus 28 species are recognized, 6 of which are never described before: S. albus^ S. auricomus, S. auritus, S. hirsutus, S. multiflorus and S. viridis. One variety (S. ferrugineus var. acutus is also newly described. A key and full descriptions with plates and maps to illustrate the distribution are given.

  7. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H.

  8. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Martínez-Díaz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds.

  9. Siegel modular forms of genus 2 with the simplest divisor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cléry, F.; Gritsenko, V.

    2011-01-01

    We prove that there exist exactly eight Siegel modular forms with respect to the congruence subgroups of Hecke type of the paramodular groups of genus 2 vanishing precisely along the diagonal of the Siegel upper half-plane. This is a solution of a question formulated during the conference ‘Black hol

  10. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  11. Substrates specialization in lipid compounds and hydrocarbons of Marinobacter genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonin, P.; Vieira, C.; Grimaud, R.; Militon, C.; Cuny, P.; Lima, O.; Guasco, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Michotey, V.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of petroleum contamination and of burrowing macrofauna on abundances of Marinobacter and denitrifiers was tested in marine sediment mesocoms after 3 months incubation. Quantification of this genus by qPCR with a new primer set showed that the main factor favoring Marinobacter abundance

  12. Ruwenzoria, a new genus of the Xylariaceae from Central Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence...

  13. On a new genus and species of Pythonidae from Salawatti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubrecht, A.A.W.

    1879-01-01

    The snake about to be described formed part of the collection which the late Dr. Bernstein brought together in the island of Salawatti. It must be regarded as the representative of a new and interesting genus, which takes its place between the existing genera Liasis and Nardoa. It differs from Nardo

  14. Regeneration and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, L.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of regeneration systems and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus and opens interesting perspectives to the application of molecular techniques for study interesting traits, as well as for genetic improvement of grape.Somatic embryogenesis from leaf

  15. Revision of the Genus Heterometrus Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Scorpionidae, Arachnidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couzijn, H.W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The author deals with taxonomy, character variation, phylogeny and biogeography of Heterometrus, a scorpion genus occurring in Southeast Asia. The taxonomic value of 131 characters is studied, including 75 biometric ones; 72 characters are selected to be used in the present revision for purposes of

  16. The Species of the genus Sacculina (Crustacea Rhizocephala)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1937-01-01

    The genus Sacculina was founded by Thompson (1836), who described the species Sacculina carcini, the parasite of the shore crab. A second species, Sacculina inflata, was described by Leuckart (1859). Anderson (1862) gave a description of a third species, Sacculina triangularis, and published importa

  17. Pollen Ultrastructure of Genus Dendrobium Orchids as a Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Dwi Apriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anggrek genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu genus dari divisi spermatophyta yang merupakan kelompok tumbuhan yang berkembang dengan menggunakan biji. Tumbuhan berbiji tentu memiliki bunga sebagai alat perkembangan generatifnya. Perkembangan generatif pada bunga artinya pertemuan antara sel gamet jantan dan sel gamet betina. Sel gamet betina pada tumbuhan dihasilkan oleh putik, sedangkan sel gamet jantan disebut serbuk sari atau pollen. Genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu kekayaan alam Indonesia, jumlahnya diperkirakan mencapai 275 spesies. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana ultrastruktur pollen anggrek genus Dendrobium dari sepuluh spesies yang diamati menggunakan SEM. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan unit pollen untuk semua spesies yaitu kategori pollinia, sedangkan untuk polaritas pollen adalah apolar. Jenis aperture kesepuluh spesies yang diamati mempunyai aperture dengan pola yang tidak beraturan dan lebih dari enam yang disebut colpate. Bentuk pollen dari semua spesies yang diteliti bentuknya adalah subprolate hingga prolate dan ukuran pollen termasuk dalam kategori minuta hingga media. Ornamentasi pollen atau skluptur pollen tidak teridentifikasi dikarenakan ukuran pollen yang terlalu kecil, permukaan pollen terlihat kurang jelas. Sumber belajar yang digunakan adalah atlas.

  18. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  19. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C. meioba

  20. Hurleyella, a new genus of Nearctic Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon; Harold Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Hurleyella and two new species, H. cumberlandensis and H. brooksi are described from the Nearctic. Hurleyella resembles the subfamily Medeterinae in having the legs bare of major setae, a depressed posterior mesonotum, and concave dorsal postcranium, but the complex male genitalia is unlike the relatively simple structure of...

