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Sample records for gentamicin resistance comparison

  1. The Rapid Emergence of High Level Gentamicin Resistance in Enterococci

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    Kevin R Forward

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of enterococci isolated from blood and urine cultures that were highly resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin were determined. No blood or urine isolates highly resistant to gentamicin were seen in 1983, whereas by 1986–87 25% of blood and 17% of urine isolates were highly resistant. The rapid emergence of gentamicin resistance has serious implications for patients with life threatening enterococcal disease.

  2. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

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    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics.

  3. Correlation between apramycin and gentamicin use in pigs and an increasing reservoir of gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Jakobsen, Lotte; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe;

    2006-01-01

    and gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli strains from pork, healthy pigs and diagnostic submissions from pigs and to investigate potential relationships to the use of apramycin and gentamicin at farm and national levels. Methods: Data on Danish E. coli isolates from healthy pigs (indicator bacteria......-2004). The genetic background for gentamicin resistance was investigated by PCR. Relationships between antimicrobial usage and resistance were analysed by chi(2) test and logistic regression. Results: At the farm level, the occurrence of apramycin/gentamicin cross-resistance was correlated to the use of apramycin (P...... resistance in clinical E. coli 0149 isolates was significantly correlated with the amounts and duration of apramycin use. The aac(3)-IV gene was detected in all tested cross-resistant isolates. Conclusions: Apramycin consumption...

  4. Community Acquisition of Gentamicin-Sensitive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Southeast Queensland, Australia

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    Nimmo, Graeme R.; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline; O'Kane, Gabrielle; McCall, Brad; Vickery, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) susceptible to gentamicin has been reported in a number of countries in the 1990s. To study the acquisition of gentamicin-sensitive MRSA (GS-MRSA) in southeast Queensland and the relatedness of GS-MRSA to other strains of MRSA, 35 cases of infection due to GS-MRSA from October 1997 through September 1998 were examined retrospectively to determine the mode of acquisition and risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Thirty-one isol...

  5. Chromosomally and Extrachromosomally Mediated High-Level Gentamicin Resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae.

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    Sendi, Parham; Furitsch, Martina; Mauerer, Stefanie; Florindo, Carlos; Kahl, Barbara C; Shabayek, Sarah; Berner, Reinhard; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a leading cause of sepsis in neonates. The rate of invasive GBS disease in nonpregnant adults also continues to climb. Aminoglycosides alone have little or no effect on GBS, but synergistic killing with penicillin has been shown in vitro. High-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) in GBS isolates, however, leads to the loss of a synergistic effect. We therefore performed a multicenter study to determine the frequency of HLGR GBS isolates and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to gentamicin resistance. From eight centers in four countries, 1,128 invasive and colonizing GBS isolates were pooled and investigated for the presence of HLGR. We identified two strains that displayed HLGR (BSU1203 and BSU452), both of which carried the aacA-aphD gene, typically conferring HLGR. However, only one strain (BSU1203) also carried the previously described chromosomal gentamicin resistance transposon designated Tn3706. For the other strain (BSU452), plasmid purification and subsequent DNA sequencing resulted in the detection of plasmid pIP501 carrying a remnant of a Tn3 family transposon. Its ability to confer HLGR was proven by transfer into an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. Conversely, loss of HLGR was documented after curing both GBS BSU452 and the transformed E. faecalis strain from the plasmid. This is the first report showing plasmid-mediated HLGR in GBS. Thus, in our clinical GBS isolates, HLGR is mediated both chromosomally and extrachromosomally.

  6. Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff in treatment of resistant exit site infection in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study.

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    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Ozer, Ozerhan; Erdem, Selahattin; Gunal, Ali Ihsan

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common complications of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the infection of the exit site of the peritoneal catheter. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff as a part of routine treatment of the resistant exit site infection (ESI). If the exit site remains infected after a 2-week systemic antibiotics treatment, it is defined as resistant ESI. In these cases, systemic antibiotics were discontinued and a subcutaneous 40-mg gentamicin injection was administered around the external cuff of the PD catheter every 3 days. A total of three or four injections were given to each patient. A subcutaneous gentamicin injection was administered around the cuff in thirteen patients for the treatment of resistant ESI over a 2-year period. The median follow-up time in cured patients was 12 months. Eleven of the thirteen patients had been apparently cured of their resistant ESI, with no recurrence. None of the patients had a gentamicin-resistant species. Subcutaneous gentamicin-related adverse effect was not observed in any patient. Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff is a well-tolerated and effective strategy for treating resistant ESI. To gain widespread approval of this therapy and reach a consensus about ESI management, additional studies are needed.

  7. Novel pathways for ameliorating the fitness cost of gentamicin resistant small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Leng, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    mutations in the menaquinone and hemin biosynthesis pathways, which caused a significant reduction in exponential growth rates relative to wild type (WT; 0.59-0.72) and reduced membrane potentials. Fifty independent lineages of the low-fitness, resistant mutants were serially passaged for up to 500......Small colony variants (SCVs) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections. Phenotypically, SCVs are characterized by slow growth and they can arise upon interruption of the electron transport chain that consequently reduce membrane potential and thereby...... in the absence of gentamicin, 12 out of 15 lineages derived from SCVs with point mutations acquired intra-codonic suppressor mutations restoring membrane potential, growth rate, gentamicin susceptibility and colony size to WT levels. For the SCVs carrying deletions, all lineages enhanced fitness independent...

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

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    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  9. Novel Glycoconjugate of 8-Fluoro Norfloxacin Derivatives as Gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Inhibitors: Synthesis and Molecular Modelling Studies.

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    Azad, Chandra S; Bhunia, Shome S; Krishna, Atul; Shukla, Praveen K; Saxena, Anil K

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance has been the subject of interest in clinical practice due to high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic organisms. In view of the prevalence of lesser resistance in antibiotics belonging to aminoglycoside class of compounds viz. Food and Drug Administration-approved gentamicin for the treatment of Staphylococcus infections, which also has instances of resistance in the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, a series of novel glycoconjugates of 8-fluoro norfloxacin analogues with high regio-selectivity by employing copper (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of 1-O-propargyl monosaccharides has been synthesized and evaluated for the antibacterial activity against gentamicin resistance Staphylococcus aureus. Among these compounds, the compound 10g showed better antibacterial activity (MIC = 3.12 μg/ml) than gentamicin (Escherichia coli (12.5 μg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (6.25 μg/ml) and Klebsiella pneumonia (6.25 μg/ml), including gentamicin resistant (>50 μg/ml) strain in vitro). The docking studies suggest DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as a probable target for the antibacterial action of compound 10g. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Detection of the esp gene in high-level gentamicin resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains from pet animals in Japan.

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    Harada, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Noboru; Otsuki, Koichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-20

    We investigated the prevalence of the esp gene and the susceptibility to gentamicin in Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium strains obtained from pet animals. Nine of 30 E. faecalis and 2 of 38 E. faecium strains from the pet animals had the esp gene. Three esp-positive E. faecalis strains, which were isolated from two dogs and a cat, showed gentamicin MICs of > or =256 microg/ml and harbored the high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) gene, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia. Of the nine esp-positive E. faecalis strains, five, including the three strains with the HLGR gene, were closely related by numerical analysis of PFGE patterns. Longitudinal investigation needs to elucidate whether the HLGR gene was incorporated into a subpopulation of the esp-positive E. faecalis.

  11. Temperature-dependent gentamicin resistance of Francisella tularensis is mediated by uptake modulation

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    Kathleen eLoughman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (Gm is an aminoglycoside commonly used to treat bacterial infections such as tularemia – the disease caused by Francisella tularensis. In addition to being pathogenic, F. tularensis is found in environmental niches such as soil where this bacterium likely encounters Gm producers (Micromonospora sp.. Here we show that F. tularensis exhibits increased resistance to Gm at ambient temperature (26°C compared to mammalian body temperature (37°C. To evaluate whether F. tularensis was less permeable to Gm at 26°C, a fluorescent marker [Texas Red (Tr] was conjugated with Gm, yielding Tr-Gm. Bacteria incubated at 26°C showed reduced fluorescence compared to those at 37°C when exposed to Tr-Gm suggesting that uptake of Gm was reduced at 26°C. Unconjugated Gm competitively inhibited uptake of Tr-Gm, demonstrating that this fluorescent compound was taken up similarly to unconjugated Gm. Lysates of F. tularensis bacteria incubated with Gm at 37°C inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli significantly more than lysates from bacteria incubated at 26°C, further indicating reduced uptake at this lower temperature. Other facultative pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited increased resistance to Gm at 26°C suggesting that the results generated using F. tularensis may be generalizable to diverse bacteria. Regulation of the uptake of antibiotics provides a mechanism by which facultative pathogens survive alongside antibiotic-producing microbes in nature.

  12. Effect of Catechins, Green tea Extract and Methylxanthines in Combination with Gentamicin Against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Combination therapy against resistant bacteria -

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    Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bacterial resistant infections have become a global health challenge and threaten the society’s health. Thus, an urgent need exists to find ways to combat resistant pathogens. One promising approach to overcoming bacterial resistance is the use of herbal products. Green tea catechins, the major green tea polyphenols, show antimicrobial activity against resistant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of catechins, green tea extract, and methylxanthines in combination with gentamicin against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of different agents against bacterial strains were determined. The interactions of green tea extract, epigallate catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, two types of methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline with gentamicin were studied in vitro by using a checkerboard method and calculating the fraction inhibitory concentration index (FICI. Results: The MICs of gentamicin against bacterial strains were in the range of 0.312 - 320 μg/mL. The MIC values of both types of catechins were 62.5 - 250 μg/ mL. Green tea extract showed insufficient antibacterial activity when used alone. Methylxanthines had no intrinsic inhibitory activity against any of the bacterial strains tested. When green tea extract and catechins were combined with gentamicin, the MIC values of gentamicin against the standard strains and a clinical isolate were reduced, and synergistic activities were observed (FICI < 1. A combination of caffeine with gentamicin did not alter the MIC values of gentamicin. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that green tea extract and catechins potentiated the antimicrobial action of gentamicin against some clinical isolates of S. aureus and standard P. aeruginosa strains

  13. In vitro activity of RPR 106972 alone and in combination with vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamicin against multidrug-resistant enterococci.

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    Messick, C R; Woodward, J; Pendland, S L

    1998-10-01

    This investigation used checkerboard and time-kill assays to evaluate the in vitro activity of RPR 106972 (45% pristinamycin IB and 55% pristinamycin IIB) alone and in combination with vancomycin or ampicillin +/- gentamicin against multidrug-resistant enterococci. The checkerboard procedure resulted in synergistic or additive effects in 91% of the isolates with the combination of RPR 106972 plus vancomycin versus 68% with RPR 106972 plus ampicillin. The addition of gentamicin to either combination resulted in synergistic or additive results in 100% of the isolates. Inhibitory activity was observed with the time-kill assay with mean change in log10 CFU/mL at 24 h of -0.31 for RPR 106972, 3.3 for vancomycin, -0.46 for RPR 106972 plus vancomycin, and -0.35 for RPR 106972 plus vancomycin and gentamicin. No antagonism was noted with any of the combinations. RPR 106972 demonstrates good inhibitory activity against Enterococcus faecium and may prove useful in the treatment of enterococcal infections.

  14. Molecular screening of virulence genes in high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in Northwest Iran

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    A Hasani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study screened clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium to determine the prevalence of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci and the potential virulence genes among them. Materials and Methods: Clinical enterococcal isolates were obtained from three university teaching hospitals in Northwest Iran. Isolated enterococci were identified phenotypically followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of genus, species-specific targets, gentamicin resistance, and potential virulence genes. Results: Of 220 enterococcal isolates, 133 (60.45% isolates were identified as high-level gentamicin-resistant. Of these isolates, 79 (59.4% and 54 (40.6% were E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. All high-level gentamicin-resistant strains carried aac(6′Ie-aph(2″Ia. Of 220 isolates, 65.9% were positive for gelE, and 55%, 53.6%, 51.8%, and 49.5% of isolates were positive for cpd, asa1, ace, and esp, respectively. Phenotypically detected β-haemolytic strains (19.54% were found to possess cylL ls MAB. Conclusion: The study revealed that high-level gentamicin-resistance was related to the presence of aac(6′Ie-aph(2″Ia. Isolated enterococci harboured potential virulence determinants, which were more common among E. faecalis than among E. faecium strains.

  15. Single Daily Dosing of Gentamicin: Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Two Dosing Methodologies for Postpartum Endometritis

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    C. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We compared the pharmacokinetics of two methods for dosing gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endometritis with the goal of achieving adequate peak serum concentrations (>12 mg/L and prolonged trough levels below 2 mg/L.

  16. Characterisation, dissemination and persistence of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Sandvang, Dorthe; Hansen, Lars H

    2008-01-01

    in waste water from the residential area. PFGE profiling revealed no spread of specific patient isolates to the waste water. The aac(3)-II gene was detected both in patient and waste water isolates. Furthermore horizontal transfer of the aac(3)-II gene of patient origin to a recipient was shown in vitro......, indicating a potential spread of the gene from patient isolates to waste water isolates. Regardless of origin, most isolates exhibited multi-resistance and contained several virulence genes. In conclusion, our study showed a possible spread of aac(3)-II from the hospital to the waste water. Most of the GEN......The aim of the study was to investigate the potential spread of gentamicin resistant (GEN(R)) Escherichia coli isolates or GEN(R) determinants from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment. Waste water samples were collected monthly from the outlets of the hospital bed wards...

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the aacC2 gene, a gentamicin resistance determinant involved in a hospital epidemic of multiply resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Vliegenthart, J S; Ketelaar-van Gaalen, P A; Van de Klundert, J A

    1989-01-01

    A gentamicin resistance determinant of a conjugative plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae was cloned on a 3.2-kilobase fragment in the PstI site of pBR322. Substrate profiles for eight aminoglycosides at three concentrations showed that the resistance was due to aminoglycoside-(3)-N-acetyltransferase isoenzyme II. Insertion mapping by the gamma-delta transposon revealed that the size of the gene was approximately 1 kilobase. Nucleotide sequencing of the aacC2 gene identified an open reading fram...

  18. The prevalence and clonal expansion of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci isolated from blood cultures in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); D. Kreft; R. te Witt (René); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the prevalence and clonality of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci (HLGRE) in a Dutch university hospital. Of 238 enterococcal strains isolated from blood cultures between 1991 and 1997, 57 were HLGRE. Genomic analysis of these strains re

  19. Comparative Study of Bacteremias Caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without High-Level Resistance to Gentamicin

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    Caballero-Granado, Francisco Javier; Cisneros, J. M.; Luque, R.; Torres-Tortosa, M.; Gamboa, F.; Díez, F.; Villanueva, J. L.; Pérez-Cano, R.; Pasquau, J.; Merino, D.; Menchero, A.; Mora, D.; López-Ruz, M. A.; Vergara, A.; Infecciosas, for the Grupo Andaluz Para El Estudio De Las Enfermedades

    1998-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections. PMID:9466769

  20. Rapid emergence of secondary resistance to gentamicin and colistin following selective digestive decontamination in patients with KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a single-centre experience.

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    Lübbert, Christoph; Faucheux, Sarah; Becker-Rux, Diana; Laudi, Sven; Dürrbeck, Axel; Busch, Thilo; Gastmeier, Petra; Eckmanns, Tim; Rodloff, Arne C; Kaisers, Udo X

    2013-12-01

    After a single patient was transferred to Leipzig University Hospital from a hospital in Rhodes, Greece, the hospital experienced the largest outbreak due to a KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-2-KP) strain thus far observed in Germany. Ninety patients hospitalised between July 2010 and October 2012 were affected. In an attempt to eliminate KPC-2-KP from their digestive tracts, 14 consecutive patients (16%) were treated with a short course (7 days) of selective digestive decontamination (SDD), employing colistin (1 million units q.i.d.) and gentamicin (80 mg q.i.d.) as oral solutions, and applying colistin/gentamicin gel (0.5 g) to the oral cavity. In a retrospective analysis, these 14 SDD patients were compared with the remaining 76 patients harbouring KPC-2-KP. KPC-2-KP carrier status was followed in all 14 SDD patients by submitting stool samples to KPC-specific PCR. The mean follow-up period was 48 days (range 12-103 days). Successful elimination of KPC-2-KP was defined as a minimum of three consecutive negative PCR test results separated by ≥48 h each. Decolonisation of KPC-2-KP was achieved in 6/14 patients (43%) after a mean of 21 days (range 12-40 days), but was also observed in 23/76 (30%) of the non-SDD controls (P = 0.102). SDD treatment resulted in the development of secondary resistance to colistin (19% increase in resistance rate) and gentamicin (45% increase) in post-treatment isolates. In the control group, no secondary resistance occurred. We conclude that the SDD protocol applied in this study was not sufficiently effective for decolonisation and was associated with resistance development.

  1. Comparison of antibacterial activity of Ag nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract of Parthenium hystrophorus L in aqueous media and Gentamicin sulphate: in-vitro.

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    Anwar, Mohammad F; Yadav, Deepak; Kapoor, Sumeet; Chander, Jagdish; Samim, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by using Parthenium hystrophorus L leaf extract in aqueous media. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffracto-meter (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dynamics light scattering (DLS). Size-dependent antibacterial activities of Ag nanoparticles were tested against Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. Ag nanoparticles having 20 ± 2 nm size in diameter show maximum zone of inhibition (23 ± 2.2 mm) in comparison to 40 nm and 70 nm diameter nanoparticles for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 19 ± 1.8 mm, 15 ± 1.5 mm and 11 ± 1 mm for 20 nm, 40 nm, and 70 nm, respectively. In addition, affect of concentration of 20 nm size Ag nanoparticles on Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus species were also reported and results were compared with 10 µg/ml dose of Gentamicin sulphate. The Parthenium hystrophorus L leaf extract capped 20 ± 2 nm Ag nanoparticles (7.5 µg/ml) shows statistically significant antibacterial activity than Gentamicin sulphate (10 µg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Comparative study of bacteremias caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin. The Grupo Andaluz para el estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Granado, F J; Cisneros, J M; Luque, R; Torres-Tortosa, M; Gamboa, F; Díez, F; Villanueva, J L; Pérez-Cano, R; Pasquau, J; Merino, D; Menchero, A; Mora, D; López-Ruz, M A; Vergara, A

    1998-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections.

  3. Magnetic targeting of surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles yields antibacterial efficacy against biofilms of gentamicin-resistant staphylococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subbiandoss, Guruprakash; Sharifi, Shahriar; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Laurent, Sophie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Busscher, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms on biomaterial implants are hard to eradicate with antibiotics due to the protection offered by the biofilm mode of growth, especially when caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as

  4. Comparison of single doses of amoxicillin or of amoxicillin-gentamicin for the prevention of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus faecalis and by viridans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioli, P; Moreillon, P; Glauser, M P

    1985-07-01

    Recent recommendations for the prophylaxis of endocarditis in humans have advocated single doses or short courses of antibiotic combinations (beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside) for susceptible patients in whom enterococcal bacteremia might develop or for patients at especially high risk of developing endocarditis (e.g., patients with prosthetic cardiac valves). We tested the prophylactic efficacy (in rats with catheter-induced aortic vegetations) of single doses of amoxicillin plus gentamicin against challenge with various streptococcal strains (two strains of Streptococcus faecalis, one of Streptococcus bovis, and three of viridans streptococci); we then compared this efficacy with that of single doses of amoxicillin alone. Successful prophylaxis against all six strains was achieved with single doses of both amoxicillin alone and amoxicillin plus gentamicin. This protection, however, was limited, for both regimens, to the lowest bacterial-inoculum size producing endocarditis in 90% of control rats and was not extended to higher inocula by using the combination of antibiotics. We concluded that a single dose of amoxicillin alone was protective against enterococcal and nonenterococcal endocarditis in the rat, but that its efficacy was limited and could not be improved by the simultaneous administration of gentamicin.

  5. Gentamicin nephrotoxicity: Animal experimental correlate with human pharmacovigilance outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC, which is responsible for pharmacovigilance activity in Nigeria, recently withdrew injection gentamicin 280 mg, used in the management of life-threatening and multidrug-resistant infections from circulation, due to reported toxicity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the toxicity profile of the commonly used strengths (80 mg and 280 mg of gentamicin on kidney using animal models. Methods: Animals were divided into five groups of 16 rats each. For rats of groups 1 and 2, gentamicin (1.14 mg/kg each group was administered intramuscularly twice daily for 7 and 14 days, respectively, after which eight of them were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture and the kidneys were carefully removed and weighed immediately. The remaining eight animals were kept for reversibility study for another 7 and 14 days, respectively. For groups 3 and 4, gentamicin (4 mg/kg each group was administered as a single daily dose for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and eight animals from the groups were subjected to reversibility study for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Group 5, the control group animals, were given 10 ml/kg distilled water for 14 days. Histopathology of the kidneys, serum creatinine levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. Results: Significant increase (p ≤ 0.001 in the level of creatinine of rats administered 4.0 mg/kg for 14 days was observed compared with all other groups. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 elevations in the lipid peroxidation in all gentamicin-administered animals and acute tubular necrosis in most of the gentamicin-administered animals were observed. Conclusion: Toxicity profile of gentamicin on the kidneys is dependent on both dose and duration of administration. The findings justify the decision made by NAFDAC to ban the use of high-dose inj. gentamicin 280 mg in Nigeria.

  6. A biodegradable gentamicin-hydroxyapatite-coating for infection prophylaxis in cementless hip prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Neut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradable, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, gentamicin-loaded prophylactic coating for hydroxyapatite (HA-coated cementless hip prostheses is developed with similar antibacterial efficacy as offered by gentamicin-loaded cements for fixing traditional, cemented prostheses in bone. We describe the development pathway, from in vitro investigation of antibiotic release and antibacterial properties of this PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating in different in vitro models to an evaluation of its efficacy in preventing implant-related infection in rabbits. Bone in-growth in the absence and presence of the coating was investigated in a canine model. The PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating showed high-burst release, with antibacterial efficacy in agar-assays completely disappearing after 4 days, minimising risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant staphylococci were killed by the antibiotic-loaded coating, in a simulated prosthesis-related interfacial gap. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coatings prevented growth of bioluminescent staphylococci around a miniature-stem mounted in bacterially contaminated agar, as observed using bio-optical imaging. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins inserted in bacterially contaminated medullary canals in rabbits caused a statistically significant reduction in infection rates compared to HA-coated pins without gentamicin. Bone ingrowth to PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins, in condylar defects of Beagle dogs was not impaired by the presence of the degradable, gentamicin-loaded coating. In conclusion, the PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating constitutes an effective strategy for infection prophylaxis in cementless prostheses.

  7. Effect of Catechins, Green tea Extract and Methylxanthines in Combination with Gentamicin Against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Combination therapy against resistant bacteria -

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz; Sahar Sarabandi; Bahman Khameneh; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bacterial resistant infections have become a global health challenge and threaten the society’s health. Thus, an urgent need exists to find ways to combat resistant pathogens. One promising approach to overcoming bacterial resistance is the use of herbal products. Green tea catechins, the major green tea polyphenols, show antimicrobial activity against resistant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of catechins, green tea extract, and methylxanthines in com...

  8. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren;

    1978-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut...

  9. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is a bactericidal aminoglycoside antibiotic, it inhibits the protein synthesis. Gentamicin is active against the majority of aerobic gram-negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. The gentamicin doses are 3 mg/kg once-daily for preterm newborns 35 weeks of gestation. The monitoring of gentamicin serum concentration is recommended when infants are treated for 48 hours or more. The gentamicin peak concentration must be at least 8 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to be bactericidal and the gentamicin trough concentration must be < 2 µg/ml to avoid ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.Once-daily dosing of gentamicin (4 mg/kg, is preferred than twice-daily dose of 2.5 mg/kg gentamicin. A gentamicin loading dose (4 mg/kg, followed by once-daily dosing of 2.5 mg/kg yields safe and target range in neonates. An extended dosing interval of 48-hour (5 mg/kg gentamicin, was compared with twice-daily dose of 2.5 mg/kg gentamicin. Infants in the 48-hour interval and in the twice-daily achieved peak gentamicin concentrations of 9.43 µg/ml and 6.0 µg/ml, respectively, (p

  10. Gentamicin in vitro activity and tentative gentamicin interpretation criteria for the CLSI and calibrated dichotomous sensitivity disc diffusion methods for Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Singh, Vikram; Philipova, Ivva; Bhargava, Aradhana; Chandra Joshi, Naveen; Unemo, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    XDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae imposes the threat of untreatable gonorrhoea. Gentamicin is considered for future treatment; however, no interpretation criteria for the CLSI and calibrated dichotomous sensitivity (CDS) disc diffusion (DD) techniques are available for N. gonorrhoeae. We investigated the in vitro gentamicin activity by MIC and DD methods, proposed DD breakpoints and determined DD ranges for 10 international quality control (QC) strains. Gentamicin susceptibility of 333 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, including 323 clinical isolates and 10 QC strains, was determined. MIC determination (Etest) and DD methods (CLSI and CDS) were performed. The relationship between MIC, inhibition zone diameter and annular radius was determined by linear regression analysis and the correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Gentamicin MICs for the QC strains were within published ranges. Of the 323 clinical isolates, according to published breakpoints 75.9%, 23.5% and 0.6% were susceptible, intermediately susceptible and resistant, respectively. Based on error minimization with MICs of ≤4, 8-16 and ≥32 mg/L, breakpoints proposed are susceptible ≥16 mm, intermediately susceptible 13-15 mm and resistant ≤12 mm for the CLSI method and susceptible ≥6 mm, less susceptible 3-5 mm and resistant ≤2 mm for the CDS technique. Low resistance to gentamicin was identified and gentamicin might be a future treatment option for gonorrhoea. Tentative gentamicin zone breakpoints were defined for two DD methods and QC ranges for 10 international reference strains were established. Our findings suggest that in resource-poor settings where MIC testing is not a feasible option, the DD methods can be used to indicate gentamicin resistance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Renoprotective effect of erdosteine in rats against gentamicin nephrotoxicity: a comparison of 99mTc-DMSA uptake with biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Mehmet; Gurel, Ahmet; Sen, Feyza; Demircan, Nejat

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a mucolytic agent having antioxidant properties through its active metabolites in acute injuries induced by pharmacological drugs. This study was designed to investigate the renoprotective potential of Erdosteine against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal dysfunction by using Technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99 m DMSA) uptake and scintigraphy in rats. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: Control, Erdosteine, GM, and GM + Erdosteine groups. GM and GM + Erdosteine groups received 100 mg/kg GM intramuscularly for 6 days. In addition, Erdosteine and GM + Erdosteine groups received 50 mg/kg Erdosteine orally for 6 days. Renal function tests were assessed by serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, as well as scintigraphic and tissue radioactivity measurements with Tc-99 m DMSA. Renal oxidative damage was determined by renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, by antioxidant enzyme activities; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and activities of oxidant enzymes; xanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). GM administration resulted in marked renal lipid peroxidation, increased XO and MPO activities and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. GM + Erdosteine group significantly had lower MDA levels, higher SOD and CAT activities and lower XO and MPO activities, when compared to GM. Also GM + Erdosteine had lower levels of serum BUN, creatinine and higher renal tissue Tc-99 m DMSA uptake and radioactivity with respect to GM. In conclusion, our results supported a protective role of Erdosteine in nephrotoxicity associated with GM treatment.

  12. Gentamicin susceptibility in Escherichia coli related to the genetic background: problems with breakpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.; Sandvang, D.; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2007-01-01

    In total, 120 Escherichia coli isolates positive for one of the gentamicin resistance (GEN(R)) genes aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV or ant(2 '')-I were tested for gentamicin susceptibility by the agar dilution method. Isolates positive for aac(3)-IV or ant(2 '')-I had an MIC distribution of 8-64 mg/L, wher...... by EUCAST and questions the breakpoint recommended by the CLSI (>= 16 mg/L)....

  13. Compound list: gentamicin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gentamicin GMC 00147 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/gentamic...in.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/gentamic...at/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/gentamicin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.bioscie...ncedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/gentamicin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp...://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/gentamicin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  14. Evaluating synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzsele, Ákos; Pásztiné-Gere, Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to marbofloxacin and gentamicin, and investigate the possible synergistic, additive, indifferent or antagonistic effects between the two agents. P. aeruginosa strains can develop resistance quickly against certain antibiotics if used alone, thus the need emerges to find synergistic combinations. A total of 68 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs were examined. In order to describe interactions between marbofloxacin and gentamicin the checkerboard microdilution method was utilized. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for marbofloxacin and gentamicin were in the range 0.25-64 mg/L and 0.25-32 mg/L, respectively. The combination of marbofloxacin and gentamicin was more effective with a MIC range of 0.031-8 mg/L and a MIC90 of 1 mg/L, compared to 16 mg/L for marbofloxacin alone and 8 mg/L for gentamicin alone. The FIC (fractional inhibitory concentration) indices ranged from 0.0945 (pronounced synergy) to 1.0625 (indifference). Synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin was found in 33 isolates. The mean FIC index is 0.546, which represents a partial synergistic/additive effect close to the full synergy threshold. In vitro results indicate that marbofloxacin and gentamicin as partially synergistic agents may prove clinically useful in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa infections. Although marbofloxacin is not used in the human practice, the interactions between fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may have importance outside the veterinary field.

