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Sample records for genus carcharias rafinesque

  1. The marine leech Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, parasitic on the angel shark Squatina spp. and sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae, Carchariidae in Southern Brazilian waters

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    Soto J. M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the marine leech, Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, is reported on the southern coast of Brazil, based on seven lots with 47 specimens, between 71 and 182 mm in total length, collected on the dorsal region of angel sharks, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930; S. guggenheim Marini, 1936; S. punctata Marini, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squatinidae; and on the head of a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Carchariidae. This is the first record of S. loricata in the western Atlantic and of its parasitic association with S. argentina, S. guggenheim, S. punctata, and C. taurus.

  2. The phylogenomic position of the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) inferred from the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Deborah L; Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Bennett, Michael B; Bustamante, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus is described from 25 963 828 sequences obtained using Illumina NGS technology. Total length of the mitogenome is 16 715 bp, consisting of 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions thus updating the previously published mitogenome for this species. The phylogenomic reconstruction inferred from the mitogenome of 15 species of Lamniform and Carcharhiniform sharks supports the inclusion of C. taurus in a clade with the Lamnidae and Cetorhinidae. This complete mitogenome contributes to ongoing investigation into the monophyly of the Family Odontaspididae.

  3. Rafinesque's Sicilian whale, Balena gastrytis

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    Woodman, Neal; Mead, James G.

    2017-01-01

    In 1815, the naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque described a new species of cetacean, Balena gastrytis, from Sicily, based on a whale that stranded on Carini beach near Palermo. In comparing the characteristics of his new whale with known species, Rafinesque also took the opportunity to name a new genus, Cetoptera, to replace Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804. Unfortunately, few of Rafinesque's contemporaries saw his article, which appeared in Il Portafoglio, a local journal that he published and distributed. The journal remains rare, and awareness of the whale remains minimal, despite its relevance to cetacean taxonomy and understanding of whale diversity and distribution in the Mediterranean. We describe the circumstances of the stranding of the Sicilian whale and provide Rafinesque's original description of the whale, as well as an evaluation of its reported characteristics and its current identity.

  4. White sharks Carcharodon carcharias at Bird Island, Algoa Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the first quantitative study of the occurrence, size and sex of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at Bird Island, Algoa Bay. Twenty-two boat trips were made to Bird Island between November 2009 and October 2011 to chum for sharks. A total of 53 sharks was observed over the study period, ranging in size ...

  5. Great white sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klimley, A.P; Ainley, D.G

    1996-01-01

    ... Morphology 37 Systematics of the Lamnidae and the Origination Time of Carcharodon carcharias Inferred from the Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences Size and Skeletal Anatomy of the Giant "Megatooth" Shark Carcharodon megalodon 55 Paleoecology of Fossil White Sharks 67 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 11. Temperature, Swimming Depth, and Movements ...

  6. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  7. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans

  8. Caudal fin allometry in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias: implications for locomotory performance and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    Allometric scaling analysis was employed to investigate the consequences of size evolution on hydrodynamic performance and ecology in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Discriminant analysis using the power equation y=axb was negative for caudal fin span (S) versus fork length (FL) in C. carcharias. In contrast in two delphinid species, Delphinus capensis and Tursiops aduncus, the span of the flukes versus fork length rises in positive allometric fashion, and strong positive allometry of S versus √A (area) was also recorded. The latter reflects a high lift/drag ratio. S versus √A in C. carcharias displays negative allometry and consequently a lower lift/drag ratio. A lower aspect ratio (AR) caudal fin in C. carcharias compared to that of the delphinids (mean 3.33 and 4.1, respectively) and other thunniform swimmers provides the potential for better maneuverability and acceleration. The liver in sharks is frequently associated with a buoyancy function and was found to be positively allometric in C. carcharias. The overall findings suggest that the negatively allometric caudal fin morphometrics in C. carcharias are unlikely to have deleterious evolutionary fitness consequences for predation. On the contrary, when considered in the context of positive liver allometry in C. carcharias it is hereby suggested that buoyancy may play a dominant role in larger white sharks in permitting slow swimming while minimizing energy demands needed to prevent sinking. In contrast hydrodynamic lift is considered more important in smaller white sharks. Larger caudal fin spans and higher lift/drag ratio in smaller C. carcharias indicate greater potential for prolonged, intermediate swimming speeds and for feeding predominantly on fast-moving fish, in contrast to slow-swimming search patterns of larger individuals for predominantly large mammalian prey. Such data may provide some answers to the lifestyle and widespread habitat capabilities of this still largely mysterious animal.

  9. Pranked by Audubon: Constantine S. Rafinesque's description of John James Audubon's imaginary Kentucky mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The North American naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque spent much of the year 1818 engaged in a solo journey down the Ohio River Valley to explore parts of what was then the western United States. Along the way, he visited a number of fellow naturalists, and he spent more than a week at the Henderson, Kentucky, home of artist and ornithologist John James Audubon. During the succeeding two years, Rafinesque published descriptions of new species that resulted from his expedition, including eleven species of fishes that eventually proved to have been invented by Audubon as a prank on the credulous naturalist. Less well known are a number of “wild rats” described by Rafinesque that include one recognized species (Musculus leucopus) and ten other, imaginary “species” fabricated by Audubon (Gerbillus leonurus, G. megalops, Spalax trivittata, Cricetus fasciatus, Sorex cerulescens, S. melanotis, Musculus nigricans, Lemmus albovittatus, L. talpoides, Sciurus ruber). Rafinesque's unpublished sketches of these animals provide important insight regarding the supposed nature of the animals invented by Audubon and ultimately published by Rafinesque.

  10. Bioconcentration of haloxyfop-methyl in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Lutenske, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque) were exposed to a 14 C haloxyfop-methyl [methyl 2-(4-((3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)propanoate] concentration averaging 0.29 μg/L under flow-through conditions for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, the fish were transferred to clean water for a 4-day flow-through clearance period. Bluegill were found to rapidly absorb the ester from water which was then biotransformed at an extremely fast rate within the fish, such that essentially no haloxyfop-methyl was detected in the fish. The estimated bioconcentration factor for haloxyfop-methyl in whole fish was 14 C residue within whole fish was haloxyfop acid [2-(4-((3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)propanoic acid] which accounted for an average of about 60% of the total radioactivity. The high rate of biotransformation of the parent compound within the fish demonstrates the importance of basing the bioconcentration factor upon the actual concentration of parent material within the organism rather than the total radioactive residue levels for bioconcentration studies with radiolabeled compounds

  11. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (Pdata show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  12. Subsurface observations of white shark Carcharodon carcharias predatory behaviour using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

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    Skomal, G B; Hoyos-Padilla, E M; Kukulya, A; Stokey, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was used to test this technology as a viable tool for directly observing the behaviour of marine animals and to investigate the behaviour, habitat use and feeding ecology of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias near Guadalupe Island off the coast of Mexico. During the period 31 October to 7 November 2013, six AUV missions were conducted to track one male and three female C. carcharias, ranging in estimated total length (LT ) from 3·9 to 5·7 m, off the north-east coast of Guadalupe Island. In doing so, the AUV generated over 13 h of behavioural data for C. carcharias at depths down to 90 m. The sharks remained in the area for the duration of each mission and moved through broad depth and temperature ranges from the surface to 163·8 m depth (mean ± S.D. = 112·5 ± 40·3 m) and 7·9-27·1° C (mean ± S.D. = 12·7 ± 2·9° C), respectively. Video footage and AUV sensor data revealed that two of the C. carcharias being tracked and eight other C. carcharias in the area approached (n = 17), bumped (n = 4) and bit (n = 9) the AUV during these tracks. This study demonstrated that an AUV can be used to effectively track and observe the behaviour of a large pelagic animal, C. carcharias. In doing so, the first observations of subsurface predatory behaviour were generated for this species. At its current state of development, this technology clearly offers a new and innovative tool for tracking the fine-scale behaviour of marine animals. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Shark fishing effort and catch of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated telephone and on-site questionnaire survey was used to estimate total shark fishing effort and specific catch of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus by coastal club-affiliated shore-anglers, primarily along the east coast of South Africa. Mean total shark fishing effort was estimated to be 37 820 fisherdays ...

  14. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Johnson

    Full Text Available Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE, shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6 torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, and 83% (n=86 of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  15. С. S. Rafinesque as a carcinologist : an annotated compilation of the information on Crustacea contained in the works of that author

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1954-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION In the last tens of years more and more attention has been paid to the much neglected and ignored publications written by the eccentric early American naturalist Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. Until now, however, Rafinesque's work in the field of carcinology has received but little

  16. Henneguya exilis Kudo associated with granulomatous branchitis of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

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    Duhamel, G E; Kent, M L; Dybdal, N O; Hedrick, R P

    1986-07-01

    Outbreaks of a chronic branchitis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) were observed on four fish farms throughout the state of California from November 1982 to April 1984. Severe granulomatous inflammation of the gill filaments with necrosis of the cartilage of the gill ray and diffuse epithelial hyperplasia, resulting in extensive fusion of gill lamellae, was present on histologic examination of gill specimens from 35 out of 44 fish examined. Numerous, small trophozoites morphologically consistent with presporogonic myxosporean parasites were consistently associated with the inflammatory process. Mature spores of Henneguya exilis Kudo were present in large numbers in gill specimens from two fish and only occasionally in 22 others. Similar cases referred to as "Hamburger Gill Disease" or "proliferative gill disease" have been known to occur in the south-central United States. This report describes the morphologic changes of this condition and discusses its possible pathogenesis.

  17. Home Range and Habitat Use of Male Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

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    Menzel, M.A.; Menzel, J.M.; Ford, W.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Carter, T.C.; Churchill, J.B.; Kilgo, J.C.

    2000-03-13

    We examined home range size and habitat use of four reproductively active male Rafinesque Big-eared bats in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September of 1999. Most foraging activity occurred during the first 4 hours after sunset and the first two hours before sunrise. Mean home range size was 93.1 hectares. Most foraging activity occurred in young pines even though large tracks of bottomland hardwood were available. Only 9% of foraging occurred in bottomland hardwoods.

  18. The distribution and contaminant exposure of Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats in South Carolina with an emphasis on bridge surveys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.M. Bennett; S.C. Loeb; W.W. Bowerman

    2003-10-23

    Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), an insectivorous mammal indigenous to the southern United States, has long been referred to as one of the least known bats in North America. Although there has been a moderate increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles published on this species in the past 6 years, the basic ecology and status of Rafinesque's big-eared bat remains largely obscure. Prior to 1996, when the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) discontinued the list of Candidate Species, Rafinesque's big-eared bat was listed as a Federal Category 2 Candidate species. Currently, Rafinesque's big-eared bat is recognized as a ''species of special concern'' across most of its range but receives no legal protection. Nonetheless, the USFWS and numerous state agencies remain concerned about this species. Further biological research and field study are needed to resolve the conservation status of this taxona. In response to the paucity of information regarding the status and distribution of Rafinesque's big-eared bat, statewide survey of highway bridges used as roost sites was conducted.

  19. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  20. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-06-22

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. taurus. Assignment tests, analysis of relatedness and Fst values all indicate that the Australian populations are isolated from South Africa, with negligible migration between the east and west Australian coasts. There are significant differences in levels of genetic variation among regions. Australian C. taurus, particularly the eastern population, has significantly less AFLP variation than the other sampling localities. Further, the eastern Australian sharks possess only a single mitochondrial haplotype, also suggesting a small number of founding individuals. Therefore, historical, rather than anthropogenic processes most likely account for their depauperate genetic variation. These findings have implications for the viability of the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks.

  1. Evidence of Maternal Offloading of Organic Contaminants in White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Christopher G.; Lyons, Kady; Blasius, Mary E.; Winkler, Chuck; O’Sullivan, John B.; Lowe, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants were measured in young of the year (YOY) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) incidentally caught in southern California between 2005 and 2012 (n = 20) and were found to be unexpectedly high considering the young age and dietary preferences of young white sharks, suggesting these levels may be due to exposure in utero. To assess the potential contributions of dietary exposure to the observed levels, a five-parameter bioaccumulation model was used to estimate the total loads a newborn shark would potentially accumulate in one year from consuming contaminated prey from southern California. Maximum simulated dietary accumulation of DDTs and PCBs were 25.1 and 4.73 µg/g wet weight (ww) liver, respectively. Observed ΣDDT and ΣPCB concentrations (95±91 µg/g and 16±10 µg/g ww, respectively) in a majority of YOY sharks were substantially higher than the model predictions suggesting an additional source of contaminant exposure beyond foraging. Maternal offloading of organic contaminants during reproduction has been noted in other apex predators, but this is the first evidence of transfer in a matrotrophic shark. While there are signs of white shark population recovery in the eastern Pacific, the long-term physiological and population level consequences of biomagnification and maternal offloading of environmental contaminants in white sharks is unclear. PMID:23646154

  2. Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias migration and offshore behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J Jorgensen

    Full Text Available Elucidating how mobile ocean predators utilize the pelagic environment is vital to understanding the dynamics of oceanic species and ecosystems. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT tags have emerged as an important tool to describe animal migrations in oceanic environments where direct observation is not feasible. Available PAT tag data, however, are for the most part limited to geographic position, swimming depth and environmental temperature, making effective behavioral observation challenging. However, novel analysis approaches have the potential to extend the interpretive power of these limited observations. Here we developed an approach based on clustering analysis of PAT daily time-at-depth histogram records to distinguish behavioral modes in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias. We found four dominant and distinctive behavioral clusters matching previously described behavioral patterns, including two distinctive offshore diving modes. Once validated, we mapped behavior mode occurrence in space and time. Our results demonstrate spatial, temporal and sex-based structure in the diving behavior of white sharks in the northeastern Pacific previously unrecognized including behavioral and migratory patterns resembling those of species with lek mating systems. We discuss our findings, in combination with available life history and environmental data, and propose specific testable hypotheses to distinguish between mating and foraging in northeastern Pacific white sharks that can provide a framework for future work. Our methodology can be applied to similar datasets from other species to further define behaviors during unobservable phases.

  3. Isolation and characterization of bioactive fungi from shark Carcharodon carcharias' gill with biopharmaceutical prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Jinyuan; Feng, Yan; Mu, Jun; Bao, Haiyan; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, little was known about the fungi found in shark gills and their biomedicinal potential. In this article, we described the isolation, bioactivity, diversity, and secondary metabolites of bioactive fungi from the gill of a shark ( Carcharodon carcharias). A total of 115 isolates were obtained and grown in 12 culture media. Fifty-eight of these isolates demonstrated significant activity in four antimicrobial, pesticidal, and cytotoxic bioassay models. Four randomly selected bioactive isolates inhibited human cancer cell proliferation during re-screening. These active isolates were segregated into 6 genera using the internal transcribed spacer-large subunit (ITS-LSU) rDNA-sequence BLAST comparison. Four genera, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Chaetomium were the dominant taxa. A phylogenic tree illustrated their intergenera and intragenera genetic diversity. HPLC-DAD-HRMS analysis and subsequent database searching revealed that nine representative strains produced diverse bioactive compound profiles. These results detail the broad range of bioactive fungi found in a shark's gills, revealing their biopharmaceutical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing shark gill fungi and their bioactivity.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of chitinase A from Vibrio carchariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon; Robinson, Robert C.; Vongsuwan, Archara; Suginta, Wipa

    2005-10-01

    Chitinase A of Vibrio carchariae was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli M15 host cells as a C-terminally proteolytic processed fragment using the pQE60 expression vector. The yield of the 63-kDa protein was purified, yielding ∼70 mg per liter of bacterial culture. Crystals of recombinant chitinase A were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method in a precipitant containing 10% (v/v) PEG 400, 0.1 M sodium acetate p H 4.6 and 0.125 M CaCl 2 . The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P422 with two molecules per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b 127.64 Angstrom, and c = 171.42 Angstrom. A complete diffraction data set was collected to 2.14 Angstrom resolution, using a Rigaku/MSC R-AXIS IV ++ detector system mounted on an RU-H3R rotating-anode X-ray generator

  5. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  6. New host record and molecular characterization of Dicauda atherinoidi Hoffman & Walker (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae): a parasite of the emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, 1818 and mimic shiner Notropis vollucellus Cope, 1865.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, T P; Rosser, T G; Baumgartner, W A; Boontai, T; Faisal, M; Griffin, M J

    2017-10-01

    Updated morphological and histopathological descriptions for Dicauda atherinoidi (Bivalvulida:Myxobolidae) and an expanded host range are supplemented with the first molecular data and phylogenetic analyses of the genus. Plasmodia were located on the head, ventrum/body and fins of infected emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, 1818 and mimic shiner Notropis vollucellus Cope, 1865, a new host species. Myxospores were spherical, ranging 9.3-11.4 μm (10.5 ± 0.4) in length, 9.0-11.0 μm (9.7 ± 0.4) in width and 6.6-7.0 μm (6.8 ± 0.2) thick in sutural view, and possessed 2-3 caudal processes (5.3-68.3 μm, 31.1 ± 13.6) connected to the spore body at the sutural groove, all of which are consistent with the genus Dicauda. In the absence of available Dicauda sequence data, the 18S rDNA sequences from Michigan isolates were most similar to Myxobolus spp. Phylogenetic analyses clustered these isolates with myxobolid species from cyprinid fish, suggesting these parasites may represent an underpopulated group of cyprinid-infecting myxozoans. Histopathology revealed thin-walled plasmodial pseudocysts in the dermis and associated connective tissue, where granulomatous inflammation and focal scale atrophy were also present. Further sampling/sequencing of myxobolids from Notropis spp. should expand these underrepresented myxozoans and offer further insight into Myxobolidae host family tropisms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  8. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveals isolation of imperilled grey nurse shark populations (Carcharias taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, H; Harcourt, R G; Stow, A J

    2009-11-01

    Loss of sharks and other upper-trophic marine predators has sparked worldwide concern for the stability of ocean ecosystems. The grey nurse (ragged-tooth or sand tiger) shark (Carcharias taurus) is Vulnerable on a global scale, Critically Endangered in Australia and presumed extinct in parts of its historical range. We used 193 muscle and fin samples collected from six extant populations to assess global mtDNA and microsatellite diversity and the degree of global population genetic structure. Control region mtDNA diversity was low in every population, and two populations (eastern Australia and Japan) contained only a single mtDNA haplotype. Genetic signatures of recent losses of genetic variation were not yet apparent at microsatellite loci, indicating that this low mtDNA variation is not a result of anthropogenic population declines. Population differentiation was substantial between each population pair except Brazil and South Africa, F(ST) values ranged from 0.050 to 0.699 and 0.100 to 1.00 for microsatellite and mitochondrial data respectively. Bayesian analysis clearly partitioned individuals into five of the populations from which they were sampled. Our data imply a low frequency of immigrant exchange among each of these regions and we suggest that each be recognized as a distinct evolutionary significant unit. In contrast to pelagic species such as whale shark and white shark that may cross ocean basins and where cooperative international efforts are necessary for conservation, grey nurse shark, like many coastal species, need to be managed regionally.

  9. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  10. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  11. Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Alison; O’Riain, M. Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

    2013-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7–5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies. PMID:23383052

  12. Characterization of the heart transcriptome of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Suzuki, Haruo; Stanhope, Michael J; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2013-10-11

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) is a globally distributed, apex predator possessing physical, physiological, and behavioral traits that have garnered it significant public attention. In addition to interest in the genetic basis of its form and function, as a representative of the oldest extant jawed vertebrate lineage, white sharks are also of conservation concern due to their small population size and threat from overfishing. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the biology of white sharks, and genomic resources are unavailable. To address this deficit, we combined Roche-454 and Illumina sequencing technologies to characterize the first transciptome of any tissue for this species. From white shark heart cDNA we generated 665,399 Roche 454 reads (median length 387-bp) that were assembled into 141,626 contigs (mean length 503-bp). We also generated 78,566,588 Illumina reads, which we aligned to the 454 contigs producing 105,014 454/Illumina consensus sequences. To these, we added 3,432 non-singleton 454 contigs. By comparing these sequences to the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database we were able to annotate 21,019 translated open reading frames (ORFs) of ≥ 20 amino acids. Of these, 19,277 were additionally assigned Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations. While acknowledging the limitations of our single tissue transcriptome, Fisher tests showed the white shark transcriptome to be significantly enriched for numerous metabolic GO terms compared to the zebra fish and human transcriptomes, with white shark showing more similarity to human than to zebra fish (i.e. fewer terms were significantly different). We also compared the transcriptome to other available elasmobranch sequences, for signatures of positive selection and identified several genes of putative adaptive significance on the white shark lineage. The white shark transcriptome also contained 8,404 microsatellites (dinucleotide, trinucleotide, or tetranucleotide motifs ≥ five perfect

  13. Seasonal and multiannual roost use by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bats in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about factors affecting year-round use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) or the long-term fidelity of this species to anthropogenic or natural roosts. The objectives of this study were to test whether seasonal use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats varied with roost type and environmental conditions within and among seasons and to document multiannual use of natural and anthropogenic structures by this species. We inspected 4 bridges, 1 building, and 59 tree roosts possessing basal cavity openings; roosts were inspected at least once per week from May through October in every year from 2005 through 2008 and once a month from November through April in every year from 2005 through 2009. We found that use of anthropogenic roosts was significantly greater than the use of tree roosts in summer but that the use of structure types did not differ in other seasons. There was significant seasonal variation in use of anthropogenic and tree roosts. Anthropogenic roost use was higher in summer than in all other seasons. There was no significant difference in tree use among spring, summer, and fall, but use in winter was significantly lower in 2 years of the study. Overall use of anthropogenic and tree roosts was positively related to minimum temperature, but the relationship between use of roosts and minimum temperature varied among seasons. Bats showed multiannual fidelity ({ge} 4 years) to all anthropogenic roosts and to some tree roosts, but fidelity of bats to anthropogenic roosts was greater and more consistent than to tree roosts. Our data indicate that Rafinesque's big-eared bats responded differently to environmental conditions among seasons; thus, a variety of structure types and characteristics are necessary for conservation of these bats. We suggest long-term protection of roost structures of all types is necessary for conservation of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in the southeast Coastal Plain.

  14. Molecular detection of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome on Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and two species of migratory bats in the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Riley F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Willcox, Emma V; Parise, Katy L; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-04-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), is responsible for widespread mortality of hibernating bats across eastern North America. To document P. destructans exposure and infections on bats active during winter in the southeastern US, we collected epidermal swabs from bats captured during winters 2012-13 and 2013-14 in mist nets set outside of hibernacula in Tennessee. Epidermal swab samples were collected from eight Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), six eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), and three silver-hair bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Using real-time PCR methods, we identified DNA sequences of P. destructans from skin swabs of two Rafinesque's big-eared bats, two eastern red bats, and one silver-haired bat. This is the first detection of the WNS fungus on Rafinesque's big-eared bats and eastern red bats and the second record of the presence of the fungus on silver-haired bats.

  15. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  16. Shark Spotters: Successfully reducing spatial overlap between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and recreational water users in False Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Tamlyn; Kock, Alison; Waries, Sarah; O'Riain, M Justin

    2017-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators that play an important role in the structure and stability of marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance and protected status, white sharks are still subject to lethal control to reduce the risk of shark bites for recreational water users. The Shark Spotters program, pioneered in Cape Town, South Africa, provides a non-lethal alternative for reducing the risk of human-shark conflict. In this study we assessed the efficacy of the Shark Spotters program in reducing overlap between water users and white sharks at two popular beaches in False Bay, South Africa. We investigated seasonal and diel patterns in water use and shark presence at each beach, and thereafter quantified the impact of different shark warnings from shark spotters on water user abundance. We also assessed the impact of a fatal shark incident on patterns of water use. Our results revealed striking diel and seasonal overlap between white sharks and water users at both beaches. Despite this, there was a low rate of shark-human incidents (0.5/annum) which we attribute partly to the success of the Shark Spotters program. Shark spotters use visual (coloured flags) and auditory (siren) cues to inform water users of risk associated with white shark presence in the surf zone. Our results showed that the highest risk category (denoted by a white flag and accompanying siren) caused a significant reduction in water user abundance; however the secondary risk category (denoted by a red flag with no siren) had no significant effect on water users. A fatal shark incident was shown to negatively impact the number of water users present for at least three months following the incident. Our results indicate that the Shark Spotters program effectively reduces spatial overlap between white sharks and water users when the risk of conflict is highest.