  1. Recombination among multiple mitochondrial pseudogenes from a passerine genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard; Arctander, P.

    2001-01-01

    PCR products of a fragment of the mitchondrial protein coding subunit 5 of NADH-dehydrogenase (ND5) from eight individuals representing five species of the South American bird genus Conirostrum were cloned. The 130 clones, which were subsequently sequenced, constituted 55 different sequences. Due...

  2. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.T. Jennings; A.D. Austin; N.M. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    The Australian xiphydriid woodwasp genus, previously known only from a single species, A. australiensis Riek, is revised. A second distinctive species from Carnarvon National Park in southcentral Queensland, A. fasciculata Jennings & Austin, sp. nov., is described, and a key to separate the males of the two species is provided.

  3. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal

    2012-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  4. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  5. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  6. Notes on the genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri (Diplopoda, Spirobolida, Trigoniulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper the species referable to the genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, are enumerated and their status is briefly discussed. Mystalides Attems, 1910, is a junior subjective synonym. Two species from Madagascar, A. quadridentatus (Attems, 1910) and A. polleni nov. spec., are described afte

  7. The genus Praravinia Korth. (Rubiaceae) in Borneo and Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1940-01-01

    The genus Praravinia was created by KORTHALS (in TEMMINCK, Verhand. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Overz. Bezitt., Bot., p. 189, tab. 41, 1839-1842) for a plant which he had collected in the south-eastern part of Borneo. He described it as similar in habit and doubtless nearly related to Urophyllum WALL. His diag

  8. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C. meioba

  9. Formulae for Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The ideal class group of hyperelliptic curves can be used in cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this article we present explicit formulae to perform the group operations for genus 2 curves. The formulae are completely general but to achieve the lowest number of operations w...

  10. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the southernmo

  11. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. ENDOPARASITIC NEMATODES OF THE GENUS PRATYLENCHUS ON SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Majić

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine susceptibility of soybean cultivars to root lesion nematodes (genus Pratylenchus), effect of intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization on penetration of endoparasitic nematodes in soybean roots, and trophic biodiversity of nematode community in soybean. In the period 2005 - 2007, investigations were conducted at experimental sites of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Seven soybean cultivars were included (Korana, ...

  13. Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum are generally considered to be host specialists. We determined the phylogenetic relationships between species of Leccinum from Europe and North America based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh

  14. [Triterpenoid sapogenins in the genus Grindelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, S; Schimmer, O; Waibel, R

    1990-08-01

    A saponin fraction has been isolated from the ethanolic extract of Grindeliae herba. The saponin fraction showed strong haemolytic activity. The saponins were detected after separation on TLC by their color reactions and Rf values as well as by their haemolytic activity on blood agar. After hydrolysis, the chemical reactions and Rf values of the sapogenins were described. The main sapogenin was isolated by preparative chromatography and its structure was elucidated by mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and UV spectra. The compound is a new natural triterpenoid sapogenin lactone and is named grindeliasapogenin D. Spectral evidence is presented to establish its structure as 2 beta,3 beta,16 alpha,23-tetrahydroxyoleanan-28,13 beta-olide. Two further sapogenins present in small amounts were identified chromatographically as oleanolic acid and bayogenin using authentic reference substances. The aerial parts of Grindelia robusta Nutt, and G. lanceolata Nutt. (Asteraceae) (as well as two commercial extracts) were also investigated with respect to their saponin fraction. The 3 sapogenins mentioned above were detected in all samples. The antibiotic potency of the crude drug is not associated with the saponin fraction but is at least partially due to the resin fraction.