  15. Gentamicin removal in submerged fermentation using the novel fungal strain Aspergillus terreus FZC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanwang; Chang, Huiqing; Li, Zhaojun; Zhang, Cheng; Feng, Yao; Cheng, Dengmiao

    2016-10-01

    Social concern and awareness of the potential risk posed by environmental residues of antibiotics such as gentamicin in the development of antibiotic resistance genes have increased. The present study used laboratory-scale experiments to develop methods for gentamicin removal from the environment. A fungus, strain FZC3, which could remove gentamicin in submerged fermentation, was isolated from solid waste and sewage water from a gentamicin production factory. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus terreus by sequencing the PCR-amplified ITS fragments of its rRNA-coding genes and by its morphology. The gentamicin removal efficiency exceeded 95% by day 7 under optimized culture conditions. The results showed that both biosorption and biodegradation were involved. We speculated that Aspergillus terreus FZC3 absorbed gentamicin and subsequently degraded it. We also found that Aspergillus terreus FZC3 survived and maintained a high bioremediation efficiency over a wide pH range, indicating its potential for future use in the large-scale bioremediation of gentamicin.

  16. Is Penicillin plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: A in-vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Ruppen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is increasingly causing invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR. The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4 h to 6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen.

  17. Is Penicillin Plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Corinne; Lupo, Agnese; Decosterd, Laurent; Sendi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasingly causing invasive infections in non-pregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR). The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs) were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4-6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen.

  18. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...... of the gentamicin concentration in human subcutaneous tissue. In this adipose tissue, the peak concentrations of gentamicin were approximately seven times the MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 33 times the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus after the administration of an intravenous bolus of 240 mg, indicating......Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin...

  19. Oral Gentamicin Gut Decontamination for Prevention of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections: Relevance of Concomitant Systemic Antibiotic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Carlo; Sbrana, Francesco; Flammini, Sarah; Tagliaferri, Enrico; Arena, Fabio; Leonildi, Alessandro; Ciullo, Ilaria; Amadori, Francesco; Di Paolo, Antonello; Ripoli, Andrea; Lewis, Russell; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2014-01-01

    Gut colonization represents the main source for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) epidemic dissemination. Oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, was administered to 50 consecutive patients with gut colonization by gentamicin-susceptible KPC-Kp in cases of planned surgery, major medical intervention, or need for patient transfer. The overall decontamination rate was 68% (34/50). The median duration of gentamicin treatment was 9 days (interquartile range, 7 to 15 days) in decontaminated patients compared to 24 days (interquartile range, 20 to 30 days) in those with persistent colonization (P < 0.001). In the six-month period of follow-up, KPC-Kp infections were documented in 5/34 (15%) successfully decontaminated patients compared to 12/16 (73%) persistent carriers (P < 0.001). The decontamination rate was 96% (22/23) in patients receiving oral gentamicin only, compared to 44% (12/27) of those treated with oral gentamicin and concomitant systemic antibiotic therapy (CSAT) (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed CSAT and KPC-Kp infection as the variables associated with gut decontamination. In the follow-up period, KPC-Kp infections were documented in 2/23 (9%) of patients treated with oral gentamicin only and in 15/27 (56%) of those also receiving CSAT (P = 0.003). No difference in overall death rate between different groups was documented. Gentamicin-resistant KPC-Kp strains were isolated from stools of 4/16 persistent carriers. Peak gentamicin blood levels were below 1 mg/liter in 12/14 tested patients. Oral gentamicin was shown to be potentially useful for gut decontamination and prevention of infection due to KPC-Kp, especially in patients not receiving CSAT. The risk of emergence of gentamicin-resistant KPC-Kp should be considered. PMID:24419337

  20. Intramammary treatment with gentamicin in lactating cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated the microbiological profile of milk samples collected before and after mastitis treatment with gentamicin and investigated biofilms production and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolated. The presence of gentamicin residues in milk after the recommended withdrawal period was also evaluated. Antimicrobial residues were analyzed by Delvotest® SP NT over a period of 12 days beginning after 24 hours the last gentamicin application. Some of Staphylococcus spp. isolates were biofilm producers (19.05%. Staphylococcus spp. showed high levels of resistance to neomycin (16.95%, penicillin G (10.17%, and ampicillin (10.17%. Multidrug resistance to all antibiotics tested was observed in 1.69% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Among 1440 mammary quarter milk samples 24.95% presented gentamicin residues after the withdrawal period. Gentamicin residues were also detected in 3.8% of samples from calibrated glass recorder jar (n=383 4.1 days after treatment. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics may lead to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains as well as increasing the risk of presence of residues of these drugs in milk. These problems affect the milk quality and may become a public health problem.

  1. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut......Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out...... at the institution and discontinuation of the treatment and again a few weeks later. Ten patients exhibited ototoxic actions, predominantly cochlear, 4 of the cases being fully reversible. Two patients developed severe hearing loss, associated in one with bilateral extinction of vestibular function. Low serum levels...... of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  2. Chitosan improves anti-biofilm efficacy of gentamicin through facilitating antibiotic penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Haibo; Guo, Fan; Niu, Hong; Liu, Qianjin; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2014-12-03

    Antibiotic overuse is one of the major drivers in the generation of antibiotic resistant "super bugs" that can potentially cause serious effects on health. In this study, we reported that the polycationic polysaccharide, chitosan could improve the efficacy of a given antibiotic (gentamicin) to combat bacterial biofilms, the universal lifestyle of microbes in the world. Short- or long-term treatment with the mixture of chitosan and gentamicin resulted in the dispersal of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) biofilms. In this combination, chitosan with a moderate molecular mass (~13 kDa) and high N-deacetylation degree (~88% DD) elicited an optimal anti-biofilm and bactericidal activity. Mechanistic insights indicated that chitosan facilitated the entry of gentamicin into the architecture of L. monocytogenes biofilms. Finally, we showed that this combination was also effective in the eradication of biofilms built by two other Listeria species, Listeria welshimeri and Listeria innocua. Thus, our findings pointed out that chitosan supplementation might overcome the resistance of Listeria biofilms to gentamicin, which might be helpful in prevention of gentamicin overuse in case of combating Listeria biofilms when this specific antibiotic was recommended.

  3. Chitosan Improves Anti-Biofilm Efficacy of Gentamicin through Facilitating Antibiotic Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic overuse is one of the major drivers in the generation of antibiotic resistant “super bugs” that can potentially cause serious effects on health. In this study, we reported that the polycationic polysaccharide, chitosan could improve the efficacy of a given antibiotic (gentamicin to combat bacterial biofilms, the universal lifestyle of microbes in the world. Short- or long-term treatment with the mixture of chitosan and gentamicin resulted in the dispersal of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes biofilms. In this combination, chitosan with a moderate molecular mass (~13 kDa and high N-deacetylation degree (~88% DD elicited an optimal anti-biofilm and bactericidal activity. Mechanistic insights indicated that chitosan facilitated the entry of gentamicin into the architecture of L. monocytogenes biofilms. Finally, we showed that this combination was also effective in the eradication of biofilms built by two other Listeria species, Listeria welshimeri and Listeria innocua. Thus, our findings pointed out that chitosan supplementation might overcome the resistance of Listeria biofilms to gentamicin, which might be helpful in prevention of gentamicin overuse in case of combating Listeria biofilms when this specific antibiotic was recommended.

  4. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A

    1990-06-01

    The renal toxicity of gentamicin is altered by dietary protein modifications, bicarbonate and acetazolamide administration, magnesium supplementation, polyaspartic acid, piperacillin, hypercalcemia and calcium channel blockers. Renal tissue gentamicin levels have an undetermined role. Reduction of renal pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP- by gentamicin has been shown, as has protection from nephrotoxicity by administration of vitamin B6. To explore an interaction between gentamicin and vitamin B6, gentamicin (5 mg/kg) was given to rabbits by ip injection, with either pyridoxine (10 mg) or isovolemic saline for 3 weeks. There was not a difference between gentamicin levels for animals given gentamicin and pyridoxine versus those given gentamicin and saline. Gentamicin administration led to a 47% fall (p = .0001) in plasma PLP levels. Three days after the last gentamicin administration, the animals maintained a 32% decrease from the pre-gentamicin baseline values (p = 0.02). When pyridoxine was administered concurrently with gentamicin, the PLP rise of 49% was significant (p = 0.001). The mean level after the study (6%) was not significantly lower than baseline (p = .6). We believe that gentamicin interfers with vitamin B6 metabolism, but that vitamin B6 status does not affect levels of gentamicin. A number of drugs affect B6 levels, creating the potential for hypovitaminosis B6 to be an important mechanism of drug-drug interaction in seriously ill patients, particularly in sick newborns or the elderly with lower average PLP levels.

  5. [Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid versus amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, R; Rodoni, P; Monotti, R; Marone, C; Mombelli, G

    1995-08-19

    We compared the fixed combination amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid with that of amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of severe urinary tract infections. The study included 87 hospitalized patients (51 women and 36 men, mean age 58 +/- 22 years) with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (n = 48) or with complicated urinary tract infections (n = 39). 80 patients (92%) had fever and 31 patients (36%) positive blood cultures. 45 patients were randomly assigned to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and 42 to amoxicillin plus gentamicin. Overall, 18 patients (21%) were infected with organisms resistant in vitro to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, whereas no pathogen was isolated with resistance to amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin group. Although the in-vitro resistance did not result in a lower clinical efficacy of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid compared to amoxicillin plus gentamicin in our relatively small sample of patients, the data indicate that the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid is inadequate to cover the spectrum of causative agents in hospitalized patients with pyelonephritis or complicated urinary tract infections. Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid should therefore not be used in the initial empirical treatment of these infections.

  6. Complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni 14980A (turkey feces) and Campylobacter coli 14983A (housefly from turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly in a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal genta...

  7. (AJST) COMPARISON OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods to ascertain if there is a variation due to human factors. Patients attending two ... Blood specimen was aseptically introduced into brain-heart fusion culture broth and .... this study a small sample size and limited laboratories were involved. ... Resistance: origins, evolution, selection and spread. London: Wiley (Ciba ...

  8. Bactericidal Effect of Pterostilbene Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Xian Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index < 0.5 against three susceptible bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli O157 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15442. However, the time-kill study showed that the interaction was indifference which did not significantly differ from the gentamicin treatment. Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 2 to 8 h treatment with 0.5 × MIC of pterostilbene and gentamicin. The identified combinations could be of effective therapeutic value against bacterial infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of bacterial resistance as the antibacterial effect was achieved with the lower concentrations of antibacterial agents.

  9. Bactericidal Effect of Pterostilbene Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Xian; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2017-03-17

    The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index < 0.5) against three susceptible bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli O157 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15442. However, the time-kill study showed that the interaction was indifference which did not significantly differ from the gentamicin treatment. Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 2 to 8 h treatment with 0.5 × MIC of pterostilbene and gentamicin. The identified combinations could be of effective therapeutic value against bacterial infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of bacterial resistance as the antibacterial effect was achieved with the lower concentrations of antibacterial agents.

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from humans in the community, broilers and pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne; Gerner-Smidt, P.;

    2000-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from humans in the community (98 and 65 isolates), broilers (126 and 122), and pigs (102 and 88) during 1998 were tested for susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents and for the presence of selected genes encoding resistance using PCR...... of the 38 human fecal samples examined using selective enrichment. All vancomycin resistant isolates contained the vanA gene, all chloramphenicol resistant isolates the catpIP501 gene, and all five gentamicin resistant isolates the aac6-aph2 gene. Sixty-one (85%) of 72 erythromycin resistant E. faecalis...... examined and 57 (90%) of 63 erythromycin resistant E. faecium isolates examined contained ermB. Forty (91%) of the kanamycin resistant E. faecalis and 18 (72%) of the kanamycin resistant E. faecium isolates contained aphA3. The tet(M) gene was found in 95% of the tetracycline resistant E. faecalis and E...

  11. COMPARISON OF RESISTANCE FOR SEVERAL DISPLACEMENT HIGH PERFORMANCE VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-ping; LI Yun; DONG Zu-shun

    2005-01-01

    According to the linear wave resistance theory, a comparison among the ship resistance for the high speed round bilge ships, the deep "Vee" vessels, the wave-piercing catamarans, and the high speed trimarans was given by using the high-speed round-bilge ship as a benchmark. And the optimal speed range of each ship form was also suggested by using the analysis of the research results.

  12. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of infections of urinary tract (cystitis, nephritis), respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pneumonia... treatment of infections of urinary tract (cystitis, nephritis), respiratory tract (pneumonitis, pneumonia... food for at least 9 weeks after treatment. (3) Chickens—(i) Amount. 0.2 milligram of gentamicin per 0.2...

  13. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from organic and conventional poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Calo-Mata, P; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2008-12-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 55 samples of organic poultry meat and in 61 samples of conventional poultry meat. A total of 220 E. coli, 192 S. aureus, and 71 L. monocytogenes strains were analyzed by an agar disk diffusion assay for their resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole (E. coli); chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, and sulfisoxazole (S. aureus); and chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin (L. monocytogenes). The results indicated a significantly higher (P poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat. E. coli isolated from organic poultry meat exhibited lower levels of antimicrobial resistance against 7 of the 10 antimicrobials tested as compared with isolates recovered from conventional meat. In the case of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes isolated from conventional poultry, antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher only for doxycycline as compared with strains isolated from organic poultry. In the case of E. coli, the presence of multiresistant strains was significantly higher (P poultry meat as compared with organic poultry meat. Organically farmed poultry samples showed significantly lower development of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal bacteria such as E. coli.

  14. Silica-Gentamicin Nanohybrids: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ahmed Mosselhy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic applications commonly require the administration of systemic antibiotics. Gentamicin is one of the most commonly used aminoglycosides in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections associated with orthopedic applications, but gentamicin has a short half-life. However, silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs can be used as elegant carriers for antibiotics to prolong their release. Our goal is the preparation and characterization of SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids for their potential antimicrobial administration in orthopedic applications. In vitro gentamicin release profile from the nanohybrids (gentamicin-conjugated SiO2 NPs prepared by the base-catalyzed precipitation exhibited fast release (21.4% during the first 24 h and further extension with 43.9% release during the five-day experiment. Antimicrobial studies of the SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids versus native SiO2 NPs and free gentamicin were performed against Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens and Escherichia coli (E. coli. SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids were most effective against B. subtilis. SiO2 NPs play no antimicrobial role. Parallel antimicrobial studies for the filter-sterilized gentamicin were performed to assess the effect of ultraviolet (UV-irradiation on gentamicin. In summary, the initial fast gentamicin release fits the need for high concentration of antibiotics after orthopedic surgical interventions. Moreover, the extended release justifies the promising antimicrobial administration of the nanohybrids in bone applications.

  15. Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Nuzzo, James L; Cavill, Michael J; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare 4 different methods of calculating volume when comparing resistance exercise protocols of varying intensities. Ten Appalachian State University students experienced in resistance exercise completed 3 different resistance exercise protocols on different days using a randomized, crossover design, with 1 week of rest between each protocol. The protocols included 1) hypertrophy: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (90-second rest periods); 2) strength: 11 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM (5-minute rest periods); and 3) power: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% 1RM (3-minute rest periods). The volume of resistance exercise completed during each protocol was determined with 4 different methods: 1) volume load (VL) (repetitions [no.] x external load [kg]); 2) maximum dynamic strength volume load (MDSVL) (repetitions [no.] x [body mass--shank mass (kg) + external load (kg)]); 3) time under tension (TUT) (eccentric time +milliseconds] + concentric time +milliseconds]); and 4) total work (TW) (force [N] x displacement [m]). The volumes differed significantly (p , 0.05) between hypertrophy and strength in comparison with the power protocol when VL and MDSVL were used to determine the volume of resistance exercise completed. Furthermore, significant differences in TUT existed between all 3 resistance exercise protocols. The TW calculated was not significantly different between the 3 protocols. These data imply that each method examined results in substantially different values when comparing various resistance exercise protocols involving different levels of intensity.

  16. An Antioxidant Screen Identifies Candidates for Protection of Cochlear Hair Cells from Gentamicin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Noack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are important elements in ototoxic damage to hair cells (HCs, appearing early in the damage process. Higher levels of natural antioxidants are positively correlated with resistance to ototoxins and many studies have shown that exogenous antioxidants can protect HCs from damage. While a very wide variety of antioxidants with different characteristics and intracellular targets exist, most ototoxicity studies have focused upon one or a few well-characterized compounds. Relatively little research has attempted to determine the comparative efficacy of large variety of different antioxidants. This has been in part due to the lack of translation between cell culture and in vivo measures of efficacy. To circumvent this limitation, we used an in vitro assay based on micro-explants from the basal and middle turns of the neonatal mouse organ of Corti to screen a commercial redox library of diverse antioxidant compounds for their ability to protect mammalian HCs from a high dose of the ototoxic antibiotic gentamicin. The library included several antioxidants that have previously been studied as potential treatments for HC damage, as well as many antioxidants that have never been applied to ototoxicity. The micro-explants were treated with 200 μM gentamicin alone, gentamicin plus one of three dosages of a redox compound, the highest dosage of compound alone, or were untreated. HC counts were determined before the gentamicin insult and at 1, 2, and 3 days afterward to evaluate the HC survival. From a total of 81 antioxidant compounds, 13 exhibited significant protection of HCs. These included members of a variety of antioxidant classes with several novel antioxidants, not previously tested on HCs, appearing to alleviate the damaging gentamicin effect. Some compounds previously shown to be protective of HCs were correspondingly protective in this in vitro screen, while others were not. Finally, one of the three pro-oxidant compounds

  17. [A clinical study on gentamicin in the field of surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M; Ueda, T; Hirao, S; Sakai, K

    1976-03-01

    Gentamicin (GM), one of the amino-glucosides, was administered intramuscularly to 27 patients with Pseudomonas and/or other antibiotics resistant infections. The clinical evaluation of the results obtained was classified excellent in 1 case good 6, fair 8, none 11 and indeterminate 1, the effectiveness accounting for 57.7 percent. Satisfactory results were noted in wound infections, peritonitis and urinary tract infections. Among untoward side effects, an elevation in GOT and GPT values was observed in 6 cases, an elevation of BUN value in 1, proteinuria in 1 and hematuria in 1. However, it is difficult to conclude that those side effects were attributable to GM itself because blood transfusion or combined therapy with anti-cancer agents was conducted in these cases during the GM therapy.

  18. Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Subclinical Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donita L.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin and to define the mechanisms which predispose to nephrotoxicity in subclinical renal disease. Subtotally nephrectomized beagle dogs were used as a model for human beings with compromised renal function secondary to a reduced number of functional nephrons. Using ultrastructural morphometry, light microscopy and clinical chemistry data, the model was defined and the nephrotoxic responses of intact dogs administered recommended doses of drug were compared to the response of subtotally nephrectomized dogs administered reduced doses based on each animal's clearance of drug. Lysosomal and mitochondrial morphometric changes suggested mechanisms for increased sensitivity. To determine if increased sensitivity in this model was dependent on altered serum concentrations, variable rate infusions based on individual pharmacokinetic disposition of drug were administered using computer-driven infusion pumps. Identical serum concentration-time profiles were achieved in normal dogs and subtotally nephrectomized dogs, however, toxicity was significantly greater in nephrectomized dogs. The difference in the nephrotoxic response was characterized by administering supratherapeutic doses of drug to dogs. Nephrectomized dogs given a recommended dose of gentamicin became oliguric during the second week of treatment and increasingly uremic after withdrawal of drug. In contrast, intact dogs administered 2 times the recommended dose of gentamicin become only slightly polyuric during week 4 of treatment. The need to individualize dosage regimens based on drug clearance and not serum creatinine nor creatinine clearance alone was substantiated by describing the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin in spontaneously occurring disease states. Four individualized dosage regimens with differing predicted efficacy were then administered to nephrectomized dogs to determine their relative nephrotoxic

  19. Spherical gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods for the determination of gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Andrades, Jarol R.; Pérez-Gramatges, Aurora; Pandoli, Omar; Romani, Eric C.; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.; da Silva, Andrea R.

    2017-02-01

    Gentamicin is an antibiotic indicated to treat mastitis in dairy cattle and for the treatment of bacterial resistance in the context of hospital infections. The effect caused by gentamicin on the optical properties of gold nanoparticles aqueous dispersions were used to develop quantitative methods to determine this antibiotic. Two different aqueous dispersions, one containing spherical Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the other containing Au nanorods (AuNRs), had their conditions adjusted to enable a stable and sensitive response towards gentamicin. The use of AuNPs, with measurement at 681 nm of the rising coupling plasmon band, enabled a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 ng mL- 1 (0.02 ng absolute LOD), ten times lower than the one achieved by measuring the decreasing of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band (at 662 nm). The linear analytical response of AuNPs measured at 681 nm did not require rationing of signal values to correct for linearity. Stability of the analytical response resulted in intermediary precision below 2%. No significant interference was imposed by excipients traditionally present in injectable solutions for veterinary use. Percent recoveries obtained in such formulations were between 94.5 and 98.2% regardless the existence of any difference in the proportion of the compounds known as gentamicin (C1, C1a and C2) in standard and in the samples. The method requires no derivatization with toxic reagents as usually is required in other spectroscopic approaches.

  20. Effect of two cleaning processes for bone allografts on gentamicin impregnation and in vitro antibiotic release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coraça-Huber, D C; Hausdorfer, J; Fille, M; Steidl, M; Nogler, M

    2013-06-01

    Bone allografts are a useful and sometimes indispensable tool for the surgeon to repair bone defects. Microbial contamination is a major reason for discarding allografts from bone banks. To improve the number of safe allografts, we suggest chemical cleaning of the grafts followed by antibiotic impregnation. Comparison of two chemical cleaning processes for bone allografts aiming for antibiotic impregnation and consequently delivery rates in vitro. Bone chips of 5-10 mm were prepared from human femoral heads. Two cleaning methods (cleaning A and cleaning B) based on solutions containing hydrogen peroxide, paracetic acid, ethanol and biological detergent were carried out and compared. After the cleaning processes, the bone chips were impregnated with gentamicin. Bacillus subtilis bioassay was used to determine the gentamicin release after intervals of 1-7 days. Differences were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests. The zones of inhibition obtained from the bone grafts cleaned with both cleaning processes were similar between the groups. The concentration of the released antibiotic was decreasing gradually over time, following a similar pattern for both groups. The cleaning procedure A as well as the cleaning procedure B for bone allografts allowed the impregnation with gentamicin powder in the same concentrations in both groups. The delivery of gentamicin was similar for both groups. Both cleaning procedures were easy to be carried out, making them suitable for routine use at the bone banks.

  1. Teratogenic effects of Gentamicin on skeletal system of rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzban H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat. Gentamicin was administered subcutaneously on days 6-15 gestation at dose of 100 mg/kg. On gestation day 21, all live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations and variations. Increased resorptions and dead fetuses, and reduced fetal body weight were observed at dose of 100 mg/kg. Gentamicin caused severe skeletal anomalies, such as: wavy ribs, incomplete ossification of sternebrae, tail vertebra, metacarpus, metatarsus and calvaria. These results indicate the nature and extent of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of gentamicin in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  2. Flavocoxid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2015-12-01

    Gentamicin is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections; however, its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine whether flavocoxid has a protective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of flavocoxid on gentamicin induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and gentamicin plus flavocoxid (20 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood, urine samples and kidneys were collected for further analysis. Gentamicin administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevated renal somatic index (RSI), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and protein in urine with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and normalized creatinine clearance value as compared with the controls. Moreover, a significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities was detected upon gentamicin administration together with increasing the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Exposure to gentamicin induced necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Flavocoxid protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by gentamicin treatment. In addition, flavocoxid significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. The results from our study indicate that flavocoxid supplement attenuates gentamicin-induced renal injury via the amelioration of

  3. Effects of gentamicin monotherapy for the initial treatment of community-onset complicated non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis due to Enterobacteriaceae in elderly and non-elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, S-H; Kim, H W; Chang, U-I

    2014-11-01

    Aminoglycosides may serve as fluoroquinolone-sparing or cephalosporin-sparing agents if the clinical effectiveness of aminoglycoside monotherapy is demonstrated. The purposes of this study were to investigate the clinical efficacy of gentamicin as an initial empirical antimicrobial agent and to evaluate the effects of gentamicin resistance on clinical outcomes in women with complicated non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis (APN). Medical records of 1066 women with a diagnosis of APN were reviewed retrospectively. We enrolled 275 women with community-onset complicated non-obstructive APN due to Enterobacteriaceae who received gentamicin as their initial antibiotic. Of these 275 patients, 43 had gentamicin-resistant (GM-R) Enterobacteriaceae APN, and 232 had gentamicin-susceptible (GM-S) Enterobacteriaceae APN. The early clinical success rates were 67.4% (29/43) versus 89.7% (208/232) at 72 h in the GM-R versus the GM-S groups (p 0.001). The overall clinical cure rate was 100% (43/43) and 98.7% (229/232) in the GM-R and GM-S groups, respectively. The duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in the elderly, although there were no significant differences in the rates of early clinical success, final clinical cure, mortality, and time to fever clearance between the elderly and non-elderly groups. Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae to gentamicin, haematuria and serum C-reactive protein level≥20 mg/dL were independently associated with early clinical failure. Gentamicin can be an effective initial antibiotic option for empirical therapy in women with community-onset complicated APN who do not need urological interventional procedures. The use of gentamicin may contribute to a reduction of fluoroquinolone or broad-spectrum cephalosporin use in the treatment of complicated APN.

  4. Direct comparison of fractional and integer quantized Hall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Franz J.; Götz, Martin; Pierz, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    We present precision measurements of the fractional quantized Hall effect, where the quantized resistance {{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]} in the fractional quantum Hall state at filling factor 1/3 was compared with a quantized resistance {{R}[2]} , represented by an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor 2. A cryogenic current comparator bridge capable of currents down to the nanoampere range was used to directly compare two resistance values of two GaAs-based devices located in two cryostats. A value of 1-(5.3  ±  6.3) 10-8 (95% confidence level) was obtained for the ratio ({{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]}/6{{R}[2]} ). This constitutes the most precise comparison of integer resistance quantization (in terms of h/e 2) in single-particle systems and of fractional quantization in fractionally charged quasi-particle systems. While not relevant for practical metrology, such a test of the validity of the underlying physics is of significance in the context of the upcoming revision of the SI.

  5. Pressure treatment versus gentamicin for Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkvist, L

    2001-01-01

    Ménière's disease may be treated in different ways. After obtaining a case history and performing auditory and vestibular tests the diagnosis should be obvious. In terms of treatment, the first steps are to provide the patient with information, institute a low-salt diet and regulate internal medical disorders. The next step is pharmacological treatment using diuretics, betahistine and other drugs. Local pulsated pressure treatment in the ear canal has been used in a placebo-controlled study and showed significant improvement, primarily of vertigo, but also in terms of tinnitus and hearing. Hence, this form of treatment can be used in some phases of the disease. In more severe cases gentamicin treatment has proved successful; in the present study, vertigo was cured in all but 3 of 35 patients. On average, no extra hearing loss was caused: however, one ear became deaf, some ears showed improvement and some ears showed a certain degree of hearing loss. In cases of escalation of Ménière's disease, pressure treatment should be used initially, followed by gentamicin. These two methods of treatment are not in competition as they are used to treat different stages of the disease.