  17. Seasonal distribution and historic trends in abundance of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobey H Curtis

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in field research on white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in several regions around the world, opportunistic capture and sighting records remain the primary source of information on this species in the northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA. Previous studies using limited datasets have suggested a precipitous decline in the abundance of white sharks from this region, but considerable uncertainty in these studies warrants additional investigation. This study builds upon previously published data combined with recent unpublished records and presents a synthesis of 649 confirmed white shark records from the NWA compiled over a 210-year period (1800-2010, resulting in the largest white shark dataset yet compiled from this region. These comprehensive records were used to update our understanding of their seasonal distribution, relative abundance trends, habitat use, and fisheries interactions. All life stages were present in continental shelf waters year-round, but median latitude of white shark occurrence varied seasonally. White sharks primarily occurred between Massachusetts and New Jersey during summer and off Florida during winter, with broad distribution along the coast during spring and fall. The majority of fishing gear interactions occurred with rod and reel, longline, and gillnet gears. Historic abundance trends from multiple sources support a significant decline in white shark abundance in the 1970s and 1980s, but there have been apparent increases in abundance since the 1990s when a variety of conservation measures were implemented. Though the white shark's inherent vulnerability to exploitation warrants continued protections, our results suggest a more optimistic outlook for the recovery of this iconic predator in the Atlantic.

  18. Mitochondrial Genetic Structure and Matrilineal Origin of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Northeastern Pacific: Implications for Their Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate-González, Erick C; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Saavedra-Sotelo, Nancy C; Sosa-Nishizaki, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias, WS henceforth) are globally and regionally threatened. Understanding their patterns of abundance and connectivity, as they relate to habitat use, is central for delineating conservation units and identifying priority areas for conservation. We analyzed mitochondrial data to test the congruence between patterns of genetic connectivity and of individual movements in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) and to trace the matrilineal origin of immature WS from coastal California and Baja California to adult aggregation areas. We analyzed 186 mitochondrial control region sequences from sharks sampled in Central California (CC; n = 61), Southern California Bight (SCB; n = 25), Baja California Pacific coast (BCPC; n = 9), Bahía Vizcaíno (BV; n = 39), Guadalupe Island (GI; n = 45), and the Gulf of California (GC; n = 7). Significant mitochondrial differentiation between adult aggregation areas (CC, GI) revealed two reproductive populations in the NEP. We found general concordance between movement patterns of young and adult WS with genetic results. Young sharks from coastal California and Baja California were more likely born from females from GI. Mitochondrial differentiation of young-of-the-year from SCB and BV suggests philopatry to nursery areas in females from GI. These results provide a genetic basis of female reproductive behavior at a regional scale and point to a preponderance of sharks from GI in the use of the sampled coastal region as pupping habitat. These findings should be considered in Mexican and US management and conservation strategies of the WS NEP population. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Seasonal Distribution and Historic Trends in Abundance of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tobey H.; McCandless, Camilla T.; Carlson, John K.; Skomal, Gregory B.; Kohler, Nancy E.; Natanson, Lisa J.; Burgess, George H.; Hoey, John J.; Pratt, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in field research on white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in several regions around the world, opportunistic capture and sighting records remain the primary source of information on this species in the northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA). Previous studies using limited datasets have suggested a precipitous decline in the abundance of white sharks from this region, but considerable uncertainty in these studies warrants additional investigation. This study builds upon previously published data combined with recent unpublished records and presents a synthesis of 649 confirmed white shark records from the NWA compiled over a 210-year period (1800-2010), resulting in the largest white shark dataset yet compiled from this region. These comprehensive records were used to update our understanding of their seasonal distribution, relative abundance trends, habitat use, and fisheries interactions. All life stages were present in continental shelf waters year-round, but median latitude of white shark occurrence varied seasonally. White sharks primarily occurred between Massachusetts and New Jersey during summer and off Florida during winter, with broad distribution along the coast during spring and fall. The majority of fishing gear interactions occurred with rod and reel, longline, and gillnet gears. Historic abundance trends from multiple sources support a significant decline in white shark abundance in the 1970s and 1980s, but there have been apparent increases in abundance since the 1990s when a variety of conservation measures were implemented. Though the white shark's inherent vulnerability to exploitation warrants continued protections, our results suggest a more optimistic outlook for the recovery of this iconic predator in the Atlantic. PMID:24918579

  20. Using Stable Isotope Analysis to Understand the Migration and Trophic Ecology of Northeastern Pacific White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Aaron B.; Kim, Sora L.; Semmens, Brice X.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Jorgensen, Salvador J.; Perle, Christopher R.; Anderson, Scot D.; Chapple, Taylor K.; Kanive, Paul E.; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) is a wide-ranging apex predator in the northeastern Pacific (NEP). Electronic tagging has demonstrated that white sharks exhibit a regular migratory pattern, occurring at coastal sites during the late summer, autumn and early winter and moving offshore to oceanic habitats during the remainder of the year, although the purpose of these migrations remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use stable isotope analysis (SIA) to provide insight into the trophic ecology and migratory behaviors of white sharks in the NEP. Between 2006 and 2009, 53 white sharks were biopsied in central California to obtain dermal and muscle tissues, which were analyzed for stable isotope values of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). We developed a mixing model that directly incorporates movement data and tissue incorporation (turnover) rates to better estimate the relative importance of different focal areas to white shark diet and elucidate their migratory behavior. Mixing model results for muscle showed a relatively equal dietary contribution from coastal and offshore regions, indicating that white sharks forage in both areas. However, model results indicated that sharks foraged at a higher relative rate in coastal habitats. There was a negative relationship between shark length and muscle δ13C and δ15N values, which may indicate ontogenetic changes in habitat use related to onset of maturity. The isotopic composition of dermal tissue was consistent with a more rapid incorporation rate than muscle and may represent more recent foraging. Low offshore consumption rates suggest that it is unlikely that foraging is the primary purpose of the offshore migrations. These results demonstrate how SIA can provide insight into the trophic ecology and migratory behavior of marine predators, especially when coupled with electronic tagging data. PMID:22355313

  1. Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformities in sandtiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, in public aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul A; Huber, Daniel R; Berzins, Ilze K

    2012-12-01

    A number of captive sandtiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria have developed spinal deformities over the past decade, ranging in severity from mild curvature to spinal fracture and severe subluxation. To determine the frequency and etiologic basis of this disease, U.S. public aquaria participated in a two-stage epidemiologic study of resident sharks: 1) a history and husbandry survey and 2) hematology, clinical chemistry, and radiography conducted during health exams. Eighteen aquaria submitted data, samples, or both from 73 specimens, including 19 affected sharks (26%). Sharks caught off the Rhode Island coast or by pound net were smaller at capture and demonstrated a higher prevalence of deformity than did larger sharks caught from other areas via hook and line. Relative to healthy sharks, affected sharks were deficient in zinc, potassium, and vitamins C and E. Capture and transport results lead to two likely etiologic hypotheses: 1) that the pound-net capture process induces spinal trauma that becomes exacerbated over time in aquarium environments or 2) that small (and presumably young) sharks caught by pound net are exposed to disease-promoting conditions (including diet or habitat deficiencies) in aquaria during the critical growth phase of their life history. The last hypothesis is further supported by nutrient deficiencies among affected sharks documented in this study; potassium, zinc, and vitamin C play critical roles in proper cartilage-collagen development and maintenance. These correlative findings indicate that public aquaria give careful consideration to choice of collection methods and size at capture and supplement diets to provide nutrients required for proper development and maintenance of cartilaginous tissue.

  2. Development and microstructure of tooth histotypes in the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) and the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Joshua K; Riccio, Mark L; Bemis, William E

    2015-07-01

    Elasmobranchs exhibit two distinct arrangements of mineralized tissues in the teeth that are known as orthodont and osteodont histotypes. Traditionally, it has been said that orthodont teeth maintain a pulp cavity throughout tooth development whereas osteodont teeth are filled with osteodentine and lack a pulp cavity when fully developed. We used light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution micro-computed tomography to compare the structure and development of elasmobranch teeth representing the two histotypes. As an example of the orthodont histotype, we studied teeth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae). For the osteodont histotype, we studied teeth of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae). We document similarities and differences in tooth development and the microstructure of tissues in these two species and review the history of definitions and interpretations of elasmobranch tooth histotypes. We discuss a possible correlation between tooth histotype and tooth replacement and review the history of histotype differentiation in sharks. We find that contrary to a long held misconception, there is no orthodentine in the osteodont teeth of C. carcharias. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  4. Distribution of the species of Dipturus Rafinesque (Rajidae, Rajinae, Rajini off Brazil and first record of the Caribbean skate D. teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, in the Western South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Leite Gomes

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean skate Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951 is recorded for the first time from Brazilian waters. The specimen was collected in the continental slope off Bahia State. With this record, four species of Dipturus Rafinesque, 1810 are known from Brazil: D. chilensis (Guichenot, 1848, D. leptocauda (Kreft & Stehmann, 1975, D. trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975 and D. teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951. They are typical inhabitants of deep waters between the outer shelf edge (195-200m and the slope (more than 500m. Although morphologically conservative, the species of Dipturus can be distinguished from each other by the number of dorsal and nuchal thorns, the number of caudal thorns, dorsal and ventral spinulation and specific total length. An identification key for the species of Dipturus recorded from Brazil is presented.

  5. Serum biochemical reference intervals for free-living Sand Tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) from east Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otway, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    Sharks are top-order predators in ocean food chains and the star attractions in aquaria worldwide. Unfortunately, blood biochemistry reference intervals (RI) have been determined for few species. The study aims to establish serum biochemical RI for free-living Sand Tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) off eastern Australia. Thirty-seven sharks were captured and their sex, length, weight, reproductive maturity, and health status were recorded. After blood collection, serum analytes were quantified using standard analytical and statistical methods. Reference intervals, means, medians, and 90% confidence intervals were generated. Physiologic data from live and necropsied sharks were used to enhance the study results. Thirty healthy sharks were included in the study. Albumin could not be detected. With the exception of ALP activity, values were unaffected by sex, length, weight, age, and life-history stage. The means (RI) were: sodium 258 (249-267) mmol/L, potassium 5.0 (4.3-5.7) mmol/L, chloride 242 (227-257) mmol/L, inorganic phosphate 1.8 (1.7-2.0) mmol/L, total calcium 3.9 (3.3-4.4) mmol/L, magnesium 1.9 (1.6-2.2) mmol/L, glucose 2.7 (2.2-3.2) mmol/L, urea 377 (360-394) mmol/L, ALP 20 (8-31) U/L, ALT 3 U/L (no RI), AST 29 (13-45) U/L, CK 42 (5-79) U/L, total protein 30 (24-36) g/L, triglyceride 0.3 (0.1-0.6) mmol/L, cholesterol 1.4 (0.9-2.1) mmol/L, creatinine 32 μmol/L (no RI), total bilirubin 1.5 μmol/L (no RI), and osmolarity 1082 (1027-1136) mmol/L. These preliminary RI will assist with the clinical evaluation and treatment of captive and free-living Sand Tiger sharks worldwide. Studies with more animals will increase the precision of upper and lower reference limits. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. The genus Baijiania (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Baijiania, originally thought to be indigenous in China and Borneo, appears to be restricted to Borneo. The only species is Baijiania borneensis, with two varieties, the type variety and var. paludicola Duyfjes, var. nov.

  7. Estudo anatômico comparativo da região cefálica pré-branquial de Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) e Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes) (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes) relacionados com a presença do cefalofólio em Sphyrna Rafinesque Anatomical study on the pre branchial region of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) and Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes) (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes) related with the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque

    OpenAIRE

    Maisa da Cruz Lima; Ulisses Leite Gomes; Wallace de Souza-Lima; Cristina Paragó

    1997-01-01

    A comparative study on the pre-branchial cranial anatomy of the scalloped hammerhead sharks [Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)] and the Brazilian sharpnose shark [Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839)] was carried out to check the modification in the musculature, inervation and optic stalk related to the appearance of the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810. A total of seven adults and one juvenile of R. lalandii and eight juveniles of S. lewini were examined. In S. lewini th...

  8. Risks and advantages of using surface laser photogrammetry on free-ranging marine organisms: a case study on white sharks Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, G; O'Connell, C P; Andreotti, S; Rutzen, M; Vonk Noordegraaf, H

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a non-lethal measurement tool, which combined an existing photo-identification technique with a surface, parallel laser photogrammetry technique, to accurately estimate the size of free-ranging white sharks Carcharodon carcharias. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that surface laser photogrammetry is more accurate than crew-based estimations that utilized a shark cage of known size as a reference tool. Furthermore, field implementation also revealed that the photographer's angle of reference and the shark's body curvature could greatly influence technique accuracy, exposing two limitations. The findings showed minor inconsistencies with previous studies that examined pre-caudal to total length ratios of dead specimens. This study suggests that surface laser photogrammetry can successfully increase length estimation accuracy and illustrates the potential utility of this technique for growth and stock assessments on free-ranging marine organisms, which will lead to an improvement of the adaptive management of the species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. The ascomycete genus Sordaria

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, J.; Arx, von, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sordaria is restricted to coprophilous, soil-, or seed-borne Pyrenomycetes with aseptate, elongate ascospores with a gelatinous, amorphous sheath. The genus is redescribed and a key to fourteen accepted species is given. A checklist of all taxa described as Sordaria is added.

  10. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  11. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A.

  12. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  13. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  14. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  15. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Weltz

    Full Text Available Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg and 5 times (Fish Hoek greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg and 4 times (Fish Hoek greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.

  16. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Possible maternal offloading of metals in the plasma, uterine and capsule fluid of pregnant ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) on the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kristina; Chuturgoon, Anil; Cliff, Geremy; Singh, Sanil; Ellis, Megan; Otway, Nicholas; Vosloo, Andre; Gregory, Michael

    2017-07-01

    We studied the possible metal offloading onto the progeny of three pregnant female ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) (C. taurus). The presences of five metals, i.e. aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se) were validated by mass spectrometry in the maternal plasma as well as the intracapsular and uterine fluids (UF) in which embryos develop. Metals were ranked in a decreasing concentration as follows: Plasma: As > Al > Se > Pb > Cd; ICF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb and UF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb. As was present in the highest concentration in all three sharks. Al, Pb and Cd were found to be the highest within the plasma, while concentrations of Se were similar in all three fluids. These results indicate that C. taurus embryos are exposed to metals during early development, but the impact of this exposure remains unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to confirm the presence of metals in the fluids that surround the developing C. taurus embryos, a species that is already listed as vulnerable.

  18. The genus Vitex: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditio...

  19. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  20. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved

  1. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  2. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional

  4. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  5. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  6. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  7. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  8. The genus Vitex: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  9. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  10. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  11. Phylogeny of the Genus Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Patrick M.; DeSalle, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phylogenetic relationships among taxa is key to designing and implementing comparative analyses. The genus Drosophila, which contains over 1600 species, is one of the most important model systems in the biological sciences. For over a century, one species in this group, Drosophila melanogaster, has been key to studies of animal development and genetics, genome organization and evolution, and human disease. As whole-genome sequencing becomes more cost-effective, there is increasing interest in other members of this morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally diverse genus. Phylogenetic relationships within Drosophila are complicated, and the goal of this paper is to provide a review of the recent taxonomic changes and phylogenetic relationships in this genus to aid in further comparative studies. PMID:29716983

  12. Bordasia Krapov., new Malvaceae genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordasia bicornis Krapov. new genus and species is described from northwestern ParaguayanChaco. It is related to Sida from which it differs by the mericarp with two apical horns, by theleaves dimorphic and coriaceous and by the fannel-shaped calyx

  13. The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedijn, K.B.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br. is shown to be a Basidiomycete. Wiesnerina Höhn. and Dimorphocystis Corner are regarded synonymous. The type species A. thwaitesii Berk. & Br. is redescribed with D. capitatus Corner as synonym. The following new combinations are proposed: A. horrida (Höhn.) Boedijn,

  14. Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3

    OpenAIRE

    Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh

    2016-01-01

    We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.

  15. A review of the genus Erycibe Roxb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    In this paper I intend to give a review of the genus Erycibe Roxb. in. which all the names published in the genus will be accounted for. The representatives from Malaysia have been dealt with more extensively in the revision of the genus in Flora Malesiana, Ser. I, Vol. 4, 4th instalment, 1953, pp.

  16. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  17. Scavenging in the genus Natrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ayres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scavenging is reported as an unusual behaviour of snakes. However, it is likely more common than is supposed. Here I report the use of dead newts as prey source by water snakes of the genus Natrix at a dam in north-western Spain. Juveniles and adults viperine snakes (Natrix maura, and also an adult grass snake (Natrix natrix were found feeding on newt carcasses.

  18. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasilievich Pinevich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  19. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  20. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  1. An updated review on the Oenothera genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sumitra; Kaur, Rupinder; Sharma, Surendra Kr

    2012-07-01

    Oenothera genus (Onagraceae) has been used as a folk remedy since ancient times for the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, neuralgia, skin diseases, and hepatic and kidney diseases. Different chemical constituents like lipids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenes have been isolated from this genus. The various notable pharmacological activities reported from the genus are antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, thrombolytic and antidiarrhoeal. The present paper is to summarize the worldwide reported biological activities and phytoconstituents associated with this genus for about 50 years and highlight the medicinally important species belonging to this genus so that these species can be further explored and used as therapeutic agents for various diseases.

  2. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  3. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...... have, e.g. production of mycotoxins. (Firsvad et al. (2009)) A clade of Stemphylium spp. i.e. S. herbarum, S. alfalfae, S. sedicola, S. tomatonis and S. vesicariumare troublesome to distinguish as they share both morphological and molecular characteristics. This study has focused on using chemotaxonomy...

  4. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  5. Estudo anatômico comparativo da região cefálica pré-branquial de Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith e Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes relacionados com a presença do cefalofólio em Sphyrna Rafinesque Anatomical study on the pre branchial region of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith and Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes related with the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa da Cruz Lima

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on the pre-branchial cranial anatomy of the scalloped hammerhead sharks [Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834] and the Brazilian sharpnose shark [Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839] was carried out to check the modification in the musculature, inervation and optic stalk related to the appearance of the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810. A total of seven adults and one juvenile of R. lalandii and eight juveniles of S. lewini were examined. In S. lewini the levator palaliquadrati and the levator labii superioris were the most modified cephalic muscles, as they became dorsalventrally attached and laterally developed. Among the oculomotor muscles, the recti followed the lateral expansion of the head constituting the rectal stalk associated with the nerves II, III, IV and VI and the optic stalk. It was observed that the oculomolorius branch "a" does not inervate the adductor mandibulae as it was mentioned in a previous paper. The myological structures and the inervation pattern presented diagnostic characters. Despite the shared characters between Carcharhinidae and the Sphyrnidae, the cephalofoil represents an autapomorphy which includes all the hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae.

  6. The genus Retiboletus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Liang, Zhi-Qun; Wu, Gang; Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Zhu L; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Retiboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions and sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (tef1a). Six lineages are recovered among the collections studied. Five of these are documented and presented in the present paper, including three new species and two new combinations. The remaining species is not described due to the paucity of material. The specimens from China identified as "R. ornatipes" or "R. retipes" are in fact R. sinensis or R. kauffmanii, those labeled "R. griseus" are either R. fuscus or R. pseudogriseus A key to all known taxa of the genus is provided. Phylogenetic relationships of taxa within Retiboletus are partially resolved. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that allied species of Retiboletus between eastern Asia and North/Central America are common but there are no Retiboletus species common to both continents. Species of Retiboletus in Japan and southern China are conspecific or closely related. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  7. 2+1 gravity for genus >1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.E.; Regge, T.

    1991-01-01

    We analysed the algebra of observables for the simple case of a genus 1 initial data surface Σ 2 for 2+1 De Sitter gravity. Here we extend the analysis to higher genus. We construct for genus 2 the group of automorphisms H of the homotopy group π 1 induced by the mapping class group. The group H induces a group D of canonical transformations on the algebra of observables which is related to the braid group for 6 threads. (orig.)

  8. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.

    Speciation
    It is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity o...

  9. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  10. THE GENUS TEIJSMANNIODENDRON KOORDERS (VERBENACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present notes on Teijsmanniodendron are based on a study of the spec- imens from Herbarium Bogoriense and the Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Garden. 2. The taxonomic value of the principal characters and their variation are discussed. Each of the species recognized is annotated. 3. A delimitation and subdivision of the genus in two sections,  Plurifoliolatae Kosterm.  and 'Unifoliolatae Kosterm  is proposed. 4. A key to the 12 species and 1 variety distinguished, is included. 5. One new species is provisionally described (but not named, and one new variety, Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum var. auriculatum Kosterm, is published. 6. The following new combinations are made: Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum B. Clarke Kosterm,, T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm. T. holophyllum (Bak. Kos- term, T.novoguineense (Kan. & Hatus. Kosterm., T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., T. smilacifolium (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., and T. subspieatum (Hallier f. Kosterm. 7. The genus Xerocarpa H. 3. Lam (non Spach is rejected; its only species, X. avicenniaefoliola H. J. Lam, is referred to Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr. Bakh. In addition, the following reductions are made: Teijsmanniodendron mono- phyllum Kurata = T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm.; Vitex bankae H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh., V. bogoriensis H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh.; V. koordersii H. J. Lam t= T. pteropodum (Miq. Bakh.; V. tetragona Hallier f. = T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm.; V. venosa H. J. Lam = T. coriaceum (C. B. Clarke Kosterm. Possible identity of T. longifolium (Merr. Merr. and T. bogoriense is suggested: the identity of T. simplicifolium Merr. and T. smilacifolium (H. H-, W. Pears. Kosterm. is indicated as probable. 8. Vitex subspicata Hallier f. and V. holophylla Bak. included by Lam in vitex hollrungii Warb. are reinstated as distinct species of Teijsmanniodendron.

  11. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  12. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  13. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  14. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  15. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  17. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , sections and genus of Aspergillus. The work uncovers a large genomic diversity across all studied groups of species. The genomic diversity was especially evident on the section level, where the proteins shared by all species only represents ⇠55% of the proteome. This number decreases even further, to 38......, sections Nigri, Usti and Cavericolus, clade Tubingensis, and species A. niger. It lastly uses these results to predict genetic traits that take part in fungal speciation. Within a few years the Aspergillus whole-genus sequencing project will have published all currently-accepted Aspergillus genomes......Aspergillus is a highly important genus of saprotrophic filamentous fungi. It is a very diverse genus that is inextricably intertwined with human a↵airs on a daily basis, holding species relevant to plant and human pathology, enzyme and bulk chemistry production, food and beverage biotechnology...

  18. Infinite genus surfaces and irrational polygonal billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Ferrán

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the natural invariant surface associated with the billiard game on an irrational polygonal table is homeomorphic to the Loch Ness monster, that is, the only orientable infinite genus topological real surface with exactly one end.

  19. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  1. Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cristofori

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].

  2. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  3. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  4. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  5. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  6. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  7. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens....... Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...... of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted...

  8. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21-0.47+0.43 on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36-0.17+0.46.

  9. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  10. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  11. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  12. Fish vertebra from Miocene beds at Govce, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a vertebra and a small shark tooth found in the Miocene Govce sandstone near Govce west of Laško in central Slovenia. The vertebra belongs to a shark of the superorder Galeomorphii but we could not determine it with greater precision. The small tooth was assigned to Carcharias cf. taurus Rafinesque, 1810. The nannofossils in the sample are scarce and did not allow dating at biozone precision.

  13. THE GENUS TRIGONOSPORA (THELYPTERIDACEAE IN MALESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Holttum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus is discussed, and the Malesian species distinguished and described. Two new combinations are effected, Trigono-spora calcarata (Bl. Holtt. and T. koorderSiiH (Chr. Holtt.; the latter is here recognized for the first time as closely related to T. calcarata,.