  15. Ultralong C100 mycolic acids support the assignment of Segniliparus as a new bacterial genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Hong

    Full Text Available Mycolic acid-producing bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract of human and non-human mammals were recently assigned as a distinct genus, Segniliparus, because they diverge from rhodococci and mycobacteria in genetic and chemical features. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry, we determined the chemical composition of 65 homologous mycolic acids in two Segniliparus species and separately analyzed the three subclasses to measure relative chain length, number and stereochemistry of unsaturations and cyclopropyl groups within each class. Whereas mycobacterial mycolate subclasses are distinguished from one another by R groups on the meromycolate chain, Segniliparus species synthesize solely non-oxygenated α-mycolates with high levels of cis unsaturation. Unexpectedly Segniliparus α-mycolates diverge into three subclasses based on large differences in carbon chain length with one bacterial culture producing mycolates that range from C58 to C100. Both the overall chain length (C100 and the chain length diversity (C42 are larger than previously seen for mycolic acid-producing organisms and provide direct chemical evidence for assignment of Segniliparus as a distinct genus. Yet, electron microscopy shows that the long and diverse mycolates pack into a typical appearing membrane. Therefore, these new and unexpected extremes of mycolic acid chemical structure raise questions about the modes of mycolic acid packing and folding into a membrane.

  16. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida, Placospongiidae in the Indo-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontine Becking

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia from the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific and an examination of an additional 103 specimens of Placospongia ssp. collected from Indonesia (including Vosmaer and Vernhout 1902 material, Seychelles, India, Singapore and Micronesia. One mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear (ITS marker were subsequently used to differentiate species. All Placospongia species are characterized by selenasters and tylostyles in two size classes. The combination of microsclere diversity and morphology as well as megasclere size were shown to be informative morphometric characters, supported by molecular evidence. Live coloration and growth form is shown to be unreliable for diagnoses. The study of holotypes found that P. mixta is a valid species and that two genus transfers are necessary: Geodinella anthosigma is a Placospongia and P. labyrinthica is a Geodia. A new species is also described from an anchialine pool in Indonesia, Placospongia santodomingoae sp. n.; bringing the total fauna of Placospongia species in the Indo-West Pacific to five: Placospongia anthosigma, Placospongia carinata, Placospongia mixta, Placospongia melobesioides, and Placospongia santodomingoae sp.n. An identification key is given. Two additional species, possibly morphologically cryptic, have been identified by molecular markers.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus.

  18. The Genus Cladophora Kützing (Ulvophyceae) as a Globally Distributed Ecological Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifly, Shahrizim B; Graham, James M; Young, Erica B; Mayer, Robert J; Piotrowski, Michael J; Smith, Izak; Graham, Linda E

    2013-02-01

    The green algal genus Cladophora forms conspicuous nearshore populations in marine and freshwaters worldwide, commonly dominating peri-phyton communities. As the result of human activities, including the nutrient pollution of nearshore waters, Cladophora-dominated periphyton can form nuisance blooms. On the other hand, Cladophora has ecological functions that are beneficial, but less well appreciated. For example, Cladophora has previously been characterized as an ecological engineer because its complex structure fosters functional and taxonomic diversity of benthic microfauna. Here, we review classic and recent literature concerning taxonomy, cell biology, morphology, reproductive biology, and ecology of the genus Cladophora, to examine how this alga functions to modify habitats and influence littoral biogeochemistry. We review the evidence that Cladophora supports large, diverse populations of microalgal and bacterial epiphytes that influence the cycling of carbon and other key elements, and that the high production of cellulose and hydrocarbons by Cladophora-dominated periphyton has the potential for diverse technological applications, including wastewater remediation coupled to renewable biofuel production. We postulate that well-known aspects of Cladophora morphology, hydrodynamically stable and perennial holdfasts, distinctively branched architecture, unusually large cell and sporangial size and robust cell wall construction, are major factors contributing to the multiple roles of this organism as an ecological engineer.

  19. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n. PMID:27408539

  20. Population genetic divergence corresponds with species-level biodiversity patterns in the large genus Begonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M; Hollingsworth, P M

    2008-06-01

    Begonia is one of the largest angiosperm genera, containing over 1500 species. Some aspects of the distribution of biodiversity in the genus, such as the geographical restrictions of monophyletic groups, the rarity and morphological variability of widespread species, and a preponderance of narrow endemics, suggest that restricted gene flow may have been a factor in the formation of so many species. In order to investigate whether this inference based on large-scale patterns is supported by data at the population level, we examined the distribution of genetic variation within Begonia sutherlandii in the indigenous forests of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, using microsatellite markers. Despite the species being predominantly outbreeding, we found high and significant levels of population structure (standardized =F'ST= 0.896). Even within individual populations, there was evidence for clear differentiation of subpopulations. There is thus congruence in evolutionary patterns ranging from interspecific phylogeny, the distribution of individual species, to the levels of population differentiation. Despite this species-rich genus showing a pan-tropical distribution, these combined observations suggest that differentiation occurs over very local scales. Although strongly selected allelic variants can maintain species cohesion with only low levels of gene flow, we hypothesize that in Begonia, gene flow levels are often so low, that divergence in allopatry is likely to be a frequent occurrence, and the lack of widespread species may in part be attributable to a lack of a mechanism for holding them together.