  6. Patients’ safety: is there a systemic release of gentamicin by gentamicin-coated tibia nails in clinical use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Arash; Graeser, Viola; Westhauser, Fabian; Dapunt, Ulrike; Kamradt, Till; Woerner, Stefan M; Schmidmaier, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteitis is one of the most serious complications in orthopedic surgery. Expert Tibia Nail (ETN) PROtect™ coated with a biodegradable layer of gentamicin-laden polymer was developed for prophylaxis of osteomyelitis. In systemic administration, gentamicin has only a small therapeutic index and serious side effects; it is potentially nephrotoxic as well as ototoxic. It is not yet known if relevant gentamicin concentrations are released into the systemic circulation after implantation of gentamicin-coated nails. In order to evaluate the patients’ risks profiles and increase patient safety, we measured gentamicin levels in pre- and postoperative serum samples of patients undergoing implantation of ETN PROtect. Methods Twenty-five patients who received ETN PROtect between March 2012 and August 2014 were included in this study. Collection of blood samples occurred before the operation, at weeks 1–4, 3 and 6 months, and up to 1 year after the implantation. Measurement of gentamicin levels in serum samples was performed at the central laboratory of Heidelberg University Hospital. Additionally, laboratory parameters, C-reactive protein, leukocyte number, urea and creatinine concentrations were analyzed in routine controls before and after operating and assessed for systemic side effects. Results Over the course of this prospective observational study, we were able to determine that gentamicin-coated nails do not release gentamicin into the systemic circulation above the lowest detectable level of 0.2 mg/dL. There were slight increases in the mean inflammation and renal retention markers, but no gentamicin-associated side effects could be linked to implantation. Furthermore, no allergic reactions could be detected during our study. Conclusion Our findings suggest that there is no relevant release of gentamicin into the systemic circulation causing a systemic effect, and serious side effects due to gentamicin-coated tibia nails should not be feared

  7. Enzymuria in neonates receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Brygge, K; Brendstrup, L;

    1992-01-01

    with non-treatment periods in the same newborn infant (33 infants). The same tendency applied to AAP. Newborn infants receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin were not found to be at greater risk of nephrotoxicity than those receiving intermittent gentamicin treatment, using NAG and AAP...

  8. Gentamicin Exposure and Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fuchs

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of gentamicin exposure on sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL in very low birth weight (VLBW infants.Exposure to gentamicin was determined in infants born between 1993 and 2010 at a gestational age < 32 weeks and/or with a birthweight < 1500 g, who presented with SNHL during the first 5 years of life. For each case, we selected two controls matched for gender, gestational age, birthweight, and year of birth.We identified 25 infants affected by SNHL, leading to an incidence of SNHL of 1.58% in our population of VLBW infants. The proportion of infants treated with gentamicin was 76% in the study group and 70% in controls (p = 0.78. The total cumulated dose of gentamicin administered did not differ between the study group (median 10.2 mg/kg, Q1-Q3 1.6-13.2 and the control group (median 7.9 mg/kg, Q1-Q3 0-12.8, p = 0.47. The median duration of gentamicin treatment was 3 days both in the study group and the control group (p = 0.58. Maximum predicted trough serum levels of gentamicin, cumulative area under the curve and gentamicin clearance were not different between cases and controls.The impact of gentamicin on SNHL can be minimized with treatments of short duration, monitoring of blood levels and dose adjustment.

  9. Preliminary study on synergistic combinations of raw honey with gentamicin against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa of veterinary origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoussaAhmed; Baghdad Khiati; SaadAissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To search for further synergistic combinations of gentamicin and raw honey that might have potential in treating wounds. Methods: The antibacterial activity and synergistic interaction of raw honey and gentamicin was assessed by using agar well diffusion method. Two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2154) bacteria were selected for antibacterial activity assay. The cultures of bacteria were maintained in their appropriate agar slants at 4 °C throughout the study and used as stock cultures. Results: Raw honey and gentamicin interacted synergistically to inhibit Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: These results suggest that combinations of raw honey and gentamicin have therapeutic benefits in prophylaxis of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli.

  10. Hydrogel iontophoresis for gentamicin administration to the rabbit eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat-Binstock, Esther; Raiskup, Frederik; Frucht-Pery, Joseph; Domb, Abraham J.

    2005-04-01

    Iontophoresis (IONT) is a non-invasive technique in which a low electric current is used to enhance the penetration of charged molecules into tissue. This technique has been used in various fields of medicine, mostly in transdermal drug delivery. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and the distribution profile of gentamicin using corneal IONT on infected and healthy rabbit eyes. Corneal iontophoresis of gentamicin sulfate was studied using drug-loaded disposable hydrogel probes mounted on a portable iontophoretic device, applying a low current for 60 seconds. This study confirmed that a triple iontophoretic treatment of gentamicin for only 60 seconds (0.5mA) significantly reduces the count of pseudomonas in the infected cornea to a non-infectious level. Peak gentamicin concentrations at the healthy corneas (363.1 +/- 127.3 μg/g) and at the aqueous humor (29.4 +/- 17.4 μg/ml) were reached immediately and two hours after a single iontophoretic treatment, respectively. The concentration versus time profile of gentamicin following iontophoresis revealed a gentamicin half life of 2.07 h in the anterior chamber, and a clearance of 1.73 μl/min from the anterior chamber to the posterior segments of the eye. This study indicates that a short iontophoretic treatment using gentamicin-loaded hydrogels has a potential clinical value in treating corneal infections, by increasing drug penetration to the eye and maintaining therapeutic levels for more than eight hours.

  11. Effect of Taurine on the antimicrobial efficiency of Gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islambulchilar Mina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gentamicin is mainly used in severe infections caused by gram-negatives. However toxicity including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is one of the most important complications of its treatment. The production of free radicals seems to be involved in gentamicin toxicity mechanism. Taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant. So potentially the co-therapy of taurine and gentamicin would reduce the adverse effects of the antibiotic. Objectives: In this study, we wished to know the effect of taurine on the antibiotic capacity of gentamicin. methods: strains of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin in the presence and absence of taurine at quantities from 40 to 2 mg/L were determined using macro-dilution method. Results: MICs were determined in the various concentrations of taurine for bacterial indicators. The MIC values of gentamicin for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli remained unchanged in the values of 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml respectively in the absence and presences of different concentrations of taurine. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin against S. epidermidis was increased by addition of taurine in the concentrations higher than 6 mg/L. Conclusion: According to our study the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against the indicator microorganisms were not interfere with taurine at selected concentrations. Further in vivo studies are needed to establish if a combination of gentamicin and taurine would have the same effect.

  12. Effects of Kangshen Oral Liquid on Gentamicin-induced Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of Kangshen oral liquid (KSOL) on gentamicin sulfate (GS)-induced acute kidney injury ..... Upon GS administration, several physiological markers are .... Kara A, Bozkurt A. The protective effect of taurine.

  13. Instrumental characterization of the smectite clay–gentamicin hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alicja Rapacz-Kmita; Ewa Stodolak-Zych; Magdalena Ziabka; Agnieszka Rozycka; Magdalena Dudek

    2015-08-01

    This paper focusses on the intercalation of clay mineral with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic). The smectite clay–gentamicin hybrids were prepared by a solution intercalation at 60°C and the process was carried out on unmodified smectite clay and on smectite after Na+ ionic activation. The resulting structural/microstructural properties and the potential for introducing gentamicin between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy X-ray analysis. The results confirm the successful intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer space of smectite clay, demonstrating that the material thus obtained could potentially be used as a drug carrier.

  14. Once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing for infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten Toftager; Schaadt, Bente

    2011-01-01

    to half-life, mean CRP and leukocytes. Results: Baseline GFR was similar in the two groups. Both groups displayed a significant fall in GFR from admission to discharge. The mean decrease in GFR was as follows: with once daily gentamicin, 17.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5– 26.5), and with twice daily......Objectives: The aim of this randomized study was to investigate the effects of once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing on renal function and measures of infectious disease in a population with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: Seventy-one IE patients needing gentamicin treatment according...... to guidelines were randomized to either once (n = 37) or twice daily (n = 34) doses of gentamicin. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) was measured with an isotope method ( 51 Cr-EDTA) at the beginning of treatment and at discharge. Treatment efficacy was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) time...

  15. Acoustic trauma increases cochlear and hair cell uptake of gentamicin.

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    Hongzhe Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to intense sound or high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics can increase hearing thresholds, induce cochlear dysfunction, disrupt hair cell morphology and promote hair cell death, leading to permanent hearing loss. When the two insults are combined, synergistic ototoxicity occurs, exacerbating cochlear vulnerability to sound exposure. The underlying mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sound exposure enhances the intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, leading to increased hair cell uptake of aminoglycosides and subsequent ototoxicity. METHODS: Juvenile C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to moderate or intense sound levels, while fluorescently-conjugated or native gentamicin was administered concurrently or following sound exposure. Drug uptake was then examined in cochlear tissues by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Prolonged sound exposure that induced temporary threshold shifts increased gentamicin uptake by cochlear hair cells, and increased gentamicin permeation across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier. Enhanced intra-cochlear trafficking and hair cell uptake of gentamicin also occurred when prolonged sound, and subsequent aminoglycoside exposure were temporally separated, confirming previous observations. Acute, concurrent sound exposure did not increase cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged, moderate sound exposures enhanced intra-cochlear aminoglycoside trafficking into the stria vascularis and hair cells. Changes in strial and/or hair cell physiology and integrity due to acoustic overstimulation could increase hair cell uptake of gentamicin, and may represent one mechanism of synergistic ototoxicity.

  16. Could edaravone prevent gentamicin ototoxicity? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, M; Ciğer, E; Arslanoğlu, S; Börekci, H; Önal, K

    2017-02-01

    Clinical application of gentamicin may cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Our study is the first study to investigate the protective effects of edaravone against the gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) edaravone application against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs. Fourteen guinea pigs were divided into two equal groups consisting of a control group and a study group. One-hundred sixty milligrams per kilogram subcutaneous gentamicin and 0.3 mL i.p. saline were applied simultaneously once daily to seven guinea pigs in the control group (group 1). One-hundred sixty milligrams per kilogram gentamicin was applied subcutaneously and 3 mg/kg edaravone was applied intraperitoneally once daily for 7 days simultaneously to seven guinea pigs in the study group (group 2). Following the drug application, auditory brainstem response measurements were performed for the left ear on the 3rd and 7th days. Hearing threshold values of the group 1 and group 2 measured in the 3rd day of the study were detected as 57.14 ± 4.88 and 82.86 ± 7.56, respectively. This difference was statistically significant ( p ototoxic effects of gentamicin and the severity of the hearing loss.

  17. Salicylic Acid Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Randjelovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  18. Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  19. Intermittent exposure to xenon protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

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    Ping Jia

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially gentamicin, are widely used to treat Gram-negative infections due to their efficacy and low cost. Nevertheless the use of gentamicin is limited by its major side effect, nephrotoxicity. Xenon (Xe provided substantial organoprotective effects in acute injury of the brain and the heart and protected against renal ischemic-reperfusion injury. In this study, we investigated whether xenon could protect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intermittently exposed to either 70% xenon or 70% nitrogen (N2 balanced with 30% oxygen before and during gentamicin administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 7 days to model gentamicin-induced kidney injury. We observed that intermittent exposure to Xe provided morphological and functional renoprotection, which was characterized by attenuation of renal tubular damage, apoptosis, and oxidative stress, but not a reduction in inflammation. We also found that Xe pretreatment upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α and its downstream effector vascular endothelial growth factor, but not HIF-1α. With regard to the three HIF prolyl hydroxylases, Xe pretreatment upregulated prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein-2 (PHD2, suppressed PHD1, and had no influence on PHD3 in the rat kidneys. Pretreatment with Xe also increased the expression of miR-21, a microRNA known to have anti-apoptotic effects. These results support Xe renoprotection against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  20. Clinicopathological Studies on Gentamicin Toxicity in White Leghorn Commercial Layers

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    Najam Ul Islam, M. Zargham Khan1, M. Kashif Saleemi*1, Ahrar Khan1, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti1, Muhammad Yousaf2 and Zahoor-ul-Hassan3

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is an effective and economical drug used to control infectious diseases in poultry but is highly toxic and had slow clearance from the body. This study aimed to report three cases of gentamicin toxicity in three White Leghorn (WLH layer flocks in different poultry producing areas of Pakistan. In first case, gentamicin was injected in a 9000 WLH layer flock @ 10 mg/kg body weight (BW for seven times during 9-15 weeks for age. In second case, gentamicin was injected in a flock of 7500 WLH layers @ 25 mg/kg BW for four times during 17-18 weeks of age. In third case, gentamicin was injected in flock of 16000 WLH layers @ 22.22 mg/kg BW three times in 20-21 weeks of age. Flock wise mortality was 8.69, 82.63 and 71.86%, respectively. Birds were dehydrated, emaciated and had prominent keel bone. Clinical signs included dehydration, decreased body weight leading to emaciation, decreased feed intake, increased water intake and watery diarrhea. Necropsy revealed prominent keal bone, shrunken muscles swollen kidneys bulging out from bony sockets. Petechial and echymotic hemorrhages were present on heart and skeletal muscles. Liver was enlarged with hemorrhagic streaks on its surface. Microscopically, hemorrhages and acute tubular necrosis was recorded in kidneys. Liver had hemorrhages, cellular infiltration and vacuolar (fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. From the results, it could be concluded that overdosing and repeated administration of gentamicin was highly toxic to birds.

  1. Some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between digoxin and gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva-Stoytcheva, D; Kristeva, E; Prodanova, K

    1992-01-01

    Some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between digoxin and gentamicin were studied in experiments on rabbits, guinea-pigs and cats. An increase of digoxin serum levels and changes in some basic pharmacokinetic parameters of digoxin (t1/2 alpha t1/2 beta, AUC, C1) were found in gentamicin-pretreated rabbits, the changes being dependent on the dose and schedule of administration. The most pronounced changes were those in digoxin kinetics during simultaneous 5-day treatment with digoxin (0.035 mg/kg i.v.) and nontoxic (10 and 2 mg/kg) doses of gentamicin. The toxicity of digoxin in guinea-pigs, assessed by administration of lethal doses of digoxin, was increased only after the highest dose of gentamicin (100 mg/kg), while after nontoxic or close to therapeutic doses (10 and 2 mg/kg) of gentamicin, the digoxin toxicity was either unchanged or even decreased. Digoxin decreased the nerve-muscle blocking effect of gentamicin on cat ischiadicus-gastrocnemius preparation. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

  2. Patients’ safety: is there a systemic release of gentamicin by gentamicin-coated tibia nails in clinical use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arash Moghaddam,1 Viola Graeser,1 Fabian Westhauser,1 Ulrike Dapunt,1 Till Kamradt,1 Stefan M Woerner,2 Gerhard Schmidmaier1 1HTRG – Heidelberg Traume Research Group Center for Orthopedics, Trauma and Spinal Cord Injury, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Introduction: Osteitis is one of the most serious complications in orthopedic surgery. Expert Tibia Nail (ETN PROtect™ coated with a biodegradable layer of gentamicin-laden polymer was developed for prophylaxis of osteomyelitis. In systemic administration, gentamicin has only a small therapeutic index and serious side effects; it is potentially nephrotoxic as well as ototoxic. It is not yet known if relevant gentamicin concentrations are released into the systemic circulation after implantation of gentamicin-coated nails. In order to evaluate the patients’ risks profiles and increase patient safety, we measured gentamicin levels in pre- and postoperative serum samples of patients undergoing implantation of ETN PROtect.Methods: Twenty-five patients who received ETN PROtect between March 2012 and August 2014 were included in this study. Collection of blood samples occurred before the operation, at weeks 1–4, 3 and 6 months, and up to 1 year after the implantation. Measurement of gentamicin levels in serum samples was performed at the central laboratory of Heidelberg University Hospital. Additionally, laboratory parameters, C-reactive protein, leukocyte number, urea and creatinine concentrations were analyzed in routine controls before and after operating and assessed for systemic side effects.Results: Over the course of this prospective observational study, we were able to determine that gentamicin-coated nails do not release gentamicin into the systemic circulation above the lowest detectable level of 0.2 mg/dL. There were slight increases in the mean

  3. Effects of the sol-gel route on the structural characteristics and antibacterial activity of silica-encapsulated gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, G G; Morais, E C; Brambilla, R; Bernardes, A A; Radtke, C; Dezen, D; Júnior, A V; Fronza, N; Santos, J H Z Dos

    2014-04-01

    The effects of sol-gel processes, i.e., acid-catalyzed gelation, base-catalyzed gelation and base-catalyzed precipitation routes, on the encapsulation of gentamicin were investigated. The resulting xerogels were characterized using a series of complementary instrumental techniques, i.e., the adsorption/desorption of nitrogen, small-angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The encapsulated gentamicin samples were tested against a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The best antimicrobial activity was observed with the encapsulated gentamicin that was prepared via the precipitation route, even in comparison with the neat antibiotic, especially in the case of the Gram-positive strain Staphylococcus aureus. The gentamicin concentration on the outermost surface and the zeta potential were identified as factors that affected the highest efficiency, as observed in the case of encapsulation via the base-catalyzed process.

  4. Fagonia olivieri prevented hepatorenal injuries induced with gentamicin in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umbreen; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2017-04-01

    Gentamicin is used clinically against Gram negative bacteria because of its efficacy. However, it causes renal injuries and failure at clinical dosages on account of induced oxidative stress. Fagonia olivieri is used in kidneys, liver, alimentary canal and cardiovascular disorders in local system of medicine in Pakistan. This study evaluates the protective abilities of methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) against the liver and renal injuries induced with gentamicin in rat. Sprague-Dawley male rats were treated with gentamicin (80mg/kg) alone or with silymarin (50mg/kg) as standard antioxidant drug. The other groups of rats were treated with gentamicin along with FOM (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg) or FOM (400mg/kg) alone. Effect of FOM was investigated on body weight, urine and serum biochemical markers, enzymatic antioxidants of renal and liver along with histopathological alterations. FOM was investigated by GC-MS for the presence of bioactive constituents. Treatment of FOM to rats ameliorated the gentamicin induced toxicity and increased the percent increase in body weight while decreased the absolute and relative weight of hepatic and kidneys. Gentamicin increased the level of specific gravity, count of RBCs and WBCs, and urobilinogen in urine; and AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in serum. Level of lipid peroxides in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and DNA damages increased while the GSH contents and activity level of CAT, SOD, GSH-Px and GR decreased with gentamicin in liver and kidney samples. Co-treatment of FOM, dose dependently, alleviated the injuries induced with gentamicin. Histopathological studies of liver and kidneys supported the protective abilities of FOM. GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of various compounds including hexadecanoic acid, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, benzoic acid and thalicpureine in the FOM. Results of the present investigation suggested the protective potential of FOM

  5. Effect of platelet activating factor antagonist treatment on gentamicin nephrotoxicity

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    A. Rodriguez-Barbero

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether PAF could be involved in the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, we have studied the effect of PAF antagonist BN-52021 on renal function in rats after gentamicin (GENTA treatment. Experiments were completed in 21 Wistar rats divided into three groups: group GENTA was injected with gentamicin 100 mg kg−1 body wt/day s.c. for 6 days. Group GENTA + BN received gentamicin and BN-52021 i.p. 5 mg kg−1 body wt/day. A third group served as control. Rats were placed in meta-bolic cages and plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance were measured daily. GENTA group showed a progressive increase in plasma creatinine, a drop in creatinine clearance and an increase in urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and alkaline phosphatase. GENTA + BN group showed a lesser change in plasma creatinine and a creatinine clearance, but no difference with GENTA group in urinary excretion of NAG and AP were observed. Histological examination revealed a massive cortical tubular necrosis in rats treated with gentamicin, whereas in BN-52021 injected animals tubular damage was markedly attenuated. The present results suggest a role for PAF in the gentamicininduced nephro-toxicity.

  6. Doripenem, Gentamicin, and Colistin, Alone and in Combinations, against Gentamicin-Susceptible, KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains with Various ompK36 Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J.; Hao, Binghua; Shields, Ryan K.; Chen, Liang; Perlin, David S.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2014-01-01

    Gentamicin doses of 2 and 10 μg/ml were bactericidal against 64% and 100%, respectively, of gentamicin-susceptible KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Treatment with the combination of doripenem (8 μg/ml) plus colistin (2 μg/ml) was inferior to treatment with gentamicin (2 μg/ml), doripenem-gentamicin, gentamicin-colistin, and doripenem-gentamicin-colistin against strains with glycine and aspartic acid insertions in OpmK36 porin at amino acid (aa) positions 134 and 135 (n = 9). Doripenem-colistin was comparable to other 2- or 3-drug regimens and superior to single drugs against wild-type/minor ompK36 mutants (n = 5). An algorithm incorporating ompK36 genotypes and susceptibility to gentamicin and doripenem may predict antimicrobial activity against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. PMID:24566172

  7. Partridge embryo pathology in relation to gentamicin-induced lesions

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    Hadi Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the macroscopic and microscopic lesions of various dosages of gentamicin in the partridge embryo. Methods: Fertile chukar partridge eggs were allocated into four groups. Group 1: salineinjected group whose individuals were administered by sterile physiological saline solution of 0.2 mL/egg inserted into yolk sac. Groups 2, 3 and 4 whose individuals were similarly administered by gentamicin sulfate at a dosage of 80 mg/kg egg-weight once, twice and three times, respectively. Results: Results showed that the embryos were congested and stunted in the gentamicininjected groups. Defects in feet, wings and feather development were accompanied by microscopic lesions in brain, meninges, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. Histopathological lesions were noticed as edema, undeveloped tissues, necrosis and degeneration in the affected organs. Conclusions: Based on acquired results, it is concluded that gentamicin at above-described dosages causes toxicopathological effects to the partridge embryo in a dose dependent manner.

  8. Antibiotic disposition in experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis: gentamicin and tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, G E; Barto, P B; Martin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effects of severe respiratory disease on the disposition of antibiotics were evaluated using two drugs chosen because of their widely differing solubility characteristics. The experiments were carried out in series, using five calves for each drug. The drugs were given to seven week old calves before and after induction of pneumonia by bilateral intrapulmonary administration of 3 mL of 5 X 10(7) colony forming units of Pasteurella haemolytica. Following inoculation, the calves developed clinical signs of pneumonia and were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg) or tylosin (10 mg/kg) 48, 60 and 72 hours after Pasteurella administration. There was a statistically significant decrease in distribution rate but not elimination rate of gentamicin. For tylosin, there was a significant increase in elimination rate. These results indicate the kinetics of tylosin but not gentamicin are sufficiently altered as to support a need for increased frequency of administration with severe respiratory disease in calves. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3756673

  9. Developmental pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabet I; Sandström, Marie; Honoré, Per Hartvig;

    2009-01-01

    for concentration monitoring. This study was performed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in preterm and term neonates and to identify and quantify relationships between patient characteristics and IIV. A secondary aim was to evaluate cystatin C as a marker for gentamicin clearance...... was included as the primary covariate according to an allometric power model. Other evaluated covariates were age (postmenstrual age, gestational age [GA], postnatal age [PNA]), markers for renal function (serum creatinine, serum cystatin C) and concomitant medication with cefuroxime, vancomycin or indometacin...... as having a significant influence on the central volume of distribution, with a preterm neonate having a larger central volume of distribution per kilogram of bodyweight than a term neonate. Cystatin C and creatinine were not correlated with gentamicin clearance in this study population. The external...

  10. Abrasion Resistance Comparison between Rotor and Ring Spun Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ping; YU Chong-wen

    2002-01-01

    On the base of literature review and the analysis of yarn properties, yarn structure and some other facts, the abrasion resistance of both rotor spun yarn and ring spun yarns are discussed. The results show that with the same raw material and twist, the rotor spun yarn has lower abrasion resistance than that of ring spun yarn, because of the higher twist employed, the abrasion resistance of rotor spun yarn is higher than that of ring spun yarn.

  11. Cochlear and Vestibular Effects of Combined Intratympanic Gentamicin and Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneri, Enis Alpin; Olgun, Yüksel; Aslıer, Mustafa; Nuti, Daniele; Kırkım, Günay; Mungan, Serpil; Kolatan, Efsun; Aktaş, Safiye; Trabalzini, Franco; Ellidokuz, Hülya; Yılmaz, Osman; Mandala, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an intratympanic gentamicin-dexamethasone combination on the inner ear. Twenty-six Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I (Control), group II (Intratympanic dexamethasone; ITD), group III (Intratympanic gentamicin; ITG), and group IV (Intratympanic gentamicin and dexamethasone; ITGD). On the first day after basal auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements, the ITG group received 0.03 mL of intratympanic gentamicin (26.7 mg/mL). Intratympanic injection of 0.06 mL of a solution containing 13.35 mg/mL gentamicin and 2 mg/mL dexamethasone was performed in the ITGD group. 0.03 mL of physiological intratympanic serum and dexamethasone (4 mg/mL) was applied in control and ITD groups, respectively. On the 7th day, ABR measurements were repeated and vestibular functions were evaluated. On the 21th day, ABR and vestibular tests were repeated, and the animals were sacrificed for histopathological investigation. The ITG group's hearing thresholds deteriorated in all frequencies. The ITGD group's hearing thresholds were significantly better than the ITG group, except at 8 kHz on the 7th day and in all frequencies at the 21th day measurements. The vestibular function scores of the ITG and ITGD groups were higher than the controls. Apoptotic changes were seen in cochlea, spiral ganglion, and vestibule of the ITG group. Cochlear and vestibular structures were well preserved in the ITGD group, similar to the controls. The ITGD combination led to a significant hearing preservation. Although in subjective vestibular tests, it seemed that vestibulotoxicity was present in both ITG and ITGD groups the histopathological investigations revealed no signs of vestibulotoxicity in the ITGD group in contrast to the ITG group. Further studies using a combination of different concentrations of gentamicin and dexamethasone are needed.

  12. Protective effect of quercetin in gentamicin-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo in blood cells. Effect on gentamicin antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Pamela Soledad; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Páez, Paulina Laura; Albesa, Ines; Cabrera, José Luis; Virgolini, Miriam Beatriz; Ortega, María Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    We have evaluated the effect of gentamicin and gentamicin plus quercetin on ROS production, endogenous antioxidant defenses (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation in vitro on human leukocytes and in vivo on whole rat blood. Gentamicin generated ROS production in human leukocytes, produced a dual effect on both enzymes dosage-dependent and generated an increase in lipid peroxidation. Quercetin, in leukocytes stimulated by gentamicin, showed more inhibitory capacity in ROS production than the reference inhibitor (vitaminC) in mononuclear cells and a similar protective behavior at this inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. Quercetin, in both cellular systems, tend to level SOD and CAT activities, reaching basal values and could prevent lipidic peroxidation induced by gentamicin. The results in Wistar rats confirmed that therapeutic doses of gentamicin can induce oxidative stress in whole blood and that the gentamicin treatment plus quercetin can suppress ROS generation, collaborate with SOD and CAT and diminish lipid peroxidation. Finally, flavonoid and antibiotic association was evaluated on the antimicrobial activity in S. aureus and E. coli, showing that changes were not generated in the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against E. coli strains, while for strains of S. aureus a beneficial effect observes. Therefore, we have demonstrated that gentamicin could induce oxidative stress in human leukocytes and in whole blood of Wistar rats at therapeutic doses and that quercetin may to produce a protective effect on this oxidative stress generated without substantially modifying the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against E. coli strains, and it contributes to this activity against S. aureus strains.

  13. Use of Liposomal Gentamicin for Treatment of 5 Foals with Experimentally Induced Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N D; Giguère, S; Burton, A J; Rocha, J N; Berghaus, L J; Brake, C N; Bordin, A I; Coleman, M C

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effects of, and bacterial resistance to, macrolides used to treat Rhodococcus equi infections have prompted search for clinically effective alternative antimicrobials. Liposomal gentamicin (LG) is effective against R. equi in vitro and decreases tissue concentrations of R. equi in experimentally infected mice. Effectiveness of LG treatment of foals with R. equi pneumonia, however, has not been described. Liposomal gentamicin is safe and effective for treating foals with R. equi pneumonia. Ten foals with experimentally induced R. equi pneumonia. Pilot treatment trial. Foals with pneumonia induced by intrabronchial instillation of R. equi were randomly allocated to receive either clarithromycin combined with rifampin (CLR + RIF) PO or LG IV, and followed by daily physical examinations and weekly thoracic ultrasonography and serum creatinine concentration determinations until the resolution of clinical signs. Treatment success was defined as the resolution of clinical signs and ultrasonographically identified pulmonary abscesses. All 10 foals were successfully treated. Two of 5 foals treated with LG developed azotemia within 1 week; LG was discontinued and treatment switched to CLR + RIF for these foals. None of the CLR + RIF treated foals developed azotemia. Liposomal gentamicin IV can be effective for treatment of R. equi pneumonia, but nephrotoxicity indicates that an alternative dosing interval or route (such as nebulization) will be needed before LG is adequately safe for clinical use. Larger comparative trials will be needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of a safer LG dosage regimen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Comparison of Testing Clothing Thermal Resistance on 2 Thermal Manikins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-hong(谌玉红); JIANG Zhi-hua(姜志华); WU Zhi-xiao(吴志孝); Ingvar Holmer; Kalev Kuklane

    2003-01-01

    The paper compares clothing thermal resistance of the same ensemble tested by different thermal manikins in different laboratories. It also examines the consistence of the two groups of total thermal resistance by Paired-Sample T Test method, which proves that there is no remarkable difference in testing results under the same experiment method and requirement. It is of great significance in promoting the application of thermal manikin testing technology and academic exchange among different institutes.