  14. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  15. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  16. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  17. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  18. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthew, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    A revision of the genus in its entire range of distribution is presented. Out of more than 50 published specific names, 9 species (with 13 subspecies or varieties) are recognized, in addition to 4 new species and one new subspecies. The two subgenera Pentamastixia and Tetramastixia of Wangerin

  19. Chloothamnus, a neglected genus of Bambusaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1936-01-01

    Chloothamnus BUSE ap. MIQUEL, Pl. Jungh. 1854, 386 — Oreiostachys GAMBLE ap. KOORDERS, Verh. Kon. Ak. Wet. 16, 1908, 657.. Hab.: Malay Archipelago. 1. C. chilianthus BUSE, l.c., type species of the genus — Schizostachyum chilianthum (BUSE) KURZ, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 39, ii, 1870, 88 — non Melocanna

  20. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  1. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  2. A revision of the genus Phacellaria (Santalaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    On several occasions the author received specimens for determination under the name of Loranthaceae, which in reality appeared to be Phacellarias, usually parasitic on Loranthaceae. When trying to name these Phacellarias, he preceived how difficult it was to survey the literature of the genus.

  3. Conspectus of the genus Amyema Tieghem (Loranthaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1992-01-01

    The Australasian/Malesian genus Amyema is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the species of the Malesian region, as a precursor to a treatment of Loranthaceae for Flora Malesiana. Amyema comprises 92 species, and is distributed from the southeast Asian mainland (Malaya, Thailand) throughout

  4. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Cylindrocladiella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Shivas, R.G.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cylindrocladiella was established to accommodate Cylindrocladium-like fungi that have small, cylindrical conidia and aseptate stipe extensions. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and to a lesser extent on DNA sequence comparisons of the internal

  5. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  7. Records of the genus Coccygidium Saussure (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccygidium arabica sp. nov., (Hym., Braconidae, Agathidinae) is described from Saudi Arabia. Morphological diagnostic characters of the new species were figured and compared with those of the related species Coccygidium angostura. The genus Coccygidium Saussure is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia.

  8. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  9. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  10. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  11. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) The genus Psycharium Herrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Psycharium is revised for the first time. Until now, only a drawing of the female type species was known. The male and female of the type species, P. pellucens Herrich-Schaffer, and four new species, montanum, kammanassiense, bamardi and natalense,are comprehensively described. A key to the species of ...

  12. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough,.

  13. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melodinus is an important genus comprising of approximately 53 species of medicinal plants (Apocynaceae). Some species have been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of meningitis in children, rheumatic heart diseases, and diuresis, as well as a decongestive against migraine and sinusitis. This paper is a ...

  14. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  15. A study in the genus Vulpia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1937-01-01

    In conclusion, we propose the following nomenclatural alterations. For a good classification, the genus Vulpia is to be accepted as a member of the Festuceae. Various names of Vulpia are fixed according to our present rules of nomenclature, viz. V. bromoides (L.) GRAY, V. membranacea (L.) LINK, V.

  16. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  17. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other...

  18. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars

  19. Studies on the Genus Orbitolina (Foraminiferida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1963-01-01

    The genus Orbitolina is described in detail and is shown to be represented by one species only: Orbitolina lenticularis (Blumenbach). This species can be subdivided into form-groups, based on the characteristics of the megalospheric embryonic apparatus. The evolution of the species is orthogenetic.

  20. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I,

  1. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  2. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  3. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  4. The Genus Diporochaeta (Oligochaeta Megascolecidae) in Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, B.G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Perionychella is reassigned to Diporochaeta as a junior synonym. 9 new species are added to the 8 previously known Queensland species of Diporochaeta, all of which are redescribed, bringing the generic total for Australia to 77 named species. Distribution of the genus is disjunct, the Queensland

  5. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  6. The phyletic status of the genus Planaria (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Gourbault, Nicole

    1978-01-01

    The amphiatlantic distribution of the genus Planaria is incompatible with our current hypothesis of the historical biogeography of freshwater planarians. New anatomical studies suggest the possibility that the genus is not strictly monophyletic; new karyological data are strongly corroborative of

  7. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  8. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  9. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  10. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joergen Ellegard; Penner, Robert C.; Reidys, Christian

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  11. A Comprehensive review on the genus Plumbago with focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genus Plumbago distributed in warm tropical regions throughout the world is the largest genus in Plumbaginaceae. Medicinal plants are characteristic to the genus Plumbago and are cultivated and utilized worldwide. Plumbago auriculata Lam. is common in South Africa and is often cultivated for its ...

  12. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  13. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from

  14. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  15. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W

    2014-06-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage.

  16. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Gwénaëlle Bontonou; Claude Wicker-Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular...

  17. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  18. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  19. The pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2017-07-01

    The pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species is presented; some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  2. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  3. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  4. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  5. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  6. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  7. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  8. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  9. Heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia and the description of the new genus Parafumarolamoeba (Vahlkampfiidae; Heterolobosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Zhang, Junling; De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2015-08-01

    Heterolobosean amoebae are common and diverse members of soil protist communities. In this study, we isolated seven strains of amoebae from soil samples taken in Tibet (at high altitude), Sardinia and the Netherlands, all resembling to belong to a similar heterolobosean morphospecies. However, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rDNA, revealed a high heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia to which six of the isolates belong. Some unnamed strains, of which the sequences had been published before, are also included within the genus Allovahlkampfia. One Allovahlkampfia isolated in the Netherlands harbors a twin-ribozyme, containing a His-Cys box, similar to the one found in strain BA of Allovahlkampfia. The other SSU rDNA sequence grouped in phylogenetic analyses with sequences obtained in environmental sequencing studies as sister to the genus Fumarolamoeba. This phylogenetic placement was supported by analyses of the 5.8S rDNA leading us to describe it as a new genus Parafumarolamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  11. [Advance in chemical constituents of genus Clematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yang, Depo

    2009-10-01

    Progresses in the studies on chemical constituents of Clematis L. (belonging to the family Ranunculaceae) were systematiically reviewed in this article. The plants in this genus have a wide spectrum of constituents as follows: triterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, volatile oils, steroids, organic acids, macrocyclic compounds and phenols, etc., among which triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids and lignans are the main components. The triterpenoid saponins are mainly oleanolic type and hederagenin type, most of which are bidesmosidic saponins, substituted with oligosaccharide chains at both C-3 and C-28, and some are substituted with acetyl, caffeoyl, isoferuloyl, p-methoxy cinnamyl and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl groups in the oligosaccharide chains. The flavonoids from Clematis species are mainly flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, xanthones and their glucosides (sugar moieties are connected to the aglycone through either the oxygen or the carbon atoms), the aglycones of which are mainly apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin. The lignans from Clematis are mainly eupomatene lignans, cyclolignans, monoepoxylignans, bisepoxylignans and lignanolides. Clematis spp. are rich in resources, however, studies on their chemical constituents have only been carried out on twenty or so spp. As a result, it is necessary to expand our study on other spp. from this genus for better utilization of medicinal resources.

  12. Diterpenes from the Marine Algae of the Genus Dictyota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayun; Li, Hong; Zhao, Zishuo; Xia, Xue; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-11

    Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.

  13. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Machado; Henrique Machado; Lone Gram

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationship...

  14. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Koh, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Oliveco set-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A 1 /sup (1)/ Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface

  15. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  16. Comparative Genomics of Bacteriophage of the Genus Seuratvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazinas, Pavelas; Redgwell, Tamsin; Rihtman, Branko

    2017-01-01

    polB and terL showed these bacteriophages to be closely related to members of the genus Seuratvirus. We performed a core-gene analysis using the 14 new and four closely related genomes. A total of 58 core genes were identified, the majority of which has no known function. These genes were used...... to construct a core-gene phylogeny, the results of which confirmed the new isolates to be part of the genus Seuratvirus and expanded the number of species within this genus to four. All bacteriophages within the genus contained the genes queCDE encoding enzymes involved in queuosine biosynthesis. We suggest...

  17. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  18. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Żyła

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: O. jakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and O. baissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphum baissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  19. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  20. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  1. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are 'whale-fall specialists.'

  2. A revision of the genus Microtypus Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čapek, M.; Achterberg, van C.

    1992-01-01

    The genus Microtypus Ratzeburg, 1848 (Braconidae: Microtypinae) is revised, its species are keyed, and a new species, M. petiolatus van Achterberg spec. nov. is described. The type species is redescribed and fully illustrated. The genus Similearinus Glowacki & Karpinski, 1967 is a new junior synonym

  3. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T.

  4. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  5. Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Reijiro; Yoshii, Hisahiro; Ojima, Shuichi; Paul, S.K.

    1989-07-01

    Quantum field theory for b-c systems is formulated on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We make use of the formalism recently developed by Krichever and Novikov. Hamiltonian is defined properly, and the Ward-Takahashi identities are derived on higher-genus Riemann surfaces. (author)

  6. Seiridium (Sporocadaceae): an important genus of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthond, G.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Seiridium includes multiple plant pathogenic fungi well-known as causal organisms of cankers on Cupressaceae. Taxonomically, the status of several species has been a topic of debate, as the phylogeny of the genus remains unresolved and authentic ex-type cultures are mostly absent. In the

  7. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  8. On the entropy of random surfaces with arbitrary genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.; Krzywicki, A.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the susceptibility critical exponent γ for Polyakov random surfaces with arbitrary genus, using the Liouville theory to one-loop order. Some rigorous results obtained for special dimensionalities in a discrete version of the model are also noted. In all cases γ grows linearly with the genus of the surface. (orig.)

  9. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  10. PCR identification of Fusarium genus based on nuclear ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have developed two taxon-selective primers for quick identification of the Fusarium genus. These primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r were designed by comparing the aligned sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of a range of Fusarium species. The primers showed good specificity for the genus Fusarium, ...

  11. Natural genetic variation in Calligonum Tunisian genus analyzed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Calligonum genus is one of the most economically important resources of the Tunisian desert, playing an important role in the lives of desert local population. A great range of genetic diversity could be seen in diverse populations of this genus which are spread all over Tunisian areas. DNA-based molecular markers are ...

  12. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over C C . Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over R R , with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism ...

  13. Genetic diversity within the genus Cynotilapia and its phylogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cynotilapia's unicuspid teeth, a unique character used to delineate it from all other mbuna genera, leaves evolutionary biologists wondering which is the closest relative to this genus among mbuna cichlids. This genus has only two described species out of the 10-13 species/taxa, whereby the undescribed taxa are either ...

  14. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  15. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North. America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  16. Phylogeny of the genus Morus (Urticales: Moraceae) inferred from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F sequences were acquired from 13 mulberry genotypes belonging to nine species and three varieties, and one paper mulberry. The later belongs to genus B. papyrifera, designed as outgroup, and were analyzed. Within the genus Morus, the sequence diversity of ITS was ...

  17. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)

  18. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanne A. Healy; Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus...

  19. Non-abelian bosonization in higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, I.G.; Yu, M.

    1988-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the character formulas of the SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra to higher genus Riemann surfaces. With this construction, we show that the modular invariant partition funciton of the SO(4) k = 1 Wess-Zumino model is equivalent, in arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces, to that of free fermion theory. (orig.)

  20. Florae Malesianae Precursores XXX. The genus Scleria in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1961-01-01

    After Boeckeler's treatise on the species of Scleria known in his day (5), no comprehensive study on the genus has ever been published. The preparation of an up-to-date monograph would be an arduous task, not only owing to the large size of the genus, but also to the numerous problems encountered in

  1. A taxonomic revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ietswaart, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Origanum (Labiatae, Saturejeae). As this difficult genus was never before monographed, a revisional study was much needed. The data presented are mainly based on the study of herbarium specimens and in some cases of living ones.

  2. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  3. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Chun Li; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Nian-Kai Zeng; Bang Feng; Zhu L. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has...

  4. The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis, by Steenstrup in 1857 for a specimen stranded on the Danish coast in 1853. In 1880, Verrill gave the first description of the genus. Pfeffer (1912) related this history and also mentioned that traditional narratives and illustrations of the 16th century had.

  5. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number

  6. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  8. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M; Ryder, O A

    1986-11-01

    Employing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction-endonuclease maps as the basis of comparison, we have investigated the evolutionary affinities of the seven species generally recognized as the genus Equus. Individual species' cleavage maps contained an average of 60 cleavage sites for 16 enzymes, of which 29 were invariant for all species. Based on an average divergence rate of 2%/Myr, the variation between species supports a divergence of extant lineages from a common ancestor approximately 3.9 Myr before the present. Comparisons of cleavage maps between Equus przewalskii (Mongolian wild horse) and E. caballus (domestic horse) yielded estimates of nucleotide sequence divergence ranging from 0.27% to 0.41%. This range was due to intraspecific variation, which was noted only for E. caballus. For pairwise comparisons within this family, estimates of sequence divergence ranged from 0% (E. hemionus onager vs. E. h. kulan) to 7.8% (E. przewalskii vs. E. h. onager). Trees constructed according to the parsimony principle, on the basis of 31 phylogenetically informative restriction sites, indicate that the three extant zebra species represent a monophyletic group with E. grevyi and E. burchelli antiquorum diverging most recently. The phylogenetic relationships of E. africanus and E. hemionus remain enigmatic on the basis of the mtDNA analysis, although a recent divergence is unsupported.

  10. The genus Cuscuta L. in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Aistova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of published data, herbarium collections  and  our  own  research  the  overview  of  the spread  of  7  dodder  species  (genus  Cuscuta  on  the territory of  of the Russian Far East and East Asia is given. The  history  of  research  dodders  on  the  territory  of  the Russian Far East, ecological and spreading peculiarities are described. Certain eurytopic species (C. campestris Yunck., C. japonica Choisy and C. europaea L. growing on the territory of the Russian Far East have plasticity and  rapid  adaptive  response  for  changing  ecological and  geographical  conditions.  C.  epilinum  Weihe, C. epithymum (L. Nathh., C. tinei Insenga have not been naturalized in the Russian Far East.

  11. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  12. Sutorius: a new genus for Boletus eximius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Nuhn, Mitchell; Fechner, Nigel A; Osmundson, Todd W; Soytong, Kasem; Arora, David; Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Sutorius is described as a new genus of Boletaceae to accommodate Boletus robustus originally named illegitimately by C.C. Frost from eastern North America. The legitimate name, Boletus eximius, provided by C.H. Peck, has been used since for a dark purple to chocolate brown bolete with finely scaly stipe and reddish brown spore deposit. This iconic taxon has been documented on five continents. Despite the straightforward species identification from morphology, the interpretation of stipe macro-morphology and spore color has led to equivocal generic placement. Phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding large subunit rRNA and translation elongation factor 1α confirm Sutorius as a unique generic lineage in the Boletaceae. Two species are recognized based on multiple accessions: S. eximius, represented by collections from North America, Costa Rica, Guyana, Indonesia and Japan (molecular data are lacking for only the Guyanan and Japanese material); and S. australiensis, represented by material from Queensland, Australia. Additional collections from Zambia and Thailand represent independent lineages, but sampling is insufficient to describe new species for these entities.

  13. On the toroidal compactifications of bosonic strings in higher genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    For the bosonic string in a higher genus, compactified on the maximal torus of a simply laced Lie group, we discuss a possibility to construct an operator formalism involving only those operators that are well-defined globally over the whole Riemann surface. We find, in particular, higher genus extensions of (some combinations of) the vertex operators for the Kac-Moody algebra. This allows us to derive the relation between the Sugawara and Virasoro constructions of the energy-momentum tensor on Riemann surfaces, and to propose an operator mechanism underlying the construction of group current correlation functions in higher genus. (orig.)

  14. Early Homo and the role of the genus in paleoanthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villmoare, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The history of the discovery of early fossils attributed to the genus Homo has been contentious, with scholars disagreeing over the generic assignment of fossils proposed as members of our genus. In this manuscript I review the history of discovery and debate over early Homo and evaluate the various taxonomic hypotheses for the genus. To get a sense of how hominin taxonomy compares to taxonomic practice outside paleoanthropology, I compare the diversity of Homo to genera in other vertebrate clades. Finally, I propose a taxonomic model that hews closely to current models for hominin phylogeny and is consistent with taxonomic practice across evolutionary biology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  15. Review of the Genus Pimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed Korean species of the genus Pimpla and confirmed 12 species. In this genus, 36 species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, eight species were from Korea. Also, we report four species, Pimpla albociliata Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla femorella Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla kaszabi (Momoi, 1973 and Pimpla melanacrias Perkins, 1941, which were newly recorded for the first time from Korea. Among them, Pimpla nipponica Uchida, 1928 is recorded from United States and the Nearctic region for the first time. A key to Korean species of the genus Pimpla, diagnoses and illustrations of adult external structures are provided.

  16. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  17. Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subrahmanyam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales with its type species A. variosporum, is described from India. The new genus is distinct in producing dimorphic sporangia and multispored, acolumellate and globose macrosporangia with persistent, thin peridium. Sparingly, portions of the sporangial wall at the top and bottom of the sporangia are dissolved at maturity to release the sporangiospores whilst, in its close ally Gilbertella, the sporangium breaks open via a longitudinal suture. Further, the smaller sporangia (microsporangia are without a longitudinal suture and produce variable number of spores. The sporangiospores are pale brown, longitudinally striated without any appendages. Besides, the new genus produces neither rhizoids nor zygospores.

  18. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  19. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  20. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  1. Anticancer Activity Of Plant Genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Emilio Kalonio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of this genus are used both empirically and scientifically as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiviral, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antitumor. Results of the molecular docking simulation of chemical content of these plants could potentially provide an anticancer effect. This paper aims to review the anticancer activity of plant genus Clerodendrum based on scientific data. The method used in this study is the literature study. Searches were conducted online (in the database PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar and on various books (Farmakope Herbal Indonesia and PROSEA. A total 12 plants of the genus Clerodendrum have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo, thus potentially to be developed as a source of new active compounds with anticancer activity.

  2. Higher genus correlators from the hermitian one-matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Chekhov, L.; Makeenko, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    We develop an iterative algorithm for the genus expansion of the hermitian NxN one-matrix model (is the Penner model in an external field). By introducing moments of the external field, we prove that the genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends only on 3g-2+m lower moments (3g-2 for the partition function). We present the explicit results for the partition function and the one-loop correlator in genus one. We compare the correlators for the hermitian one-matrix model with those at zero momenta for c=1 CFT and show an agreement of the one-loop correlators for genus zero. (orig.)

  3. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.......Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...

  4. Rational Points on Curves of Genus 2: Experiments and Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    I will present results of computations providing statistics on rational points on (small) curves of genus 2 and use them to present several conjectures. Some of them are based on heuristic considerations, others are not.

  5. Degenerate conformal theories on higher-genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional degenerate field theories on higher-genus surfaces are investigated. Objects are built on the space of moduli, whose linear combinations are hypothetically conformal blocks in degenerate theories

  6. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan [University of Strasbourg; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanov, Pavel S. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  8. A new genus and species of Ceratocanthidae from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Usambara Mountains (Tanzania), is described. The morphology of the clypeus and mesoepisternum is discussed, also with reference to other Ceratocanthidae. The affinities of the genus are discussed, and ...

  9. New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus (Cyprinidae): an independent origin of specialized scraping forms in the adjacent drainage systems of Ethiopia inferred from mtDNA analysis.

  10. BRST quantization of superconformal theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman Kuang

    1992-01-01

    A complex contour integral method is constructed and applied to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization procedure of string theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces with N=0 and 1 Krichever-Novikov (KN) algebras. This method makes calculations very simple. It is shown that the critical spacetime dimension of the string theories on a genus-g Riemann surface equals that of the string theories on a genus-zero Riemann surface, and that the 'Regge intercepts' in the genus-g case are α(g)=1-3/4g-9/8g 2 and 1/2-3/4g-17/16g 2 for bosonic strings and superstrings, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Some enigmatic aspects of the marine cyanobacterial genus, Trichodesmium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Trichodesmium, an important nitrogen fixing marine genus has some coupled features that appear contrasting, either in their operational requirements or ecological dominance e.g. N2 fixation and photosynthesis take place in the same trichome, former...

  12. Title: Inventory of the genus Craterellus from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Table 1: Described species in the genus Craterellus Persoon as of year 2017. S/ ..... lamps. Each observed mushroom was photographed insitu, prior to picking from .... with other chanterelle mushrooms in the open market in the region.

  13. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci in the little free tailed bat, Chaerephon pumilus s. l. (Molossidae) from South Eastern Africa. Theshnie Naidoo, Angus Macdonald, Jennifer M Lamb ...

  14. Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum are generally considered to be host specialists. We determined the phylogenetic relationships between species of Leccinum from Europe and North America based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  15. Title: Inventory of the genus Craterellus from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    This study presents a preliminary inventory of the genus ... INTRODUCTION. Miombo ..... Sampling methods complies with that of. Tibuhwa (2010 ... in the floor of mixed miombo woodland species in ..... 2000 Concise description of Craterellus.

  16. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I.; Armitage, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided. PMID:21594025

  17. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Arefina-Armitage

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae, is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided.

  18. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Alexander B.; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F.; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus...

  19. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  20. Elliptic genus of singular algebraic varieties and quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the basic properties of various versions of the two-variable elliptic genus with special attention to the equivariant elliptic genus. The main applications are to the elliptic genera attached to non-compact GITs, including the theories regarding the elliptic genera of phases on N  =  2 introduced in Witten (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 403 159-222).

  1. On genus-two solutions for the ILW equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutiya, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of theta function solutions of genus two for the intermediate long-wave equation is established. A numerical example is also presented. The method basically goes along with Krichever's construction of theta function solutions for soliton equations, such as the Kronecker product equation. This idea leads us to a question whether a Riemann surface exists which allows a peculiar abelian integral of the third kind. The answer is affirmative at least for genus-two curves.

  2. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-01-01

    Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográf...

  3. Genus of total graphs from rings: A survey

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    T. Tamizh Chelvam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a commutative ring. The total graph T Γ ( R of R is the undirected graph with vertex set R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if x + y is a zero divisor in R . In this paper, we present a survey of results on the genus of T Γ ( R and three of its generalizations. Keywords: Commutative ring, Total graph, Cayley graph, Genus, Planar

  4. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (= Oedmannia Thunb., Vascoa DC., Pelecynthis E. Mey), a relatively poorly known papilionoid legume genus, is presented. Rafnia (family Fabaceae, tribe Crotalarieae) is subendemic to the fynbos region of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, with one species having a distribution area reaching into KwaZulu-Natal. The species delimitation has been unsatisfactory, and the relationships among the taxa uncertain. Rafnia is ...

  5. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

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    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  6. Phylogenomic re-assessment of the thermophilic genus Geobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Habibu; Lebre, Pedro; Blom, Jochen; Cowan, Don; De Maayer, Pieter

    2016-12-01

    Geobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming obligate thermophiles. The descriptions and subsequent affiliations of the species in the genus have mostly been based on polyphasic taxonomy rules that include traditional sequence-based methods such as DNA-DNA hybridization and comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Currently, there are fifteen validly described species within the genus. The availability of whole genome sequences has provided an opportunity to validate and/or re-assess these conventional estimates of genome relatedness. We have applied whole genome approaches to estimate the phylogenetic relatedness among the sixty-three Geobacillus strains for which genome sequences are currently publicly available, including the type strains of eleven validly described species. The phylogenomic metrics AAI (Average Amino acid Identity), ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) and dDDH (digital DNA-DNA hybridization) indicated that the current genus Geobacillus is comprised of sixteen distinct genomospecies, including several potentially novel species. Furthermore, a phylogeny constructed on the basis of the core genes identified from the whole genome analyses indicated that the genus clusters into two monophyletic clades that clearly differ in terms of nucleotide base composition. The G+C content ranges for clade I and II were 48.8-53.1% and 42.1-44.4%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the Geobacillus species currently residing within clade II be considered as a new genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Hayata glandulifera (Orchidaceae, New Genus and Species From Northern Vietnam

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    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available New orchid related to Cheirostylis, Goodyera, Rhomboda and Zeuxine discovered in lowland central part of northern Vietnam is described in rank of separate genus Hayata. Proposed genus differs from Goodyera in 2 separate lateral stigmas; in not hairy hypochile; in massive, knob-like mesochile and in large 2-lobed, dentate epichile. It differs from Cheirostylis in large flowers with completely free sepals (newer forming tube; in peculiar bunches of capitate glands on lateral walls of hypochile and in not swollen succulent rhizome forming normal adventitious roots, not modified into ridges or pillows covered by root hairs. From Rhomboda discovered genus differs in absence of any keels on the lip; in specific papillae bunches inside hypochile and in not winged column. New genus may be also close to Zeuxine, from which it differs in plant habit, large flowers, large dentate lobes of epichile and in specific shape of stelidia and rostellar arms. Described plant not fits well with any genera of subtribe Goodyerinae and certainly desires generic segregation. Besides Vietnamese plant, described genus includes H. tabiyahanensis from Taiwan and H. sherriffii from Bhutan. Standard taxonomical treatment of new genus and key for its species identification is presented in the paper.