  1. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida, Placospongiidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becking, Leontine E

    2013-01-01

    Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia from the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific and an examination of an additional 103 specimens of Placospongia ssp. collected from Indonesia (including Vosmaer and Vernhout 1902 material), Seychelles, India, Singapore and Micronesia. One mitochondrial (COI) and one nuclear (ITS) marker were subsequently used to differentiate species. All Placospongia species are characterized by selenasters and tylostyles in two size classes. The combination of microsclere diversity and morphology as well as megasclere size were shown to be informative morphometric characters, supported by molecular evidence. Live coloration and growth form is shown to be unreliable for diagnoses. The study of holotypes found that Placospongia mixta is a valid species and that two genus transfers are necessary: Geodinella anthosigma is a Placospongia and Placospongia labyrinthica is a Geodia. A new species is also described from an anchialine pool in Indonesia, Placospongia santodomingoae sp. n.; bringing the total fauna of Placospongia species in the Indo-West Pacific to five: Placospongia anthosigma, Placospongia carinata, Placospongia mixta, Placospongia melobesioides, and Placospongia santodomingoae sp. n. An identification key is given. Two additional species, possibly morphologically cryptic, have been identified by molecular markers.

  2. Pantoea: insights into a highly versatile and diverse genus within the Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterson, Alyssa M; Stavrinides, John

    2015-11-01

    The bacterial genus Pantoea comprises many versatile species that have been isolated from a multitude of environments. Pantoea was delineated as a genus approximately 25 years ago, but since then, approximately 20 species have been identified having a diversity of characteristics. Isolates from water and soil have been harnessed for industrial purposes including bioremediation, and the degradation of herbicides and other toxic products. Other isolates possess nitrogen fixation and plant growth-promoting capabilities, which are currently being explored for agricultural applications. Some isolates are antibiotic producers, and have been developed into biocontrol agents for the management of plant diseases. Pantoea is also known to form host associations with a variety of hosts, including plants, insects and humans. Although often thought of as a plant pathogen, recent evidence suggests that Pantoea is being frequently isolated from the nosocomial environment, with considerable debate as to its role in human disease. This review will explore this highly versatile group and its capabilities, its known associations, and the underlying genetic and genomic determinants that drive its diversity and adaptability. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Dilutineuron, a new moss genus of the subfamily Racomitrioideae (Grimmiaceae, Bryophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek-Ochyra Halina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on available molecular and morphological evidence, the genus Codriophorus P.Beauv. (Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae proved to be a polyphyletic taxon. It consists of two distinct genera which correspond to two sections of Codriophorus, namely sect. Codriophorus and sect. Fascicularia (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. The latter section is raised to generic rank as Dilutineuron Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek. The new genus consists of the following five species: D. fasciculare (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. brevisetum (Lindb. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. anomodontoides (Cardot Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. corrugatum (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov. and D. laevigatum (Mitt. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov.

  4. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n.