  15. Concepts for increasing gentamicin release from handmade bone cement beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hermawan N; van der Mei, Henny C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Soegijoko, Soegijardjo; Van Horn, Jim R; Busscher, Hendrik; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Commercial gentamicin-loaded bone cement beads (Septopal) constitute an effective delivery system for local antibiotic therapy. These beads are not available in all parts of the world, and are too expensive for frequent use in others. Thus, orthopedic surgeons worldwide make

  16. Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Swiss Albino ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of vitamin B-complex on the nephrotoxicity of ... increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug ...

  17. Serum concentrations of gentamicin following oral administration to preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylack, L; Boehnert, J; Scanlon, J

    1982-01-01

    Serum gentamicin concentration was measured in 31 newborn babies who received oral gentamicin for prophylaxis of necrotizing enterocolitis in order to determine the presence and degree of gastrointestinal absorption and its relationship to birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age and perinatal asphyxia. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg every 6 h by nasogastric tube was administered during a 3-week course after birth. The mean birth weight was 1,269 +/- 489 g; mean gestational age 29.6 +/- 3.7 weeks. The mean serum gentamicin levels were: 0.06 +/- 0.03 microgram/ml at 30 min after the first dose; 0.29 +/- 0.48 microgram/ml at 4 h; 1.62 +/- 1.43 microgram/ml at 24 h, and 0.33 +/- 0.57 microgram/ml at 7 days. The 24-hour and 7-day samples were taken before the next dose. The mean 24-hour level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than the other levels. There was no significant (p less than 0.05) relationship between the 24-hour serum gentamicin level and birth weight, gestational age or umbilical venous pH.

  18. Once daily dose gentamicin in neonates - is our dosing correct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serane, Tiroumourougane V; Zengeya, Stanley; Penford, Gemma; Cooke, Jane; Khanna, Gitika; McGregor-Colman, Elle

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the safety and efficacy (measured by therapeutic level) of once daily gentamicin in neonates >or=32 weeks of gestation and or=32 weeks of gestation and 2 mg/L. Only 39 (60%) had peak and trough levels within the therapeutic range. All babies who had audiometric evaluation (62 out of 65) had normal hearing. Out of the 65 babies, 60 had paired serum creatinine levels estimated and none had evidence of renal dysfunction. Among term neonates, only 2 out of 50 had the trough serum concentration of >2 mg/L. In 38 (76%) of the 50 neonates, the trough serum gentamicin concentration was <2.0 mg/L and the peak level was <10 mg/L. Forty-eight babies had audiometric evaluation which was normal. A dose of 4 mg/kg/day produces serum gentamicin levels outside the therapeutic range in two-fifths of neonates between 32 and 36 +/- 6 weeks. A single dose of 4 mg/kg/day of gentamicin is appropriate for term babies and probably excessive for 32-36 weeks' neonates.

  19. Synergistic action of gentamicin and bacteriophage in a continuous culture population of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kirby

    Full Text Available With the increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance and the decreasing frequency of new antibiotics entering the market, interest has returned to developing bacteriophage as a therapeutic agent. Acceptance of phage therapy, however, is limited by the unknown pharmacodynamics of a replicating agent, as well as the potential for the evolution of resistant bacteria. One way to overcome some of these limitations is to incorporate phage and antibiotics into a dual therapy regimen; however, this increases the complexity of the pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study is to develop an experimental system to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of dual phage-drug therapy. A continuous culture system for Staphylococcus aureus is used to simulate the pharmacokinetics of periodic antibiotic dosing alone and in combination with lytic phage. A computer model representation of the system allows further evaluation of the conditions governing the observed pharmacodynamics. The results of this experimental/modeling approach suggest that dual therapy can be more efficacious than single therapies, particularly if there is an overlap in the physiological pathways targeted by the individual agents. In this case, treatment with gentamicin induces a population of cells with a strong aggregation phenotype. These aggregators also have an increased ability to form biofilm, which is a well-known, non-genetic mechanism of drug resistance. However, the aggregators are also more susceptible than the parental strain to the action of the phage. Thus, dual treatment with gentamicin and phage resulted in lower final cell densities than either treatment alone. Unlike in the phage-only treatment, phage-resistant isolates were not detected in the dual treatment.

  20. Alpha-linolenic acid protects against gentamicin induced toxicity

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    Priyadarshini M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Medha Priyadarshini, Mohammad Aatif, Bilqees BanoDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaBackground: Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species are the major culprits behind the renal damage induced by gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat serious and life threatening Gram-negative infections. Experimental evidence suggests a protective role of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation against oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible beneficial role of alpha-linolenic acid against gentamicin induced renal distress.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats each, with the first group serving as a control. The other groups were treated intraperitoneally with gentamicin 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 days ± alpha-linolenic acid and vitamin E (each given as 250 mg/kg body weight per day. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, cholesterol, inorganic phosphate in serum, malondialdehyde and total sulfhydryl levels, and glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in kidney tissues were determined.Results: Administration of gentamicin to rats induced marked renal failure, characterized by a profound increase in serum creatinine, urea, and cholesterol concentrations, accompanied by significant lowering of renal alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activity, an increase in malondialdehyde, a decline in total sulfhydryl levels, and lowered superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Cotreatment with alpha-linolenic acid produced amelioration in these biochemical indices of nephrotoxicity in serum as well as in tissue. Further histopathological and human studies are necessary to demonstrate the beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid in renal disease.Conclusion: Alpha-linolenic acid may represent a nontoxic and effective intervention strategy in

  1. Antibacterial Efficacy of a New Gentamicin-Coating for Cementless Prostheses Compared to Gentamicin-Loaded Bone Cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neut, Danielle; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Thompson, Jonathan I.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2011-01-01

    Cementless prostheses are increasingly popular but require alternative prophylactic measures than the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cements. Here, we determine the 24-h growth inhibition of gentamicin-releasing coatings from grit-blasted and porous-coated titanium alloys, and compare their antibacte

  2. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manash C.; Sandhu, Padmani; Gupta, Priya; Rudrapaul, Prasenjit; de, Utpal C.; Tribedi, Prosun; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2016-03-01

    Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260 μg/ml. It’s antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110 μg/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis.

  3. Mentha piperita in nephrotoxicity - a possible intervention to ameliorate renal derangements associated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Free radical generation has a strong role in the pathogenesis of renal damage associated with the use of gentamicin. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Mentha piperita against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 male rabbits were divided into 4 groups receiving normal saline, gentamicin, M. piperita extract and co-therapy of extract and gentamicin respectively. Gentamicin was provided as 80 mg/kg/day intramuscularly and extract was given 200 mg/kg/day orally for a period of 21 days. Serum and urinary biochemical parameters and histological changes were studied for each group. The impact of the extract on the antibacterial action of gentamicin was also evaluated. Results: Animals treated with gentamicin showed derangements in serum and urinary biochemical parameters. These alterations were reversed by treatment with M. piperita extract. The histological changes showed in gentamicin group were also reverted by treatment with the extract. Further the plant did not influence the efficacy of gentamicin with respect to its antimicrobial properties. Conclusion: Co-therapy of M. piperita with gentamicin successfully attenuated biochemical kidney functioning derangements and morphological changes associated with gentamicin.

  4. The culturable intestinal microbiota of triploid and diploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar - a comparison of composition and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantas Leon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increased use of ploidy manipulation in aquaculture and fisheries management this investigation aimed to determine whether triploidy influences culturable intestinal microbiota composition and bacterial drug resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The results could provide answers to some of the physiological differences observed between triploid and diploid fish, especially in terms of fish health. Results No ploidy effect was observed in the bacterial species isolated, however, triploids were found to contain a significant increase in total gut microbiota levels, with increases in Pseudomonas spp., Pectobacterium carotovorum, Psychrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Vibrio spp., (12, 42, 9, 10, and 11% more bacteria in triploids than diploids, respectively, whereas a decrease in Carnobacterium spp., within triploids compared to diploids was close to significant (8% more bacteria in diploids. With the exception of gentamicin, where no bacterial resistance was observed, bacterial isolates originating from triploid hosts displayed increased resistance to antibacterials, three of which were significant (tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide. Conclusion Results indicate that triploidy influences both the community and drug resistance of culturable intestinal microbiota in juvenile salmon. These results demonstrate differences that are likely to contribute to the health of triploid fish and have important ramifications on the use of antibacterial drugs within aquaculture.

  5. Protective potential of Tamarindus indica against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Azam Khan, Mir; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-13

    Abstract Context: Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, its clinical applications are often limited due to nephrotoxic effects. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) fruits against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. Materials and methods: A daily dose of 200 mg/kg of 70% aqueous-ethanol extract derived from T. indica was employed in male rabbits as a co-therapy with gentamicin (80 mg/kg) for a period of three weeks. Serum and urinary renal function parameters and histological assessments were carried out and compared with one way analysis of variance (Graphpad prism version 5.00, Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: The results showed that gentamicin-treated animals had significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen (54.1 ± 2.6 mg/dl), serum creatinine (4.0 ± 0.1 mg/dl), serum uric acid (2.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and urinary protein excretion (3.8 ± 0.3 mg/dl) with a fall in body weight (10 ± 1%), creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.09 ml/min), serum potassium (3.4 ± 0.1 mEq/l), serum calcium (7.6 ± 0.2 mg/dl), urinary volume (126 ± 9 ml/24 h) and urinary lactate dehydrogenase secretion (103.1 ± 4.2 U/l). However, animals treated by co-therapy with gentamicin and T. indica had significantly improved renal structure and function. Discussion and conclusion: Co-therapy of 200 mg/kg/d of T. indica for a period of three weeks successfully prevented functional and morphological derangements caused by gentamicin as assessed by different renal function parameters and histological examinations.

  6. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Com, Emmanuelle, E-mail: emmanuelle.com@univ-rennes1.fr [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); INSERM U625, Proteomics Core Facility Biogenouest, Rennes (France); Boitier, Eric; Marchandeau, Jean-Pierre [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Brandenburg, Arnd [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schroeder, Susanne [Nycomed GmbH, Barsbüttel (Germany); Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela [University of Würzburg, Department of Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Gautier, Jean-Charles [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which induces renal tubular necrosis in rats. In the context of the European InnoMed PredTox project, transcriptomic and proteomic studies were performed to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were treated with 25 and 75 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 1, 3 and 14 days. Histopathology observations showed mild tubular degeneration/necrosis and regeneration and moderate mononuclear cell infiltrate after long-term treatment. Transcriptomic data indicated a strong treatment-related gene expression modulation in kidney and blood cells at the high dose after 14 days of treatment, with the regulation of 463 and 3241 genes, respectively. Of note, the induction of NF-kappa B pathway via the p38 MAPK cascade in the kidney, together with the activation of T-cell receptor signaling in blood cells were suggestive of inflammatory processes in relation with the recruitment of mononuclear cells in the kidney. Proteomic results showed a regulation of 163 proteins in kidney at the high dose after 14 days of treatment. These protein modulations were suggestive of a mitochondrial dysfunction with impairment of cellular energy production, induction of oxidative stress, an effect on protein biosynthesis and on cellular assembly and organization. Proteomic results also provided clues for potential nephrotoxicity biomarkers such as AGAT and PRBP4 which were strongly modulated in the kidney. Transcriptomic and proteomic data turned out to be complementary and their integration gave a more comprehensive insight into the putative mode of nephrotoxicity of gentamicin which was in accordance with histopathological findings. -- Highlights: ► Gentamicin induces renal tubular necrosis in rats. ► The mechanisms of gentamicin nephrotoxicity remain still elusive. ► Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to study this toxicity in rats. ► Transcriptomic and proteomic

  7. Protective Effect of Carvacrol on Renal Functional and Histopathological Changes in Gentamicin-Induced-Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Nephrotoxicity is one of the most important side effects of the use of gentamicin sulphate (GS resulted in reactive oxygen species generation. Antioxidant compounds played effective roles in reduction of renal injuries caused by using of gentamicin. Carvacrol is a strong antioxidant compound. Objectives The aim of this study is to explore the effect of carvacrol inhibition in lesions of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 32 male mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 8; group1: control, group 2 sham received daily carvacrol injection (74 mg/kg for 12 days, group 3 received daily GS injection (100 mg/kg for 12 days, group 4 received daily GS (100 mg/kg and carvacrol (74 mg/kg for 12 days. After 12 days, rats were anaesthetized, blood sample were obtained and kidneys were removed then stained with hematoxylin and eosin method and then were studied histophatologically. Serum creatinine and urea were measured. Results Flow treatment of nephrotoxic animals with carvacrol could significantly inhibit leukocyte infiltration (9.42% and tubular necrosis (38.18% in comparison with the nephrotoxic untreated group. Carvacrol significantly decreased the levels of urea and creatinine in treated group compared with the nephrotoxic untreated group. Conclusions The findings showed that carvacrol alleviates loss of leukocyte infiltration (9.42% and tubular necrosis and exerts beneficial effects on kidney function test in nephrotoxic group.

  8. Comparison of High Resolution Negative Electron Beam Resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Schøler, Mikkel; Shi, Peixiong

    2006-01-01

    Four high resolution negative electron beam resists are compared: TEBN-1 from Tokuyama Corp. Japan, ma-N 2401XP and mr-L 6000AXP from microresist technology GmbH Germany, and SU-8 2000 series from MicroChem Corp., USA. Narrow linewidth high density patterns are defined by 100 kV electron beam...... lithography, and the pattern is transferred into silicon by a highly anisotropic SF6/O-2/CHF3 based reactive ion etch process with a selectivity between silicon and the investigated resists of approximately 2.20 nm half-pitch lines and 10 nm lines with a pitch down to 60 nm are written and transferred...

  9. Toxicity of gentamicin in red-tailed hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J E; Walser, M M; Duke, G E

    1983-07-01

    Gentamicin sulfate at dosage levels of 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight was administered twice daily IV to red-tailed hawks. Clinical signs, water consumption, and changes in blood chemical values were monitored. Tissues were examined grossly and ultrastructurally, using light and electron microscopy. Clinical signs of weakness and apnea were attributed to gentamicin-induced neuromuscular blockade in the 20-mg/kg group. Serum values of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, albumin, and uric acid increased in some birds. There was a decrease in periodic acid-Schiff staining of proximal tubular brush borders. Increased numbers of cytoplasmic lysosomes, many of which contained myelin figures, in renal epithelial cells were seen at the ultrastructural level. All birds given 20 mg/kg died. Both dosage levels were considered toxic in red-tailed hawks.

  10. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  11. Detection of Ethambutol - resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion

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    M. Asgharzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Ethambutol (EMB is one of the first - line drugs used for anti-tubercular therapy but resistance to this medicine is developed in many parts of the world. EMB resistant strains commonly have embB mutations. Purpose of this research was detection of EMB-resistant Mycobactercium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion procedure.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from patients with tulerculosis in Tabriz TB research center. Susceptibility testing to EMB was performed by the Proportion method. DNA was isolated from cultivated cells by SDS-proteinase K modified method. Isolated DNA was used as the template for PCR reaction.Results: One hundred and sixteen strains were susceptible to EMB and 4 (3.33% strains were resistant to EMB. All EMB resistant strains were multidrug-resistant. The MAS-PCR method was used to evaluate of mutation in the embB306 codon. Mutation was seen at the embB306 codon in all resistant strains to ethambutol.Conclusion: The results showed that MAS-PCR method can be used as a simple and rapid procedure for detecting EMB-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  12. Transcriptomic comparison of thiamethoxam-resistance adaptation in resistant and susceptible strains of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yiou; Peng, Tianfei; Gao, Xiwu; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chen; Xi, Jinghui; Xin, Xuecheng; Bi, Rui; Shang, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    A thiamethoxam-resistant strain of cotton aphid (ThR) strain displayed a 19.35-fold greater resistance to thiamethoxam compared to a susceptible cotton aphid (SS) strain. Solexa sequencing technology was used to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in cotton aphids in the context of thiamethoxam resistance. A total of 22,569,311 and 21,317,732 clean reads were obtained from the ThR and SS transcriptomes, respectively, and assembled into 35,222 non-redundant (Nr) consensus sequences. The expression of 620 unigenes changed significantly in the ThR libraries compared to the SS strain; 349 genes were up-regulated, and 271 genes were down-regulated (P≤0.001). Expression levels of ribosomal proteins, ATP synthase, cytochrome c oxidase, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase and esterase were up-regulated significantly in the ThR strain compared to the SS strain. The genes of cuticle proteins, salivary proteins, and fibroin heavy chain decreased dramatically. One nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α subunit was down-regulated in the ThR strain. The expression levels of 10 differentially expressed unigenes were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR, and the observed trends in gene expression matched the Solexa expression profiles. Specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nAChRs that cause amino acid substitution were found from the ThR and SS stains respectively. These data illustrate that genetic changes in nAChR genes and up-regulated ribosomal proteins, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c oxidase, esterase and peroxidase may confer the tolerance of resistant cotton aphids to thiamethoxam.

  13. Protective effect of alpha-linolenic acid on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Halil Mahir; Şingirik, Ergin; Erdoğan, Kıvılcım Eren; Doran, Figen

    2017-07-31

    Alpha-linolenic acid is one of the fatty acids known as omega 3. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-linolenic acid, which prevented cell damage by inhibiting apoptotic pathway. Also, it is known that gentamicin activates apoptotic mediators and causes necrosis in the kidney. Due to this reason, we planned a study to evaluate the protective effects of alpha-linolenic acid on gentamicin induced ototoxicity by evaluating inflammation and apoptotic mediators. For this purpose, 100 mg/kg gentamicin (i.p; intraperitoneally) and 200 mg/kg alpha-linolenic acid (gavage) are administered to mice for 9 days. On 9th and 10th days, rotarod performance was assessed to test the effect of gentamicin and alpha-linolenic acid treatment on the motor coordination of mice. Gentamicin treatment decreased fall latency of mice and gentamicin treatment together with alpha-linolenic acid increased fall latency of mice. Gentamicin treatment also increased expression of phospholipase A2(plA2), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide syntheses (iNOS). Furthermore, it increased Bax and caspase-3, which are proapoptotic proteins and decreased bcl-2 that is an antiapoptotic protein. Gentamicin treatment together alpha-linolenic acid recovered the change of expression of these enzymes. In conclusion, this study showed that alpha-linolenic acid will be useful to prevent gentamicin-induced ototoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation.

  14. Comparison of the Resistance of Diabetic Foot Isolates with Community and Intensive Care Unit Resistance Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Pehlivanoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using proper antibiotics in diabetic foot infections can save an extremity. The goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of the most frequent isolates from diabetic foot infections, to compare these results with those for species obtained from both intensive care unit and community-acquired infections, and to re-evaluate the empirical antimicrobial therapy in diabetic foot infections. Material and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on bacteria from diabetic foot cultures, ICU and community-acquired infections. Skin and soft tissue samples of a total of 181 patients have been studied. Sensitivity to ampicillin/ sulbactam (SAM, ciprofloxacin (CIP, piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP, cefoperazone/sulbactam (SCF, amikacin (AN, meropenem (MEM and cefepime (FEP has been investigated. Results: Among the samples, reproduction was detected in 154 (85%, 132 of which (79.5% contained gram-negative bacteria (46 Enterobacter spp, 36 Pseudomonas spp, 30 Acinetobacter spp, 20 others. Resistance of bacteria isolated from diabetic foot cultures was less than the one of bacteria isolated from ICU and more than the one from community-acquired infections. However, an increased resistance was detected to ciprofloxacin, frequently used in urinary infections, in agents from community-acquired infections. Conclusion: In conclusion, due to the risk of possible loss of tissue/extremity and possible antibiotic resistance, treatment should be started empirically and continued considering the culture results. (The Me di cal Bul le tin of Ha se ki 2011; 49: 137-40

  15. Effect of resistance training using bodyweight in the elderly: Comparison of resistance exercise movement between slow and normal speed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Oba, Naoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether a slow movement protocol can be applied to resistance training using bodyweight. In addition, the intervention program combined plyometric exercise with resistance exercise to improve physical function overall. A total of 39 active elderly adults participated in a 16-week intervention. The program consisted of five resistance exercises and four plyometric exercises using their own bodyweight with a single set for each exercise. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group carried out resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation (3-s concentric, 3-s eccentric and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition). The other group as a movement comparison followed the same regimen, but at normal speed (1-s eccentric and 1-s concentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition). Muscle size, strength and physical function were measured before and after the intervention period. After the intervention, strengths of upper and lower limbs, and maximum leg extensor power were significantly improved in both groups. Muscle size did not change in either group. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters between groups. The intervention program using only own bodyweight that comprised resistance exercise with slow movement and plyometric exercise can improve physical function in the elderly, even with single sets for each exercise. However, there was no enhanced muscle hypertrophic effect. Further attempts, such as increasing performing multiple sets, would be required to induce muscle hypertrophy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1270-1277. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of chromizing coating and P110 steel for corrosion resistance estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Naiming, E-mail: lnmlz33@163.com [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guo, Junwen [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xie, Faqin [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zou, Jiaojuan; Tian, Wei [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yao, Xiaofei [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Zhang, Hongyan; Tang, Bin [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Continuous chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel by pack cementation. • The chromizing coating showed better corrosion resistance. • Comparison of surface fractal dimensions can estimate corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In the field of corrosion research, mass gain/loss, electrochemical tests and comparing the surface elemental distributions, phase constitutions as well as surface morphologies before and after corrosion are extensively applied to investigate the corrosion behavior or estimate the corrosion resistance of materials that operated in various environments. Most of the above methods are problem oriented, complex and longer-period time-consuming. However from an object oriented point of view, the corroded surfaces of materials often have self-similar characterization: fractal property which can be employed to efficiently achieve damaged surface analysis. The present work describes a strategy of comparison of the surface fractal dimensions for corrosion resistance estimation: chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel surface to improve its performance via pack cementation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the original and corroded samples. Surface fractal dimensions of the detected samples were calculated by binary images related to SEM images of surface morphologies with box counting algorithm method. The results showed that both surface morphologies and surface fractal dimensions of P110 steel varied greatly before and after corrosion test, but the chromizing coating changed slightly. The chromizing coating indicated better corrosion resistance than P110 steel. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of original and corroded samples can rapidly and exactly realize the estimation of corrosion resistance.

  17. Microsomal protein synthesis inhibition: an early manifestation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.M.; Mela-Riker, L.M.; Houghton, D.C.; Gilbert, D.N.; Buss, W.C.

    1988-08-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics achieve bacterial killing by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. To examine whether similar mechanisms could be present in renal tubular cells prior to the onset of overt proximal tubular necrosis due to these drugs, we isolated microsomes from Fischer rats given 20 mg/kg gentamicin every 12 h subcutaneously for 2 days and from vehicle-injected controls. Concomitant studies of renal structure, function, and mitochondrial respiration were carried out. (3H)leucine incorporation into renal microsomes of treated animals was reduced by 21.9% (P less than 0.01), whereas brain and liver microsomes from the same animals were unaffected. Gentamicin concentration in the renal microsomal preparation was 56 micrograms/ml, a value 7- to 10-fold above concentrations necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. Conventional renal function studies were normal (blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance). Treated animals showed only a mild reduction of inulin clearance, 0.71 compared with 0.93 ml.min-1.100 g-1 in controls (P less than 0.05), and an increase in urinary excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase of 20 compared with 14.8 units/l (P less than 0.05). Renal slice transport of p-aminohippuric acid, tetraethylammonium, and the fractional excretion of sodium were well preserved. There was no evidence, as seen by light microscopy, of proximal tubular necrosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome concentrations were normal and respiratory activities only slightly reduced. Processes similar to those responsible for bacterial killing could be involved in experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity before overt cellular necrosis.

  18. Gentamicin-mediated ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity: A clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aminoglycosides and mainly gentamicin are the most important antimicrobial agents. Two different methods of administration exist: Single and multiple doses. There has always been a controversy about the less harmful administration method, to minimize adverse effects of gentamicin - deafness and renal insufficiency. In this study, it was aimed to compare two different methods of administration to figure out the least harmful treatment method. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, eighty patients aged 12-55 years who were admitted with sepsis syndrome were included in the study; they were divided into two groups: The first group received single-dose treatment (5 mg/kg whereas the second group was treated with multiple doses (1.7 mg/kg three times a day of gentamicin. Results: The results show that blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CR levels were decreased in the first group. Both blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and also mean glomerular filtration rate was increased in the same group. In the second group, mean BUN and CR levels were increased while the GFR was decreased in the same group. There was also a gradual increase in GFR in the first group. GFR <80 was decreased from 20% to 5.1% in the first group while increased from 5% to 27.5% in the second group. Results of audiometric studies show 6.1% hearing problem in the first group and 12.8% in the second one. Conclusions: Results of the present study showed that nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are minimized in single-dose administration compared to multiples doses.

  19. Effect of gentamicin and levels of ambient sound on hearing screening outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garinis, Angela C; Liao, Selena; Cross, Campbell P; Galati, Johnathan; Middaugh, Jessica L; Mace, Jess C; Wood, Anna-Marie; McEvoy, Lindsey; Moneta, Lauren; Lubianski, Troy; Coopersmith, Noe; Vigo, Nicholas; Hart, Christopher; Riddle, Artur; Ettinger, Olivia; Nold, Casey; Durham, Heather; MacArthur, Carol; McEvoy, Cynthia; Steyger, Peter S

    2017-06-01

    Hearing loss rates in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) run at 2-15%, compared to 0.3% in full-term births. The etiology of this difference remains poorly understood. We examined whether the level of ambient sound and/or cumulative gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) exposure affect NICU hearing screening results, as either exposure can cause acquired, permanent hearing loss. We hypothesized that higher levels of ambient sound in the NICU, and/or gentamicin dosing, increase the risk of referral on the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) assessments and/or automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) screens. This was a prospective pilot outcomes study of 82 infants (sound pressure level dosimeter was used to collect daily sound exposure in the NICU for each neonate. Gentamicin dosing was also calculated for each infant, including the total daily dose based on body mass (mg/kg/day), as well as the total number of treatment days. DPOAE and AABR assessments were conducted prior to discharge to evaluate hearing status. Exclusion criteria included congenital infections associated with hearing loss, and congenital craniofacial or otologic abnormalities. The mean level of ambient sound was 62.9 dBA (range 51.8-70.6 dBA), greatly exceeding American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendation of 4172 Hz) was 44%. DPOAE referrals were significantly greater for infants receiving >2 days of gentamicin dosing compared to fewer doses (p = 0.004). The effect of sound exposure and gentamicin treatment on hearing could not be determined due to the low number of NICU infants without gentamicin exposure (for control comparisons). All infants were exposed to higher levels of ambient sound that substantially exceed AAP guidelines. More referrals were generated by DPOAE assessments than with AABR screens, with significantly more DPOAE referrals with a high-frequency F2 range, consistent with sound- and/or gentamicin-induced cochlear dysfunction. Adding

  20. Estudo comparativo de duas técnicas farmacopéicas de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos fármacos: nistatina, eritromicina, neomicina e gentamicina Comparison of two pharmacopeical thecnics to the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the drugs: nystatin, erythromycin, neomycin and gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Margato Vital

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Através das técnicas de difusão em ágar com discos de papel e cilindros de aço inoxidável, analisou-se quantitativamente a atividade antimicrobiana de 123 medicamentos contendo os fármacos: nistatina (43 amostras de creme vaginal, eritromicina (14 amostras de comprimidos e 9 amostras de suspensão oral, gentamicina (33 amostras de líquido injetável e neomicina (24 amostras de creme de uso tópico, mediante as seguintes cepas de microrganismos: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2601 para a nistatina; Staphylococcus epidermidis 12228 para a gentamicina e neomicina e Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 para a eritromicina. O preparo das cepas, soluções de padrão e amostra e meios de cultura nos dois métodos seguiram as recomendações da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV (1988 e Farmacopéia Americana 24 (2000. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelos testes de Fisher (p=0,05 e Student (p=0,05. Dentre as 43 amostras de nistatina creme vaginal analisadas, verificaram-se pelo teste de Student , diferenças pouco significativas (para p=0,05 de atividade antimicrobiana entre os métodos dos discos e cilindros; porém no teste de Fisher não houve diferenças. Nas amostras de eritromicina, gentamicina e neomicina não se obtiveram diferenças significativas entre os testes estatísticos de Fisher e Student. Conclui-se que, para a eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina e nistatina, a análise de atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica dos discos de papel pode substituir a técnica dos cilindros de aço inoxidável.Through the diffusion techniques in culture media with paper disc and stainless steel cylinders the antimicrobial activity in 123 pharmaceutical preparations was evaluated: nystatin (43 samples of vaginal cream, erythromycin (14 samples of tablets and 9 of oral suspension, gentamicin (33 samples of injectable liquid and neomycin (24 samples of cream of topic use, against the microorganisms: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2601 to nystatin

  1. Controlled Delivery of Gentamicin Using Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Roy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate, P(3HB, produced from Bacillus cereus SPV using a simple glucose feeding strategy was used to fabricate P(3HB microspheres using a solid-in-oil-water (s/o/w technique. For this study, several parameters such as polymer concentration, surfactant and stirring rates were varied in order to determine their effect on microsphere characteristics. The average size of the microspheres was in the range of 2 µm to 1.54 µm with specific surface areas varying between 9.60 m2/g and 6.05 m2/g. Low stirring speed of 300 rpm produced slightly larger microspheres when compared to the smaller microspheres produced when the stirring velocity was increased to 800 rpm. The surface morphology of the microspheres after solvent evaporation appeared smooth when observed under SEM. Gentamicin was encapsulated within these P(3HB microspheres and the release kinetics from the microspheres exhibiting the highest encapsulation efficiency, which was 48%, was investigated. The in vitro release of gentamicin was bimodal, an initial burst release was observed followed by a diffusion mediated sustained release. Biodegradable P(3HB microspheres developed in this research has shown high potential to be used in various biomedical applications.