  8. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

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    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  9. The chemistry and pharmacology of Cleome genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus. These plants of Cleome genus are often used as conventional drugs to treat several ailments therefore information on analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anticancer, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, wound healing and psychopharmacological activity etc were compiled. Literature regarding the compounds isolated and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers in the last 40 years who worked on different species belonging to genus Cleome was summarized in the present review. On the basis of references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cleome species, describing compounds previously reported current trends and future prospects. From a wellbeing point of view, species belonging toCleome genus presents an excellent option for curing variety of ailments in human beings due to its isolated phytocompounds that reveal significant biological activities or for developing a variety of new pharmaceutical products. The observed pharmacological activities and no toxicity profile of extracts obtained from species of Cleome genus support the statement that these extracts might be used in the formation of new formulations that can be

  10. An investigation of self-incompatibility within the genus Restrepia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Helen J; McCrea, Alison R; Baldwin, Timothy C

    2015-03-01

    • The genus Restrepia (Orchidaceae) is indigenous to montane rain forests of Central and South America. Recently, as habitat has fragmented and wild populations dwindled, the chances for successful cross-pollination within the genus have been reduced. Since cultivated species of Restrepia have been vegetatively propagated, they remain genetically close to those in the wild, making ex situ collections of the genus useful model populations for investigating breeding systems. Restrepia are found in clade B of the Pleurothallidinae, the only clade in which self-incompatibility (SI) has not yet been confirmed. In the current study, private collections of Restrepia were used to study the operation of SI within the genus to assist future ex situ conservation of this and related genera.• A variety of self-pollination, intraspecific, and interspecific crosses were performed across the genus, and pollen tube growth was studied.• Individual species exhibited varying degrees of SI. Self-pollinations performed across 26 species in the genus produced few viable seeds, with the exception of R. aberrans. Viable "filled" seeds with embryos were shown to require an intraspecific cross. Primary hybrids between species produced >90% seeds with embryos that germinated well.• The type of SI operating within the genus was considered to be best explained by gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) with interspecific variation in its phenotypic expression. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to SI in the Pleurothallidinae and conservation strategies for Restrepia and related genera. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species ofArachis (A. hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa. In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by seedling specimens. Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69 species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil. We soon discovered that the most significant characters ofArachis lay in their underground structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls. We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features. We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between

  12. Higher genus partition functions of meromorphic conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Volpato, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the higher genus vacuum amplitudes of a meromorphic conformal field theory determine the affine symmetry of the theory uniquely, and we give arguments that suggest that also the representation content with respect to this affine symmetry is specified, up to automorphisms of the finite Lie algebra. We illustrate our findings with the self-dual theories at c = 16 and c = 24; in particular, we give an elementary argument that shows that the vacuum amplitudes of the E 8 x E 8 theory and the Spin(32)/Z 2 theory differ at genus g = 5. The fact that the discrepancy only arises at rather high genus is a consequence of the modular properties of higher genus amplitudes at small central charges. In fact, we show that for c ≤ 24 the genus one partition function specifies already the partition functions up to g ≤ 4 uniquely. Finally we explain how our results generalise to non-meromorphic conformal field theories.

  13. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Synnema-Producing Genus Synnemapestaloides

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    Kyoko Watanabe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synnemapestaloides rhododendri, the type species of the genus Synnemapestaloides, is a pathogen of Rhododendron brachycarpum. This fungus produces six-celled conidia with appendages at both end cells, and are generated by annellidic conidiogenous cells on the synnema. These conidial structures are similar to those of the genus Pestalotia. The monotypic genus Synnemapestaloides is currently classified in the family Amphisphaeriaceae solely based on conidial morphology. Here we demonstrate that Synnemapestaloides represents a distinct genus in the family Sporocadaceae (Amphisphaeriales based on differences in the nucleotide sequences of the partial large subunit rDNA gene, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, and the partial β-tubulin. The genus most closely related to Synnemapestaloides is Seimatosporium and the species most similar to Synnemapestaloides rhododendri is Seim. foliicola which produces short synnema-like conidiomata (sporodochia. These results demonstrate that Seim. foliicola should be transferred to Synnemapestaloides, and also demonstrate that Sporocadaceae can have synnematal in addition to pycnidial and acervular conidiomata.

  15. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus

  16. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  17. Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.-x.

    2017-01-01

    A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and

  18. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillet,Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia . The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocote...

  19. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae, and the identity of the species of Firensia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Feuillet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae.

  20. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae).

  1. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Alexander B; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium , as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this genus was because of its role as a plant pathogen or another ecological role. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  2. Higher genus correlators for the complex matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Kristhansen, C.F.; Makeenko, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an iterative scheme which allows us to calculate any multi-loop correlator for the complex matrix model to any genus using only the first in the chain of loop equations. The method works for a completely general potential and the results contain no explicit reference to the couplings. The genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends on a finite number of parameters, namely at most 4g - 2 + m. The authors find the generating functional explicitly up to genus three. The authors show as well that the model is equivalent to an external field problem for the complex matrix model with a logarithmic potential

  3. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

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    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  4. KOSTERMANSIA SOEGENG A NEW GENUS IN BGMBACACEAE (Durioneae*

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    W. SOEGENG REKSODIHARDJO

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available In working up the genus Coelostegia, I received on loan from the ForestResearch Institute at Kepong, Malaya abundant material of a species whichWyatt-Smith was unable to place. Dr. Kostermans pointed out to me thatmost likely the specimens belonged to a new genus, related to CoelostegiaI have taken the liberty to name the genus after Dr. A. J. G. H. Kostermanswho has been devoting time and energy teaching me taxonomy, and whoJias taken up the burden of the development of taxonomic botany in In-donesia.I am indebted to Prof. Dr. C. G. G. J. van Steenis and to Dr. R. GBakhuizen van den Brink Jr., who have kindly helped me in preparing theLatin diagnoses.

  5. Notes on the genus Paramignya: Phytochemistry and biological activity

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    Ninh The Son

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Paramignya belongs to Rutaceae family, with interesting secondary metabolites, comprising main classes of compounds coumarin and coumarin glycosides, acridone alkaloids, tirucallane and tirucallane glycosides, phenols, and flavonoids, as well as several compounds limonoid, lignin glycoside and sterol. Paramignya species has been employing as folk medicines against hepatitis, diabetes, cancer, nose infections. Many bioactive reported such as cytotoxic assay, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiumor cancer, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities indicated either Paramignya extracts, fractions, or isolated compounds to become valuable resources for natural new drug developments. However, no evidences are reported for general view about this genus. In current paper, we exhibit overview almost of isolated components and biological evaluations from this genus. These findings are important to improve the values of these medicinal plants for the health benefit, drug discovery and guideline for future researches.

  6. The genus Cordia: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects

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    Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments.

  7. The genus Macroditassa (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae in Brazil

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    Jorge Fontanella-Pereyra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the Brazilian species of the genus Macroditassa Malme (Apocynaceae- sclepiadoideae is presented. The genus belongs to the subfamily Asclepiadoideae R.Br. ex Burnett, tribe Asclepiadeae (R.Br. Duby, subtribe Metastelmatinae Endl. ex Meisn. and is the most closely related to the Ditassa R.Br. genus. Macroditassa has 14 taxa of which 11 are found in Brazil, where they occurr in the Atlantic forest, disturbed areas, clearings and gullies, "cerrado", "cerradão", "campo rupestre",  campos" (high-altitude savannas and sandy coast plains ("restingas". In this paper the identification key of the taxa, descriptions and illustrations, data on flowering and fruiting, as well as maps showing the geographic distribution are presented.

  8. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Boerhavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2016-04-22

    The genus Boerhavia is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world including Mexico, America, Africa, Asia, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands and Australia. The genus Boerhavia is extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners for treatments of hepatitis, urinary disorders, gastro intestinal diseases, inflammations, skin problems, infectious diseases and asthma. Present review focused on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Boerhavia genus to support potential scope for advance ethnopharmacological study. Information on the Boerhavia species was collected from classical books on medicinal plants, pharmacopoeias and scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar, Web of Science and others. Also scientific literatures based on ethnomedicinal surveys, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, published papers from Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Springer, ACS as well as Wiley publishers and reports by government bodies and documentations were assessed. A total of 180 compounds from Boerhavia genus were isolated of which B. diffusa alone shared around 131 compounds and for most of which it is currently an exclusive source. In the genus, phenolic glycosides and flavonoids contribute approximately 97 compounds. These includes eupalitin, rotenoids like boeravinones, coccineons, alkaloid i.e. betanin and punarnavine etc., showing vital pharmaceutical activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Boerhavia is an important genus with wide range of medicinal uses. However, most of the available scientific literatures have lacked relevant doses, duration and positive controls for examining bioefficacy of extracts and its active compounds. In some studies, taxonomic errors were encountered. Moreover, there is need for accurate methods in testing the safety and ethnomedicinal validity of Boerhavia species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  10. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur , amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  11. Molecular Signatures and Phylogenomic Analysis of the Genus Burkholderia: Proposal for Division of this Genus into the Emended Genus Burkholderia Containing Pathogenic Organisms and a New Genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. Harboring Environmental Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman eSawana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which are not reliably distinguished by the available biochemical or molecular characteristics. We report here results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequences, Burkholderia species grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs that are uniquely found in different clades of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia species. The second main clade (Clade II composed of the environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 of the identified CSIs. Additionally, our work has also identified 3 CSIs that are specific for the Burkholderia cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the Burkholderia pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for the demarcation of different groups of Burkholderia spp. and for development of novel diagnostic assays for the clinically important members of the group. Based upon the results from different lines of studies, a division of the genus Burkholderia into two genera is proposed. In this new proposal, the emended genus Burkholderia will contain only the clinically relevant and phytopathogenic Burkholderia species, whereas all other Burkholderia spp. are transferred to a new genus

  12. Landau-Ginzburg Orbifolds, Mirror Symmetry and the Elliptic Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, P.; Henningson, M.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the elliptic genus for arbitrary two dimensional $N=2$ Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds. This is used to search for possible mirror pairs of such models. We show that if two Landau-Ginzburg models are conjugate to each other in a certain sense, then to every orbifold of the first theory corresponds an orbifold of the second theory with the same elliptic genus (up to a sign) and with the roles of the chiral and anti-chiral rings interchanged. These orbifolds thus constitute a possible mirr...

  13. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  14. [Taxonomy and evolution of the genus Pratylenchoides (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Iu

    2007-01-01

    The amended diagnosis of the genus Pratylenchoides and list of its valid species with synonyms are given. All the efficient diagnostic characters are listed. Modern taxonomic standard for the description of Pratylenchoides species is proposed; it may be used also in taxonomic databases. Tabular and text keys for all species of the genus are given. Five following groups are considered within the genus Pratylenchoides. The group arenicola differs from other groups in the primitive adanal bursa type; the groups magnicauda, crenicauda, ritteri, and megalobatus differ from each other in the position of cardium along the body axis in relation to the pharyngeal gland nuclei, pharynx types are named according to the stages of its evolution from the primitive tylenchoid pharynx (cardium situated posteriorly) to the advanced hoplolaimoid one (cardium situated anteriorly). Diagnoses and species compositions of the groups are given. Basing on the matrix of species characters, the dendrogram has been generated for all species of Pratylenchoides and for all characters (UPGMA, distance, mean character difference, random, characters ordered). Taking in view that the PAUP software gives equal weights to all characters, including the most important ones which define the prognostic species groups, the separate dendrograms for each prognostic species group were generated using the same above mentioned tree parameters. On the base of the records of Pratylenchoides species the matrices of plant host ranges, geographic distribution, and preferred soil-climatic conditions were developed. The dendrograms of the faunal similarities were generated using these matrices, with conclusions on a possible origin and evolution of the genus. The genus evolved from the flood lands with swampy soils and prevalence of dicotyledons (herbaceous Lamiaceae and woody Salicaceae families) to the forest mainland communities with balanced humidity and predominance of herbaceous Poaceae and Fabaceae with woody

  15. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  16. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  17. Large N elliptic genus and AdS/CFT Correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Jan de

    1998-01-01

    According to one of Maldacena's dualities, type IIB string theory on AdS 3 x S 3 x K3 is equivalent to a certain N = (4, 4) superconformal field theory. In this note we compute the elliptic genus of the boundary theory in the supergravity approximation. A finite quantity is obtained once we introduce a particular exclusion principle. In the regime where the supergravity approximation is reliable, we find exact agreement with the elliptic genus of a sigma model with target space K3 N /S N

  18. Formulae for Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The ideal class group of hyperelliptic curves can be used in cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this article we present explicit formulae to perform the group operations for genus 2 curves. The formulae are completely general but to achieve the lowest number of operations we...... treat odd and even characteristic separately. We present 3 different coordinate systems which are suitable for different environments, e.g. on a smart card we should avoid inversions while in software a limited number is acceptable. The presented formulae render genus two hyperelliptic curves very...

  19. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine.......85-17.21) compared with placebo or no intervention. There was no significant difference on clearance of serum HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA between Phyllanthus and IFN. Phyllanthus species were better than nonspecific treatment or other herbal medicines for the clearance of serum HBsAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA, and liver enzyme...

  20. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  1. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  2. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The members of the endemic African genus EndochilusWeise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalissp. nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for iden- tification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. PMID:25373218

  3. On the identity of two new species of the genus coleoscirus (acari: cunaxidae) with annotations on the genus from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.H.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult females of two new Cunaxid mites, Coleoscirus raviensis n.sp. and Coleoscirus tobaensis n.sp. were collected during the taxonomic exploration of the mite fauna of the family Cunaxidae from Punjab- Pakistan. The new species were compared with 9 already describes species of the same genus from Pakistan. A Comprehensive key of all the known species of this genus from Pakistan has been prepared to incorporate the new species. A ceremonial description and illustration of main body characteristics, geographical distribution, host range and distinguishing remarks are also given. (author)

  4. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  5. Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Is Commonly Present within the Genus Limnohabitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasalický, Vojtěch; Zeng, Yonghui; Piwosz, Kasia; Šimek, Karel; Kratochvilová, Hana; Koblížek, Michal

    2018-01-01

    The genus Limnohabitans ( Comamonadaceae , Betaproteobacteria ) is a common and a highly active component of freshwater bacterioplanktonic communities. To date, the genus has been considered to contain only heterotrophic species. In this study, we detected the photosynthesis genes pufLM and bchY in 28 of 46 strains from three Limnohabitans lineages. The pufM sequences obtained are very closely related to environmental pufM sequences detected in various freshwater habitats, indicating the ubiquity and potential importance of photoheterotrophic Limnohabitans in nature. Additionally, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 5 potentially photoheterotrophic Limnohabitans strains, to gain further insights into their phototrophic capacity. The structure of the photosynthesis gene cluster turned out to be highly conserved within the genus Limnohabitans and also among all potentially photosynthetic Betaproteobacteria strains. The expression of photosynthetic complexes was detected in a culture of Limnohabitans planktonicus II-D5 T using spectroscopic and pigment analyses. This was further verified by a novel combination of infrared microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. IMPORTANCE The data presented document that the capacity to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis is common among the members of the genus Limnohabitans , indicating that they may have a novel role in freshwater habitats. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  7. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Carey, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the Greater Antilles, the Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Bahama Islands, and the Turks and Caicos islands occurs a group of moderate to very large lizards of the iguanid genus Cyclura. These ground iguanas form a conspicuous element of the herpetofaunas of their respective

  8. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taryn

    School of Life Sciences, New Biology Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University Road, Westville, KwaZulu-Natal. 3630, South ... Afro-tropical members of the Old World genus Otomops, ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research – an update. ... guide to using and evaluating microsatellite markers. Ecol.

  9. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Tubakia s. lat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Uwe; Nakashima, C.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, Ewald; Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Rooney-Latham, S.; Blomquist, C.L.; Haas, J; Marmolejo, J

    2018-01-01

    The genus Tubakia is revised on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. The phylogenetic affinity of Tubakia to the family Melanconiellaceae (Diaporthales) was recently postulated, but new analyses based on sequences retrieved from material of the type species of Tubakia, T. dryina,

  10. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H.

  11. A review of the palm genus Acrocomia: Neotropical green gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Acrocomia, popularly known as macaw palm or macaúba, occurs in savanna areas and open forests of tropical America, with distribution from Central to southern South America. They are important oleaginous palm trees, due to their role in ecosystems, local economies, and their potential for b...

  12. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.T. Jennings; A.D. Austin; N.M. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    The Australian xiphydriid woodwasp genus, previously known only from a single species, A. australiensis Riek, is revised. A second distinctive species from Carnarvon National Park in southcentral Queensland, A. fasciculata Jennings & Austin, sp. nov., is described, and a key to separate the males of the two species is provided.

  13. Ruwenzoria, a new genus of the Xylariaceae from Central Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence of a ...

  14. Korean species of the genus Perlomyia Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Leuctridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murányi, Dávid; Jeon, Mi Jeong; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Seo, Hong Yul

    2014-11-04

    Eight species of the genus Perlomyia (Plecoptera: Leuctridae) are reported from Korea, six are new records for the Korean Peninsula. Two species, known only as unassociated females are described under informal unnamed designations. Previous Korean records are discussed, taxonomic characters of the Korean specimens and Korean distribution are presented for these species. Zoogeographic notes on the Asian Perlomyia are also given.

  15. Evolution of the leukotoxin promoter in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Davies, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    of the leukotoxin promoter among representatives of the five species within genus Mannheimia. We also consider how the evolution of the leukotoxin operon fits with the evolution and maintenance of virulence. Results: The alignment of the intergenic regions upstream of the leukotoxin genes showed significant...

  16. Substrates specialization in lipid compounds and hydrocarbons of Marinobacter genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonin, P.; Vieira, C.; Grimaud, R.; Militon, C.; Cuny, P.; Lima, O.; Guasco, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Michotey, V.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of petroleum contamination and of burrowing macrofauna on abundances of Marinobacter and denitrifiers was tested in marine sediment mesocoms after 3 months incubation. Quantification of this genus by qPCR with a new primer set showed that the main factor favoring Marinobacter abundance

  17. Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epicholë.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtmann, Adrian; Bacon, Charles W; Schardl, Christopher L; White, James F; Tadych, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Nomenclatural rule changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, adopted at the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011, provide for a single name to be used for each fungal species. The anamorphs of Epichloë species have been classified in genus Neotyphodium, the form genus that also includes most asexual Epichloë descendants. A nomenclatural realignment of this monophyletic group into one genus would enhance a broader understanding of the relationships and common features of these grass endophytes. Based on the principle of priority of publication we propose to classify all members of this clade in the genus Epichloë. We have reexamined classification of several described Epichloë and Neotyphodium species and varieties and propose new combinations and states. In this treatment we have accepted 43 unique taxa in Epichloë, including distinct species, subspecies, and varieties. We exclude from Epichloë the two taxa Neotyphodium starrii, as nomen dubium, and Neotyphodium chilense, as an unrelated taxon.

  18. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 52 - 56°C with the primers ITS-9 and ITS-6 or Trn-L and Trn-F. Polymerase chain .... The sub-genus Prunus has also relatively good support (81%) including .... Stevens, Michael J, Donoghue (1999). Plant Systematics. A.

  19. Comparative genomic analysis reveals ecological differentiation in the genus Carnobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskandar, Christelle F.; Borges, Frédéric; Taminiau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    was used as a model genus to elucidate the genetic basis of these colonization differences. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene meta-barcoding data showed that C. maltaromaticum followed by C. divergens are the most prevalent species in foods derived from animals (meat, fish, dairy products), and in the gut...

  20. South American freshwater needlefishes (Belonidae) of the genus Pseudotylosurus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collete, B.B.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudotylosurus Fernández Yépez is considered a valid genus of Belonidae based on the following combination of characters: depressed caudal peduncle; long narrow side branches to lateral line; pleural ribs attached to fourth vertebra; nasal papilla spatulate; lower pharyngeal plate and upper

  1. Distribution, diversity and conservation of the genus Aloe in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity patterns indicate a high concentration of taxa in three areas that are identified as Aloe hot spots and thus of high priority for conservation of the genus: The Kulal–Nyiro–Ndotos–Marsabit area in the north, the Taita-Shimba Hills zone to the southeast and the Naivasha–Baringo area in the Rift Valley. Most of the ...

  2. Polystomatidae (Monogenea) parasitic in the anuran genus Kassina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation into the parasite loads of several anuran species in the central and eastern parts of the Orange Free State led to the discovery of another new South African species of Polystoma, harboured in running frogs of the genus Kassina which has not previously been known as a host of adult polystomes. Detailed ...

  3. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the

  4. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams. VIII. The genus Jensenia Lindb. (Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronde, van der Keympe

    1980-01-01

    A study of recent material of the dendroid thallose liverwort genus Jensenia (Metzgeriales) from the Colombian Andes revealed the existence of three taxa in the area: J. erythropus (Gott.) Grolle var. erythropus, J. erythropus var. nobandae van der Gronde var. nov. and J. florschuetzii van der

  5. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIV. Guaianolides in the genus Leuzea DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaianolides were found in three species of the genus Leuzea DC. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from L. rhapontica subg. helenifolia (Gren, Gordon Holub and L. rhaponticoides Graells. From L. carthamoides (Willd. DC., chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin, janerin, cebellin E and repdiolide were obtained.

  6. Checklist of the fish parasitic genus Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current knowledge of the 85 species in the genus Cichlidogyrus, collected worldwide, including their hosts, localities and authors, is summarised in a table. Although these parasites occur mainly in Africa, representatives have been recorded on cichlids in Mexico. Their distribution and host specificity are commented on.

  7. Karyotype analyses of the species of the genus Jurinea Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, karyotype analyses of 13 species belonging to the genus Jurinea Cass. (Compositae) and grown naturally in Turkey were conducted. These taxa include Jurinea alpigena C. Koch, Jurinea ancyrensis Bornm., Jurinea aucherana DC., Jurinea cadmea Boiss., Jurinea cataonica Boiss. and Hausskn., Jurinea ...

  8. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough, many related ...

  9. The taxonomic status of giant sengis ( genus Rhynchocyon ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sengis (elephant-shrews) of Mozambique are poorly known, especially the taxonomic status of the giant sengis, genus Rhynchocyon. Currently, Rhynchocyon from Mozambique are thought to be chequered sengis, R. cirnei with specimens from the central coastal areas being placed in the subspecies R. c. cirnei, while ...

  10. A new genus of Odontopygid Millipeds from Tanzania (Diplopoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new generic taxon Calyptomastix is proposed to accommodate the type species Odontopyge kakandae Kraus, 1958, and, tentatively, Odontopyge dorsalis Carl, 1909, Haplothysanus leviceps Attems, 1909, and Spirostreptus pardalis Gerstäcker, 1873, all from Tanzania. This genus is defined by the broad basal ...

  11. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Tacca : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tacca is an important genus comprising of approximately 15 species of the medicinal plants (Taccaceae). The plants are used in traditional medicine to relieve pains of the body and stomach, as an antidote for food poisoning as well as for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical studies have ...

  12. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  13. Hurleyella, a new genus of Nearctic Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon; Harold Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Hurleyella and two new species, H. cumberlandensis and H. brooksi are described from the Nearctic. Hurleyella resembles the subfamily Medeterinae in having the legs bare of major setae, a depressed posterior mesonotum, and concave dorsal postcranium, but the complex male genitalia is unlike the relatively simple structure of...