  5. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

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    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Micranthus (Pers. Eckl., has traditionally been treated as comprising three species, all with virtually identical, bilaterally symmetric, deep or pale blue to white flowers arranged in crowded, 2-ranked spikes and with divided style branches, but differing in their foliage. Examination of plants in the field and herbarium shows that there are four additional species. M. filifolius Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Caledon District of the southwestern Western Cape, has up to six, filiform leaves, the blades of at least the lowermost terete and cross-shaped in section, and usually pale blue-mauve flowers. M. simplex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from high elevations on Zebrakop, Piketberg, has the smallest flowers in the genus, white but tinged lilac as they age, linear leaves up to 1.5 mm wide, and undivided style branches. M. cruciatus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the northern Cedarberg and Bokkeveld Mtns, has up to four leaves, the lower with linear or terete blades with heavily thickened margins and central vein and relatively large flowers, unusual in having the style dividing at the mouth of the perianth tube into particularly long branches, these deeply divided as is typical of the genus. M. thereianthoides Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Paardeberg south of Malmesbury, is unique in the genus in having flowers with an elongate perianth tube. We also document the occurrence of large populations of putative hybrids at some sites. We provide a complete revision of Micranthus with original observations on leaf anatomy, pollen morphology and reproductive biology and discuss its confused taxonomic and nomenclatural history and that of the three common species of the genus, known for over 150 years. In so doing, we neotypify Gladiolus alopecuroides L. (1756 [= Micranthus alopecuroides (L. Eckl. (1827], type of the genus, and choose lectotypes for M. plantagineus Eckl. var. junceus Baker (1892 and Gladiolus fistulosus Jacq. Now with seven

  6. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  7. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  8. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2017-08-24

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  9. A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompen, Hans; Dobson, Susan J; Barker, Stephen C

    2002-10-01

    Evidence suggesting polyphyly of the traditionally recognised tick genus Aponomma Neumann, 1899 is summarized. Continued recognition of this genus in its current concept leaves a polyphyletic genus Aponomma and a paraphyletic genus Amblyomma Koch, 1844. To improve the correlation between our understanding of phylogenetic relationships in metastriate ticks and their classification, a few changes in classification are proposed. The members of the 'indigenous Australian Aponomma' group (sensu Kaufman, 1972), A. auruginans Schulze, 1936, A. concolor Neumann, 1899, A. glebopalma Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994, A. hydrosauri (Denny, 1843) and A. undatum (Fabricius, 1775), are transferred to Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994, which is raised to full generic rank. The remaining members of Aponomma are transferred to Amblyomma. Uncertainty remains on relationships of Bothriocroton to other metastriate lineages and on the systematic position of the two species formerly included in the 'primitive Aponomma' group, A. elaphense Price, 1959 and A. sphenodonti Dumbleton, 1943.

  10. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  11. Description of a new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Rehmat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae, Litus assamensis sp. nov., is described from Assam, India.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is also given. 

  12. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  13. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  14. Neocampanella, a new corticioid fungal genus, and a note on Dendrothele bispora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen K. Nakasone; David S. Hibbett; Greta Goranova

    2009-01-01

    The new genus Neocampanella (Agaricales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is established for Dentocorticium btastanos Boidin & Gilles, a crustose species, and the new combination, Neocampanella blastanos, is proposed. Morphological and molecular studies support the recognition of the new genus and its close...

  15. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  16. Revision of the genus 'Microbrotula' (Teleostei: Bythitidae), with description of two new species and a related new genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Following recent systematic revisions of Anderson (2005, 2007), seven species of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) have been described, all from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean. Six of these species are here recognised as valid: M. bentleyi, M. greenfieldi, M. punicea, M. quee...

  17. A new genus and species of bopyrid isopod infesting alpheid shrimps of the genus Synalpheus in the western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, R.; Markham, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Bopyrione synalphei, new genus, new species, a parasite of Synalpheus goodei Coutière in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, S. bousfieldi Chace, S. pectiniger Coutière and Synalpheus spp. in Haiti and Synalpheus sp. in Curaçao, is described. A member of the bopyrid subfamily Bopyrinae, whose diagnosis

  18. Evidence for Vertical Inheritance and Loss of the Leukotoxin Operon in Genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Christensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of the diverging Mannheimia subclades, although several strains belonging to M. ruminalis have lost the operon. Our analyses support that divergence within M. ruminalis following colonization of the ovine rumen was very rapid...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained from...

  20. Multiple origins of XY female mice (genus Akodon): phylogenetic and chromosomal evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, H. E.; Edwards, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the diversity in sex determination across organisms, theory predicts that the evolution of XY females is rare in mammals due to fitness consequences associated with infertility or the loss of YY zygotes. We investigated this hypothesis from a phylogenetic perspective by examining the inter- and intraspecific distribution of Y chromosomes in males and females (XY females) in South American field mice (Akodon). We found that XY females occurred at appreciable frequencies (10-66%) in at ...