  2. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution. 524.1044b Section 524.1044b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044b Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution....

  3. The release of gentamicin from acrylic bone cements in a simulated prosthesis-related interfacial gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, JGE; Neut, D; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Gentamicin is added to polymethylmethacrylate bone cements in orthopedics as a measure against infection in total joint arthroplasties. Numerous studies have been published on gentamicin release from bone cements, but none have been able to estimate the local concentrations in the prosthesis-related

  4. Gentamicin Binds to Megalin as a Competitive Inhibitor Using the Common Ligand Binding Motif of Complement Type Repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; O'Shea, Charlotte; Nykjaer, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside widely used in treatments of, in particular, enterococcal, mycobacterial, and severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. Large doses of gentamicin cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, entering the cell via the receptor megalin. Until now, no structural information...

  5. Unilateral eccentric resistance training: A direct comparison between isokinetic and dynamic constant external resistance modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Milanese, Chiara; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the effects of unilateral eccentric-only training using constant velocity vs. constant external load. Forty-seven participants were randomized in isokinetic (IK), dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) unilateral eccentric training or control groups. Knee extension 1RM and isometric, eccentric and concentric knee extensors peak torque, as well as changes in vastus lateralis fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, muscle thickness, and quadriceps fat-free mass were measured. Both IK and DCER training consisted in 5 × 8 eccentric-only repetitions, 2d/w, for 6 weeks. IK and DCER training sessions were matched for total volume. After training, both IK and DCER similarly increased 1RM (respectively, +4.4 kg, CI95% 1.8-7.0 and +5.5 kg, CI95% 3.3-7.9), isometric (respectively, +34.5 N/m, CI95% 23.0-45.9 and +15.8, CI95% 5.4-26.2) and concentric peak torque (respectively, +17.0 N/m, CI95% 6.6 to +27.4 and 12.2 CI95% 2.8-21.7). IK increased eccentric peak torque significantly more than DCER (respectively, +84.2 N/m, CI95% 66.3-102.1 and +38.2 N/m, CI95% 21.9-54.4). Both IK and DCER similarly increased fascicle length (respectively, +14.7 mm, CI95% 5.4-24.0 and +14.4 mm, CI95% 5.4-23.3) and muscle thickness (respectively, +3.3 mm, CI95% 1.5-5.1, and +4.1 mm, CI95% 2.5-5.7). Matching the training volume resulted in similar adaptations comparing eccentric-only IK or DCER resistance training. Both in rehabilitation and in training practice, the use of easily available gym devices can be a good substitute for expensive and often unavailable IK devices.

  6. Effects of gentamicin on the recovery of renal function after unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Nobumitsu [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of complications in hydronephrosis, and antibiotics such as gentamicin are indicated for the treatment. However, gentamicin is known to cause drug-induced nephropathy. Using a rat kidney model, we investigated the effects of gentamicin treatment on the functional recovery from unilateral hydronephrosis. Quantitative separate renal function study by means of Technetium-99m DMSA renoscintigraphy revealed that contralateral kidney was affected by the treatment right after the release of complete ureteral obstruction. Moreover, in the case of incomplete ureteral obstruction, bilateral kidneys were affected by the treatment. Morphological studies using in situ DNA3' -end labeling and immunohistochemical methods showed that regeneration in the bilateral kidney followed gentamicin treatment right after the release. These results suggest that we should take account of separate renal function failure after gentamicin administration in the perihydronephrotic periods. (author)

  7. Direct laser light enhancement of susceptibility of bacteria to gentamicin antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Yana; Banin, Ehud; Lipovsky, Anat; Lubart, Rachel; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-11-01

    ObjectivesTo test the effect of pulsed (Q-switched) and continuous wave (CW) laser light at wavelength of 532 nm on the viability of free-living stationary phase bacteria with and without gentamicin (an antibiotic) treatment. MethodsFree living stationary phase gram negative bacteria ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1) was immersed in Luria Broth (LB) solution and exposed to Q-switched and CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamicin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. ResultsLaser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and the gentamicin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa. The combined laser and gentamicin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and viability was reduced by 8 logs for P. aeruginosa PAO1. ConclusionsCombination of laser light with gentamicin shows an improved efficacy against P. aeruginosa.

  8. Cost evaluation of therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamicin at a teaching hospital in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim MI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM makes use of serum drug concentrations as an adjunct to decision-making. Preliminary data in our hospital showed that approximately one-fifth of all drugs monitored by TDM service were gentamicin. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the costs associated with providing the service in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin. Methods: We retrospectively collected data from medical records of patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5-year period. These patients were diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and were on gentamicin as part of their treatment. Five hospitalisation costs were calculated; (i cost of laboratory and clinical investigations, (ii cost associated with each gentamicin dose, (iii fixed and operating costs of TDM service, (iv cost of providing medical care, and (v cost of hospital stay during gentamicin treatment. Results: There were 1920 patients admitted with bronchopneumonia of which 67 (3.5% had TDM service for gentamicin. Seventy-three percent (49/67 patients were eligible for final analysis. The duration of gentamicin therapy ranged from 3 to 15 days. The cost of providing one gentamicin assay was MYR25, and the average cost of TDM service for each patient was MYR104. The average total hospitalisation cost during gentamicin treatment for each patient was MYR442 (1EUR approx. MYR4.02. Conclusion: Based on the hospital perspective, in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin, the provision of TDM service contributes to less than 25% of the total cost of hospitalization.

  9. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62...

  10. Protective effect of naringenin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Albuali, Waleed H; Zahran, Ahmed; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2014-09-01

    The protective effect of naringenin, a flavonoid compound isolated from citrus fruits, was investigated against nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin (80mgkg(-1)/day, i.p., for eight days) in rats. Naringenin treatment (50mgkg(-1)/day, p.o.) was administered for eight days, starting on the same day of gentamicin administration. Gentamicin caused significant elevations of serum creatinine, and kidney tissue levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and interleukin-8, and a significant decrease in renal glutathione peroxidase activity. Naringenin treatment significantly ameliorated the changes in the measured biochemical parameters resulted from gentamicin administration. Also, naringenin markedly attenuated the histopathological renal tissue injury observed with gentamicin. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that naringenin significantly reduced the gentamicin-induced expression of kidney injury molecule-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and caspase-9, and increased survivin expression in the kidney tissue. It was concluded that naringenin, through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, may represent a therapeutic option to protect against gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

  11. Agmatine improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Abdel Rahim, Mona; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible protective effects of agmatine, a known nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on gentamicin-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was evaluated. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), and gentamicin plus agmatine (40 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood and urine samples and kidneys were taken. Administration of agmatine significantly decreased kidney/body mass ratio, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), renal malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) while it significantly increased creatinine clearance and renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with the gentamicin-treated group. Additionally, agmatine ameliorated tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation and reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that agmatine administration with gentamicin attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, restoring NO level and inhibiting inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α.

  12. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the antioxidant effect of an orally administered ethanol extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) and its protective role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress as a major factor in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 equal groups: (G1) control group, (G2) gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg), (G3) nettle treated group (100 mg/kg), (G4) combination treated group with both gentamicin (100 mg/kg) and nettle (100 mg/kg) for 10 days. The antioxidant properties of nettle were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, such as determination of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and total phenolic content analysis. Results: Biochemical and histopathological study revealed that gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity observed clearly in the histopathological section of the kidney in the gentamicin treated group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were biochemical indicators for nephrotoxicity which increased significantly in gentamicin treated group; other groups have no significant change in these two parameters. Nettle extract protected the rabbits from alteration in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine when given after inducing of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The nettle treated group showed a great effect as an antioxidant factor by increasing the glutathione level and reducing malondialdehyde level. No significant changes in biochemical parameters and no renal histopathological changes observed in the groups treated with nettle extract, which meant nettle had powerful antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  13. Protective effect of allicin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the modulator effect of allicin on the oxidative nephrotoxicity of gentamicin in the kidneys of rats was investigated by determining indices of lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as by histological analyses. Furthermore, the effect of allicin on gentamicin induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to ACh was estimated. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, control, gentamicin (100mg/kg, i.p.) and gentamicin+allicin (50mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then urine, blood samples and kidneys were taken. Gentamicin administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity as evidenced by an elevated kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and proteinuria with a reduction in serum albumin and creatinine clearance as compared with control group. In addition, a significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NOx) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concomitantly with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities was detected upon gentamicin injection. Exposure to gentamicin increased the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh and induced acute renal tubular epithelial cells necrosis. Administration of allicin significantly decreased kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine, LDH, renal MDA, MPO, NOx and TNF-α while it significantly increased creatinine clearance, renal GSH content and renal SOD activity when compared to gentamicin-treated group. Additionally, allicin significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh and ameliorated tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation. Our study indicates that allicin exerted protection against structural and functional damage induced by gentamicin possibly due to its antioxidant, anti

  14. Effect of nettle(Urtica dioica) extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia; Abdulkarim; Salih

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant ef ect of an orally administered ethanol extract of nettle(Urtica dioica) and its protective role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress as a major factor in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 equal groups:(G1) control group,(G2) gentamicin treated group(100 mg/kg),(G3) nettle treated group(100 mg/kg),(G4) combination treated group with both gentamicin(100 mg/kg) and nettle(100 mg/kg) for 10 days. The antioxidant properties of nettle were evaluated using dif erent antioxidant tests, such as determination of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and total phenolic content analysis. Results: Biochemical and histopathological study revealed that gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity observed clearly in the histopathological section of the kidney in the gentamicin treated group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were biochemical indicators for nephrotoxicity which increased signii cantly in gentamicin treated group; other groups have no signii cant change in these two parameters. Nettle extract protected the rabbits from alteration in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine when given after inducing of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The nettle treated group showed a great ef ect as an antioxidant factor by increasing the glutathione level and reducing malondialdehyde level. No signii cant changes in biochemical parameters and no renal histopathological changes observed in the groups treated with nettle extract, which meant nettle had powerful antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective ef ect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  15. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  16. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of Resistance to Compression of Various Interocclusal Recording Media: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandu, G S; Khan, Mohd. Faisal; Mishra, S K; Asnani, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Background: This in vitro study was conducted to compare the compression resistance of various interocclusal recording materials when subjected to a compressive load. Materials and Methods: Each interocclusal recording material was manipulated according to the manufacturer instruction and placed into a metallic cylinder. A total of 20 specimens for each interocclusal recording material were made. A total 100 specimens were fabricated. Each specimen was placed in the Universal Testing Machine exerting pressure on it, and a force of 100 g/cm2 was exerted on each sample. 30 s later the reading of the Universal Testing Machine was recorded using a vertical traveling micrometer microscope with an accuracy of ± 0.001 mm. This value was marked as reading “A.” 60 s after the application of the first force (100 g/cm2), a second force of 1000 g/cm2 was applied gradually during an interval of 10 s. 30 s later the reading of the Universal Testing Machine exerting pressure on the specimen was recorded again. This value was marked as reading “B.” The difference between readings “A” and “B” recorded the compression to resistance of each material. Comparisons within the groups and between the groups were done by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. Result: There was significant variation between all interocclusal bite registration materials. According to the mean valve of each interocclusal bite registration material, Polyvinylsiloxane Bite Registration Material have better resistance to compression followed by Polyether interocclusal bite registration material, Aluwax Bite, and Impression Wax, Modeling Wax and at last Zinc Oxide Eugenol Impression Paste. Conclusion: Polyvinylsiloxane interocclusal registration material had the greatest resistance to compression. The least resistance to compression was noticed with zinc oxide-eugenol paste. PMID:26028898

  18. In vitro gentamicin release from bioactive Bhagelena implant against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniek Setiya Budiatin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is a bone-related infectious desease which is difficult to treat, because the antibiotic reaches the target is lower than the MIC and bacteria can €™t be eradicated. This condition can cause the bacteria become resistant. To solve this problem, we can use local antibiotics as BHAG(ELENA pellets implant, which can release gentamicin (GEN continuously for more than a day with a concentration greater than MIC. BHAG(ELENA pellet that have made contain BHA : GEL = 20 : 2 (dry state; GEN 10% and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA 0,5%, cylindrical weigh 100 mg; 4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick. The release of GEN from BHAG(ELENA pellet were tested in vitro, by soaking the pellet in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 at temperature 370C. The sample were sampled every day until 28 days. Then, the sample were tested by agar diffusion method that contain Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed that inhibition zone diameter greater than MIC GEN to S. aureus. Within 28 days, the release of GEN provide a total activity 99,24%, it showed that after 28 days, the pellets are still actively inhibit the bacterial growth. Furthermore, required to be tested in animal study (in vivo with a defect in the femoral bone then filled with BHAG(ELENA pellets as drug delivery system of GEN and bone fillers

  19. Functional and anatomic alterations in the gentamicin-damaged vestibular system in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, MLYM; Segenhout, HM; Dijk, T; Stokroos, [No Value; van der Want, TJL; Albers, FWJ

    2004-01-01

    Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expected functional and morphologic effect of gentamicin on the vestibular system simultaneously by measurement of vestibular evoked potentials and electron microscopic evaluation. Background: Vestibular short-latency evoked potentials to

  20. Gentamicin modified chitosan film with improved antibacterial property and cell biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ji, Peihong; Lv, Huilin; Qin, Yong; Deng, Linhong

    2017-05-01

    Gentamicin modified chitosan film (CS-GT) was produced using a three-step procedure comprising: (i) the chitosan solution was air-dried to form a chitosan (CS) film, (ii) using citric acid to generate the amide and carboxyl groups on the surface of CS, (iii) the CS with surface carboxyl groups was modified by grafting of gentamicin. After modification, this CS-GT film has excellent hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. It is very evident that the gentamicin grafting treatment significantly improves the antibacterial properties of the CS film. Our preliminary results suggest that this novel gentamicin modified chitosan film, which can be prepared in large quantities and at low cost, should have potential application in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous immobilization of heparin and gentamicin on polypropylene textiles: a dual therapeutic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoutin, Stéphanie; Jimenez, Maude; Chai, Feng; Pinalie, Thibaut; Bellayer, Severine; Vandenbossche, Marianne; Neut, Christel; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Martel, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a nonwoven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve simultaneously anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. The immobilization of either heparin (anticoagulation agent) or gentamicin (aminoglycoside class antibiotic) alone has already been proven to be effective on PP nonwoven textiles. In this work, we managed to go further, by immobilizing both heparin and gentamicin at the same time on one unique textile. A successive immersion in different heparin and gentamicin bathes successfully led to a dual drug coated textile, as confirmed by several characterization techniques (Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy). The immobilization times were varied in order to determine the best compromise between cytocompatibility, anticoagulant effect, and antimicrobial activity. Short immersion times in gentamicin solutions confer very good antimicrobial activity to the textile and avoid cytotoxicity, whereas long immersion times in heparin solution were necessary to observe a significant anticoagulant effect.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and clinical evaluations of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis A. Gberindyer

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: These suggest the risk of nephrotoxicity following treatment with gentamicin beyond 5 consecutive days irrespective of the dosing interval in puppies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 691-696

  3. Protective effect of lycopene on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, I; Ateşşahin, A; Yilmaz, S; Ceribaşi, A O; Sakin, F

    2005-11-15

    A potential therapeutic approach to protect or reverse gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would have more importance for clinical consequences. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of lycopene against gentamicin-induced renal damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of six rats in each one; first group served as control. The other groups were treated intraperitoneally with gentamicin alone (100 mg kg(-1) per day) for six successive days, gentamicin for 6 days following 10 days of orally lycopene (4 mg kg(-1) per day) pre-treatment and 6-days of simultaneous lycopene and gentamicin. Biochemical and histopathological examinations were utilized for evaluation of the oxidative stress and renal nephrotoxicity. Creatinine, urea, Na(+) and K(+) levels in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in kidney tissue. Administration of gentamicin to rats induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. The animals treated with gentamicin alone showed a significantly higher kidney MDA and lower GSH-Px and CAT activities but unaffected GSH concentrations when compared with the control group. Pre-treatment with lycopene produced amelioration in biochemical indices of nephrotoxicity in plasma. However, little changes were observed in the kidney MDA and GSH levels and GSH-Px and CAT activities when compared with the gentamicin treated group. The histological structures of the renal proximal tubules showed similar patterns. On the other hand, administration of simultaneous lycopene to rats produced amelioration in MDA and GSH levels and GSH-Px and CAT activities when compared with gentamicin group. In addition, simultaneous lycopene was found to reduce the degree of kidney tissue damage in histopathological

  4. Effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosaka E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID in combination with gentamicin poses the additional risk of nephrotoxic renal failure. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 is the main enzyme responsible for the synthesis of renal vasodilator prostaglandins, while COX-2 participates predominantly in the inflammatory process. Both are inhibited by non-selective NSAID such as indomethacin. Selective COX-2 inhibitors such as rofecoxib seem to have fewer renal side effects than non-selective inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the combined use of rofecoxib and gentamicin can prevent the increased renal injury caused by gentamicin and indomethacin. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were treated with gentamicin (100 mg/kg body weight, ip, N = 7, indomethacin (5 mg/kg, orally, N = 7, rofecoxib (1.4 mg/kg, orally, N = 7, gentamicin + rofecoxib (100 and 1.4 mg/kg, respectively or gentamicin + indomethacin (100 and 5 mg/kg, respectively, N = 8 for 5 days. Creatinine clearance and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase concentrations were used as markers of renal injury. Animals were anesthetized with ether and sacrificed for blood collection. The use of gentamicin plus indomethacin led to worsened renal function (0.199 ± 0.019 ml/min, as opposed to the absence of a nephrotoxic effect of rofecoxib when gentamicin plus rofexicob was used (0.242 ± 0.011 ml/min. These results indicate that COX-2-selective inhibitors can be used as an alternative treatment to conventional NSAID, especially in situations in which risk factors for nephrotoxicity are present.

  5. Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Gentamicin-induced Oxidative Stress and Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Hyungkyoung; Hah, Do-Yun; Heo, Jung Ho; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-01-01

    Development of a therapy providing protection from, or reversing gentamicin-sulfate (GS)-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would be of great clinical significance. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) against gentamicin sulfate-induced renal damage in rats. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, GS 100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection; group 3,...

  6. Comparative effect of olive oil and fish oil supplementation in combating gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Fouzia; M. Kaleem; Sheema; Bano, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present study is related to the comparative effects of fish oil and olive oil supplementation on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Three treatment groups (Pretrement, Co-treatment and post treatment) were chosen for the study. Nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by intraperitonial administration of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/d) for 3,5,7,10,& 12 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 12 hrs after last treatment in each group. The maximum nephrotoxicity was developed on 10 days tr...

  7. Protective Effects of Acupuncture Against Gentamicin-Induced Ototoxicity in Rats: Possible Role of Neurotrophin-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Ma, Weijun; Sheng, Ying; Duan, Maoli; Zhang, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of acupuncture against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity and explore the possible protective role of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Material/Methods Twenty-four rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: control group, gentamicin group, neitinggong group, and tinggong group. Rats in the gentamicin, neitinggong, and tinggong groups received intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin (100 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Rats in the neitinggong and tinggong groups further received acupuncture at neitinggong or tinggong acupoints once every 2 days for 20 days. Rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injection of saline. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was tested in all rats on the day before treatment (day 0), and again on day 14 and day 20 to determine the average threshold value of ABR for each treatment group. The expression of NT-3 in the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus nucleus were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The average threshold value of ABR was significantly higher in the gentamicin group as compared with that of the control group on day 14 (P0.05). However, the expression of NT-3 in the inferior colliculus nucleus in both the neitinggong and tinggong groups was significantly higher than that of the gentamicin group (P<0.01). Conclusions A decrease in NT-3 expression in the inferior colliculus nucleus may contribute to gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in rats. Acupuncture at neitinggong or tinggong acupoints effectively improved hearing, which was attributed partially to the rescue of NT-3 expression in the inferior colliculus nucleus. Therefore, preserving NT-3 expression in the auditory system may be a viable strategy to counteract gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:28121979

  8. Nigella sativa Infusion as an Antioxidant Agent Against Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Damaged in Mice

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    Hamsiah binti Halim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentamicin is one of the most common antibiotics related to nephrotoxicity. It has been proposed that the nephrotoxicity is associated with the generation of the reactive oxygen species. Thymoquinone, an active compound of Nigella sativa, shows to have an antioxidant property. The study aims to identify the possible nephroprotective action of Nigella sativa infusion against gentamicin-induced kidney damaged in mice. Methods:This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Cell Biology Laboratory, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung from 10th November 2012 to 14th December 2012. There were four groups, each consisting of 6 mice. Group I (control negative, group II (gentamicin 100 mg/kg, group III (3.9 mg Nigella sativa infusion+gentamicin 100mg/kg and group IV (7.8 mg Nigella sativa infusion+gentamicin 100mg/kg. The kidneys were evaluated histopathologically by light microscope. The percentage average number of normal proximal tubules in group I and the percentage average number of proximal tubules damaged in group II, III and IV were measured. Results: The results showed the percentage average number of the proximal tubules damaged in group II, III and IV were 14.53%, 7.49% and 3.94% respectively. Significant differences were observed between group II and III, group II and IV, and group III and IV. Conclusion:Nigella sativa infusion protects against gentamicin-induced kidney damage in mice.

  9. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

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    Andre-i Sarabia-Sainz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88 was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1 galactose was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3 were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections.

  10. Persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun TAN; Ye-wen JIANG; Yi-jun HUANG; Song-hua HU

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis. Milk samples were collected at a 1-d interval after the last administration from 34 individual cows that had received intramammary infusions of gentamicin. The doses and treatment times evaluated in this study represented those that have been applied by veterinarians in practice. The tetrazolium chloride assay was used to determine whether there were sig-nificant residues of the antibiotic in the samples. Persistence of detectable drug residues in milk from 33 cows (28 cows, <6 infusions at≤0.7 g gentamicin; and 5 cows, 2 infusions at 0.8 g gentamicin) did not exceed 5 d; but 1 cow (5 infusions at 0.8 g gentamicin) had detectable residues in its milk for 9 d. Our results suggest that a 5-d milk withdrawal period might be insufficient to secure the clearance of the contamination of gentamicin, because treatment times and dosages contribute to the antibiotic clearance. A larger scale of samples are needed for further investigations.

  11. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  12. The Role of Monitoring Gentamicin Levels in Patients with Gram-Negative Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Johnson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: There is limited available evidence regarding the role of monitoring serum gentamicin concentrations in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients receiving this antimicrobial agent in gram-negative PD-associated peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in all patients receiving PD at a single center who experienced a gram-negative peritonitis episode between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011, we investigated the relationship between measured serum gentamicin levels on day 2 following initial empiric antibiotic therapy and subsequent clinical outcomes of confirmed gram-negative peritonitis. ♦ Results: Serum gentamicin levels were performed on day 2 in 51 (77%) of 66 first gram-negative peritonitis episodes. Average serum gentamicin levels on day 2 were 1.83 ± 0.84 mg/L with levels exceeding 2 mg/L in 22 (43%) cases. The overall cure rate was 64%. No cases of ototoxicity were observed. Day-2 gentamicin levels were not significantly different between patients who did and did not have a complication or cure. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, failure to cure peritonitis was not associated with either day-2 gentamicin level (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 - 3.73) or continuation of gentamicin therapy beyond day 2 (OR 0.28, 0.02 - 3.56). The only exception was polymicrobial peritonitis, where day-2 gentamicin levels were significantly higher in episodes that were cured (2.06 ± 0.41 vs 1.29 ± 0.71, p = 0.01). In 17 (26%) patients receiving extended gentamicin therapy, day-5 gentamicin levels were not significantly related to peritonitis cure. ♦ Conclusion: Day-2 gentamicin levels did not predict gentamicin-related harm or efficacy during short-course gentamicin therapy for gram-negative PD-related peritonitis, except in cases of polymicrobial peritonitis, where higher levels were associated with cure. PMID:24385334

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin: literature review from 1980 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-07-16

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and a common opportunistic pathogen causing mainly infections of the integumentary system in dogs. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, in particular methicillin-resistant strains (MRSP) is a threat to small animal health and highlights the need for antimicrobial resistance surveillance to detect trends and potentially perform timeous interventions. We systematically reviewed 202 published articles to investigate temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical and commensal S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs in 27 countries between 1980 and 2013. Resistance to the most common antimicrobials tested for in published studies and important for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in dogs were assessed separately for methicillin resistant (MRSP) and methicillin susceptible (MSSP) isolates. Stratified by MSSP and MRSP, no significant increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed over time, except for the penicillinase-labile penicillins (penicillin and ampicillin) among MSSP. However, in recent years, a few studies have reported higher-level of resistance to amikacin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin amongst MSSP. The review highlights inconsistencies between studies as a result of several factors, for example the use of different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation criteria. We recommend that data on susceptibility in important companion animal pathogens are collected and presented in a more harmonized way to allow more precise comparison of susceptibility patterns between studies. One way to accomplish this would be through systematic surveillance either at the country-level or at a larger scale across countries e.g. EU level.

  14. Gentamicin coated iron oxide nanoparticles as novel antibacterial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Proma; Neogi, Sudarsan

    2017-09-01

    Applications of different types of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical purposes started a long time back. The concept of surface functionalization of the iron oxide nanoparticles with antibiotics is a novel technique which paves the path for further application of these nanoparticles by virtue of their property of superparamagnetism. In this paper, we have synthesized novel iron oxide nanoparticles surface functionalized with Gentamicin. The average size of the particles, concluded from the HR-TEM images, came to be around 14 nm and 10 nm for unmodified and modified nanoparticles, respectively. The magnetization curve M(H) obtained for these nanoparticles are typical of superparamagnetic nature and having almost zero values of coercivity and remanance. The release properties of the drug coated nanoparticles were studied; obtaining an S shaped profile, indicating the initial burst effect followed by gradual sustained release. In vitro investigations against various gram positive and gram negative strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis indicated significant antibacterial efficiency of the drug-nanoparticle conjugate. The MIC values indicated that a small amount like 0.2 mg ml‑1 of drug capped particles induce about 98% bacterial death. The novelty of the work lies in the drug capping of the nanoparticles, which retains the superparamagnetic nature of the iron oxide nanoparticles and the medical properties of the drug simultaneously, which is found to extremely blood compatible.

  15. Sulforaphane Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Role of Mitochondrial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Torres, Ismael; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in Cruciferae, induces cytoprotection in several tissues. Its protective effect has been associated with its ability to induce cytoprotective enzymes through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic; nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of this compound. In this study, it was investigated if SFN is able to induce protection against GM-induced nephropathy both in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in culture and in rats. SFN prevented GM-induced death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, it attenuated GM-induced renal injury (proteinuria, increases in serum creatinine, in blood urea nitrogen, and in urinary excretion on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and decrease in creatinine clearance and in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity) and necrosis and apoptosis in rats. The apoptotic death was associated with enhanced active caspase-9. Caspase-8 was unchanged in all the studied groups. In addition, SFN was able to prevent GM-induced protein nitration and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal cortex. In conclusion, the protective effect of SFN against GM-induced acute kidney injury could be associated with the preservation in mitochondrial function that would prevent the intrinsic apoptosis and nitrosative stress. PMID:23662110

  16. Sulforaphane Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Role of Mitochondrial Protection

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    Mario Negrette-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in Cruciferae, induces cytoprotection in several tissues. Its protective effect has been associated with its ability to induce cytoprotective enzymes through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic; nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of this compound. In this study, it was investigated if SFN is able to induce protection against GM-induced nephropathy both in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in culture and in rats. SFN prevented GM-induced death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, it attenuated GM-induced renal injury (proteinuria, increases in serum creatinine, in blood urea nitrogen, and in urinary excretion on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and decrease in creatinine clearance and in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity and necrosis and apoptosis in rats. The apoptotic death was associated with enhanced active caspase-9. Caspase-8 was unchanged in all the studied groups. In addition, SFN was able to prevent GM-induced protein nitration and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal cortex. In conclusion, the protective effect of SFN against GM-induced acute kidney injury could be associated with the preservation in mitochondrial function that would prevent the intrinsic apoptosis and nitrosative stress.