  14. Studies on the genus Atriplex L. (Amaranthaceae) in Italy. IV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the genus Atriplex L. (Amaranthaceae) in Italy. IV. Atriplex bocconei Guss. – Atriplex bocconei Guss. is here typified on one herbarium specimen kept in NAP. The identity of the species is also clarified on the basis of literature analysis and examination of type material and other specimens that allowed to include it ...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships in genus Gloriosa L. | Maroyi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to test the monophyly of the genus Gloriosa L., the chloroplast region trnL-trnF sequences were employed using Baeometra uniflora, Hexacyrtis dickiana, Neodregea glassii, Onixotis punctata, Onixotis stricta, Ornithoglossum parviflorum, Ornithoglossum undulatum, Ornithoglossum viride, Ornithoglossum ...

  16. The genus Calvatia ('Gasteromycetes', Lycoperdaceae): A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several members of the fungal puffball genus Calvatia Fr. have found widespread use amongst various cultures world-wide, especially as sources of food and/or traditional medicine. Hitherto the biotechnological potential of only a handful of Calvatia species, namely C. cyathiformis, C. craniiformis, C. excipuliformis, C.

  17. Chemosyndromes in the lichen genus Teloschistes (Teloschistaceae, Lecanorales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Frödén, P.

    2002-01-01

    , and isofulgidin occurred together with some compounds of unknown identity in varying proportions in T. flavicans, T. peruensis, T. stellatus, and one unnamed taxon. Nine chemosyndromes were found in the genus. Most species had only one chemosyndrome, but T. flavicans s. lat. had six syndromes. The geographical...

  18. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux's criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in .

  19. On the African species of the genus Psychopsis Newm. (Osmylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der H.W.

    1907-01-01

    This remarkable genus, only recorded from Australia and the Old World, was represented by one species in central Africa, Psychopsis zebra Brauer, Ann. Hofmuseum Wien, IV, p. 102 (1889). I had not seen this species before this year, when I purchased, from the London naturalist W. F. H. Rosenberg, a

  20. Pollen Ultrastructure of Genus Dendrobium Orchids as a Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Dwi Apriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anggrek genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu genus dari divisi spermatophyta yang merupakan kelompok tumbuhan yang berkembang dengan menggunakan biji. Tumbuhan berbiji tentu memiliki bunga sebagai alat perkembangan generatifnya. Perkembangan generatif pada bunga artinya pertemuan antara sel gamet jantan dan sel gamet betina. Sel gamet betina pada tumbuhan dihasilkan oleh putik, sedangkan sel gamet jantan disebut serbuk sari atau pollen. Genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu kekayaan alam Indonesia, jumlahnya diperkirakan mencapai 275 spesies. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana ultrastruktur pollen anggrek genus Dendrobium dari sepuluh spesies yang diamati menggunakan SEM. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan unit pollen untuk semua spesies yaitu kategori pollinia, sedangkan untuk polaritas pollen adalah apolar. Jenis aperture kesepuluh spesies yang diamati mempunyai aperture dengan pola yang tidak beraturan dan lebih dari enam yang disebut colpate. Bentuk pollen dari semua spesies yang diteliti bentuknya adalah subprolate hingga prolate dan ukuran pollen termasuk dalam kategori minuta hingga media. Ornamentasi pollen atau skluptur pollen tidak teridentifikasi dikarenakan ukuran pollen yang terlalu kecil, permukaan pollen terlihat kurang jelas. Sumber belajar yang digunakan adalah atlas.

  1. Quantitative variation for apomictic reproduction in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, O.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Sharbel, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The evolution of asexual seed production (apomixis) from sexual relatives is a great enigma of plant biology. The genus Boechera is ideal for studying apomixis because of its close relation to Arabidopsis and the occurrence of sexual and apomictic species at low ploidy levels

  2. Revision of the genus Diaphorocera Heyden, 1863 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Cerocomini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turco, F.; Bologna, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphorocera, a Saharo-Sindian genus belonging to the tribe Cerocomini, is revised and a new synonymy is proposed. A cladistic classification is proposed as well, on a set of adult morphological characters. The available bionomical records, both original and from literature, concerning phenology,

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  4. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    convex boundary embeds in a closed symplectic 4-manifold. ... We shall apply Theorem 1.2 in particular to study the 4-genus of a link in S3 by proving ...... [13] Honda Ko, Factoring nonrotative T 2×I layers, Erratum: On the classification of tight.

  5. Stemodia L. (Scrophulariaceae, a Newly Naturalized Genus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shou Liang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia verticillata (Mill. Hassl. (Scrophulariaceae was found in the lowlands of northern Taiwan. This represents a new naturalization not only for this species but also for the genus on this island. A taxonomic account of S. verticillata is treated in this study. A line-drawing, distribution map and photographs of this species are also provided to aid in identification.

  6. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    10 Jan 2011 ... b: Subgenus Trifoliastrum: Calyx campanulate and pod inflated. c: Subgenus Foenum-graecum: Calyx tubular and pod not inflated. Several investigators have attempted to employ the taxonomy of the genus Trigonella; Sirjaev (1935) has given in Latin an elaborate and systematic account of its taxonomy.

  7. On five new species of the genus Ichthyurus, Westw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1879-01-01

    Of the above mentioned genus of Malacoderm Coleoptera, founded in 1848 by Westwood in his Cabinet of Oriental Entomology, twelve species have hitherto been described, all Natives of the Old World and distributed as follow: Sierra Leone (West Africa): one ¹); Moulmein (East-Indies): two ²); Ceylon:

  8. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  9. Counting Semisimple Orbits of Finite Lie Algebras by Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Fulman, Jason

    1999-01-01

    The adjoint action of a finite group of Lie type on its Lie algebra is studied. A simple formula is conjectured for the number of split semisimple orbits of a given genus. This conjecture is proved for type A, and partial results are obtained for other types. For type A a probabilistic interpretation is given in terms of card shuffling.

  10. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The genus Prunus L. is an important plant for fruit production and it includes plums, apricots, cherries, almonds ... classification and placement of different genera under different sub-families. ... cultivated primarily or their beautiful flowers, such as ..... described the character evolution in the 37 Prunus and 8.

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  12. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  15. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal

    2012-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  16. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C.

  17. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  18. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  19. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2018-01-10

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  20. Revision of the genus 'Microbrotula' (Teleostei: Bythitidae), with description of two new species and a related new genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Following recent systematic revisions of Anderson (2005, 2007), seven species of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) have been described, all from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean. Six of these species are here recognised as valid: M. bentleyi, M. greenfieldi, M. punicea, M. quee...

  1. Two new species of genus Hydrosmittia Ferrington & Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-06-08

    The genus Hydrosmittia from China is reviewed. Two new species H. continalinea sp. n. and H. sipinata sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Key to known male imagines of genus Hydrosmittia worldwide is provided.

  2. Description of a new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Rehmat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae, Litus assamensis sp. nov., is described from Assam, India.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is also given. 

  3. Neocampanella, a new corticioid fungal genus, and a note on Dendrothele bispora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen K. Nakasone; David S. Hibbett; Greta Goranova

    2009-01-01

    The new genus Neocampanella (Agaricales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is established for Dentocorticium btastanos Boidin & Gilles, a crustose species, and the new combination, Neocampanella blastanos, is proposed. Morphological and molecular studies support the recognition of the new genus and its close...

  4. Baltileuctra gen. nov., a new genus of Leuctridae (Insecta: Plecoptera) in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2018-04-10

    A new genus and species of the stonefly family Leuctridae, Baltileuctra foraminis gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a well-preserved male specimen from the Eocene Baltic amber. The new genus possesses typical characters of Leuctridae but has diagnostic characters of the thoracic sclerites and terminalia. The relationship between the new genus and other leuctrids is briefly discussed.

  5. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-19

    In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru.

  6. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  7. Taxonomic revision of the afrotropical genus Megatrigon Johnson, 1898 (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doczkal, Dieter; Radenković, Snežana; Lyneborg, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The genus-group taxon Megatrigon Johnson, 1898, stat. nov., is revised and treated as a valid genus within the Merodontini (= Eumerini). Extensive diagnoses are given for the genus and for its three constituent species groups: argenteus group [11 spp.], nivalis group [monotypic], sexfasciatus group...

  8. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  9. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Jiao Jiao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2015-09-15

    The genus Uncaria belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which mainly distributed in tropical regions, such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Southeast America. Their leaves and hooks have long been thought to have healing powers and are already being tested as a treatment for asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and rheumatism. The present review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria to support for further therapeutic potential of this genus. To better understanding this genus, information on the stereo-chemistry and structure-activity relationships in indole alkaloids is also represented. The literature study of this review is based on various databases search (SCIFinder, Science Direct, CNKI, Wiley online library, Spring Link, Web of Science, PubMed, Wanfang Data, Medalink, Google scholar, ACS, Tropicos, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, The New York Botanical Garden, African Plants Database at Genera Botanical Garden, The Plant List and SEINet) and library search for Biological Abstract and some local books on ethnopharmacology. 19 species of the genus Uncaria are found to be important folk medicines in China, Malaysia, Phillippines, Africa and Southeast America, etc, and have been served for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism, hyperpyrexia, hypertension and headaches, etc. More than 200 compounds have been isolated from Uncaria, including indole alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, etc. As characteristic constituents, indole alkaloids have been considered as main efficacy component for hypertension, epilepsy, depressant, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, pharmacokinetic and metabolism investigation reveal that the indole alkaloids are likely to be absorbed, metabolized and excreted at early time points. Moreover, the specific inhibition of CYP isozymes can regulate their hydroxylation metabolites

  10. A Review of Recent Research Progress on the Astragalus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge. Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch. Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for “qi deficiency” syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  11. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Bruno S.; Carvalho, Felix D.; Guilhermino, Lucia M.; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed

  12. The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure (Crustacea: Ostracoda in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía R. Díaz

    Full Text Available The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure, 1858 is a typical representative of the Neotropical ostracod fauna that occupies lotic and lentic environments including temporary and permanent ponds. Up to the present, four species have been recorded in Argentina: C. iheringi (Sars, C. incisa (Claus and C. leuckarti (Claus, and C. symmetrica (Vávra. Temporary and permanent ponds of this region were sampled for ostracods, using a fine mesh net. Three species belonging to the genus Chlamydotheca were collected of which C. arcuata (Sars is recorded for first time for the Chacoan region. Limb morphology was studied under light microscope and line drawings were made using camera lucida. Valves were photographed under scanning electron microscope and redescriptions of C. arcuata and C. iheringi are provided and distributional aspects of the species sampled are discussed.

  13. Ortholog prediction of the Aspergillus genus applicable for synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Theobald, Sebastian

    of genotype-to-phenotype. To achieve this, we have developed orthologous protein prediction software that utilizes genus-wide genetic diversity. The approach is optimized for large data sets, based on BLASTp considering protein identity and alignment coverage, and clustering using single linkage of bi......The Aspergillus genus contains leading industrial microorganisms, excelling in producing bioactive compounds and enzymes. Using synthetic biology and bioinformatics, we aim to re-engineer these organisms for applications within human health, pharmaceuticals, environmental engineering, and food......-directional hits. The result is orthologous protein families describing the genomic and functional features of individual species, clades and the core/pan genome of Aspergillus; and applicable to genotype-to-phenotype analyses in other microbial genera....

  14. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  15. Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Arnebia Forssk. (Boraginaceae in India

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    Kumar Ambrish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arnebia Forssk. in India is taxonomically studied based on field surveys, collection of live plants, consultation of herbarium and literature. The genus is represented in India by 10 taxa including 8 species and 2 varieties viz., Arnebia bhattacharyyae K. Ambrish & S.K. Srivast., A. benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don I.M. Johnst., A. euchroma ( Royle I.M. Johnst., A. guttata Bunge, A. hispidissima (Sieber ex Lehm. A.DC., A. linearifolia A.DC., A. griffithii Boiss., A. nandadeviensis K. Chandra Sek. & R.S. Rawal , A. euchroma var. grandis (Bornm. Kazmi and A. guttata var. thomsonii (C.B. Clarke Kazmi, distributed in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in North-West Himalaya to Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan in India. Dichotomous keys to all the species in India along with taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and images of most of the species including type and their economic importance are provided.

  16. Revision of the genus Intybia (Coleoptera, Malachiidae from Japan

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    Hiroshi Ikeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Japanese species of the genus Intybia are revised taxonomically, with the examination of the endophallic structure. Eight species, including one new species Intybia donan sp. nov. from Yonaguni-jima, are recognized. All species are described or redescribed with a key and figures. The endophallic structure contains one primary sclerite (gonoporal piece, three secondary sclerites (ligula, semi-gonoporal piece, and spinous plate in some species, and a membranous basal area densely covered with many spines (spinous area. Based on the structures of the endophallus, the Japanese members of the genus are divided into two species groups (the histrio and pelegrini groups. The pelegrini species group is furthermore subdivided into three subgroups (subgroups 1–3. New distributional records are as follows: I. histrio from Hachijô-jima and Tanega-shima; I. niponica from Sakhalin and I. takaraensis from Tokuno-shima and Amami-Ôshima.

  17. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

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    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  18. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    , meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species....... We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and Gen...

  19. Genus two partition functions of extremal conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Yin Xi

    2007-01-01

    Recently Witten conjectured the existence of a family of 'extremal' conformal field theories (ECFTs) of central charge c = 24k, which are supposed to be dual to three-dimensional pure quantum gravity in AdS 3 . Assuming their existence, we determine explicitly the genus two partition functions of k = 2 and k = 3 ECFTs, using modular invariance and the behavior of the partition function in degenerating limits of the Riemann surface. The result passes highly nontrivial tests and in particular provides a piece of evidence for the existence of the k = 3 ECFT. We also argue that the genus two partition function of ECFTs with k ≤ 10 are uniquely fixed (if they exist)

  20. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

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    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  1. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  2. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográfica del Páramo de Colombia. Este género se reconoce por los élitros subcuadrados y con una conspicua carena declivital y es considerado similar a Puranius Germain y Acrorius Kirsch. El género y especie son descritos, ilustrados y comparados con los otros Rhytirrhinini de Colombia.

  3. TREE-FERNS OF THE GENUS CYATHEA IN JAVA

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    R. E. HOLTTUM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A full taxonomic study of the genus Cyathea has recently been publish-ed in Flora Malesiana (Ser. II, vol. 1, part 2, Dec. 1963. In that work thegenus is construed in a broad sense, to include Alsophila and Hemitelia(also Gymnosphaera and Schizocaena of Copeland's Genera Filicum, theotal number of species being 191, and a new subdivision of this compre-hensive genus is proposed. The keys in Flora Malesiana, dealing with sucha large number of species, are complex, and not very easy to use for localpurposes. I have therefore made a simpler key to cover the species ofava only, and hope this will be of service to botaniists in Java.

  4. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Bruno S. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal) and Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bruno@ufp.pt; Carvalho, Felix D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Toxicologia da Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal); Van Stappen, Gilbert [Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed.

  5. Current Status of Genus Bryum Hedw. in Eastern Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bansal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical study on the genus Bryum Hedw., an acrocarpous moss of family Bryaceae, revealed the occurrence of 21 species from seven state of eastern Himalaya: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and West Bengal. Among these twenty one species, B. argenteum var. griffithii (Muell. Hal. Gangulee, B. billardieri Schwaegr., B. pallescens Schleich. ex Schwaegr., B. pseudotriquetrum (Hedw. P. Gaertn., B. Meyer & Scherb., B. pseudotriquetrum var. subrotundum (Brid. Gangulee and B. reflexifolium (Ochi Ochi are new additions to Meghalaya; B. billardieri Schwaegr. to Manipur while B. apiculatum Schwaegr., B. caespiticium Hedw. and B. pseudotriquetrum var. subrotundum (Brid. Gangulee are new for West Bengal. Identification key to all the known species of the genus occurring in eastern Himalaya, alongwith the notes on their ecology and distribution have been provided.

  6. Phylogeny of the genus Stephomyia Tavares, 1916 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    V. C. Maia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stephomyia Tavares, 1916 comprises seven species, all Neotropical: S. clavata (Tavares, 1920; S. epeugeniae Gagné, 1994; S. espiralis Maia, 1993; S. mina Maia, 1993; S. rotundifoliorum Maia, 1993; S. tetralobae Maia, 1993; and S. eugeniae (Felt, 1913. In the present study, a cladistic analysis based upon adult, pupa, larva and gall morphological characters as well as host plant data is carried out in order to discuss the monophyly of the genus and the relationships among the known species. The Stephomyia monophyly was supported by eight synapomorphies: five homoplastic characters and three non-homoplastic characters. Analyzes showed S. clavata with great instability within the genus, probably due to lack of larva, pupa and female data, so S. clavata was deactivated in analyze. The topology found was (S. mina ((S. eugeniae + S. epeugeniae (S. tetralobae (S. rotundifoliorum + S. espiralis.

  7. THE MYRMICINE ANT GENUS ALLOMERUS MAYR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    FERNÁNDEZ FERNANDO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Allomerus Mayr is revised. The genus isapparently monophyletic based on the antennal club confi guration. I recognize 8 species(4 described as new: Allomerus brevipilosus n. sp. (Brazil, A. decemarticulatusMayr (Brazil, French Guiana, A. dentatus n. sp. (Venezuela, A. maietae n. sp.(Brazil, A. octoarticulatus Mayr (=A. tuberculatus Forel n. syn. = A. octoarticulatusvar. demerarae W. M. Wheeler n. syn. = A. novemarticulatus Wheeler & Mann n.syn. [Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru], A. septemarticulatus Mayrstatus rev. (Brazil, A. undecemarticulatus n. sp. (Venezuela and A. vogeli Kempf(Venezuela, Brazil. Better knowledge of the taxonomy of Allomerus is needed tounderstand the apparently sporadic differences in antennal fl agellomere number andspeciation processes that are probably linked to plant cavity colonization.

  8. Genus-Wide Assessment of Lignocellulose Utilization in the Extremely Thermophilic Genus Caldicellulosiruptor by Genomic, Pangenomic, and Metagenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura L; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Izquierdo, Javier A; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Loder, Andrew J; Conway, Jonathan M; Elkins, James G; Podar, Mircea; Clum, Alicia; Jones, Piet C; Piatek, Marek J; Weighill, Deborah A; Jacobson, Daniel A; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2018-05-01

    Metagenomic data from Obsidian Pool (Yellowstone National Park, USA) and 13 genome sequences were used to reassess genus-wide biodiversity for the extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor The updated core genome contains 1,401 ortholog groups (average genome size for 13 species = 2,516 genes). The pangenome, which remains open with a revised total of 3,493 ortholog groups, encodes a variety of multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). These include three cellulases with GH48 domains that are colocated in the glucan degradation locus (GDL) and are specific determinants for microcrystalline cellulose utilization. Three recently sequenced species, Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain Rt8.B8 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor morganii ), Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus strain NA10 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor naganoensis ), and Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain Wai35.B1 (renamed here Caldicellulosiruptor danielii ), degraded Avicel and lignocellulose (switchgrass). C. morganii was more efficient than Caldicellulosiruptor bescii in this regard and differed from the other 12 species examined, both based on genome content and organization and in the specific domain features of conserved GHs. Metagenomic analysis of lignocellulose-enriched samples from Obsidian Pool revealed limited new information on genus biodiversity. Enrichments yielded genomic signatures closely related to that of Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis , but there was also evidence for other thermophilic fermentative anaerobes ( Caldanaerobacter , Fervidobacterium , Caloramator , and Clostridium ). One enrichment, containing 89.8% Caldicellulosiruptor and 9.7% Caloramator , had a capacity for switchgrass solubilization comparable to that of C. bescii These results refine the known biodiversity of Caldicellulosiruptor and indicate that microcrystalline cellulose degradation at temperatures above 70°C, based on current information, is limited to certain members of this genus that produce GH48 domain

  9. The genus Anterhynchium in the Philippine Islands (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Selis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 from the Philippine Islands is presented. Two species are recorded: A. astrophilum Giordani Soika, 1996 and A. townesi van der Vecht, 1963. Anterhynchium astrophilum is recorded for the first time since its description, A. flavomarginatum townesi is raised to species rank (A. townesi stat. nov. and its unknown male is described. A key to the species and new distributional records are provided.

  10. Infinite-genus surfaces and the universal Grassmannian

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Simon

    1995-01-01

    Correlation functions can be calculated on Riemann surfaces using the operator formalism. The state in the Hilbert space of the free field theory on the punctured disc, corresponding to the Riemann surface, is constructed at infinite genus, verifying the inclusion of these surfaces in the Grassmannian. In particular, a subset of the class of $O_{HD}$ surfaces can be identified with a subset of the Grassmannian. The concept of flux through the ideal boundary is used to study the connection bet...

  11. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  12. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  13. Phylogenetic position and emended description of the genus Methylovorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Ivanova, Ekaterina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2005-03-01

    The genus Methylovorus, currently represented by the restricted facultative methylotroph Methylovorus glucosotrophus Govorukhina and Trotsenko 1991 and the obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays Doronina et al. 2001, is here established by direct sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes and DNA-DNA hybridization to be clearly separated from the extant ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway methylobacteria and to form a distinct branch within the beta-Proteobacteria.

  14. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  15. Dew Point Temperature Affects Ascospore Release of Allergenic Genus Leptosphaeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sadyś, M.; Kaczmarek, J.; Grinn-Gofron, A.; Rodinkova, V.; Prikhodko, A.; Bilous, E.; Strzelczak, A.; Herbert, Rob; Jedryczka, M.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Leptosphaeria contains numerous fungi that cause the symptoms of asthma and also parasitize wild and crop plants. In search of a robust and universal forecast model, the ascospore concentration in air was measured and weather data recorded from 1 March to 31 October between 2006 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in three European countries of the temperate climate, i.e., Ukraine, Poland, and the UK. Out of over 150 forecast models produced using artificial neural networks (ANNs...

  16. Chemical diversity and antiviral potential in the pantropical Diospyros genus

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrat , Laure-Anne; Eparvier , Véronique; Eydoux , Cécilia; Guillemot , Jean-Claude; Stien , Didier; Litaudon , Marc

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A screening using a dengue replicon virus-cell-based assay was performed on 3563 ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts from different parts of 1500 plants. The screening led to the selection of species from the genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), among which 25 species distributed in tropical areas showed significant inhibitory activity on dengue virus replication.A metabolic analysis was conducted from the UPLC-HRMS profiles of 33 biologically active and inactive plant extracts, an...

  17. Dryopsis (Dryopteridaceae, A Fern Genus New to Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hui Ding

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryopsis clarkei (Baker Holttum & P.J. Edwards, representing the whole genus, is reported new to Vietnam. A detailed description, including the variation of gross morphology, spore morphology, and chromosome counts, is provided by means of words as well as photographs or drawings. Dryopsis clarkei is for the first time demonstrated to be a sexual diploid (2n = 82, with rather stable morphology except for the length of stipe.

  18. Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Reijiro; Ojima, Shuichi.

    1990-08-01

    Quantum field theory for closed bosonic string systems is formulated on arbitrary higher-genus Riemann surfaces in global operator formalism. Canonical commutation relations between bosonic string field X μ and their conjugate momenta P ν are derived in the framework of conventional quantum field theory. Problems arising in quantizing bosonic systems are considered in detail. Applying the method exploited in the preceding paper we calculate Ward-Takahashi identities. (author)

  19. On the c-theorem in higher genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.; Mavromatos, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    We study the extension of the c-therorem to arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces. We analyze the breakdown of conformal invariance caused by the need of cutting off regions of moduli space to regulate divergences and argue how these can be absorbed in the bare couplings on the sphere. An extension of the c-theorem then follows. We also discuss the relationship between the c-theorem and the effective action when corrections from higher genera are accounted for. (orig.)

  20. Revision of the genus Diaphorocera Heyden, 1863 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Cerocomini)

    OpenAIRE

    Turco, F.; Bologna, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphorocera, a Saharo-Sindian genus belonging to the tribe Cerocomini, is revised and a new synonymy is proposed. A cladistic classification is proposed as well, on a set of adult morphological characters. The available bionomical records, both original and from literature, concerning phenology, elevation, habitat preference, and host plants, are summarised. Adult morphology of all species is described and figured, the catalogue of localities with maps of distribution is reported, and a biog...

  1. Taxonomic notes on the genus Bellenden Chandler (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Jiang, Ri-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic genus Buobellenden Yin & Nomura, 2009 is placed as a junior synonym of Bellenden Chandler, 2001. This act results in Bellenden jingyuanensis (Yin & Nomura), comb. n. (from Buobellenden ). A new species, Bellenden siguniang Yin & Jang, sp. n. , collected from the alpine area in Sichuan, SW China, is described, illustrated, and distinguished from all congeners. A new illustration of the aedeagus of Buobellenden jingyuanensis is given.

  2. AMINOACID COMPOSITION OF SOME SPECIES FROM INULA GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kruglaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of medicinal plants and medicinal plant raw materials are understudied pharmacgostically. These plants include species from Inula genus, which range in Russia amounts to up to 40 species. Rhizomes and roots of the Inula helenium L. are broadly applied in scientific and traditional medicine. They have expectorate, styptic, and anti-inflammatory properties.The purpose of the study was to determine the amino-acid composition of some species from Inula genus (Inula germanica, Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera, Inula orientalis, which grow in different regions if the North Caucasus.Methods. The studies were carried out using AAA 400 amino acid analyzer, highly specialized automatized liquid chromatographer with computer management. Aboveground parts of the plants, gathered in mass blossom phase from wild-growing plants and then dried out were the objects of the study.Results. For the first time the amino acid composition and raw protein of some species from Inula genus was determined (Inula germanica, Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera, Inula orientalis, 16 amino acids were discovered, 7 of which were essential, and raw proteins which substantival composition amounted to 16.19% in Inula germanica, 10.78% in Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera (11.15%, Inula orientalis (13.94%.Conclusion. The results of the studies conducted broaden the data about amino acids and protein composition and quantitative content in the species from Inula genus and can be used to develop methods of analysis of the drugs, obtained from these plants.

  3. Ecology of genus Porphyromonas in canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, H; Kosako, Y; Benno, Y; Isogai, E

    1999-09-01

    Asaccharolytic pigmented Porphyromonas species, including P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. circumdentaria and unclassified species, were isolated from the plaque of adult dogs, but not from any oral sites of puppies and adolescent dogs. With age-dependency, the proportion of Porphyromonas species in the flora of plaque increased. Isolation of the genus Porphyromonas was clearly associated with the progress of periodontol disease. We suggested that Porphyromonas is the exogenous organism and obligate pathogen for canine periodontal diseases.

  4. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    Full Text Available Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  5. Moringa Genus: A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rani, Nur Zahirah; Husain, Khairana; Kumolosasi, Endang

    2018-01-01

    Moringa is a genus of medicinal plants that has been used traditionally to cure wounds and various diseases such as colds and diabetes. In addition, the genus is also consumed as a source of nutrients and widely used for purifying water. The genus consists of 13 species that have been widely cultivated throughout Asia and Africa for their multiple uses. The purpose of this review is to provide updated and categorized information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicological research of Moringa species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. The literature reviewed for this paper was obtained from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar journal papers published from 1983 to March 2017. Moringa species are well-known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antihyperglycemic activities. Most of their biological activity is caused by their high content of flavonoids, glucosides, and glucosinolates. By documenting the traditional uses and biological activities of Moringa species, we hope to support new research on these plants, especially on those species whose biological properties have not been studied to date. PMID:29503616

  6. Evidence for ecological flexibility in the cosmopolitan genus Curtobacterium

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    Alexander Bennett Chase

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus to ask whether its high abundance in our soil system is in accordance with its role as a plant pathogen or if alternative ecological roles are needed. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems globally. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  7. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  8. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

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    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  9. The genus Eremophila (Scrophulariaceae): an ethnobotanical, biological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singab, Abdel Nasser; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Eremophila (Scrophulariaceae) is an endemic Australian genus with 214 species, which is commonly known as Fuchsia bush, Emu bush or Poverty bush. Plants of this genus played an important role for the Australian Aborigines who used them widely for medicinal and ceremonial purposes. Many studies have been carried out on many species of this genus and have generated immense data about the chemical composition and corresponding biological activity of extracts and isolated secondary metabolites. Thorough phytochemical investigations of different Eremophila species have resulted in the isolation of more than 200 secondary metabolites of different classes with diterpenes as major constituents. Biological studies and traditional clinical practice demonstrated that Eremophila and its bioactive compounds possess various pharmacological properties. Plants were employed especially as a cardiotonic drug and also as potent anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Further investigations are required to explore other Eremophila species, to evaluate the different biological activities of either their extracts or the isolated compounds and the possible underlying modes of action. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Ecological Distribution Of The Genus Crotalaria In Nigeria

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    Odewo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis C. atrorubens C. cleomifolia C. anthyllopsis C. cuspidata C. bamendul C. calycina C. hyssopifolia C. incana C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata C. cylindrical C. cephalotes C. comosa C. retusa C.doniana C. glauca C. falcata C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate C. comosa and C. bongensis oblanceolate C. retusa C. goreensis C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema to obovate C. mucronata and C. naragutensis. This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

  11. Criteria of assessing introduced varieties of the genus Heuchera L.

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    Н. А. Андрух

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and describe the basic criteria for studying and assessing decorative and economic-and-biological characters of the genus Heuchera L. varieties in the context of introduction. Methods. Introduction procedure, analytical approach, morphological analysis and biometric data evaluation. Results. Aided by the comparative morphological analysis of introduced varieties of the genus Heuchera, significant differences in their characters were revealed, including plant height, height and width of the basal rosette of leaves, generative shoot height. There was a significant variation of such parameters as the number of generative shoots within one plant, the number of flowers on a single generative shoot, flowering abundance. Based on investigation findings, 17 groups of varieties were identified for the dominant color of adaxial surface of the leaf blade and 7 groups – for inflorescence color. According to phenological observations, Heuchera varieties groups were determined and the dates of commencement and duration of plants flowering were registered in the context of introduction. The results of these investigations are the necessary basis for the study and evaluation of this culture assortment, they are important in breeding and landscaping. Conclusions. Based on the results of investigations of morphological features of introduced species of the genus Heuchera, traits and parameters for varieties grouping were defined as well as decorative and economic-and-biological traits that should be evaluated.

  12. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  13. Germalna, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada previously assigned to the genus Melampsalta Kolenati, plus a complement to the description of the genus Rouxalna Boulard, with the description of two new species (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Quentin

    2018-01-31

    Species previously assigned to Melampsalta Kolenati, in New Caledonia are reviewed. Morphological studies indicate that New Caledonian cicadas currently placed in this genus have been wrongly assigned and should be placed in a new genus. The genus Germalna gen. nov., is therefore erected to accommodate Germalna germaini comb. nov. The genus Germalna gen. nov. was first documented by Michel Boulard, but remained a nomen nudum until now. A redescription of the genus Rouxalna Boulard is provided and the following new species are described: Rouxalna villosa sp. nov., and Rouxalna scabens sp. nov. Male calling songs of Rouxalna rouxi Boulard and Rouxalna scabens sp. nov. are analysed and described from field recordings. A key to the species of Rouxalna is also provided.

  14. Bildskapande i relation till genus i förskolans verksamhet : Att skapa sig själv och genus

    OpenAIRE

    Brännlund, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att bidra till ökad medvetenhet för verksamma inom förskolans område kring frågor som rör pedagogers förhållningssätt kring relationen mellan bildskapande och genus, men även hur dessa förhållningssätt kan påverka barnens möjligheter i deras bildskapande. En viktig fråga som burits med från starten av arbetet och som lyser igenom i resultatdelen har varit: Vilka möjligheter att förhålla sig till bildskapande och genus kan uppstå om ett kritiskt sätt att tänka kring könsstere...

  15. A revision of the genus Antepione Packard with description of the new genus Pionenta Ferris (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Clifford D

    2010-12-14

    Based on genitalic studies, the new genus Pionenta is established for two taxa formerly placed under Antepione. The taxa hewesata and ochreata (and previously associated synonyms) are now synonomized as Pionenta ochreata. Three species of Antepione are now recognized: Antepione thisoaria, Antepione imitata, Antepione tiselaaria with the taxa comstocki, constans, and indiscretata synonomized under Antepione imitata. No new species are described. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, including type specimens.

  16. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Giselia arizonica, a new genus and species of mite (Acaria: Tarsonemidae) associated with bark beetles of the genus Pseudopityophthorus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech L. Magowski; Evert E. Lindquist; John C. Moser

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of the mite family Tarsonemidae, subfamily Tarsoneminae, is described and illustrated. Its systematic position among genera of Tarsoneminae and its host association with bark beetles of the genus Pseudopityophthorus Swaine, 1918 in North America are briefly discussed.

  18. The genus Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Philopotaminae) in northeastern Brazil, including the description of three new species and an identification key for the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 contains 35 described species distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Three new species of Alterosa from northeastern Brazil are described and illustrated, Alterosa amadoi sp. n., Alterosa castroalvesi sp. n. and Alterosa caymmii sp. n., the first records of the genus from northeastern Brazil. An identification key for all known species of the genus is also presented. PMID:23950667

  19. Two new species and a new phyllobothriid cestode genus from sharks of the genus Negaprion Whitley (Carcharhiniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, T R; Workman, R E

    2013-05-01

    Alexandercestus n. g. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) is erected for two cestode species found parasitising the two known species of lemon sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Negaprion spp.). This new genus differs from all other phyllobothriid genera except for Hemipristicola Cutmore, Theiss, Bennett & Cribb, 2011, Marsupiobothrium Yamaguti, 1952, Nandocestus Reyda, 2008, Orectolobicestus Ruhnke, Caira & Carpenter 2006, Orygmatobothrium Diesing, 1863, Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 and Phyllobothrium van Beneden, 1849 in possessing uniloculate bothridia with an apical sucker and neck scutes. Alexandercestus differs from Orectolobicestus and Nandocestus in lacking marginal loculi on the bothridia, from Paraorygmatobothrium in possessing uninterrupted vitelline follicles at the level of the ovary and from Phyllobothrium in being euapolytic as opposed to anapolytic and in lacking posteriorly bifid bothridia. The new genus lacks the central accessory bothridial organ seen in specimens of Orygmatobothrium, and lacks the central bothridial accessory sucker of specimens of Marsupiobothrium. Alexandercestus spp. compare most favourably with specimens of Hemipristicola, especially with respect to aspects of proglottid morphology, but differ in possessing aristate gladiate spinitriches rather than serrate gladiate spinitriches on the proximal bothridial surface. In addition, the bothridia of Alexandercestus spp. are comparatively more fleshy and foliose than those in specimens of Hemipristicola. Two new species of Alexandercestus n. g. are described, Alexandercestus gibsoni n. sp. from Negaprion acutidens, collected from off northern Australia and the Marshall Islands, and Alexandercestus manteri n. sp. from N. brevirostris, collected off the islands of Bimini and the Florida Keys. The two new species differ in total length and vitelline follicle distribution. Bayesian inference and parsimony analysis of the D1-D3 region of the large nuclear ribosomal DNA of 17 published and seven

  20. Transfer of 13 species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Caballeronia and reclassification of Burkholderia jirisanensis as Paraburkholderia jirisanensis comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Linardopoulou, Elena V; Samadpour, Mansour

    2017-10-01

    A recent study of a group of Burkholderia glathei-like bacteria resulted in the description of 13 novel species of the genus Burkholderia. However, our analysis of phylogenetic positions of these species and their molecular signatures (conserved protein sequence indels) showed that they belong to the genus Caballeronia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Caballeroniaarationis comb. nov., Caballeroniaarvi comb. nov., Caballeroniacalidae comb. nov., Caballeroniacatudaia comb. nov., Caballeroniaconcitans comb. nov., Caballeroniafortuita comb. nov., Caballeroniaglebae comb. nov., Caballeroniahypogeia comb. nov., Caballeroniapedi comb. nov., Caballeroniaperedens comb. nov., Caballeroniaptereochthonis comb. nov., Caballeroniatemeraria comb. nov. and Caballeronia turbans comb. nov. It is also proposed to reclassify Burkholderia jirisanensis as Paraburkholderiajirisanensis comb. nov. Based on the results of the polyphasic study, B. jirisanensis had been described as a member of the A-group of the genus Burkholderiaand the most closely related to Burkholderia rhizosphaerae, Burkholderia humisilvae and Burkholderia solisilvae currently classified as belonging to the genus Paraburkholderia.

  1. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhou, Jizhong; Oren, Aharon; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Genomic information has already been applied to prokaryotic species definition and classification. However, the contribution of the genome sequence to prokaryotic genus delimitation has been less studied. To gain insights into genus definition for the prokaryotes, we attempted to reveal the genus-level genomic differences in the current prokaryotic classification system and to delineate the boundary of a genus on the basis of genomic information. The average nucleotide sequence identity between two genomes can be used for prokaryotic species delineation, but it is not suitable for genus demarcation. We used the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance. A comprehensive genomic survey indicated that the POCP can serve as a robust genomic index for establishing the genus boundary for prokaryotic groups. Basically, two species belonging to the same genus would share at least half of their proteins. In a specific lineage, the genus and family/order ranks showed slight or no overlap in terms of POCP values. A prokaryotic genus can be defined as a group of species with all pairwise POCP values higher than 50%. Integration of whole-genome data into the current taxonomy system can provide comprehensive information for prokaryotic genus definition and delimitation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Drypetes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Wandji, Jean; Sewald, Norbert; Nahar, Lutfun; Martin, Claire; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-08-22

    Traditional medicinal use of species of the genus Drypetes is widespread in the tropical regions. The aim of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology and bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) of crude extracts and purified compounds. Plants of the genus Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral problems, fever in young children, typhoid and several other ailments. Some Drypetes species are used to protect food against pests, as an aphrodisiac, a stimulant/depressant, a rodenticide and a fish poison, against insect bites, to induce conception and for general healing. This review deals with updated information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Drypetes species, in order to provide an input for the future research opportunities. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognized databases e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, www.theplantlist.org and www.gbif.org, as well as the Herbier National du Cameroun (Yaoundé) and Botanic Gardens of Limbe databases on the uses and bioactivity of various species of the Drypetes was undertaken. The literature provided information on ethnopharmacological uses of the Subsaharan African and Asian species of the genus Drypetes, e.g., Drypetes aubrévillii, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri, D. gerrardii, D. gossweileri, D. ivorensis, D. klainei, D. natalensis, D. pellegrini (all endemic to Africa) and D. roxburghii (Asian species), for the treatment of multiple disorders. From a total of 19 species, more than 140 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes (friedelane, oleanane, lupane and hopane-type), flavonoids, lignans

  3. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial Genus Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R; Currie, Cameron R

    2017-06-06

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution. IMPORTANCE Tree-based phylogenetics and the use of species as units of diversity lie at the foundation of modern biology. In bacteria, these pillars of evolutionary theory have been called into question due to the observation of thousands of lateral gene transfer (LGT) events within and between lineages. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are exceedingly rare in the bacterial genus Streptomyces , with merely one gene acquired in Streptomyces lineages every 100,000 years. These findings stand in contrast to the current assumption of rampant genetic exchange, which has become the dominant hypothesis used to explain bacterial diversity. Our results support a more nuanced understanding of genetic exchange, with LGT impacting evolution over short timescales but playing a significant role over long timescales. Deeper understanding of LGT provides new

  4. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J G; Fusté, M C

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  5. Genus 4 trigonal reduction of the Benney equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Sadie; Gibbons, John

    2006-01-01

    It was shown by Gibbons and Tsarev (1996 Phys. Lett. A 211 19, 1999 Phys. Lett. A 258 263) that N-parameter reductions of the Benney equations correspond to particular N-parameter families of conformal maps. In recent papers (Baldwin and Gibbons 2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 8393-417, Baldwin and Gibbons 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5341-54), the present authors have constructed examples of such reductions where the mappings take the upper half p-plane to a polygonal slit domain in the λ-plane. In those cases, the mapping function was expressed in terms of the derivatives of Kleinian σ functions of hyperelliptic curves, restricted to the one-dimensional stratum Θ 1 of the Θ-divisor. This was done using an extension of the method given in Enolskii et al (2003 J. Nonlinear Sci. 13 157) extended to a genus 3 curve (Enolski V Z and Gibbons J Addition theorems on the strata of the theta divisor of genus three hyperelliptic curves, in preparation). Here, we use similar ideas, but now applied to a trigonal curve of genus 4. Fundamental to this approach is a family of differential relations which σ satisfies on the divisor. Again, it is shown that the mapping function is expressible in terms of quotients of derivatives of σ on the divisor Θ 1 . One significant by-product is an expansion of the leading terms of the Taylor series of σ for the given family of (3, 5) curves; to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is new

  6. The Genus Phyllanthus: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds.

  7. The genus Stactobia McLachlan (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomiko

    2017-11-17

    The caddisfly genus Stactobia McLachlan (Hydroptilidae) is revised for Japan. Males are redescribed for 6 known species, Stactobia japonica Iwata, S. makartschenkoi Botosaneanu & Levanidova, S. inexpectata Botosaneanu & Nozaki, S. hattorii Botosaneanu & Nozaki, S. nishimotoi Botosaneanu & Nozaki, and S. distinguenda Botosaneanu & Nozaki. Six new species are described, also based on males: S. kanagawa, S. gunma, S. chichibu, S. yona, S. urauchi, and S. campire. A Taiwanese species, S. semele Malicky & Chantaramongkol, is recorded from Japan for the first time. Final instar larvae and their cases of 8 species and early instar larvae of 2 species are also described.

  8. Review of genus Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer, 1943 (Diptera, Chironomidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer, 1943 from China, including 12 species, is reviewed. Five new species, P. (P. binarius sp. n., P. (P. cylindratus sp. n., P. (P. digitus sp. n., P. (P. ovatus sp. n. and P. (P. paucus sp. n. are described and illustrated as adult males. P. (P. cristagus Stur & Sæther, 2004, P. (P. jintutridecima (Sasa, 1996, P. (P. macrovirgatus Sæther & Sublette, 1983, P. (P. morsei Sæther & Sublette, 1983, P. (P. uniserratus Sæther & Sublette, 1983, P. (L. wingoi Sæther & Sublette, 1983 are newly recorded in Oriental Region. A key to the males of Pseudorthocladius in China is presented.

  9. The genus Alphocoris in the Indomalaya (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    RÉdei, DÁvid; Tsai, Jing-Fu; Jindra, ZdenĚk

    2018-02-21

    The Indomalayan species of the genus Alphocoris Germar, 1839 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae: Odontotarsinae: Odontotarsini) are revised. Three species, A. caudatus Rédei, Tsai Jindra, sp. nov. (India: Maharashtra), A. naso Rédei Tsai, sp. nov. (India: Goa), and A. asper Rédei, Tsai Jindra, sp. nov. (India: Goa and Maharashtra), are recognized. The type material of A. lixoides Germar, 1839 (type locality: Senegal) is documented; previous records of this species from India and Pakistan are considered as based on misidentifications, the species is restricted to the Afrotropical Region.

  10. A Revision of the genus Ceratogyrus Pocock (Araneae: Theraphosidae

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    J.I. De Wet

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The African genus Ceratogyrus of the family Theraphosidae is revised, with notes of its natural history. Seven species are recognised and distinguished in a key. Six species, namely C. bechuanicus Pocock, C. brachycephalus Hewitt, C. darlingii Pocock, C. dolichocephalus Hewitt, C. marshalli Pocock and C. sanderi Strand are redescribed and figured, C. cornuatus is newly described and figured and C. schultzei Pocock is synonymized with C. bechuanicus. Lectotypes are designated for four species namely, C. brachycephalus, C. darlingii, C. dolichocephalus and C. marshalli. Distributional data is given for all seven species.

  11. Novelties in the genus Persicaria (Polygonaceae) in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funez, Luís A.; Hassemer, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents novelties in the genus Persicaria in Brazil. More specifically, we describe P. sylvestris, a new species from the Atlantic rainforest in subtropical Brazil, propose the new combination P. diospyrifolium and designate a lectotype for its basionym, Polygonum diospyrifolium. The new...... species has until now been identified as P. acuminata, from which it differs by morphological characters as well as ecological aspects. We also provide photographs of the new species and of similar species along with a distribution map and a key to the species of Persicaria in Brazil....

  12. Review of the Indo-Pacific labrid fish genus Hemigymnus

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The labrid fish genus Hemigymnus Günther consists of three relatively large coral-reef species: the wide-ranging Indo-Pacific H. fasciatus (Bloch) and H. melapterus (Bloch), and H. sexfasciatus (Rüppell) of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, usually regarded as a synonym of H. fasciatus. It is treated here as a species, distinguished by color pattern, longer pelvic fins of the terminal male, and fewer gill rakers. These three fishes are generally found as solitary individuals over sand or sand-and...

  13. Elliptic genus derivation of 4d holomorphic blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    We study elliptic vortices on ℂ × T 2 by considering the 2d quiver gauge theory describing their moduli spaces. The elliptic genus of these moduli spaces is the elliptic version of vortex partition function of the 4d theory. We focus on two examples: the first is a N = 1, U( N ) gauge theory with fundamental and anti-fundamental matter; the second is a N = 2, U( N ) gauge theory with matter in the fundamental representation. The results are instances of 4d "holomorphic blocks" into which partition functions on more complicated surfaces factorize. They can also be interpreted as free-field representations of elliptic Virasoro algebrae.

  14. Chemistry of the Calceolaria Genus. Structural and Biological Aspects

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    Juan A. Garbarino

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous species of the Calceolaria (Scrophulariaceae genus are studied. From their apolar extracts 55 new diterpenes of six skeleton types, naphtoquinones and flavonoids have been isolated. Among the different diterpenes malonic substitutions and bis-diterpenes in which both units are joined by a malonic acid unit stand out. Pimaranes present C-9 epimerisation and, consequently, H-9 has the same orientation as Me-20. From C.sessilis naphthoquinones with antichagasic activity have been isolated; and the biotransformation of 2α,19-dihydroxy-9-epi-entpimara-7,15-diene with Giberella fujikuroi produced 7 new diterpenes.

  15. The state of proteome profiling in the fungal genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Nandakumar, M P; Marten, Mark R

    2008-03-01

    Aspergilli are an important genus of filamentous fungi that contribute to a multibillion dollar industry. Since many fungal genome sequencing were recently completed, it would be advantageous to profile their proteome to better understand the fungal cell factory. Here, we review proteomic data generated for the Aspergilli in recent years. Thus far, a combined total of 28 cell surface, 102 secreted and 139 intracellular proteins have been identified based on 10 different studies on Aspergillus proteomics. A summary proteome map highlighting identified proteins in major metabolic pathway is presented.

  16. Taxonomic revision of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Savinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic survey of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br. is presented. Thirty five species taxa of Glyptopetalum are accepted, including one new species, G.  vidalii I. Savinov (Laos, Thailand, a new record for China, G. tonkinense Pitard (SE Yunnan and a new record for Cambodia,               G. quadrangulare Prain ex King, a new record for Indonesia – G. euonymoides Merr. and a new record for Philippines, Mindanao island – G. loheri Merr. 

  17. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEESIA * Blume (Bombacaceae

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    SOEPADMO SOEPADMO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1     Eight species are described:  N. altissima, synandra, glabra, koster-mansiana, malayana, parpurascens, piluliflora and strigosa.2     N. kostermansiana is a species new to science.3     N. glabra and synandra, formerly included in N. altissima are reinstated  as distinct species.4     The area of distribution of the genus covers Lower Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, with Borneo as centre.

  18. Genus zero Gromov-Witten axioms via Kuranishi atlases

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A Kuranishi atlas is a structure used to build a virtual fundamental class on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. They were introduced by McDuff and Wehrheim to resolve some of the challenges in this field. This paper completes the construction of genus zero Gromov-Witten invariants using Kuranishi atlases and proves the Gromov-Witten axioms of Kontsevich and Manin. To do so, we introduce the notion of a transverse subatlas, a useful tool for working with Kuranishi atlases.