  17. Activity of daptomycin or linezolid in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis or E. faecium in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model using simulated endocardial vegetations and an in vivo survival assay using Galleria mellonella larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2014-08-01

    Enterococci are the third most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. A high-inoculum stationary-phase in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations was used to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of daptomycin at 6 or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day or linezolid at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h), alone or in combination with gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h or rifampin at 300 mg q8h or 900 mg q24h. Biofilm-forming, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus [VRE]) strains were tested. At 24, 48, and 72 h, all daptomycin-containing regimens demonstrated significantly more activity (decline in CFU/g) than any linezolid-containing regimen against biofilm-forming E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin to daptomycin (at 6 or 10 mg/kg) in the first 24 h significantly improved bactericidal activity. In contrast, the addition of rifampin delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against E. faecalis, and the addition of rifampin antagonized the activities of all regimens against VRE at 24 h. Also, against VRE, the addition of gentamicin to linezolid at 72 h improved activity and was bactericidal. Rifampin significantly antagonized the activity of linezolid against VRE at 72 h. In in vivo Galleria mellonella survival assays, linezolid and daptomycin improved survival. Daptomycin at 10 mg/kg improved survival significantly over that with linezolid against E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin improved the efficacy of daptomycin against E. faecalis and those of linezolid and daptomycin against VRE. We conclude that in enterococcal infection models, daptomycin has more activity than linezolid alone. Against biofilm-forming E. faecalis, the addition of gentamicin in the first 24 h causes the most rapid decline in CFU/g. Of interest, the addition of rifampin decreased the activity of daptomycin against both E. faecalis and VRE.

  18. Comparison of rapid tests for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda

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    McNerney Ruth

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB is a growing concern worldwide. Rapid detection of resistance expedites appropriate intervention to control the disease. Several technologies have recently been reported to detect rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly in sputum samples. These include phenotypic culture based methods, tests for gene mutations and tests based on bacteriophage replication. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of implementing technology for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in a high disease burden setting in Africa. Methods Sputum specimens from re-treatment TB patients presenting to the Mulago Hospital National TB Treatment Centre in Kampala, Uganda, were examined by conventional methods and simultaneously used in one of the four direct susceptibility tests, namely direct BACTEC 460, Etest, "in-house" phage test, and INNO- Rif.TB. The reference method was the BACTEC 460 indirect culture drug susceptibility testing. Test performance, cost and turn around times were assessed. Results In comparison with indirect BACTEC 460, the respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting rifampicin resistance were 100% and 100% for direct BACTEC and the Etest, 94% and 95% for the phage test, and 87% and 87% for the Inno-LiPA assay. Turn around times ranged from an average of 3 days for the INNO-LiPA and phage tests, 8 days for the direct BACTEC 460 and 20 days for the Etest. All methods were faster than the indirect BACTEC 460 which had a mean turn around time of 24 days. The cost per test, including labour ranged from $18.60 to $41.92 (USD. Conclusion All four rapid technologies were shown capable of detecting rifampicin resistance directly from sputum. The LiPA proved rapid, but was the most expensive. It was noted, however, that the LiPA test allows sterilization of samples prior to testing thereby reducing the risk of accidental laboratory transmission. In contrast the

  19. Final report on RMO comparison SIM.EM-S10: High value resistance comparison with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzychudek, Marcos E.; Elmquist, Randolph; Hernández, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a supplementary comparison of high value resistance standards performed during 2012 and January 2013, following the guidelines presented in a document about measurement comparisons in the CIPM MRA. The purpose of this task was to compare the high resistance cryogenic current comparator scaling of the participating institutes: National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST), Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico (CENAM) and Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial, Argentina (INTI), all of which are members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) Regional Metrology Organization. All the measurements of this comparison were performed with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators (CCC). Degrees of equivalence of the participating institutes relative to the comparison reference values are given in the report for the measured resistance values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin in rat Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in relation to impaired host defense and low bacterial susceptibility to gentamicin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Schiffelers (Raymond); G. Storm (Gert); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractLong-circulating liposomes (LCL) may be used as targeted antimicrobial drug carriers as they localize at sites of infection. As a result, LCL-encapsulated gentamicin (LE-GEN) has demonstrated superior antibacterial activity over the free drug in a single-dos

  1. Activity of daptomycin alone and in combination with rifampin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus assessed by time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    The synergistic effects of daptomycin plus gentamicin or rifampin were tested against 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains, with daptomycin MICs ranging between 0.25 and 8 microg/ml. Daptomycin sub-MICs combined with gentamicin concentrations lower than the MIC yielded synergy in 34 (68%) of the 50 strains. Daptomycin combined with rifampin yielded synergy in one vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain only, and virtually all synergy occurred between daptomycin and gentamicin.

  2. Protective effect of quercetin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raheem, Ihab Talat; Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed Ali; Mohamed, Gamal Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is an antibiotic widely used in treating severe gram-negative infections. However, its clinical use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Several lines of evidence indicate that free radicals are important mediators of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the possible protective effect of the flavonoid quercetin, an antioxidant, on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups. First group served as a control and injected with the normal saline, second group was injected with quercetin (50 mg/kg/d, per os) for 7 d, third group was injected with gentamicin (80 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneally) for 7 d and the fourth group of animals was injected with quercetin plus gentamicin simultaneously for 7 d. Total protein levels were estimated in 24-h urine samples to assess kidney dysfunction. The rats were sacrificed on the seventh day and kidneys were collected for histopathological studies. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were measured in the blood. Moreover, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (TBARS) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in renal tissues. GM-treated rats showed early kidney dysfunction as urinary total protein, BUN and serum creatinine levels were significantly increased. The significant decrease in GSH levels, SOD, CAT activities and increase in TBARS levels, indicated that GM-induced nephrotoxicity was mediated through oxidative stress reactions. Histopathological examination of GM-treated rats revealed degenerative changes in glomeruli and tubules. On the other hand, simultaneous administration of quercetin plus gentamicin protected kidney tissues against nephrotoxic effects of gentamicin as evidenced from amelioration of histopathological changes and normalization of kidney biochemical parameters.

  3. Fracture resistance of zirconia-composite veneered crowns in comparison with zirconia-porcelain crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadon, Omar; Patrick, David; Johnson, Anthony; Pollington, Sarah; Wood, Duncan

    2017-02-11

    The objectives were to evaluate the fracture resistance and stress concentration in zirconia/composite veneered crowns in comparison to zirconia/porcelain crowns using occlusal fracture resistance and by stress analysis using finite element analysis method. Zirconia substructures were divided into two groups based on the veneering material. A static load was applied occlusally using a ball indenter and the load to fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). The same crown design was used to create 3D crown models and evaluated using FEA. The zirconia/composite crowns subjected to static occlusal load showed comparable results to the zirconia/porcelain crowns. Zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress on the zirconia substructure at 63.6 and 50.9 MPa on the zirconia substructure veneered with porcelain. In conclusion, zirconia/composite crowns withstood high occlusal loads similar to zirconia/porcelain crowns with no significant difference. However, the zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress values than the zirconia/porcelain crowns at the zirconia substructure.

  4. Comparison ginger and resistance training on primary dysmenorrhea in female students of Shiraz university

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    Nafiseh Saadat nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some remedies have been suggested for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, some free of side effects treatment methods such as herbal drugs and exercise are especially important .The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ginger and resistance training on physical and psychological symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: 60 nonathletic female collegiate students of Shiraz university participated in this study voluntarily and were divided randomly to 4 groups including 15 persons ( exercise +placebo, exercise + ginger, ginger, and placebo. Ginger groups were prescribed 250 mg of ginger, four times a day for 3 days from beginning of menstruation and placebo groups were recommended the same prescription with 250 mg of placebo drug. Exercise with ginger or placebo groups participated in 2 months of progressive resistance training (3 times a week besides consuming Ginger or placebo drugs. Menstrual symptoms were recorded with using validated questionnaire, before intervention and during two consecutive periods of menstruation. The analysis was performed with using Covariate analysis of variance with repeated measures by SPSS version 16 . Results: A significant reduction was found in physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea in groups of Ginger but no significant statistically changes were found within other groups. Comparison of four groups indicated more significant reduction of physical symptoms in ginger groups compared with other groups. There were no significant difference in psychologic symptoms within and between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Ginger is recommended for treatment of physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

  5. Comparison of antibiotic resistance of bacterial agents associated in septicaemia in children and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Septicaemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of infant’s and childerens espicially in first week of their life, both in developed and underdeveloped countries.The aim of this research was to study of bacterial agents causing septicaemia and to determine their antibiotic suseptibility patternes. Materials and Methods : This was a descriptive study, it was performed during eight months from October 2011 till May 2011.In total 216 blood culture samples of children suspected of septicaemia in children health centre hospital were send to the laboratory for investigation. The bacterial identification was carried out by culturing and conventional biomedical tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by disk diffusion method. These data are analyzed by SPSS and the results Expressed as relative frequencies. Results: Out of 216 tested samples 55(25.6% were positive and 161 (74.54% negative. The dominated bacteria was Escherichia coli (31.42%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22.86 %, Klebsiella pneumonia (20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, Streptococcus pneumonia (2.86%, Salmonella typhi (2.86%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.86% and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2.86%. In general gram-negative bacteria were isolated more than gram-positive. Staphylococcus bacteria were more resistant to antibiotics than other isolated bacteria, and were 100% resistant to penicillin. The enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to norfloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, and they were 100% resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study showed that gram-negative bacteria are more responsible in septicaemia in children ward, and norfloxacin is the more effective antibiotic in comparison with others.

  6. Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns Across Species and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Wade B; Hart, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite's stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis(Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development ofA. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis(Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis(females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species.

  7. Community-acquired urinary tract infection in hospitalized children: etiology and antimicrobial resistance. A comparison between first episode and recurrent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakran, Waheeb; Smolkin, Vladislav; Odetalla, Ahmad; Halevy, Raphael; Koren, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in infants and children, and Escherichia coli is the leading pathogen. The aims of this study were to compare first episode of UTI with recurrent infection, reveal organisms that cause UTI, uropathogen resistance, and presence of bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The first-UTI group included 456 children. E coli was the leading pathogen (80.5%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 1.5%. The uropathogens were resistant to gentamicin (3.41%) and cefuroxime (5.71%), and highly resistant to cefamezin (37.39%). The recurrent-infection group included 106 children. E coli was also the leading pathogen, but 7.5% of the isolates were P aeruginosa (P = .002 compared with first-episode group); 6.6% were ESBL-producing bacteria compared with 1.1% in the first-episode group (P = .002). E coli is the leading pathogen in both groups. P aeruginosa and ESBL-producing bacteria were more common in the recurrent infection group.

  8. In vitro release and antibacterial activity of poly(oleic/linoleic acid dimer:sebacic acid)-gentamicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiu-Fen; ZHOUZhi-Bin; 等

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether poly(oleic/linoleic acid dimer:sebacic acid)-getamicin[Poly(OAD/LOAD:SA)-gentamicin]delivery system was useful to treat chronic osteomyelitis.METHODS:Drug delivery system consisted of gentamicin sufate dispersed in a copolymer containing oleic/linoleic acid dimer(OAD/LOAD)and sebacic acid(SA)in a 1:1 weight ration.The gentamicin releast from[Poly(OAD/LOAD:SA)-gentamicin]was tested in water 0.9% saline,and phosphate buffer 0.1mol/L,RESULTS:The gentamicin concentration peak was found on d2,then slowly decreased.considerable amout of gentamicin was still released on d 50.From d 2 o d 50,the gentamicin concentration in the releasing fluids was from 59 to 42128-fold and 1.8 to 1314-fold of the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli,respectively.Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were strongly inhibited by the releasing fluids for 50d.The gentamicin release and anti-bacterial activity in the three media were similar.only in 0.1mol/L phosphate buffer,from d 2 to 14 it was lower.CONCLUSION:Poly(OAD/LOAD:SA)-gentamicin was useful to treat chronic osteomyelitis.

  9. Functional metagenomic analysis reveals rivers are a reservoir for diverse antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, G C A; Zhang, L; Hawkey, P M; Gaze, W H; Wellington, E M

    2014-07-16

    The environment harbours a significant diversity of uncultured bacteria and a potential source of novel and extant resistance genes which may recombine with clinically important bacteria disseminated into environmental reservoirs. There is evidence that pollution can select for resistance due to the aggregation of adaptive genes on mobile elements. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent disposal to a river by using culture independent methods to study diversity of resistance genes downstream of the WWTP in comparison to upstream. Metagenomic libraries were constructed in Escherichia coli and screened for phenotypic resistance to amikacin, gentamicin, neomycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Resistance genes were identified by using transposon mutagenesis. A significant increase downstream of the WWTP was observed in the number of phenotypic resistant clones recovered in metagenomic libraries. Common β-lactamases such as blaTEM were recovered as well as a diverse range of acetyltransferases and unusual transporter genes, with evidence for newly emerging resistance mechanisms. The similarities of the predicted proteins to known sequences suggested origins of genes from a very diverse range of bacteria. The study suggests that waste water disposal increases the reservoir of resistance mechanisms in the environment either by addition of resistance genes or by input of agents selective for resistant phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison between the permanent deformation behaviour of a standard and a rut resistant HMA (hot-mix asphalt) mix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus is on the comparison between the permanent deformation behaviour of the standard HMA mix and one rut resistant HMA mix of which the grading differs from that of the standard HMA mix. The permanent deformation has been...

  11. Teicoplanin plus ciprofloxacin versus gentamicin plus piperacillin in the treatment of febrile neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, S M; Weinhardt, B; Collins, P W; Newland, A C

    1992-06-01

    Teicoplanin plus ciprofloxacin was compared with gentamicin plus piperacillin for the empirical treatment of fever in 80 neutropenic patients. A favourable response was seen in 78% of patients receiving teicoplanin plus ciprofloxacin and in 49% receiving gentamicin plus piperacillin (p less than 0.05). When microbiologically documented episodes were analysed separately, the response to teicoplanin plus ciprofloxacin was favourable in 81% of patients whereas only 35% responded favourably to gentamicin plus piperacillin (p = 0.034). Gram-positive organisms accounted for 76% of bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis being the most common pathogen. Ten of 12 (83%) Staphylococcus epidermidis infections resolved when treated with teicoplanin plus ciprofloxacin as compared with 2 of 8 (25%) treated with gentamicin plus piperacillin. Teicoplanin is at least as effective as gentamicin plus piperacillin in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic patients and may be more effective in situations where gram-positive organisms are prevalent. The high incidence of gram-positive infections in our unit justifies the use of an agent with specific activity against gram-positive organisms in the first-line antibiotic regimen.

  12. Optimising intraperitoneal gentamicin dosing in peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis (GIPD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipman Jeffrey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are preferentially delivered via the peritoneal route to treat peritonitis, a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD, so that maximal concentrations are delivered at the site of infection. However, drugs administered intraperitoneally can be absorbed into the systemic circulation. Drugs excreted by the kidneys accumulate in PD patients, increasing the risk of toxicity. The aim of this study is to examine a model of gentamicin pharmacokinetics and to develop an intraperitoneal drug dosing regime that maximises bacterial killing and minimises toxicity. Methods/Design This is an observational pharmacokinetic study of consecutive PD patients presenting to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital with PD peritonitis and who meet the inclusion criteria. Participants will be allocated to either group 1, if anuric as defined by urine output less than 100 ml/day, or group 2: if non-anuric, as defined by urine output more than 100 ml/day. Recruitment will be limited to 15 participants in each group. Gentamicin dosing will be based on the present Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital guidelines, which reflect the current International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis Treatment Recommendations. The primary endpoint is to describe the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin administered intraperitoneally in PD patients with peritonitis based on serial blood and dialysate drug levels. Discussion The study will develop improved dosing recommendations for intraperitoneally administered gentamicin in PD patients with peritonitis. This will guide clinicians and pharmacists in selecting the most appropriate dosing regime of intraperitoneal gentamicin to treat peritonitis. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000446268

  13. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells.

  14. A Comparison of 1 T(Omega) and 10 T (Omega) High Resistance Standards Between NIST and Sandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G.; Dziuba, R.F.; Kraft, M.E.

    1999-04-23

    NIST-built 10 T{Omega} and commercial 1 T{Omega} standard resistors were hand carried between NIST and Sandia for a high resistance comparison. The comparison tested the ruggedness of the new NIST-built standard resistors, provided a check of the scaling between the two laboratories, supported measurements to reestablish NIST calibration services at 10 T{Omega} and 100 T{Omega}, and demonstrated the possibility of establishing a NIST high resistance measurement assurance program (MAP). The comparison has demonstrated agreement on the order of 0.07% which is within the expanded uncertainties (coverage factor = 2) of NIST and Sandia at 1 T{Omega} and 10 T{Omega}.

  15. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  16. Chitosan Prevents Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via a Carbonyl Stress-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Kung Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are widely used to treat infections; however, their applications are limited by nephrotoxicity. With the increase of antibiotic resistance, the use of aminoglycosides is inevitable. Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC has shown renal protective effects in dialysis patients. However, no study has evaluated LMWC for preventing aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity or determined the mechanisms underlying the renal protective effects. In this study, LMWC (165 or 825 mg/kg/day or metformin (100 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 13 days to rats with nephropathy induced by gentamicin (GM, a kind of aminoglycoside (150 mg/kg/day i.p. for 6 days. Both LMCW doses improved renal function. Serum creatinine levels improved in rats treated with 165 and 825 mg/kg/day LMWC (from 2.14 ± 0.74 mg/dL to 1.26 ± 0.46 mg/dL and 0.69 ± 0.12 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.05. Blood urea nitrogen levels were also improved in these rats (from 73.73 ± 21.13 mg/dL to 58.70 ± 22.71 mg/dL and 28.82 ± 3.84 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.05. Additionally, renal tissue morphology improved after LMWC treatment, and accumulation of renal methylglyoxal, a damage factor associated with carbonyl stress, was reversed. These results show that LMWC prevents GM-induced renal toxicity via a carbonyl stress-dependent pathway.

  17. High-Dose, Extended-Interval Gentamicin and Tobramycin for Pediatric Inpatients: A Survey of Canadian Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Caitlin; Gray, Carolyn; Ruda, Lisa; Bell, Ali; Bolt, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The use of high-dose, extended-interval aminoglycosides, a common practice in adult populations, is less well established for pediatric patients. In younger populations, these drugs are often administered according to a multiple daily dosing method. To characterize prescribing practices for aminoglycosides in pediatric inpatients across Canada, with a focus on high-dose, extended-interval regimens. This study was based on an electronic survey of pharmacists representing Canadian health care delivery organizations that provided pediatric inpatient services, which was distributed in March 2015. Questions focused on demographic characteristics; indications for high-dose, extended-interval tobramycin or gentamicin; use of these regimens in patients with particular comorbidities; empiric dosing; monitoring parameters; and the extent of pharmacists' authority to independently prescribe doses and order monitoring parameters for aminoglycosides at their respective institutions. Forty-five (48%) of the 94 prospective participants responded to the survey. Of these 45 respondents, 35 (78%) indicated that their respective health regions used high-dose, extended-interval tobramycin or gentamicin in pediatric inpatients. The patient characteristics for use of such regimens were varied. The median reported doses were 10 mg/kg for pulmonary exacerbation in cystic fibrosis, 7 mg/kg for urinary tract infection, and 8 mg/kg for febrile neutropenia. Thirty-one (89%) of the 35 respondents using these regimens reported that they monitored serum levels, and 27 (77%) reported monitoring for nephrotoxicity. With regard to prescriptive authority, 7 (16%) of the 45 respondents indicated that pharmacists were authorized to independently adjust dosing at their institutions, and pharmacists at 14 (31%) of 45 sites were authorized to order monitoring parameters. High-dose, extended-interval aminoglycoside therapy was frequently used for pediatric patients across Canada, although the dosages and

  18. Final report on SIM.T-S5: comparison of the calibration of 100 Ω platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; García, S.; Velasquez, A.; Medrano, J. A.; Solano, A.; Torres, H. E.

    2015-01-01

    An International Comparison on industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Panama, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Nicaragua began in 2013 and was successfully completed in 2014. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared in the range from -38.8 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, acted as the pilot laboratory providing the reference value of the comparison. The thermometers have shown an acceptable behavior throughout the comparison, therefore the results can be considered valid for comparing the measurement capabilities of the participant laboratories. The equivalence between the participant laboratories in the calibration of platinum resistance thermometers by comparison in the range from -38,8 °C up to 250 °C has been demonstrated in almost all cases. This report presents the results of this comparison and provides detailed information of the measurements performed by the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Gentamicin binds to the megalin receptor as a competitive inhibitor using the common ligand binding motif of complement type repeats: insight from the nmr structure of the 10th complement type repeat domain alone and in complex with gentamicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagil, R.; O'Shea, C.; Nykjaer, A.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Kragelund, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside widely used in treatments of, in particular, enterococcal, mycobacterial, and severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. Large doses of gentamicin cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, entering the cell via the receptor megalin. Until now, no structural information ha

  20. The development of an injection-molding process for a polyanhydride implant containing gentamicin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jone-Shin; Meisters, Marts; Li, Luk; Setesak, Jeff; Claycomb, Lee; Tian, Youqin; Stephens, Dennis; Widman, Matt

    2002-01-01

    A production-scale manufacturing process has been developed for polyanhydride/gentamicin sulfate implants for the treatment of osteomyelitis. Gentamicin sulfate was first dried to an acceptable moisture level by using a tumble vacuum dryer. Dried gentamicin sulfate powder and polyanhydride granules were separately fed into the twin-screw extruder at a pre-determined metering rate using a gravimetric feeding device. The extruded molten mixture was solidified to form strands which were subsequently cut into pellets by using a pelletizer. The pellets were characterized with respect to copolymer molecular weight and drug content uniformity. The pellets were later fed into production-scale injection-molding equipment for implant fabrication. The injection-molding cycle was developed and evaluated in terms of cycle reproducibility. Implants were tested and shown to yield an oriented skin-core structure exhibiting a desirable in-vitro drug release profile.

  1. Development of a Multicommutated Flow System with Chemiluminometric Detection for Quantification of Gentamicin in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lúcia H. M. L. M.; Araújo, A. N.; Reis, Boaventura; Montenegro, M. C. B. S. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new flow procedure based on multicommutation with chemiluminometric detection was developed to quantify gentamicin sulphate in pharmaceutical formulations. This approach is based on gentamicin's ability to inhibit the chemiluminometric reaction between luminol and hypochlorite in alkaline medium, causing a decrease in the analytical signal. The inhibition of the analytical signal is proportional to the concentration of gentamicin sulphate, within a linear range of 1 to 4 μg mL−1 with a coefficient variation <3%. A sample throughput of 55 samples h−1 was obtained. The developed method is sensitive, simple, with low reagent consumption, reproducible, and inexpensive, and when applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (eye drops and injections) it gave results with RSD between 1.10 and 4.40%. PMID:20981343

  2. Gentamicin tissue concentration in various avian species following recommended dosage therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M.; Locke, D.; Neal, L.A.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma and tissue drug concentrations were compared in eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus) and pigeons (Columba livia) given gentamicin by IM administration at the dosage of 10 mg/kg, and in greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) and hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp) given the same antibiotic at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Quail and cranes had significantly higher liver concentrations of gentamicin at 6 hours after injection than did pigeons and ducks. Cranes had significantly higher plasma concentrations than did ducks at 6 hours after injection. Compared with plasma values, gentamicin concentrations were significantly higher in the liver of cranes at 12 hours after injection, and in the kidneys at 18 hours.

  3. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome following Phacoemulsification Secondary to Overdose of Intracameral Gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaran Koban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS that was caused by inadvertent anterior chamber and cornea stromal injection with high dose gentamicin following cataract surgery. Methods. Case report. Results. We report a 72-year-old female patient who developed TASS that was caused by high dose gentamicin (20 mg/0.5 mL, which was inadvertently used during the formation of the anterior chamber and hydration of the corneal incision. Unlike previous cases, hyphema and hemorrhagic fibrinous reaction were seen in the anterior chamber. Despite treatment, bullous keratopathy developed and penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The excised corneal button was sent for histopathological examination. Conclusions. Subconjunctival gentamicin is highly toxic to the corneal endothelium and anterior chamber structures. Including it on the surgical table carries a potentially serious risk for contamination of the anterior chamber.

  4. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome following Phacoemulsification Secondary to Overdose of Intracameral Gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Yaran; Genc, Selim; Cagatay, Halil Huseyin; Ekinci, Metin; Gecer, Melin; Yazar, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) that was caused by inadvertent anterior chamber and cornea stromal injection with high dose gentamicin following cataract surgery. Methods. Case report. Results. We report a 72-year-old female patient who developed TASS that was caused by high dose gentamicin (20 mg/0.5 mL), which was inadvertently used during the formation of the anterior chamber and hydration of the corneal incision. Unlike previous cases, hyphema and hemorrhagic fibrinous reaction were seen in the anterior chamber. Despite treatment, bullous keratopathy developed and penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The excised corneal button was sent for histopathological examination. Conclusions. Subconjunctival gentamicin is highly toxic to the corneal endothelium and anterior chamber structures. Including it on the surgical table carries a potentially serious risk for contamination of the anterior chamber. PMID:25574173

  5. Production of biocompatible and antimicrobial bacterial cellulose polymers functionalized by RGDC grafting groups and gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Asselin, Jérémie; Tazi, Neftaha; Messaddeq, Younès; Levinson, Dennis; Zhang, Ze

    2014-02-12

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a three-dimensional fibril, is a natural polymer that can be used for many applications. BC effectiveness may be improved by enhancing surface characteristics contributing to a better physiologic interaction with human and animal cells and to intrinsically present antimicrobial agents. In the present study, gentamicin-activated BC membranes were obtained by chemically grafting RGDC peptides (R: arginine; G: glycine; D: aspartic acid; C: cysteine) using coupling agent 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by covalent attachment of gentamicin onto the surface of the BC membrane network. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the BC-APTES contained 0.7% of silicon in terms of elemental composition, corresponding to a grafting ratio of 1:12. The presence of silicon and nitrogen in the BC-APTES confirmed the surface functionalization of the BC membrane. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses show the formation of the secondary amide as supported by the valence bond C═O (ν(C═O)), a characteristic vibrational transition at 1650 cm(-1) which is particularly intense with the BC-RGDC-gentamicin membrane. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses showed a low level of carbon and nitrogen (C + N) in pure BC but a high level of (C + N) in BC-RGDC-gentamicin confirming the surface modification of the BC membrane by RGDC and gentamicin enrichment. Of great interest, the gentamicin-RGDC-grafted BC membranes are bactericidal against Streptococcus mutans but nontoxic to human dermal fibroblasts and thus may be useful for multiple applications such as improved wound healing and drug delivery systems.