  19. Phylogenetic relationship among East Asian species of the Stegana genus group (Diptera, Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Gao, Jian-jun; Lu, Jin-ming; Ji, Xing-lai; Chen, Hong-wei

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship among 27 East Asian species of the Stegana genus group was reconstructed using DNA sequences of mitochondrial (COI and ND2) and nuclear (28S) genes. The results lent support to the current generic/subgeneric taxonomic classification in the genus group with the exceptions of the paraphyly of the genus Parastegana and the subgenus Oxyphortica in the genus Stegana. The ancestral areas and divergence times in the genus group were reconstructed/estimated, and accordingly, the biogeographical history of this important clade was discussed. It was proposed that, the evolution of the plant family Fagaceae, especially Quercus, may have played a certain role in facilitating the diversification of the Stegana genus group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae

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    Boratyński, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. and Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratyński are the only representatives of the section Atlanticae Kirschner of the genus Luzula. Luzula atlantica is an endemic plant from the High Atlas Mountains and Luzula tibestica is endemic to the Tibesti massif. Both taxa are studied from a nomenclatural, morphological, chorological and biogeographical point of view. These taxa, owing to their low dispersion capacity, have probably diversified in situ.La sección Atlanticae del género Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. y Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratynski son los únicos representantes de la sección Atlanticae Kirschner del género Luzula. Luzula atlantica es un endemismo del Alto Atlas y Luzula tibestica es una planta endémica del macizo de Tibesti. Ambos taxones son estudiados desde el punto de vista morfológico, nomenclatural, corológico y biogeográfico. Estos taxones, por su baja tasa de dispersión, se han diversificado probablemente in situ.

  1. Lessons on black holes from the elliptic genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte du CNRS et de l’École Normale Supérieure associée à l’Université Pierre et Marie Curie 6, École Normale Supérieure, Rue Lhomond Paris (France)

    2014-04-28

    We further study the elliptic genus of the cigar SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) coset superconformal field theory. We find that, even in the small curvature, infinite level limit, there are holomorphic and non-holomorphic parts that are due to the discrete states and a mismatch in the spectral densities of the continuum, respectively. The mismatch in the continuum is universal, in the sense that it is fully determined by the asymptotic cylindrical topology of the cigar’s throat. Since modularity of the elliptic genus requires both the holomorphic and non-holomorphic parts, the holomorphic term is universal as well. The contribution of the discrete states is thus present even for perturbative strings propagating in the background of large Schwarzschild black holes. We argue that the discrete states live at a stringy distance from the tip of the cigar both from the conformal field theory wave-function analysis and from a holonomy space perspective. Thus, the way string theory takes care of its self-consistency seems to have important consequences for the physics near horizons, even for parametrically large black holes.

  2. Translational selection on codon usage in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Andrés; Sanguinetti, Manuel; Fernández-Calero, Tamara; Naya, Hugo; Ramón, Ana; Musto, Héctor

    2012-09-10

    Aspergillus is a genus of mold fungi that includes more than 200 described species. Many members of the group are relevant pathogens and other species are economically important. Only one species has been analyzed for codon usage, and this was performed with a small number of genes. In this paper, we report the codon usage patterns of eight completely sequenced genomes which belong to this genus. The results suggest that selection for translational efficiency and accuracy are the major factors shaping codon usage in all of the species studied so far, and therefore they were active in the last common ancestor of the group. Composition and molecular distances analyses show that highly expressed genes evolve slower at synonymous sites. We identified a conserved core of translationally optimal codons and study the tRNA gene pool in each genome. We found that the great majority of preferred triplets match the respective cognate tRNA with more copies in the respective genome. We discuss the possible scenarios that can explain the observed differences among the species analyzed. Finally we highlight the biotechnological application of this research regarding heterologous protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl, which connected to the C(1 position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.

  4. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial Genus Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradon R. McDonald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateral gene transfer (LGT profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces. Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution.

  5. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  6. The genus Attalea (Arecaceae of Bolivia: regional ecologic system affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moraes R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of the Neotropical species of the Arecaceae family, based on the recent contributions to its taxonomy and its relationship with natural landscapes, updates the spatial patterns to which they adapt in their range of distribution. In this case 121 records of specimens of the 11 species of the genus Attalea of Bolivia and their relationship with 30 ecological systems that approximate their scope of distribution at regional level are released. To this end, the geographical coordinates were systematized, verified and corrected. Localities of all the specimens collected from the genus Attalea in order to compare them with ecological systems, using the ArgGis tools. We then elaborate a dendrogram (species vs. ecological systems using the minimum distance method in the R program. The analysis of the relation of the species with the ecological systems highlights a species that does not compose to the southwest amazon: A. eichleri and that is native to ecological systems of the Cerrado. Among the SW Amazonian Attalea species, A. blepharopus (endemic to Bolivia is isolated from the others and the rest subgroup species according to their presence in forests and savannas, in addition to the subandean and alluvial, as it is for A. princeps, which is found in 17 systems (57%. Eight species of Attalea are common with Peru and 10 with Brazil. It is important to relate the hierarchical grouping of the Attalea species with ecological systems in function of landscape dynamics to document their space patterns and also for their conservation.

  7. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Anita M; Ma, Jun; Lipsky, Peter E; Raskin, Ilya

    2007-03-01

    Plants in the genus Tripterygium, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f., have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of Tripterygium extracts and of the main bioactive constituent, the diterpene triepoxide triptolide (1), to treat a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related conditions. The main mode of action of the Tripterygium extracts and triptolide (1) is the inhibition of expression of proinflammatory genes such as those for interleukin-2 (IL-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The efficacy and safety of certain types of Tripterygium extracts were confirmed in human clinical trials in the US and abroad. Over 300 compounds have been identified in the genus Tripterygium, and many of these have been evaluated for biological activity. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully mimicked by any individual constituent. This review discusses the biochemical composition and biological and pharmacological activities of Tripterygium extracts, and their main bioactive components.

  8. The genus Ehretia (Boraginaceae: Ehretioideae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Retief

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ehretia P.Browne in southern Africa is revised. Six species and five subspecies of Ehretia are currently rec­ognized in southern Africa, of which E. alba Retief & A.E.van Wyk, E. namibiensis Retief & A.E.van Wyk subsp. namibi­ensis,  E. namibiensis subsp.  kaokoensis Retief & A.E.van Wyk,  E. rigida subsp.  silvatica  Retief & A.E.van Wyk and E. rigida subsp. nervifolia Retief & A.E.van Wyk are newly described. The genus is widely distributed in the region and occurs in a variety of habitats, ranging from the forests of the Eastern Cape to the hot, arid, semidesert parts of Namibia. Members of Ehretia in southern Africa are predominantly multistemmed shrubs or small trees. Characters of the leaf, the trichome com­plement, inflorescence and corolla are used to distinguish between the different species. A key to the species, distribution maps and illustrations of various micro- and macromorphological as well as palynological features are provided.

  9. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  10. Transfer of Pseudomonas pictorum Gray and Thornton 1928 to genus Stenotrophomonas as Stenotrophomonas pictorum comb. nov., and emended description of the genus Stenotrophomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki; Le Mer, Jean; Joseph, Manon; Macarie, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic approach including analysis of phenotypic, physiological and genotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis was used to determine the most consistent affiliation of Pseudomonas pictorum. Pseudomonas pictorum ATCC 23328T exhibited phenotypic traits of members of the genus Stenotrophomonas including cellular fatty acid composition, quinone and limited range of substrates that could be used. Antibiotic susceptibility and physiological characteristics were determined. The DNA G+C content was 65.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type strains of Stenotrophomonas terrae, Stenotrophomonashumi, Stenotrophomonasnitritireducens and Stenotrophomonasacidaminiphila were the nearest relatives (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.0 to 98.8 %). All the other type strains of species of the genus Stenotrophomonas showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (96.8 to 97.2 %). DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed 31.0, 32.0, 43.3 and 43.6 % reassociation between Pseudomonas pictorum ATCC 23328T and the type strains of S. terrae, S. humi, S. nitritireducens and S. acidaminiphila, respectively. Our overall results indicate that Pseudomonas pictorum should be transferred to the genus Stenotrophomonas as a novel species of this genus, Stenotrophomonas pictorum comb. nov. Since the original description of the genus Stenotrophomonaswas made with only one species (Stenotrophomonasmaltophilia), an emendation of the genus description is proposed in order to match better with the characteristics of the eleven novel species assigned to this genus since then.

  11. Differential equation for genus-two characters in arbitrary rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Sen, A.

    1989-01-01

    We develop a general method for deriving ordinary differential equations for the genus-two ''characters'' of an arbitrary rational conformal field theory using the hyperelliptic representation of the genus-two moduli space. We illustrate our method by explicitly deriving the character differential equations for k=1 SU(2), G 2 , and F 4 WZW models. Our method provides an intrinsic definition of conformal field theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  12. The genus Ptilothamnion (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) in South Africa, with the description of P. goukammae spec. nov

    OpenAIRE

    Stegenga, Herre; Bolton, John J.; Anderson, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Ptilothamnion Thur. in Le Jolis is represented in South Africa by three, or possibly four species: P. codicolum, P. polysporum, P. goukammae spec. nov., and reportedly P. subsimplex, all recorded after 1983. An earlier record of P. pluma is probably erroneous. The new species differs from known representatives of the genus by producing strictly one involucral filament from the hypogenous cell and additionally one from the subhypogenous cell. Ptilothamnion is a widespread genus, but ...

  13. Periodic Points in Genus Two: Holomorphic Sections over Hilbert Modular Varieties, Teichmuller Dynamics, and Billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Apisa, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We show that all GL(2, R)-equivariant point markings over orbit closures of primitive genus two translation surfaces arise from marking pairs of points exchanged by the hyperelliptic involution, Weierstrass points, or the golden points in the golden eigenform locus. As corollaries, we classify the holomorphically varying families of points over orbifold covers of genus two Hilbert modular surfaces, solve the finite blocking problem on genus two translation surfaces, and show that there is at ...

  14. A new genus and species in the mite family Eupodidae (Acari, Eupodoidea) from Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    A new genus Pseudoeupodes Khaustov, gen. n. and new species Pseudoeupodes porosus sp. n. are described from moss in Crimea. The taxonomy of the Eupodidae and some other families and genera of Eupodoidea is reviewed. The genus Turanopenthalodes Barilo, 1988 is transferred from Penthalodidae to Penthaleidae. The family Cocceupodidae Jesionowska, 2010 and the genus Filieupodes Jesionowska, 2010 are considered as junior synonyms of Eupodidae Koch, 1842 and Cocceupodes Thor, 1934, respectively. A key to genera of the family Eupodidae is provided.

  15. A plastid phylogeny and character evolution of the Old World fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae) with the description of a new genus: Hovenkampia (Polypodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Mao; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Huang, Yao-Moan; Chen, De-Kui; Lu, Ngan Thi; Cicuzza, Daniele; Knapp, Ralf; Luong, Thien Tam; Nitta, Joel H; Gao, Xin-Fen; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2017-09-01

    The Old World fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae) offers a rare system in ferns to study morphological evolution because almost all species of this genus are well studied for their morphology, anatomy, and spore features, and various hypotheses have been proposed in terms of the phylogeny and evolution in this genus. However, the molecular phylogeny of the genus lags behind. The monophyly of the genus has been uncertain and a modern phylogenetic study of the genus based on molecular data has been lacking. In the present study, DNA sequences of five plastid markers of 220 accessions of Polypodiaceae representing two species of Drymoglossum, 14 species of Platycerium, 50 species of Pyrrosia, and the only species of Saxiglossum (subfamily Platycerioideae), and 12 species of other Polypodiaceae representing the remaining four subfamilies are used to infer a phylogeny of the genus. Major results and conclusions of this study include: (1) Pyrrosia as currently circumscribed is paraphyletic in relation to Platycerium and can be divided into two genera: Pyrrosia s.s. and Hovenkampia (gen. nov.), with Hovenkampia and Platycerium forming a strongly supported clade sister to Pyrrosia s.s.; (2) Subfamily Platycerioideae should contain three genera only, Hovenkampia, Platycerium, and Pyrrosia s.s.; (3) Based on the molecular phylogeny, macromorphology, anatomical features, and spore morphology, four major clades in the genus are identified and three of the four are further resolved into four, four, and six subclades, respectively; (4) Three species, P. angustissima, P. foveolata, and P. mannii, not assigned to any groups by Hovenkamp (1986) because of their unusual morphology, each form monospecific clades; (5) Drymoglossum is not monophyletic and those species previously assigned to this genus are resolved in two different subclades; (6) Saxiglossum is resolved as the first lineage in the Niphopsis clade; and (7) The evolution of ten major morphological characters in the

  16. Genus two finite gap solutions to the vector nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodcock, Thomas; Warren, Oliver H; Elgin, John N

    2007-01-01

    A recently published article presents a technique used to derive explicit formulae for odd genus solutions to the vector nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In another article solutions of genus two are derived using a different approach which assumes a separable ansatz. In this communication, the extension of the first technique to the even genus case is discussed, and this extension is carried out explicitly for genus two. Furthermore, a birational mapping is found between the spectral curves that arise in the two approaches. (fast track communication)

  17. Phase space and black-hole entropy of higher genus horizons in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, S; Brannlund, J; DeBenedictis, A

    2008-01-01

    In the context of loop quantum gravity, we construct the phase space of isolated horizons with genus greater than 0. Within the loop quantum gravity framework, these horizons are described by genus g surfaces with N punctures and the dimension of the corresponding phase space is calculated including the genus cycles as degrees of freedom. From this, the black-hole entropy can be calculated by counting the microstates which correspond to a black hole of fixed area. We find that the leading term agrees with the A/4 law and that the sub-leading contribution is modified by the genus cycles

  18. Eonandeva gen. nov., a new distinctive genus from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Giłka, Wojciech

    2015-11-20

    A new fossil genus, Eonandeva gen. nov., with two new species: E. helva sp. nov. (type for the genus) and E. latistyla sp. nov., is described from Eocene Baltic amber (~45-40 Ma). Adult males of both new species show the wing venation pattern, shape and chaetotaxy typical for the tribe Tanytarsini. The characters defined as prior apomorphies for the new genus--the gonostylus with a subapical flattened lobe and the stout, strongly elongated superior volsella--separate Eonandeva from the closely related extant genus Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss et Fittkau, 1998.

  19. Protomedetera, a new genus from the Oriental and Australasian realms (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Medeterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chufei; Grootaert, Patrick; Yang, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Protomedetera gen. n. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a new genus of the subfamily Medeterinae, is described from the Oriental and Australasian realms based on four new species. Protomedetera singaporensis Grootaert & Tang, sp. n. is designated as type of the new genus. The genus is peculiar because of the small body size, the small globular first flagellomere (postpedicel), the simple male genitalia with indistinct or small epandrial lobe and half-hidden cercus. The following four new species are described and illustrated: P. biconvexa sp. n. , P. biseta sp. n. , P. glabra sp. n. , and P. singaporensis sp. n. A key to the species of the new genus is provided.

  20. An updated review on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of evening primrose (genus Oenothera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Munir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Genus Oenothera includes medicinal plants that are distributed throughout the world and are known since ancient times. Popular indications of different species of this genus include treatment of inflammations, diabetes, microbial infections, ulcers, tumors, kidney and liver problems. The plants of this genus are a botanical source for various pharmaceutically active components like sterols, alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, biflavonols and tocopherols. This review article is a compilation of chemical composition and biological activities of the various species of the genus Oenothera.

  1. A review of the genus Orionis Shaw (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) and first records of the genus from South America and the Oriental Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoni, Marco Aurélio; Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio; Shaw, Scott Richard; Souza-Gessner, Carolina DA Silva; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2016-12-16

    Orionis is a small Neotropical euphorine genus, currently in the tribe Perilitini. Although the biology of the genus is unknown, Orionis eximius (Muesebeck) was described from a single female specimen reared from a cocoon associated with Lantana camara. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Orionis and the first records of the genus from South America and Thailand, with descriptions of three new species: O. brasiliensis sp. nov., O. ecuadoriensis sp. nov. and O. orientalis sp. nov. We also report the first record of O. eximius from South America (Ecuador). A revised key for the described species is presented.

  2. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Litsea: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Song; Wen, Zheng-Qi; Li, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-04-02

    The genus Litsea is one of the most diverse genera of evergreen trees or shrubs belong to Lauraceae, and comprises roughly 400 species of tree that are distributed abundantly throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, North and South America. Litsea species have been used globally in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including influenza, stomach aches, diarrhea, diabetes, vomiting, bone pain, inflammation, illness related to the central nervous system and other ailments. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacological research of Litsea species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. All the available information on Litsea species was actualised by systematically searching the scientific literatures including Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Indian, and South American herbal classics, library catalogs and scientific databases (PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar, VIP and Wanfang). The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Scientific Database of China Plant Species were used to validate scientific names. 407 secondary metabolites have been reported from Litsea species. Litsea Species are sources of secondary metabolites with interesting chemical structures (alkaloids, lactones, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, and essential oils) and significant bioactivities. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from Litsea show a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, insecticidal, etc. From data collected in this review, the genus Litsea comprises a wide range of therapeutically promising and valuable plants, and has attracted much attention owing to its multiple functions. Many traditional uses of Litsea species have now been validated by

  3. Revision of the Late Permian Non-Marine Bivalve Genus Verneuilunio Starobogatov, 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Urazaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Verneuilunio (type species Naiadites verneuili has been singled out from the genus Palaeanodonta Amalitzky based on differences in the structure of hinge margin established using the literature data. Both genera have been included in the family Palaeanodontidae, which used to be considered by the discoverer of this genus as a subjective synonym for the family Palaeomutelidae. The revision of W. Amalitskii’s collection has demonstrated that the original diagnosis of the genus con-tains a number of inaccuracies. This creates difficulties for identification of the genus Verneuilunio and complicates its placement within higher taxa. The paper presents a revised diagnosis of the genus Verneuilunio. The detailed description of its type species is provided. The genus Verneuilunio has been assigned to the family Naiaditidae based on the duplivincular and slightly amphidetic ligament. According to this feature, the genus under study is significantly different from other unio-like Late Permian non-marine bivalve genera (Palaeomutela, Palaeanodonta, Oligodontella, and Opokiella, often occurring in the same strata. The genus Verneuilunio mostly resembles some Late Carboniferous “atypical” unio-like species of the genus Anthraconaia Trueman et Weir. Statistical processing of the biometric parameters of Verneuilunio verneuili and the species A. pruvosti, mostly resembling it, has revealed statistically significant differences in elongation of the posterior end of the shell. To date, the geographic range of the genus Verneuilunio is restricted to the central part of the East European Platform, whereas its stratigraphic range is in the lower sublayer of the Severodvinsk layer.

  4. The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria.

  5. Phytochemical review of Juncus L. genus (Fam. Juncaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsamed I. El-Shamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the various naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from different species of Juncus genus. This is the first review published on this topic. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds, flavonoids, coumarines, terpenes, stilbenes, sterols, phenolic acids, carotenes, phenanthrenes derivatives (monomeric and dimeric and biological activities of these species. These plants have often been used in traditional medicine, and also have therefore been studied for their antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-algal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory, significant anti-eczematic and hepatoprotective activity. On the basis of 48 references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Juncus species, describing compounds previously reported.

  6. Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samul, Dorota; Worsztynowicz, Paulina; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the Clostridium genus are often described only as a biological threat and a foe of mankind. However, many of them have positive properties and thanks to them they may be used in many industry branches (e.g., in solvents and alcohol production, in medicine, and also in esthetic cosmetology). During the last 10 years interest in application of C. botulinum and C. tetani in medicine significantly increased. Currently, the structure and biochemical properties of neurotoxins produced by these bacterial species, as well as possibilities of application of such toxins as botulinum as a therapeutic factor in humans, are being intensely researched. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that bacteria from Clostridium spp. are not only pathogens and the enemy of humanity but they also have many important beneficial properties which make them usable among many chemical, medical, and cosmetic applications.

  7. Antibacterial modified diketopiperazines from two ascidians of the genus Didemnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P.; McHugh, Shayna; Torres, Yohandra R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lima, Bruna A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Rosana M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the crude extract of an ascidian of the genus Didemnum led to the isolation of the modified diketopiperazine rodriguesines A (1) and (2) as a mixture of homologues, which could be identified by analysis of spectroscopic data including MS/MS experiments. The investigation of a second Didemnum sp. led to the isolation of N-acetyl-rodriguesine A (3) and N-acetyl-rodriguesine B (4). The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 could be established by hydrolysis and Marfey's analysis and comparison with literature data reported for compound 3, previously obtained as a synthetic product. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed moderate antibiotic activity against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and against S. mutans UA159 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. (author)

  8. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  9. First report of partial albinism in genus Thrichomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da S.A. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports about albinism in rodents are common. In the family Echimyidae, however, albinism is very rare. This is the second case of coat color variation reported within Echimyidae and the first for the genus Thrichomys. The pelages of Thrichomys pachyurus individuals with normal and variant coat color were observed under a fluorescent artificial light and were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. The descriptions of pelage color were based on the book "Color Standards and Color Nomenclature". The predominantly white pattern of coat color in individuals of T. pachyurus suggests a partial albinism caused by delay in migration time of melanoblasts from neural crest to epidermis. The habitat of T. pachyurus has a heavy vegetative cover, which offers natural protection against predators and high-quality nutrition.

  10. Application of Biotechnology in the Conservation of the Genus Castanea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Corredoira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Castanea is a hardwood forest genus of considerable agro-economic importance for both timber and nut production. Chestnuts are one of the most significant nut crops in the temperate zone. However, this species is threatened by pollution, social factors, economical changes, and two major fungal diseases: ink disease (Phytophthora spp., and chestnut blight canker (Cryphonectria parasitica. Similar to other wood species, chestnuts are difficult to propagate both generatively by seed and vegetatively by means of grafting or cuttings. Biotechnological methods such as in vitro culture have been developed in the last few years as an alternative to conventional vegetative propagation. Biotechnology plays a very important role not only in the propagation of selected individuals (being used at a commercial level, but also in its short-term preservation, and offers the possibility of preserving the propagated material in the medium-term (cold storage or long-term using cryopreservation.

  11. Polyploidization facilitates biotechnological in vitro techniques in the genus Cucumis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Dagmar; Ondřej, Vladan; Doležalová, Ivana; Navrátilová, Božena; Lebeda, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Prezygotic interspecific crossability barrier in the genus Cucumis is related to the ploidy level of the species (cucumber (C. sativus), x = 7; muskmelon (C. melo) and wild Cucumis species, x = 12). Polyploidization of maternal plants helps hybridization among other Cucumis species by overcoming prezygotic genetic barriers. The main objective of this paper is to compare the results of several methods supporting interspecific crosses in cucumber without and with polyploidization (comparison between diploid (2x) and mixoploid (2x/4x) cucumber maternal plants). Mixoploid plants were obtained after in vivo and in vitro polyploidization by colchicine and oryzalin. Ploidy level was estimated by flow cytometry. Embryo rescue, in vitro pollination, and isolation of mesophyll protoplast were tested and compared. Positive effect of polyploidization was observed during all experiments presented by higher regeneration capacity of cultivated mixoploid cucumber embryos, ovules, and protoplasts. Nevertheless, the hybrid character of putative hybrid accessions obtained after cross in vivo and in vitro pollination was not confirmed.

  12. Antibacterial modified diketopiperazines from two ascidians of the genus Didemnum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P.; McHugh, Shayna; Torres, Yohandra R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Lima, Bruna A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G.; Rocha, Rosana M.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the crude extract of an ascidian of the genus Didemnum led to the isolation of the modified diketopiperazine rodriguesines A (1) and (2) as a mixture of homologues, which could be identified by analysis of spectroscopic data including MS/MS experiments. The investigation of a second Didemnum sp. led to the isolation of N-acetyl-rodriguesine A (3) and N-acetyl-rodriguesine B (4). The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 could be established by hydrolysis and Marfey's analysis and comparison with literature data reported for compound 3, previously obtained as a synthetic product. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed moderate antibiotic activity against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and against S. mutans UA159 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. (author)

  13. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lema, Thales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An update commented list of the snake genus Apostolepis from South America, with keys for identification of the species. They are fossorial snakes that present different coloration according their distribution: (a 7 to 3 dark stripes coloration, without light nuchal collar (if present, vestigial, with snout not projected beyond jaws - in Amazonian and enclaves within Caatinga domain; (b 5 dark striped dorsal pattern, snout projected, usually without white nuchal collars — from region of contact between Cerrado and Chaco domains; (c dorsal pattern coloration uniformly red, with nucho-cervical collars, snout usually projected — in Cerrado with dispersion to Chaco and Caatinga; (d 2 or none dark stripes dorsally, venter immaculate or with black blotches, snout projecting: (e an aberrant pattern with oblique black dorsal stripes, without collars, head black and snout projecting — one species in an enclave within Caatinga, with 17 rows of scales instead of 15.

  14. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

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    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  15. Stream Level Stabilization by Algae of the Genus Cladophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations in the Pryský brook experimental catchment revealed that the vegetation of the stream channel stabilizes water level depth in the measured profile. The explored brook has been heavily overgrown by algae of the genus Cladophora due to a strong pollution by nitrates. It seems that if the algae average length exceeds the midsize of the stones paving the bed (ca. 30 ± 7 cm in diameter, escribed circle to pentagon or heptagon, the water level stagnates in the flowrate range of 60–180 l s−1. This totally blocks the streamflow daily oscillation (in summer months in a purely stone bed reaching up to 15%, along with tidal phenomena. The article analyzes one of possible explanations of this effect due to the dependence of the algae thickness layer modifying the channel bed cross-section on the speed of flowing water.

  16. Revision of the genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae

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    Tomáš Lackner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopus glaucus = Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914, comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopus therondi sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies E. grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with E. grossipes (Marseul, 1855, syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinus grossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopus glaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopus grossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914 is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopus torvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopus atrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopus henoni (Schmidt, 1896 is new to Libya and Djibouti.

  17. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex in the Suez Canal Governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, L M; Kamal, A M; Ahmed, M M; Boshara, E F

    1990-06-01

    Mosquitoes are among the most annoying and important vectors of human and animal diseases as malaria, filariasis, yellow fever, rift valley fever...etc. In this paper, it was aimed to study the present status of species of genus Culex in the Suez Canal Governorates after the reconstruction and developmental projects. Five species of Culex were identified: C. pipiens, C. univittatus, C. antennatus, C. poicilipes and C. pusillus. The latter species was represented by two specimens. C. pipiens was the commonest species both indoors and outdoors. C. antennatus and C. poicilipes were found only outdoors. C. pipiens was found all the year round particularly in Spring. Other species were found in Spring and Autumn, except C. antennatus which was found in Summer as well. The results were discussed on the light of work done before.

  18. Bioactivity and phylogeny of the marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard

    -associated strains were significantly more likely to possess stable antibacterial activity and be pigmented. Pseudoalteromonas strains are known as prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites; hence screening the global strain collection for production of novel antibiotics was initiated. Novel quinolone...... of regulatory compounds involved in cell to cell signaling within some strains of the species P. luteoviolacea. Since such mechanisms are known to govern antibiotic production in some bacteria, this was investigated. A quorum sensing system controlling a putative novel biosynthetic pathway with high homology......The purpose of this Ph.D. project was to evaluate a global collection of marine Pseudoalteromonas bacteria as a source of novel bioactive compounds, and to investigate the distribution and production of such compounds among different species within the Pseudoalteromonas genus. The strain collection...

  19. Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium 

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    Ewa Dylus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.

  20. Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata, can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July.

  1. Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2017-01-01

    A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and Vietnam is included. Craspedolcus obscuriventris Enderlein, 1920, ( syn. n. ) is a new synonym of Craspedolcus vagatus (Smith, 1858), as Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 and Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907 of Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n . The genus Craspedolcus is recorded from China for the first time with two species: Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, 1920, and Craspedolcus politus sp. n. The genus Maculibracon is represented by three species in China: Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n. (also present in Vietnam), Maculibracon hei sp. n. and Maculibracon luteonervis sp. n. and a fourth species is described from Thailand: Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. Hybogaster zebripterae Wang & Chen, 2008, from China (Fujian) is transferred to Iphiaulax Foerster, 1863, ( comb. n. ) and the following names are new combinations in Maculibracon gen. n. : Bracon lepcha Cameron, 1899; Bracon phaedo Cameron, 1899; Bracon simlaensis Cameron, 1899; Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907; Iphiaulax laertius Cameron, 1903; Iphiaulax leptopterus Cameron, 1903; Iphiaulax lineaticarinatus Cameron, 1907; Ipobracon lissotomus Roman, 1914; Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 and Iphiaulax pallidicornis Roman, 1914. Craspedolcus montezuma (Cameron, 1887) is provisionally transferred to the genus Digonogastra Viereck, 1912.

  2. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 17. The genus Dalbergia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.; Ohashi, H.; Sunarno, B.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic treatment of the genus Dalbergia for the Flora Malesiana (FM) region is presented. The treatment includes a genus description, two keys to the species, an enumeration of the species present in the FM-area with names and synonyms, details of distribution, habitat and ecology and where

  3. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 16. The genus Mucuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiriadinata, H.; Ohashi, H.; Adema, F.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Mucuna is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Several characters are discussed in some detail. The subdivision of the genus is discussed. We accept two subgenera: subg. Mucuna and subg. Stizolobium. Several groups of species showing similarity in some characters are discussed. A

  4. Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-06-22

    Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium are described and figured: P. striatum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Ha Tinh and Thai Nguyen) and P. concavum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Cao Bang). A key to all known species of the genus is provided.

  5. Integrability of Liouville system on high genus Riemann surface: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixin; Gao Hongbo

    1992-01-01

    By using the theory of uniformization of Riemann-surfaces, we study properties of the Liouville equation and its general solution on a Riemann surface of genus g>1. After obtaining Hamiltonian formalism in terms of free fields and calculating classical exchange matrices, we prove the classical integrability of Liouville system on high genus Riemann surface

  6. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.L.; Twomey, E.; Amézquita, A.; Souza, M.B.; Caldwell, J.P.; Lötters, S.; May, R.; Melo-Sampaio, P.R.; Mejía-Vargas, D.; Perez-Peña, P.; Pepper, M.; Poelman, E.H.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Summers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya is revised, resulting in one new genus, one new species, five synonymies and one species classified as nomen dubium. We present an expanded molecular phylogeny that contains 235 terminals, 104 of which are new to this study. Notable additions to this

  7. A new genus and two new species of Tingidae (Heteroptera) from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara I

    2008-04-01

    A new genus, Ceratotingis, distributed in Central America, is described to accommodate two new species, C. rafaeli from Panama and C. costarriquense from Costa Rica and to include Macrotingis zeteki from Panama. This paper includes descriptions of the new genus and its species, a redescription of C. zeteki, an identification key, and habitus photographs.

  8. A new genus of Tetratermini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Lysiterminae) parasitic on grasshoppers (Gryllacrididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Steiner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The new genus Katytermus from Malaysia (type species: Katytermus palmicola spec. nov.) is described and illustrated. The new genus belongs to a new tribe, Tetratermini, of the subfamily Lysiterminae. The type species has been reared as a gregarious endoparasite of a "katydid" longhorn grasshopper

  9. Finite-gap solutions of Abelian Toda chain of genus 4 and 5 in elliptic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A reduction theorem is formulated and proved. Smooth real solutions of the Abelian Toda chain of genus 4 and 5 are obtained in elliptic functions. Solutions of genus 2g and 2g + 1 of the discrete Peierls-Froehlich model in the absence of intramolecular deformation are constructed in terms of g-dimensional theta functions

  10. A new species of the genus Microtendipes Kieffer, 1915 (Diptera, Chironomidae from Oriental China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Microtendipes Kieffer, 1915, M. zhejiangensis sp.n., is described, and its morphological description and illustrations are given. A catalogue of the genus in Oriental Region is provided and a key to the males of Microtendipes in the Oriental Region is given.

  11. Proposal to restrict the genus Clostridium Prazmowski to Clostridium butyricum and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Paul A; Rainey, Fred A

    2016-02-01

    The genus Clostridium as presently constituted is phylogenetically and phenotypically incoherent. Data from polyphasic taxonomic studies indicate that the genus comprises a collection of very heterogeneous species. Numerous phylogenetic studies, principally based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, indicate that the genus Clostridium should be restricted to Clostridium cluster I as Clostridium sensu stricto . Despite these findings, authors continue to add novel species to the genus Clostridium that do not fall within the radiation of cluster I and the type species Clostridium butyricum , thus perpetuating the confusion associated with the taxonomy of this group. Here, we formally propose that members of the genus Clostridium Prazmowski be restricted to the type species C. butyricum and cluster I species. Eubacterium moniliforme , Eubacterium tarantellae , Sarcina maxima and Sarcina ventriculi should be transferred to the genus Clostridium as Clostridium moniliforme comb. nov., Clostridium tarantellae comb. nov., Clostridium maximum comb. nov. and Clostridium ventriculi comb. nov. A novel genus, Hathewaya gen. nov., is proposed for the species Clostridium histolyticum , Clostridium limosum and Clostridium proteolyticum as Hathewaya histolytica gen. nov. comb. nov., Hathewaya limosa comb. nov. and Hathewaya proteolytica comb. nov. The type species of the genus Hathewaya is Hathewaya histolytica.

  12. A taxonomic review of the species of the genus Amara Bonelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The twelve species and subspecies of the pterostichine genus Amara Bonelli living in the study area represent about 22% of the Turkish species of this genus. This study is based on material collected primarily in the province of Kahramanmara, but also in the surrounding provinces of Adana, Adýyaman, Gaziantep, Kayseri ...

  13. Extended KN algebras and extended conformal field theories over higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresole, A.; Huang Chaoshang

    1990-01-01

    A global operator formalism for extended conformal field theories over higher genus Riemann surfaces is introduced and extended KN algebra are obtained by means of the KN bases. The BBSS construction of the spin-3 operator is carried out for Kac-Moody algebra A 2 over a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus. (orig.)

  14. Arrasia rostrata (Basidiomycota), a new corticioid genus and species from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarosa Bernicchia; Sergio P. Gorj& #243; n; Karen K. Nakasone

    2011-01-01

    An unusual corticioid species with distinctive large basidiospores that develop a distal refractive rostrum when fully mature is described as new. It grows on living bark of Juniperus phoenicea on the Italian island of Sardinia. Because it is morphologically distinct from any known genus of corticioid fungi, the new genus Arrasia...

  15. A new species of electric ray of the genus Narcine Henle, 1834 from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of electric ray of the genus Narcine Henle, 1834 is described from seven specimens collected from two localities off the western coast of Madagascar, in the Moçambique Channel. Narcine insolita, sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique presence of a very prominent first ...

  16. Resurrection of the genus Aphyllon for New World broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Schneider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent phylogenetic studies support a monophyletic clade of New World broomrapes (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon sister to the Old World genus Phelipanche. I place the New World taxa in the genus Aphyllon, propose 21 new combinations, and provide a list of currently accepted taxa.

  17. Resurrection of the genus Aphyllon for New World broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies support a monophyletic clade of New World broomrapes (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon) sister to the Old World genus Phelipanche. I place the New World taxa in the genus Aphyllon, propose 21 new combinations, and provide a list of currently accepted taxa.

  18. Molecular phylogeny and systematic revision of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynns, Justin Thomas

    A systematic investigation of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. was performed as a part of the author’s PhD study at the University of Copenhagen. Plagiothecium is mostly a well-defined genus, but the species limits and the interspecific relationships are poorly understood...

  19. Genus-specificity of araneophagy of linyphiid spiders and spiders of other families (Arachnida, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2009-01-01

    We found genus specificity of predation by spiders on other spiders in captivity which surpass them in body size (araneophagy). Adult specimens of three species of the linyphiid genus Walckenaeria which were successively tested for araneophagy (in the laboratory) in the order of first species

  20. Het voorkomen van de glanskevers van het genus Caprophilus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Some species of the genus Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) may act as pests of stored products like cocoabeans, peanuts, dried fruits like figs and dates, imported from tropical or

  1. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  2. Three new species of the genus Acanthomastix Manunka, 1972 from United States and Poland (Acari: Dolichocybidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech L. Magowski; John C. Moser

    1993-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Mahunka, 1972 are described and figured: A. and A. elegans spp. n. phoretic on Hylobius pales (Herbst) (Insecta: Curculionidae) from USA and A. minor sp. n. from rotten fir bark in Poland. The genus Acanthomastix...

  3. Monohedotrochus capitolii, a new genus and species of solitary azooxanthellate coral (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae) from southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitahara, M.V.; Cairns, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of azooxanthellate solitary coral, Monohedotrochus capitolii, are described in the subfamily Caryophylliinae, based on 42 specimens, most collected off Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, southern Brazil. The new genus is characterized by being solitary and attached,

  4. Use of microsatellites to evaluate genetic diversity and species relationships in the genus Lycopersicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.; Wiel, van de C.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine how informative a set of microsatellites from tomato is across the genus Lycopersicon, 17 microsatellite loci, derived from regions in and around genes, were tested on 31 accessions comprising the nine species of the genus. The microsatellite polymorphisms were used to estimate

  5. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-09-30

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia. 

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  7. Osmiine bees of the genus Haetosmia (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haetosmia is a species-poor genus of osmiine bees (Megachilidae) containing six species, which inhabit deserts and semideserts between the Canary Islands and Central Asia. Formerly considered to be restricted to the southern Palaearctic region, the genus is shown here to occur also in the northern A...

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phanerochaete inferred from the internal transcribed spacer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus H. de Koker; Karen K. Nakasone; Jacques Haarhof; Harold H. Burdsall; Bernard J.H. Janse

    2003-01-01

    Phanerochaete is a genus of resupinate homobasidiomycetes that are saprophytic on woody debris and logs. Morphological studies in the past indicated that Phanerochaete is a heterogeneous assemblage of species. In this study the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to test the monophyly of the genus Phanerochaete and to infer...

  9. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  10. Phenetic analysis of medicinally important species of the genus solanum from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Z.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Solanum is one of the largest and hyper diverse genera of the family Solanaceae. In Pakistan Solanum is represented by 15 species, of which 11 species have the medicinal properties. Taxonomically this is a complex genus because of the presence of number of hybrid and controversial taxonomic status of S. nigrum complex. In the present study numerical techniques were utilized to evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Solanum. Cluster analysis was employed to work out the relationship among the taxa of the genus Solanum. The Euclidean distance measured similarity matrix and a dendrogram was constructed by using the complete linkage method. This analysis showed that all the species of genus Solanum can easily be divided into two groups at hundred percentage linkage distance. Co-relation of quantitative characters showed that floral characters had highly significant relationship with the stem characters, these characters plays a significant role in the identification of the species of the genus Solanum. (author)

  11. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natdanai Likhitrakarn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: O. atypica sp. n., O. communis sp. n., O. isarankurai sp. n., O. picturata sp. n., O. similanensis sp. n., O. suberecta sp. n., O. tuberculifera sp. n., O. subtuberculifera sp. n. and O. latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as O. elevata sp. n., O. spiniformis sp. n. and O. subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species O. beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841 is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of O. spinala (Attems, 1932, syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: O. rotundicollis (Attems, 1937 = O. tuberculata (Attems, 1937, syn. n., and O. butteli Carl, 1922 = O. consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: O. setosus (Attems, 1937, the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and O. exaratus (Attems, 1953, both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha.

  12. Is it time to retire the genus Rymovirus from the family Potyviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colin W

    2017-07-01

    In the most recent Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (9 th Report, 2011) (King et al., Virus Taxonomy, Elsevier, New York, 2011) the family Potyviridae is described as comprising seven genera - Potyvirus, Ipomovirus, Macluravirus, Rymovirus, Tritimovirus, Brambyvirus and Bymovirus - despite previous suggestions questioning the validity of the taxonomic status of the genus Rymovirus. Since then the ICTV website records that an eighth genus Poacevirus has been approved for the Potyviridae family. The creation of the genus Rymovirus at the 1990 Potyvirus Taxonomy Workshop in Braunschweig, Germany was based on two things: (i) the incorrect assumption that the genomes of all mite-transmitted members of the Potyviridae would have strong sequence similarity to that of wheat streak mosaic virus, the only mite-transmitted member of this genus for which sequence data were available at that time, and (ii) that the genus should be named Rymovirus (based on a virus for which there was no sequence information) rather than a name based on wheat streak mosaic virus (e.g., "Whestremovirus") because ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) was the first mite-transmitted virus to be described and thus should take precedence. When sequence data for RGMV became available in 1995, these data showed that RGMV was very different from wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and should not be assigned to the same genus. WSMV was subsequently re-assigned to a new genus, Tritimovirus, while the genus Rymovirus was retained. In this author's opinion, this retention is not justified, and the removal of Rymovirus as a distinct genus in the family Potyviridae is recommended. There may be merit when assigning it to the genus Potyvirus in sequestering these viruses in a rymovirus subgroup, as is done with other potyviruses, to reflect their different mode of transmission.

  13. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the Zaeucoilini, new tribe (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) and a description of a new genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotropical eucoiline genera that have been included in and allied with the Zaeucoila genus group sensu Nordlander are redescribed. Following character analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction (25 taxa, 96 morphological characters, 1452 ribosomal and mitochondrial characters), this informal genus g...

  14. Metabolite variability in Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Puyana

    Full Text Available Abstract Sponges of the genus Aplysina are among the most common benthic animals on reefs of the Caribbean, and display a wide diversity of morphologies and colors. Tissues of these sponges lack mineralized skeletal elements, but contain a dense spongin skeleton and an elaborate series of tyrosine-derived brominated alkaloid metabolites that function as chemical defenses against predatory fishes, but do not deter some molluscs. Among the earliest marine natural products to be isolated and identified, these metabolites remain the subject of intense interest for commercial applications because of their activities in various bioassays. In this study, crude organic extracts from 253 sponges from ten morphotypes among the species Aplysina archeri,Aplysina bathyphila,Aplysina cauliformis,Aplysina fistularis,Aplysina fulva,A. insularis, and Aplysina lacunosa were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS to characterize the pattern of intra- and interspecific variabilities of the twelve major secondary metabolites present therein. Patterns across Aplysina species ranged from the presence of mostly a single compound, fistularin-3, in A. cauliformis, to a mixture of metabolites present in the other species. These patterns did not support the biotransformation hypothesis for conversion of large molecular weight molecules to smaller ones for the purpose of enhanced defense. Discriminant analyses of the metabolite data revealed strong taxonomic patterns that support a close relationship between A. fistularis,A. fulva and A. insularis, while two morphotypes of A. cauliformis (lilac creeping vs. brown erect were very distinct. Two morphotypes of A. lacunosa, one with hard tissue consistency, the other soft and thought to belong to a separate genus (Suberea, had very similar chemical profiles. Of the twelve metabolites found among samples, variation in fistularin-3, dideoxyfistularin-3 and hydroxyaerothionin provided the most predictive

  15. A study of seed micromorphology in the genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán Cela, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed micromorphology of 19 taxa of the genus Ophrys have been studied using SEM and light microscope. Quantitative data (length and width of seed and embryo, number of testa cells along the longitudinal axis, volume of seed and embryo, and percentage of free air space, as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, features of the anticlinal and periclinal walls, ornamentation and colour were analysed. All the seeds are fusiform, with an asymmetrical basal pole, the periclinal walls of the medial cells have parallel and transverse to slanting ridges, and raised anticlinal walls. Statistical analyses show two large clusters according to the volumes of seed and embryo. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and their recent diversification, however, seed features are not congruent with the recognition of sections and groups within Ophrys.Se ha estudiado la micromorfología de semillas de 19 taxones del género Ophrys mediante el empleo de microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido. Se han analizado datos cuantitativos (longitud y anchura de la semilla y del embrión, número de células en la testa a lo largo del eje longitudinal, volumen de la semilla y del embrión, y porcentaje de espacio aéreo libre y cualitativos (morfología de la semilla, características de sus paredes anticlinales y periclinales, ornamentación y color. Todas las semillas analizadas son fusiformes, con polo basal asimétrico, ornamentación de las paredes periclinales formada por costillas paralelas y transversales a oblicuas, y paredes anticlinales prominentes. Los análisis estadísticos revelan dos grandes cluster según los valores de los volúmenes de la semilla y el embrión. Nuestros resultados apoyan la monofilia del género y su reciente diversificación, sin embargo, los caracteres micromorfológicos de las semillas no son congruentes con el reconocimiento de secciones y grupos dentro del género Ophrys.

  16. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activity is higher for fresh than that of frozen herbs. Lamiaceae family herbs: oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and Greek oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L. were planted and analyzed. Herb samples were extracted by hot demineralised water. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method was used for antioxidant activity assessment. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Steam distillation of essential oils was carried out via Clevenger Apparatus. The obtained essential oils were analysed by GC-MS technique. Results of tested fresh, dried and frozen herbs showed a considerable potential for quenching the free DPPH radical. Significantly higher antioxidant activity was found in dried herbs comparing to fresh and frozen, but only in case of values calculated per 100 g of the sample. However, the differences were not statistically significant after recalculation when expressed on dry matter content. There was no difference between fresh and frozen samples. The content of total phenols was significantly higher in dried than in frozen herbs in values recalculated per 100 g of sample. A strong correlation between the results of DPPH and TPC was found again only for values expressed per 100 g of the sample. Post-harvest treatment of herbs affects the composition of their essential oils. The dominant essential oil component of Greek oregano is carvacrol with a proportion of 60% or more. On the contrary

  17. Geometrical critical phenomena on a random surface of arbitrary genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplantier, B.; Kostov, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of self-avoiding walks (SAW) or of the O(n)-loop model on a two-dimensional random surface are shown to be exactly solvable. The partition functions of SAW and surface configurations (possibly in the presence of vacuum loops) are calculated by planar diagram enumeration techniques. Two critical regimes are found: a dense phase where the infinite walks and loops fill the infinite surface, the non-filled part staying finite, and a dilute phase where the infinite surface singularity on the one hand, and walk and loop singularities on the other, merge together. The configuration critical exponents of self-avoiding networks of any fixed topology G, on a surface with arbitrary genus H, are calculated as universal functions of G and H. For self-avoiding walks, the exponents are built from an infinite set of basic conformal dimensions associated with central charges c = -2 (dense phase) and c = 0 (dilute phase). The conformal spectrum Δ L , L ≥ 1 associated with L-leg star polymers is calculated exactly, for c = -2 and c = 0. This is generalized to the set of L-line 'watermelon' exponents Δ L of the O(n) model on a random surface. The divergences of the partition functions of self-avoiding networks on the random surface, possibly in the presence of vacuum loops, are shown to satisfy a factorization theorem over the vertices of the network. This provides a proof, in the presence of a fluctuating metric, of a result conjectured earlier in the standard plane. From this, the value of the string susceptibility γ str (H,c) is extracted for a random surface of arbitrary genus H, bearing a field theory of central charge c, or equivalently, embedded in d=c dimensions. Lastly, by enumerating spanning trees on a random lattice, we solve the similar problem of hamiltonian walks on the (fluctuating) Manhattan covering lattice. We also obtain new results for dilute trees on a random surface. (orig./HSI)

  18. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are preliminarily re-assessed using the

  19. New Insights into the Diversity of the Genus Faecalibacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Benevides

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal bacterium, ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. This species is a functionally important member of the microbiota and studies suggest it has an impact on the physiology and health of the host. F. prausnitzii is the only identified species in the genus Faecalibacterium, but a recent study clustered strains of this species in two different phylogroups. Here, we propose the existence of distinct species in this genus through the use of comparative genomics. Briefly, we performed analyses of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, phylogenomics, whole genome Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (wgMLST, Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI, gene synteny, and pangenome to better elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among strains of Faecalibacterium. For this, we used 12 newly sequenced, assembled, and curated genomes of F. prausnitzii, which were isolated from feces of healthy volunteers from France and Australia, and combined these with published data from 5 strains downloaded from public databases. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences, together with the wgMLST profiles and a phylogenomic tree based on comparisons of genome similarity, all supported the clustering of Faecalibacterium strains in different genospecies. Additionally, the global analysis of gene synteny among all strains showed a highly fragmented profile, whereas the intra-cluster analyses revealed larger and more conserved collinear blocks. Finally, ANI analysis substantiated the presence of three distinct clusters—A, B, and C—composed of five, four, and four strains, respectively. The pangenome analysis of each cluster corroborated the classification of these clusters into three distinct species, each containing less variability than that found within the global pangenome of all strains. Here, we propose that comparison of pangenome subsets and their associated α values may be used as an alternative approach

  20. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-11

    Two new species of the issid genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae): Neotetricodes longispinus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and Neotetricodes xiphoideus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.