  6. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn; Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L.; Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2013-11-01

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30-32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from -39 to -13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log10), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log10). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B. melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  7. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L. [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Sriranganathan, Nammalwar, E-mail: nathans@vt.edu [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log{sub 10}), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log{sub 10}). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  8. Listeria monocytogenes Strains Selected on Ciprofloxacin or the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Exhibit Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Benzalkonium Chloride, and Other Toxic Compounds▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Drevets, Douglas A.; Dutta, Vikrant; Katic, Vera; Kathariou, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a leading agent for severe food-borne illness and death in the United States and other nations. Even though drug resistance has not yet threatened therapeutic interventions for listeriosis, selective pressure associated with exposure to antibiotics and disinfectants may result in reduced susceptibility to these agents. In this study, selection of several L. monocytogenes strains on either ciprofloxacin (2 μg/ml) or the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC; 10 μg/ml) led to derivatives with increased MICs not only to these agents but also to several other toxic compounds, including gentamicin, the dye ethidium bromide, and the chemotherapeutic drug tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The spectrum of compounds to which these derivatives exhibited reduced susceptibility was the same regardless of whether they were selected on ciprofloxacin or on BC. Inclusion of strains harboring the large plasmid pLM80 revealed that MICs to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin did not differ between the parental and plasmid-cured strains. However, ciprofloxacin-selected derivatives of pLM80-harboring strains had higher MICs than those derived from the plasmid-cured strains. Susceptibility to the antimicrobials was partially restored in the presence of the potent efflux inhibitor reserpine. Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC. PMID:22003016

  9. Gentamicin coating of plasma chemical oxidized titanium alloy prevents implant-related osteomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbeck, M; Schrader, C; Gras, F; Mückley, T; Schmidt, J; Zankovych, S; Bossert, J; Jandt, K D; Völpel, A; Sigusch, B W; Schubert, H; Bischoff, S; Pfister, W; Edel, B; Faucon, M; Finger, U

    2016-09-01

    Implant related infection is one of the most feared and devastating complication associated with the use of orthopaedic implant devices. Development of anti-infective surfaces is the main strategy to prevent implant contamination, biofilm formation and implant related osteomyelitis. A second concern in orthopaedics is insufficient osseointegration of uncemented implant devices. Recently, we reported on a macroporous titanium-oxide surface (bioactive TiOB) which increases osseointegration and implant fixation. To combine enhanced osseointegration and antibacterial function, the TiOB surfaces were, in addition, modified with a gentamicin coating. A rat osteomyelitis model with bilateral placement of titanium alloy implants was employed to analyse the prophylactic effect of gentamicin-sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and gentamicin-tannic acid coatings in vivo. 20 rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (A) titanium alloy; PBS inoculum (negative control), (B) titanium alloy, Staphylococcus aureus inoculum (positive control), (C) bioactive TiOB with gentamicin-SDS and (D) bioactive TiOB plus gentamicin-tannic acid coating. Contamination of implants, bacterial load of bone powder and radiographic as well as histological signs of implant-related osteomyelitis were evaluated after four weeks. Gentamicin-SDS coating prevented implant contamination in 10 of 10 tibiae and gentamicin-tannic acid coating in 9 of 10 tibiae (infection prophylaxis rate 100% and 90% of cases, respectively). In Group (D) one implant showed colonisation of bacteria (swab of entry point and roll-out test positive for S. aureus). The interobserver reliability showed no difference in the histologic and radiographic osteomyelitis scores. In both gentamicin coated groups, a significant reduction of the histological osteomyelitis score (geometric mean values: C = 0.111 ± 0.023; D = 0.056 ± 0.006) compared to the positive control group (B: 0.244 ± 0.015; p < 0.05) was observed. The

  10. Floral extract ofTecoma stans:A potent inhibitor of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicityin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju S; Kavimani S; Uma Maheshwara rao V; Sreeramulu Reddy K; Vasanth Kumar G

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the nephroprotective activity of ethyl acetate extract of dried flowers ofTecoma stans for its protective effects on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Methods:For studying acute toxicity study, single oral dose of5 000 mg ethyl acetate floral extract/kg body weight was administered to albino rats (five females, five males). Nephrotoxicity was induced in albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin80 mg/kg/day for eight days. Effect of concurrent administration of ethyl acetate floral extract of Tecoma stans at a dose of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/day given by oral route was determined using serumcreatinine, serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum urea as indicators of kidney damage. The study groups contained six rats in each group. As nephrotoxicity of gentamicin is known to involve induction of oxidative stress,in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging activity of this extract was also evaluated.Results:For acute toxicity testing both female and male rats administered with the extract at a dose of5 000mg/kg. The results showed no toxicity in terms of general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs (LD50 > 5 000 mg/kg). It was observed that the ethyl acetate floral extract ofTecoma stans significantly protected rat kidneys from gentamicin-induced histopathological changes. Gentamicin-induced glomerular congestion, peritubular and blood vessel congestion, epithelial desquamation, accumulation of inflammatory cells and necrosis of the kidney cells were found to be reduced in the groups receiving the ethyl acetate floral extract ofTecoma stans along with gentamicin in a dose dependent manner. The floral extract also reduced the gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine, serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum urea levels (P>0.01).Conclusions:The present study indicates a very important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)and the relation to

  11. Auditory function after continuous infusion of gentamicin to high-risk newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, E A; Prytz, S;

    1989-01-01

    Audiometry was performed at four years of age in 69 of 105 surviving children who had received continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin during neonatal intensive care. A hearing loss of 20 dB was found in 2 of them (3%), corresponding to that shown in other studies of survivors following...... neonatal intensive care. Free field audiometry performed in another 7 children and questionnaires returned from 13 of the remaining 29 gave no suspicion of hearing loss. Thus there is no indication that continuous 24 hours intravenous infusion of gentamicin causes more hearing impairment than intermittent...

  12. Effect of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome on neonatal hearing screening outcomes following gentamicin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Campbell P; Liao, Selena; Urdang, Zachary D; Srikanth, Priya; Garinis, Angela C; Steyger, Peter S

    2015-11-01

    Hearing loss in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates range from 2% to 15% compared to 0.3% in full-term births, and the etiology of this discrepancy remains unknown. The majority of NICU admissions receive potentially ototoxic aminoglycoside therapy, such as gentamicin, for presumed sepsis. Endotoxemia and inflammation are associated with increased cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides and potentiated ototoxicity in mice. We tested the hypothesis that sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and intravenous gentamicin exposure increases the risk of hearing loss in NICU admissions. The Institutional Review Board at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) approved this study design. Two hundred and eight infants met initial criteria, and written, informed consent were obtained from parents or guardians of 103 subjects ultimately enrolled in this study. Prospective data from 91 of the enrolled subjects at OHSU Doernbecher Children's Hospital Neonatal Care Center were processed. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs; f2 frequency range: 2063-10,031 Hz) were obtained prior to discharge to assess auditory performance. To pass the DPOAE screen, normal responses in >6 of 10 frequencies in both ears were required; otherwise the subject was considered a "referral" for a diagnostic hearing evaluation after discharge. Cumulative dosing data and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis or SIRS were obtained from OHSU's electronic health record system, and the data processed to obtain risk ratios. Using these DPOAE screening criteria, 36 (39.5%) subjects would be referred. Seventy-four (81%) subjects had intravenous gentamicin exposure. Twenty (22%) had ≥4 days of gentamicin, and 71 (78%) had sepsis or met neonatal SIRS criteria, 9 of whom had ≥5 days of gentamicin and a DPOAE referral risk ratio of 2.12 (p=0.02) compared to all other subjects. Combining subjects with either vancomycin or furosemide overlap with gentamicin treatment yielded an almost

  13. Effects of gentamicin on choline acetyltransferase expression in paraolivary nucleus neurons of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingguang Zhao; Xiaochen Wang; Yong Liang; Peng Xie; Xuejun Guo; Jinjiang Li; Wei Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that gentamicin can damage the cochlear nerve and acoustic nerve. In recent years, scholars have focused on neuronal changes and neurochemical information in the brainstem primary auditory center. OBJECTIVE: To explore morphological changes of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the paraolivary nucleus (PON) of guinea pigs, and the effect on hearing following gentamicin injection. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping and morphological observational study was performed at Animal Experimental Center of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to August 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 48 healthy guinea pigs were randomly divided into model (n = 40) and control (n = 8) groups. The model group was divided into five subgroups at five time points of I and 3 days, 1, 2, and 3 weeks. METHODS: Guinea pigs in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin, and those in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Auditory brainstem-evoked potential was used to record auditory threshold; distribution and morphological changes of ChAT-positive neurons in the PON were observed with immunohistochemistry; section area and gray value of ChAT-positive neurons were measured with Quantimet 570 image-analyzing system. RESULTS: ChAT-positive neurons were diffusedly distributed in the PON. The majority was composed of large, round cells, with positive neurites that could be clearly observed. Following gentamicin injection, the positive neurons displayed an irregular outline, and their neurites began to shorten and disappear. The gray value increased with prolonged gentamicin administration (P < 0.05). In addition, the somatic cross-sectional area was enlarged in the model group at 1 and 3 days after injection (P < 0.05), whereas cell number significantly decreased at three weeks after injection (P < 0.05). Starting

  14. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    JAIN, Avijeet; NAHATA, Alok; SINGHAI, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blo...

  15. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhera Abhijeet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies.

  16. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35...

  17. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35-5...

  18. In vivo antimicrobial activity of gentamicin polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles%庆大霉素毫微球的体内抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 廖工铁; 张淑华

    1998-01-01

    To observe whether the in vivo antimicrobial activity of gentamicin (specially in the intracellular infected animals) could be improved after associting with polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles. METHOD: S. typhimurium infected C57BL/6j mice were chosen as the animal model of the intracellular infection, then the antimicrobial activity of gentamicin polycyano-eacrylate nanoparticles (GM-NP) was evaluated by the mouse survival and the bacterial counts. RESULTS: By comparison with gentamicin solution (GM-Sol), the therapeutic index of GM-NP based on mouse mortality was incrased by 10 fold, and the bacterial counts on liver, spleen and kidney could be as low as 1/426, 1/141 and 1/30 of GM-Sol treated groups respectively. CONCLUSION: By comparison with GM-Sol, in vivo antimicrobial activity of gentamicin over S. typhimurium infected C57BL/6j mice improved significantly after associting with polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles.%目的:观察庆大霉素与聚氰基丙烯酸正丁酯毫微球结合以后,其体内抗菌活性(特别是对细胞内感染)是否有所增加。方法:以鼠伤寒沙门杆菌感染的C57BL/6j小鼠为细胞内感染的动物模型,以小鼠存活率和器官组织中的活菌计数为指标,对庆大霉素聚氰基丙烯酸正丁酯毫微球的体内抗菌活性进行评价。结果:从存活率评价其治疗指数提高了10倍。肝、脾、肾中活菌计数最低可降至庆大霉素溶液组的1/426,1/141和1/30。结论:与庆大霉素溶液相比,庆大霉素毫微球明显提高了对伤寒沙门杆菌感染小鼠的治疗效果。

  19. Comparison of upper body strength gains between men and women after 10 weeks of resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gentil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training (RT offers benefits to both men and women. However, the studies about the differences between men and women in response to an RT program are not conclusive and few data are available about upper body strength response. The aim of this study was to compare elbow flexor strength gains in men and women after 10 weeks of RT. Forty-four college-aged men (22.63 ± 2.34 years and forty-seven college-aged women (21.62 ± 2.96 years participated in the study. The RT program was performed two days a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training period, peak torque (PT of the elbow flexors was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. PT values were higher in men in comparison to women in pre- and post-tests (p 0.05. Effect sizes were 0.57 and 0.56 for men and women, respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggests that men and women have a similar upper body strength response to RT.

  20. Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayesh B. Dhodi; Deepavali R. Thanekar; Snehal N. Mestry; Archana R. Juvekar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mechanism of action of methanolic extract of Carissa carandas fruits (MCCF) in attenuation of diabetic nephropathy using gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model.Methods:Extract was daily administered to Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 days along with intramuscular injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg). After completion of the study, serum was analyzed for blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine; urine (24 h) was analyzed for albumin and creatinine. Kidney was evaluated for its biochemical and morphological changes. Results: Extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly normalized the nephrotoxic biomarkers in serum and urine and increased the kidney antioxidant activities which were altered due to gentamicin toxicity. The histological findings reveal that MCCF was capable of protecting the kidney against gentamicin toxicity. Conclusions: Extract ameliorated oxidative stress generated by gentamicin administration, which is one of the mechanisms for its preventive action against diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Severity of gentamicin's nephrotoxic effect on patients with infective endocarditis: a prospective observational cohort study of 373 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    and mortality in patients with IE. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was performed at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen from October 2002 through October 2007; 373 consecutive patients with IE were included. A total of 287 (77%) of the patients received gentamicin treatment (median...... duration, 14 days); dosage was adjusted according to daily serum creatinine and trough serum gentamicin levels. Kidney function was determined by estimated endogenous creatinine clearance (EECC). Statistical correlation between gentamicin and EECC change was analyzed, and the association between mortality...... and nephrotoxicity was investigated. RESULTS: The primary bacteriological etiologies were as follows: Streptococcus species (37.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%), and Enterococcus species (16.1%). In the gentamicin group, the mean EECC change was an 8.6% decrease, but in the no-gentamicin group, the mean change...

  2. In vitro activity of daptomycin in combination with β-lactams, gentamicin, rifampin, and tigecycline against daptomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindler, Janet A; Wong-Beringer, Annie; Charlton, Carmen L; Miller, Shelley A; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Carvalho, Marissa; Sakoulas, George; Nonejuie, Poochit; Pogliano, Joseph; Nizet, Victor; Humphries, Romney

    2015-07-01

    Enterococci that are nonsusceptible (NS; MIC > 4 μg/ml) to daptomycin are an emerging clinical concern. The synergistic combination of daptomycin plus beta-lactams has been shown to be effective against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) species in vitro. This study systematically evaluated by in vitro time-kill studies the effect of daptomycin in combination with ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ceftaroline, ertapenem, gentamicin, tigecycline, and rifampin, for a collection of 9 daptomycin-NS enterococci that exhibited a broad range of MICs and different resistance-conferring mutations. We found that ampicillin plus daptomycin yielded the most consistent synergy but did so only for isolates with mutations to the liaFSR system. Daptomycin binding was found to be enhanced by ampicillin in a representative isolate with such mutations but not for an isolate with mutation to the yycFGHIJ system. In contrast, ampicillin enhanced the killing of the LL-37 human antimicrobial peptide against daptomycin-NS E. faecium with either the liaFSR or yycFGHIJ mutation. Antagonism was noted only for rifampin and tigecycline and only for 2 or 3 isolates. These data add support to the growing body of evidence indicating that therapy combining daptomycin and ampicillin may be helpful in eradicating refractory VRE infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Invasive Plant-Soil Feedbacks and Ecosystem Resistance and Resilience: A Comparison of Three Vegetation Types in California

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Sara Jo Myrtle

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONInvasive Plant-Soil Feedbacks and Ecosystem Resistance and Resilience: A Comparison of Three Vegetation Types in CaliforniaBy Sara Jo DickensDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Plant BiologyUniversity of California, Riverside, December 2010Dr Edith B. Allen, ChairpersonEcosystem processes are strongly dependant on plant-soil feedbacks. The invasion of exotic plant species can result in the introduction of novel traits capable of de-coupling native plant-soil ...

  4. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against carbapenem-susceptible and resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carattoli Alessandra

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent multi-centre Italian survey (2003–2004, conducted in 45 laboratories throughout Italy with the aim of monitoring microorganisms responsible for severe infections and their antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from various wards of 9 hospitals as one of the most frequent pathogens. One hundred and seven clinically significant strains of A. baumannii isolates were included in this study to determine the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents. Methods Tests for the susceptibility to antibiotics were performed by the broth microdilution method as recommended by CLSI guidelines. The following antibiotics were tested: aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem tetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, and trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole. The PCR assay was used to determine the presence of OXA, VIM, or IMP genes in the carbapenem resistant strains. Results A. baumannii showed widespread resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam in more than 90% of the strains; resistance to imipenem and meropenem was 50 and 59% respectively, amikacin and gentamicin were both active against about 30% of the strains and colistin about 99%, with only one strain resistant. By comparison with tetracyclines, tigecycline and doxycycline showed a higher activity. In particular, tigecycline showed a MIC90 value of 2 mg/L and our strains displayed a unimodal distribution of susceptibility being indistinctly active against carbapenem-susceptible and resistant strains, these latter possessed OXA-type variant enzymes. Conclusion In conclusion, tigecycline had a good activity against the MDR A. baumannii strains while maintaining the same MIC90 of 2 mg/L against the carbapenem-resistant strains.

  5. The 13C-Glucose Breath Test for Insulin Resistance Assessment in Adolescents: Comparison with Fasting and Post-Glucose Stimulus Surrogate Markers of Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Hernández, Jorge; Martínez-Basila, Azucena; Salas-Fernández, Alejandra; Navarro-Betancourt, José R.; Piña-Aguero, Mónica I.; Bernabe-García, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the 13C-glucose breath test (13C-GBT) for insulin resistance (IR) detection in adolescents through comparison with fasting and post-glucose stimulus surrogates. Methods: One hundred thirty-three adolescents aged between 10 and 16 years received an oral glucose load of 1.75 g per kg of body weight dissolved in 150 mL of water followed by an oral dose of 1.5 mg/kg of U-13C-Glucose, without a specific maximum dose. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and 120 mi...

  6. Comparison of Efflux Pump Involvement in Antibiotic Resistance Among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates of Burn and Non-Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of hospital-acquired infections that can create serious problem for patients and physicians. Many factors are associated with the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, such as efflux pumps. Objectives The aim of this study was the phenotypic and molecular detection of efflux pumps in our clinical P. aeruginosa isolates in a comparison between burn and non-burn specimens. Materials and Methods In this study, clinical strains of P. aeruginosa were collected from burn and non-burn specimens from April - July 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed after biochemical and molecular identification. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of imipenem, cefepime, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin, with and without carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, was determined for phenotypic detection of efflux pumps. Results Our results confirmed 203 and 60 P. aeruginosa isolates from burn and non-burn specimens, respectively. The most antibiotic resistance was observed against tobramycin in both group of specimens, and no resistance was seen to colistin. Phenotypic detection of efflux pumps was determined to correlate to a > 4-fold decrease in the MICs of the tested antibiotics with CCCP compared to without CCCP in 57 strains. Conclusions High-level antibiotic resistance can occur as a result of multidrug efflux pumps combined with other mechanisms of resistance. However, the association between over-expression of these genes and highly resistant clinical isolates cannot be ignored.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics and relationship between demographic and clinical variables and pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, L M L; Degraeuwe, P L J; Nieman, F H M; de Wolf, M C; de Boer, A

    2002-01-01

    Population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were calculated from 725 routine plasma gentamicin concentrations obtained in 177 neonates of 24 to 42 weeks' gestational age in their first week of life. Kel increases and V/W decreases with increasing gestational age. Almost identical results were obt

  8. Effects of intratympanic gentamicin on vestibular afferents and hair cells in the chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Minor, Lloyd B; Hullar, Timothy E; Carey, John P

    2005-02-01

    Gentamicin is toxic to vestibular hair cells, but its effects on vestibular afferents have not been defined. We treated anesthetized chinchillas with one injection of gentamicin (26.7 mg/ml) into the middle ear and made extracellular recordings from afferents after 5-25 (early) or 90-115 days (late). The relative proportions of regular, intermediate, and irregular afferents did not change after treatment. The spontaneous firing rate of regular afferents was lower (P galvanic currents was unaffected for all afferents. Intratympanic gentamicin treatment reduced the histological density of all hair cells by 57% (P = 0.04). The density of hair cells with calyx endings was reduced by 99% (P = 0.03), although some remaining hair cells had other features suggestive of type I morphology. Type II hair cell density was not significantly reduced. These findings suggest that a single intratympanic gentamicin injection causes partial damage and loss of vestibular hair cells, particularly type I hair cells or their calyceal afferent endings, does not damage the afferent spike initiation zones, and preserves enough hair cell synaptic activity to drive the spontaneous activity of vestibular afferents.

  9. Leishmanicidal Activity of Films Containing Paromomycin and Gentamicin Sulfate both In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolouei, S; Hasheminia, Sj; Narimani, M; Khamesipour, A; Shatalebi, Ma; Hejazi, Sh

    2011-08-01

    Based on the efficacy of paromomycin ointment and recent ongoing clinical trials of combination of paromomycin and gentamicin, a new physical form of films of the paromomycin and gentamicin was prepared and anti-Leishmania activities of the prepared films were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Paromomycin 15% and gentamicin 0.5% was incorporated in a film using ethyl cellulose and HPMC (Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose). In order to assess the drug release and anti-Leishmania activities of the preparation, a clone L. major parasite was established using a set of modified NNN medium without overlay liquid layer. Therapeutic effects of the films were evaluated using Balb/c mice model. The mice were inoculated with 2×10(6)L. major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then when the lesions developed the mice were randomly divided in 3 groups, 10 mice per group, and treated with either perpetrated films or placebo for 28 days or left untreated. Growth inhibition of cloned promastigotes showed that the films have enough releasing capacity and in vivo system, the films containing paromomycin and gentamicin was able to reduce the lesion size and induced complete cure in 80% of the mice but relapse was seen in 60% of the cured mice and overall 50% cure rate was seen during 20 weeks period of the study. It seems that the prepared films might be further used in human clinical trials.

  10. Gentamicin induced nitric oxide-related oxidative damages on vestibular afferents in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Sook Kyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Ki Ryung; Kim, Myung Gu; Chung, Won-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on hair cells. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this excitotoxicity, we treated guinea pigs with gentamicin by placing gentamicin (0.5 mg) pellets into a round window niche. After the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment, the numbers of hair cells in the animals were counted with a scanning electron microscope. We then performed immunostaining using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine antibodies. The number of hair cells in the animals was found to decrease significantly after 7 days. nNOS and iNOS expression levels were observed to have increased 3 days after treatment. Nitrotyrosine was expressed primarily at the calyceal afferents of the type I hair cells 3 days after treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed positive hair cells 3 days after treatment. Our results suggest that inner ear treatment with gentamicin may upregulate nNOS and iNOS to induce oxidative stress in the calyceal afferents of type I hair cells, via nitric oxide overproduction.

  11. Novel model-based dosing guidelines for gentamicin and tobramycin in preterm and term neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.J. Välitalo (Pyry A. J.); J.N. van den Anker (John); K. Allegaert (Karel); R.F.W. de Cock (Roosmarijn); M. de Hoog (Matthijs); S.H. Simons (Sinno); J.W. Mouton (Johan); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: In the heterogeneous group of preterm and term neonates, gentamicin and tobramycin are mainly dosed according to empirical guidelines, after which therapeutic drug monitoring and subsequent dose adaptation are applied. In view of the variety of neonatal guidelines available,

  12. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release of gentamicin from coralline hydroxyapatite-alginate composite microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M; Rao, K Panduranga

    2003-05-01

    In this work, composite microspheres were prepared from bioactive ceramics such as coralline hydroxyapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)] granules, a biodegradable polymer, sodium alginate, and an antibiotic, gentamicin. Previously, we have shown a gentamicin release from coralline hydroxyapatite granules-chitosan composite microspheres. In the present investigation, we attempted to prepare composite microspheres containing coralline hydroxyapatite granules and sodium alginate by the dispersion polymerization technique with gentamicin incorporated by absorption method. The crystal structure of the composite microspheres was analyzed using X-ray powder diffractometer. Fourier transform infrared spectra clearly indicated the presence of per-acid of sodium alginate, phosphate, and hydroxyl groups in the composite microspheres. Scanning electron micrographs and optical micrographs showed that the composite microspheres were spherical in shape and porous in nature. The particle size of composite microspheres was analyzed, and the average size was found to be 15 microns. The thermal behavior of composite microspheres was studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The cumulative in vitro release profile of gentamicin from composite microspheres showed near zero order patterns.

  13. Lack of protection against gentamicin ototoxicity by auditory conditioning with noise

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    Alex Strose

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Auditory conditioning consists of the pre-exposure to low levels of a potential harmful agent to protect against a subsequent harmful presentation. OBJECTIVE: To confirm if conditioning with an agent different from the used to cause the trauma can also be effective. METHOD: Experimental study with 17 guinea pigs divided as follows: group Som: exposed to 85 dB broadband noise centered at 4 kHz, 30 minutes a day for 10 consecutive days; group Cont: intramuscular administration of gentamicin 160 mg/kg a day for 10 consecutive days; group Expt: conditioned with noise similarly to group Som and, after each noise presentation, received gentamicin similarly to group Cont. The animals were evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The animals that were conditioned with noise did not show any protective effect compared to the ones that received only the ototoxic gentamicin administration. This lack of protection was observed functionally and morphologically. CONCLUSION: Conditioning with 85 dB broadband noise, 30 min a day for 10 consecutive days does not protect against an ototoxic gentamicin administration of 160 mg/kg a day for 10 consecutive days in the guinea pig.

  14. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  15. Administration of gentamicin and ampicillin by continuous intravenous infusion to newborn infants during parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Gentamicin and ampicillin were dissolved in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for newborn infants and infused intravenously over 24 h in 7 babies with serious neonatal surgical problems. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained rather constant and well above the minimal ...

  16. N-ACETYLCYSTEINE EFFECT ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

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    Laishram Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gentamicin exerts a unique pharmacokinetic effect on renal physiology and its use at high dose or prolonged treatment requires monitoring of kidney function test. Antioxidants has been claimed to have nephroprotective potential and hence antioxidant compound, N-acetylcysteine (NAC has been used in renal impairment; however, its efficacy is not very well documented. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the role of antioxidant (NAC in impaired kidney function due to high dose Gentamicin in rat models. Gentamicin at the dose of 80 mg/kg b.w. intramuscularly was given in 18 adult healthy albino rats for 10 days and varying doses of antioxidant NAC (20 and 40 mg/kg were given orally for 3 wks. starting from day 5 of the experiment. Blood urea and creatinine levels were measured on day 5, 10 and after completion of treatment of NAC and histopathology examination conducted. Intramuscular injection of high dose of Gentamicin significantly produced biochemical signs of nephrotoxicity. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lowered in NAC treated group compared to the control group. The group treated with NAC 40 mg/kg for 3 wks. had significantly lowered renal biochemical parameters and histopathological features compared to control.

  17. The pharmacokinetics and tissue levels of polymyxin B, colistin and gentamicin in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G; Nouws, J F; van Ginneken, C A

    1982-03-01

    Following a single intravenous injection of polymyxin B, colistin (5 mg/kg, each) and gentamicin (3 mg/kg) to calves, the decline in serum antibiotic concentration generally suggested a three-compartment (open system) pharmacokinetic model. Tissue binding is a dominant factor in the distribution and elimination kinetics of the drugs. Less than 65% of the dose of polymyxin B and colistin was recovered in the urine during 48 h after treatment. Concentrations of nonbound polymyxin B and colistin in the kidney, liver, lung, heart, and skeletal muscles were similar to total (free and bound) serum drug levels, but considerably higher concentrations were found, in bound form, in chloroform-ethanol extracts of these organs. At 24 h after treatment, more than 50% of the doses of polymyxin B and colistin were present bound to the tissues; the largest amount was in the skeletal muscles. Gentamicin was concentrated in the kidney, predominantly in the free form. At 48 h after treatment the amount of gentamicin in the kidney was 6.3% of the administered dose, being more than five times greater than the corresponding amounts of polymyxin B and colistin. The extent of tissue uptake of polymyxin B and colistin limits the usefulness of kinetic values, which are derived from the analysis of serum drug levels, for the purpose of designing dosage schedules. The strong affinity of the polymyxins to the muscle tissue, and gentamicin to the kidney, can result in drug residues persisting in the body for several weeks.

  18. 21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment. 524.1044d Section 524.1044d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... preparation. Administration of recommended doses beyond 7 days may result in delayed wound healing. Animals...

  19. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in preterm infants with a patent and a closed ductus arteriosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Proost, J H; Stevens, R; Lafeber, H N; van Weissenbruch, M M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may influence renal and hepatic blood flow and hence pharmacokinetics of drugs in neonates compared to neonates with a closed ductus arteriosus (CDA). A 10-percent difference of gentamicin pharmacokinetic parameters between PDA and CDA has been re

  20. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  1. The Effects of Vitamin D on Gentamicin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Experimental Rat Model

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    Ender Hur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI pathogenesis is complex. Findings of gentamicin nephrotoxicity are seen in 30% of the AKI patients. Vitamin D has proven to be effective on renin expression, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D in an experimental rat model of gentamicin-induced AKI. Methods. Thirty nonuremic Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: Control group, 1 mL saline intramuscular (im daily; Genta group, gentamicin 100 mg/kg/day (im; Genta + vitamin D, gentamicin 100 mg/kg/day (im in addition to 1α, 25 (OH2D3 0.4 mcg/kg/day subcutaneously for 8 days. Blood pressures and 24-hour urine were measured. Blood urea and creatinine levels and urine tubular injury markers were measured. Renal histology was semiquantitatively assessed. Results. Urea, creatinine and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1 were all increased in Genta group indicating AKI model. Systolic blood pressure decreased, but urine volume and glutathione increased in Genta + Vit D group compared to Control group. Histological scores indicating tubular injury increased in Genta and Genta + Vit D groups. Conclusions. Vitamin D does not seem to be effective on histological findings although it has some beneficial effects via RAS system and a promising effect on antioxidant system.

  2. Microbubble-Mediated Ultrasound Enhances the Lethal Effect of Gentamicin on Planktonic Escherichia coli

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    Han-Xiao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that low-intensity ultrasound enhanced the lethal effect of gentamicin on planktonic E. coli. We aimed to further investigate whether microbubble-mediated low-intensity ultrasound could further enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of gentamicin. The planktonic E. coli (ATCC 25922 was distributed to four different interventions: control (GCON, microbubble only (GMB, ultrasound only (GUS, and microbubble-mediated ultrasound (GMUS. Ultrasound was applied with 100 mW/cm2 (average intensity and 46.5 KHz, which presented no bactericidal activity. After 12 h, plate counting was used to estimate the number of bacteria, and bacterial micromorphology was observed with transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the viable counts of E. coli in GMUS were decreased by 1.01 to 1.42 log10 CFU/mL compared with GUS (P<0.01. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin against E. coli was 1 μg/mL in the GMUS and GUS groups, lower than that in the GCON and GMB groups (2 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images exhibited more destruction and higher thickness of bacterial cell membranes in the GMUS than those in other groups. The reason might be the increased permeability of cell membranes for gentamicin caused by acoustic cavitation.

  3. A new dosing schedule for gentamicin in blood pythons (Python curtus): a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, M; Swanson, D; Wagner, R; Yu, V L

    1991-03-01

    Gentamicin is frequently used in the treatment of aerobic Gram-negative infections in reptiles. Pharmacokinetic data to ensure proper dosing are scant, especially for large snakes. A pharmacokinetic study of gentamicin was therefore conducted in four blood pythons. Snakes were given intramuscular injections of either 2.5 mg kg-1 or 3.0 mg kg-1 loading dose followed by 1.5 mg kg-1 at 72 and 96 hours. A linear pharmacokinetic relationship between gentamicin serum concentrations and time was demonstrated in each of the four snakes studied. Peak serum concentrations occurred six to 10 hours after injection and ranged from 4.6 to 8.9 micrograms ml-1. Half-life was variable and ranged from 32 to 110 hours. Total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution varied little between the individual snakes studied. There was no evidence of renal toxicity. For blood pythons a loading dose of 2.5 mg kg-1 followed by 1.5 mg kg-1 at 96 hour intervals is recommended. If higher concentrations are desired, a loading dose of 3.0 mg kg-1 followed by 1.5 mg kg-1 at 96 hours can be given. These dosing schedules will provide serum concentrations in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentrations for most aerobic Gram-negative bacilli that are pathogenic in snakes; gentamicin accumulation with subsequent renal dysfunction should not occur.

  4. In-vitro analysis of the effect of gentamicin and polyhexanide on bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Hans-Jürgen; Ernst, Dirk; Jethon, Frank; Fabry, Werner

    2013-04-01

    Though anti-infectives have been used for a long time in surgical procedures, the effect on bone tissue has not been determined for most antibiotics and antiseptics. In our in vitro study, 4x4x8 mm(3) blocks of rabbit cancellous bone tissue were incubated with Ringer's solution, gentamicin and Lavasorb(®) each for time intervals of 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, four hours and eight hours. Samples were examined double blinded through optical and electron microscopy. Tissue degeneration was observed in all samples. It was low in Ringer's solution. Samples with Lavasorb showed a moderate degeneration after 15 and 30 minutes, which was accelerated after one hour. Gentamicin led to a moderate degeneration of bone tissue after 15 and 30 minutes and to a more accelerated degeneration after one hour. The effect of gentamicin on bone tissue was more pronounced than the effect of Lavasorb. This investigation showed that local application of Lavasorb or gentamicin on bone tissue should be restricted to 30 minutes, while Lavasorb showed a better tissue tolerability. This finding could have clinical implications for the management of wounds with open osseous tissue and should be further investigated by in vivo studies.

  5. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Abhijeet; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-06-01

    Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies. Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (pCoriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on different gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate bone cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Belt, H; Neut, D; Schenk, W; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    In this in vitro study, the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on six gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW1, CMW3, CMW Endurance, CMW2000, Palacos. and Palamed) was determined in a modified Robbins device over a 3 days time span and related with previously (Van de Belt et al., Biomaterials

  7. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on different gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate bone cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Belt, H; Neut, D; Schenk, W; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on six gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW1, CMW3, CMW Endurance, CMW2000, Palacos. and Palamed) was determined in a modified Robbins device over a 3 days time span and related with previously (Van de Belt et al., Biomaterials

  8. Changes in renal enzyme activities following the administration of gentamicin to unilateral nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, G; Aladjem, M; Israeli, B A; Bogin, E

    1986-02-28

    The effects of unilateral nephrectomy and the impact of gentamicin administration on renal tissue enzyme activities in adult Wistar rats were investigated. Gentamicin 200 mg/kg body wt. or an equivalent volume of saline to control rats was administered subcutaneously on three consecutive days, followed by unilateral nephrectomy. Rats were killed on day 3, 7 or 14 following nephrectomy. Alkaline phosphatase, predominantly a proximal tubular brush border enzyme, rose in both the experimental and control groups, however, significantly less in the gentamicin treated rats. Aspartate aminotransferase activity, an enzyme participating in renal glucogenesis, increased transiently in the control but remained unchanged in the experimental group. No difference in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity between the two groups was observed, probably reflecting the localization of this enzyme to distal tubular segments, a site unaffected by gentamicin. Significant and similar increases in Mg2+ and Na+ K+ ATPase were observed on day 14 in both groups. The administration of the drug resulted in a marked reduction in oxygen consumption, with a higher oxidation to phosphorylation ratio (P/O). Serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher on days 3 and 7 in the experimental group reverting to control values on the 14th day. Urea concentration increased significantly on days 3 and 7, decreasing on the 14th day to values slightly, but significantly, higher than those of the controls.

  9. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

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    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  10. Comparison of upper airway respiratory resistance measurements with the esophageal pressure/airflow relationship during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, C; Schwaibold, M; Randerath, W; Bolz, A; Jané, R

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of upper airway resistance is of interest in sleep disordered breathing to estimate upper airway patency. Resistance is calculated with the airflow and respiratory effort signals. However, there is no consensus on a standard for upper airway resistance measurement. This study proposes a new benchmarking method to objectively compare different upper airway resistance measurement methods by objectively differentiating between breaths with inspiratory flow limitation (high resistance) and non-limited breaths (low resistance). Resistance was measured at peak-Pes, at peak-flow, at the linear portion of a polynomial equation, as an area comparative and as average resistance for an inspiration. A total of 20 patients with systematic, gold-standard esophageal pressure and nasal airflow acquisition were analyzed and 109,955 breaths were automatically extracted and evaluated. Relative resistance values in relationship to a reference resistance value obtained during wakefulness were also analyzed. The peak-Pes measurement method obtained the highest separation index with significant (p < 0.001) differences to the other methods, followed by the area comparative and the peak-flow methods. As expected, average resistances were significantly (p < 0.001) lower for the non-IFL than for the IFL group. Hence, we recommend employing the peak-Pes for accurate upper airway resistance estimation.

  11. Effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide inhibition on structural and functional renal disturbances induced by gentamicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francescato, H.D.C.; Chierice, J.R.A.; Marin, E.C.S. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Cunha, F.Q. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Costa, R.S. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.G.A.; Coimbra, T.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-17

    Animal models of gentamicin nephrotoxicity present acute tubular necrosis associated with inflammation, which can contribute to intensify the renal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a signaling molecule involved in inflammation. We evaluated the effect of DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of endogenous H{sub 2}S formation, on the renal damage induced by gentamicin. Male Wistar rats (N = 8) were injected with 40 mg/kg gentamicin (im) twice a day for 9 days, some of them also received PAG (N = 8, 10 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, ip). Control rats (N = 6) were treated with saline or PAG only (N = 4). Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected one day after the end of these treatments, blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed for quantification of H{sub 2}S formation and histological and immunohistochemical studies. Gentamicin-treated rats presented higher sodium and potassium fractional excretion, increased plasma creatinine [4.06 (3.00; 5.87) mg%] and urea levels, a greater number of macrophages/monocytes, and a higher score for tubular interstitial lesions [3.50 (3.00; 4.00)] in the renal cortex. These changes were associated with increased H{sub 2}S formation in the kidneys from gentamicin-treated rats (230.60 ± 38.62 µg·mg protein{sup −1}·h{sup −1}) compared to control (21.12 ± 1.63) and PAG (11.44 ± 3.08). Treatment with PAG reduced this increase (171.60 ± 18.34), the disturbances in plasma creatinine levels [2.20 (1.92; 4.60) mg%], macrophage infiltration, and score for tubular interstitial lesions [2.00 (2.00; 3.00)]. However, PAG did not interfere with the increase in fractional sodium excretion provoked by gentamicin. The protective effect of PAG on gentamicin nephrotoxicity was related, at least in part, to decreased H{sub 2}S formation.

  12. Effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide inhibition on structural and functional renal disturbances induced by gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D.C. Francescato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of gentamicin nephrotoxicity present acute tubular necrosis associated with inflammation, which can contribute to intensify the renal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a signaling molecule involved in inflammation. We evaluated the effect of DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor of endogenous H2S formation, on the renal damage induced by gentamicin. Male Wistar rats (N = 8 were injected with 40 mg/kg gentamicin (im twice a day for 9 days, some of them also received PAG (N = 8, 10 mg·kg-1·day-1, ip. Control rats (N = 6 were treated with saline or PAG only (N = 4. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected one day after the end of these treatments, blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed for quantification of H2S formation and histological and immunohistochemical studies. Gentamicin-treated rats presented higher sodium and potassium fractional excretion, increased plasma creatinine [4.06 (3.00; 5.87 mg%] and urea levels, a greater number of macrophages/monocytes, and a higher score for tubular interstitial lesions [3.50 (3.00; 4.00] in the renal cortex. These changes were associated with increased H2S formation in the kidneys from gentamicin-treated rats (230.60 ± 38.62 µg·mg protein-1·h-1 compared to control (21.12 ± 1.63 and PAG (11.44 ± 3.08. Treatment with PAG reduced this increase (171.60 ± 18.34, the disturbances in plasma creatinine levels [2.20 (1.92; 4.60 mg%], macrophage infiltration, and score for tubular interstitial lesions [2.00 (2.00; 3.00]. However, PAG did not interfere with the increase in fractional sodium excretion provoked by gentamicin. The protective effect of PAG on gentamicin nephrotoxicity was related, at least in part, to decreased H2S formation.

  13. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: Synchronicity, resistance and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S.K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Seibert, J.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J.; McGuire, K.; Caissie, D.; Shanley, J.; Kennedy, M.; Devito, K.; Pomeroy, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are particularly sensitive to climate change as small differences in temperature determine frozen ground status, precipitation phase, and the magnitude and timing of snow accumulation and melt. An international inter-catchment comparison program, North-Watch, seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to climate change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical responses. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). This briefing presents the initial stage of the North-Watch program, which focuses on how these catchments collect, store and release water and identify 'types' of hydro-climatic catchment response. At most sites, a 10-year data of daily precipitation, discharge and temperature were compiled and evaporation and storage were calculated. Inter-annual and seasonal patterns of hydrological processes were assessed via normalized fluxes and standard flow metrics. At the annual-scale, relations between temperature, precipitation and discharge were compared, highlighting the role of seasonality, wetness and snow/frozen ground. The seasonal pattern and synchronicity of fluxes at the monthly scale provided insight into system memory and the role of storage. We identified types of catchments that rapidly translate precipitation into runoff and others that more readily store water for delayed release. Synchronicity and variance of rainfall-runoff patterns were characterized by the coefficient of variation (cv) of monthly fluxes and correlation coefficients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clustering among like catchments in terms of functioning, largely controlled by two components that (i) reflect temperature and precipitation gradients and the correlation of monthly precipitation and discharge and (ii

  14. Comparison of the fracture resistance of dental implants with different abutment taper angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Geng, Jianping; Jones, David; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of abutment taper angles on the fracture strength of dental implants with TIS (taper integrated screwed-in) connection. Thirty prototype cylindrical titanium alloy 5.0mm-diameter dental implants with different TIS-connection designs were divided into six groups and tested for their fracture strength, using a universal testing machine. These groups consisted of combinations of 3.5 and 4.0 mm abutment diameter, each with taper angles of 6°, 8° or 10°. 3-Dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was also used to analyze stress states at implant-abutment connection areas. In general, the mechanical tests found an increasing trend of implant fracture forces as the taper angle enlarged. When the abutment diameter was 3.5 mm, the mean fracture forces for 8° and 10° taper groups were 1638.9 N ± 20.3 and 1577.1 N ± 103.2, respectively, both larger than that for the 6° taper group of 1475.0 N ± 24.4, with the largest increasing rate of 11.1%. Furthermore, the difference between 8° and 6° taper groups was significant, based on Tamhane's multiple comparison test (Pimplants with different abutment taper angles and supported the findings of the static tests. In conclusion, increases of the abutment taper angle could significantly increase implant fracture resistance in most cases established in the study, which is due to the increased implant wall thickness in the connection part resulting from the taper angle enlargement. The increasing effects were notable when a thin implant wall was present to accommodate wide abutments.

  15. Effects of gentamicin on guinea pig vestibular ganglion function and on substance P and neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Te; Young, Yi-Ho; Cheng, Po-Wen; Lue, June-Horng

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that following intratympanic gentamicin application in the guinea pigs, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were absent regardless of stimulation mode using either air-conducted sound (ACS) stimuli or galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Ultrastructurally, both type I hair cells and their calyx terminals were distorted in the saccular macula. However, little is known about the toxic effects of gentamicin on the vestibular ganglion (VG). In this study, absent ACS- and GVS-VEMPs were noted in all the gentamicin-treated ears (100%), which were confirmed by the substantial loss of sensory hair cells in the saccular macula. Moreover, dramatic up-regulation of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression was detected in the ipsilateral VG neurons. The mean percentage of substance P-like immunoreactive (SP-LI) neurons in the treated VG (81.8±1.9%) was significantly higher than that in the control VG (68.6±3.3%). Conversely, the mean percentage of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive (NPY-LI) neurons in the treated VG (13.7±3.8%) was dramatically lower than that in the control VG (49.0±3.8%). Double labeling results shown 82% of SP-LI and 16% of NPY-LI neurons coexpressed with GAP-43, suggested that SP accumulating coincided with NPY decreasing in regenerating VG neurons after gentamicin treatment. Overall, the changes in SP and NPY expression in VG neurons after gentamicin treatment were like to those in the superior cervical ganglion following sympathectomy.

  16. Gentamicin induces efaA expression and biofilm formation in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Moghadam, Mehdi Forouzandeh; Hashemi, Zahra Sadat; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci have been ranked among the leading causes of nosocomial bacteremia and urinary tract infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin and ceftizoxime on biofilm formation and gene expression of colonization factors on Enterococcus faecalis. Twelve clinical isolates of E. faecalis were used to investigate the effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation and gene expression of efaA, asa1, ebpA, esp and ace. Flow system assay and Microtiter plates were used for biofilm assay. Two hundred clinical isolates were used for confirming the effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation. Ampicillin, vancomycin and ceftizoxime did not have any significant effect on biofilm formation, but gentamicin induced biofilm formation in 89% of isolates. In twelve selected isolate gentamicin increased expression of esp (+50.9%) and efaA (+33.9%) genes and reduced or maintained expression of others (asa1:-47.4%, ebpA: 0, ace:-19.2%). Vancomycin increased expression of esp (+89.1%) but reduced the others (asa1: -34.9%, ebpA:-11%, ace:-30%, efaA:-60%). Ceftizoxime increased slightly ebpA (+19.7%) and reduced others (asa1:-66.2%, esp:-35%, ace:-28.1%, efaA:-38.4%). and ampicillin strongly increased expression of ace (+231%), esp (+131%) and ebpA (+83%) but reduced others (asa1:-85.5%, efaA:-47.4%). The findings of the present study showed that antibiotics may have a role in biofilm formation and sustainability of enterococci, especially in case of gentamicin. efaA gene may have an important role, especially in antibiotic induced biofilm formation by gentamicin. Experiments with efaA mutants are needed to investigate the exact effect of efaA on biofilm formation with antibiotic induced cells.

  17. Pharmacokinetic profile that reduces nephrotoxicity of gentamicin in a perfused kidney-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sejoong; LesherPerez, Sasha Cai; Kim, Byoung Choul C; Yamanishi, Cameron; Labuz, Joseph M; Leung, Brendan; Takayama, Shuichi

    2016-03-24

    Nephrotoxicity is often underestimated because renal clearance in animals is higher compared to in humans. This paper aims to illustrate the potential to fill in such pharmacokinetic gaps between animals and humans using a microfluidic kidney model. As an initial demonstration, we compare nephrotoxicity of a drug, administered at the same total dosage, but using different pharmacokinetic regimens. Kidney epithelial cell, cultured under physiological shear stress conditions, are exposed to gentamicin using regimens that mimic the pharmacokinetics of bolus injection or continuous infusion in humans. The perfusion culture utilized is important both for controlling drug exposure and for providing cells with physiological shear stress (1.0 dyn cm(-2)). Compared to static cultures, perfusion culture improves epithelial barrier function. We tested two drug treatment regimens that give the same gentamycin dose over a 24 h period. In one regimen, we mimicked drug clearance profiles for human bolus injection by starting cell exposure at 19.2 mM of gentamicin and reducing the dosage level by half every 2 h over a 24 h period. In the other regimen, we continuously infused gentamicin (3 mM for 24 h). Although junctional protein immunoreactivity was decreased with both regimens, ZO-1 and occludin fluorescence decreased less with the bolus injection mimicking regimen. The bolus injection mimicking regimen also led to less cytotoxicity and allowed the epithelium to maintain low permeability, while continuous infusion led to an increase in cytotoxicity and permeability. These data show that gentamicin disrupts cell-cell junctions, increases membrane permeability, and decreases cell viability particularly with prolonged low-level exposure. Importantly a bolus injection mimicking regimen alleviates much of the nephrotoxicity compared to the continuous infused regimen. In addition to potential relevance to clinical gentamicin administration regimens, the results are important in

  18. Renal oxidative stress status and histology in gentamicin nephrotoxicity: The effects of antioxidant vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghaznavi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent publications, several mechanisms have been implicated in gentamicin (GM nephrotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species have been proposed as one of the causative factors of the drug renal side effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of the antioxidant vitamins against GM-mediated nephropathy in insitu isolated rat kidneys. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups of seven rats: Group 1 (control was tyrode perfused kidneys. Group 2 (GM, 200µg/ml gentamicin was added to the perfusate. Group 3 (GM + Vit C, the same as group 2 but vitamin C (200 mg/L was added to the drinking water for 3 days and 100 mg/L to the perfusate. Group 4 (GM + Vit E, the same as group 2 but vitamin E (100 mg/100 g BW, ip was injected 12 h before experiments. Group 5 (GM + Vit C + Vit E the same as group 2 but Vit E and C were co-administered (same as Group 3 & 4. Urinary N-acetyle-B-D-glucosaminidas (NAG and renal cortex superoxide dismutase (SOD levels were measured and tissue histological evaluations were performed. Results: Gentamicin caused a significant nephrotoxicity demonstrated by increase in urinary NAG. Decline in SOD contents were observed comparing to controls. Vit C or Vit E inhibited the gentamicin-induced increased releases of NAG into urine but did not show a significant effect on the SOD levels. Conclusion: Co-administration of VitC&E significantly prevented the GM nephrotoxicity demonstrating by preservation of SOD levels and prevention of increase in urinary enzyme activities. Histological studies of renal tissues provided additional evidences for protective effects of antioxidant vitamins. We concluded that moderate doses of Vit C & E have protective effects in gentamicin nephrotoxicity and co-administration of these vitamins have additional beneficial effects.

  19. Functional study of the novel multidrug resistance gene HA117 and its comparison to multidrug resistance gene 1

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    Chen Tingfu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel gene HA117 is a multidrug resistance (MDR gene expressed by all-trans retinoic acid-resistant HL-60 cells. In the present study, we compared the multidrug resistance of the HA117 with that of the classical multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 in breast cancer cell line 4T1. Methods Transduction of the breast cancer cell line 4T1 with adenoviral vectors encoding the HA117 gene and the green fluorescence protein gene (GFP (Ad-GFP-HA117, the MDR1 and GFP (Ad-GFP-MDR1 or GFP (Ad-GFP was respectively carried out. The transduction efficiency and the multiplicity of infection (MOI were detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The transcription of HA117 gene and MDR1 gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp but the expression of HA117 could not be analyzed as it is a novel gene and its antibody has not yet been synthesized. The drug-excretion activity of HA117 and MDR1 were determined by daunorubicin (DNR efflux assay. The drug sensitivities of 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 to chemotherapeutic agents were detected by Methyl-Thiazolyl-Tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results The transducted efficiency of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 were 75%-80% when MOI was equal to 50. The transduction of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 could increase the expression of HA117 and MDR1. The drug resistance index to Adriamycin (ADM, vincristine (VCR, paclitaxel (Taxol and bleomycin (BLM increased to19.8050, 9.0663, 9.7245, 3.5650 respectively for 4T1/HA117 and 24.2236, 11.0480, 11.3741, 0.9630 respectively for 4T1/MDR1 as compared to the control cells. There were no significant differences in drug sensitivity between 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 for the P-gp substrates (ADM, VCR and Taxol (P Conclusions These results confirm that HA117 is a strong MDR gene in both HL-60 and 4T1 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that the MDR

  20. Insulin resistance and occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke A non-randomized concurrent control and intra-group comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhao; Shaojun Jiang; Yue Tan

    2008-01-01

    scored on clinical neurological function deficits. At 24 hours after admission, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured under the fasting condition. The control subjects were subjected to the same examinations and evaluation upon admission. In the two groups, insulin resistance degree was evaluated by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). According to the ISI, patients were assigned into severe and mild insulin resistance subgroups. The insulin resistance degree and its correlations to stroke risk factors and stroke prognosis were analyzed separately by t-test, linear correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparisons of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, ISI, blood pressure, and blood lipid level between the two groups; comparisons of neurological function deficit scores, daily living activity scores and complication incidence between the severe and mild insulin resistance patients at 4 weeks after onset. RESULTS: All 106 patients and 50 healthy subjects were included in the final analysis. On admission, in the patient group, the blood glucose and insulin levels were significantly higher, while the ISI was significantly lower, compared with the control group (t = 10.38-12.29, P 0.05), insulin level was decreased, but it was significantly higher compared with the control group (t = 6.46, P 0.05). In the severe insulin resistance patients, clinical neurological function deficit scores and complication incidence were significantly higher, while daily living activity scores were significantly lower, compared with the mild insulin resistance patients (t = 5.352 9, 4.260 4, 0.070 6, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ISI was finally excluded as an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: Ischemic stroke patients presented with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was correlated with conventional risk

  1. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorquinaldol against Microorganisms Responsible for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Comparative Evaluation with Gentamicin and Fusidic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bortolin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs are a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. The emergence of pathogens with decreased susceptibility to available therapies has become an emerging problem often associated with treatment failure. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of chlorquinaldol as an alternative approach to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. The activity of chlorquinaldol was investigated against a collection of bacterial isolates responsible for skin infections, including strains resistant to fusidic acid and gentamicin. After determination of MIC and MBC, time-kill experiments were carried out by counting colonies grown after 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h of incubation with concentrations equal to ¼×, ½×, 1×, 2×, and 4× MIC of chlorquinaldol, gentamicin, or fusidic acid. Staphylococci resulted the Gram-positives most sensitive to chlorquinaldol, with MIC-values ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L. A lower activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria, with 77% of the isolates being inhibited at concentrations ranging from 128 to 512 mg/L. Generally, in time-kill studies, chlorquinaldol showed a bactericidal activity at the higher concentrations (2×, 4× MIC after 24–48 h of incubation. In conclusion, chlorquinaldol may represent a valuable alternative to conventional topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections.

  2. Update on new medicinal applications of gentamicin: Evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (GM was discovered in 1963 and was introduced into parenteral usage in 1971. Since then, GM has been widely used in medicinal applications. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States approved the routine prescription of GM to treat the following infectious disorders: infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas spp.; Staphylococcus infectious disease; bacterial meningitis; bacterial sepsis of newborns; bacterial septicemia; infection of the eye, bone, skin and/or subcutaneous tissue; infective endocarditis; peritoneal dialysis–associated peritonitis due to Pseudomonas and other gram-negative organisms; peritonitis due to gastrointestinal tract infections; respiratory tract infections; and urinary tract infectious disease. GM is an old antibiotic and is used widely beyond its FDA-labeled indications as follows: actinomycotic infection; Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteremia with pyelonephritis; appendicitis; cystic fibrosis; diverticulitis; adjunct regimen for febrile neutropenia; female genital infection; uterine infection; postnatal infection; necrotizing enterocolitis in fetus or newborn; osteomyelitis; pelvic inflammatory disease; plague; gonorrhea; tularemia; prophylaxis of post-cholecystectomy infection, transrectal prostate biopsy, and post–tympanostomy-related infection; malignant otitis externa; and intratympanically or transtympanically for Ménière's disease. GM is also used in combination regimens, such as with beta-lactam antibiotics to treat mixed infection and with bacteriophage to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. It is also added to medical materials, such as GM-loaded cement spacers for osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint–associated infections. Overall, there are many medicinal applications for GM. To reduce the development of GM-resistant bacteria and to maintain its effectiveness, GM should be used

  3. Naringin ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and associated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation in rats: Possible mechanism of nephroprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Tatireddy, Srujana [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad 500 037 (India); Koneru, Meghana [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Borkar, Roshan M. [National Centre for Mass Spectrometry, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Kumar, Jerald Mahesh [CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Kuncha, Madhusudana [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Srinivas, R. [National Centre for Mass Spectrometry, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Shyam Sunder, R. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Sistla, Ramakrishna, E-mail: sistla@iict.res.in [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2014-05-15

    Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity has been well documented, although its underlying mechanisms and preventive strategies remain to be investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of naringin, a bioflavonoid, on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific renal function parameters (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) and histopathology of kidney tissues were evaluated to assess the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Renal oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), inflammatory (NF-kB [p65], TNF-α, IL-6 and MPO) and apoptotic (caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and DNA fragmentation) markers were also evaluated. Significant decrease in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial redox activity indicated the gentamicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Naringin (100 mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored the mitochondrial function and increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65) and NF-κB-DNA binding activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were significantly decreased upon naringin treatment. In addition, naringin treatment significantly decreased the amount of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, and p53 protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. Naringin treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. U-HPLS-MS data revealed that naringin co-administration along with gentamicin did not alter the renal uptake and/or accumulation of gentamicin in kidney tissues. These findings suggest that naringin treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis in

  4. The comparison of genotyping, antibiogram, and antimicrobial resistance genes between carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Ke, Se-Chin; Li, Chia-Ru; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to explore the epidemiological and molecular differences between carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CSAB) and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates. Thirty-two CSAB and 55 CRAB isolates were collected in 2010. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, 31 (56%) CRAB isolates and 11 (34%) CSAB isolates belonged to ST2. Twenty-one (38%) CRAB isolates, and 4 (13%) CSAB isolates belonged to a new type, ST129. The blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaOXA-58-like were not detected in our study isolates. blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24/40-like were not detected in all CSAB isolates. On the contrary, blaOXA-23 was detected in 51 (93%) CRAB isolates. Class 1 integron was detected in 19 (35%) CRAB isolates and 8 (25%) CSAB isolates (p>0.05). In conclusion, the ST2 and ST129 were the major sequence types in both CSAB and CRAB isolates. The blaOXA-23 is the primary carbapenem-resistance gene in CRAB isolates from hospitalized patients and the specimens collected from hospital environment.

  5. A Comparison of Resistance to Extinction Following Dynamic and Static Schedules of Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to extinction of single-schedule performance is negatively related to the reinforcer rate that an organism experienced in the pre-extinction context. This finding opposes the predications of behavioral momentum theory, which states that resistance to change, in general, is positively related to reinforcer rates. The quantitative model of extinction provided by behavioral momentum theory can describe resistance to extinction following single schedules in a post-hoc fashion, and only...

  6. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BOZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Başbülbül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resistance of 83 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish cheese, yogurt, kefir and boza samples to 6 antibiotics (gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was evaluated. The 83 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and according to BLAST comparisons with sequences in the data banks, those strains showing the highest similarities with the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (10, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis (10, Lactobacillus fermentum (6, Lactobacillus plantarum (6, Lactobacillus coryniformis (7, Lactobacillus casei (13, Leuconostoc mesenteroides (14, Pediococcus pentosaceus (10, Weisella confusa (7. Antimicrobial resistance of strains to 6 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. The antibiotic resistance among all the isolates was detected against chloramphenicol (31,3 % of the isolates, tetracycline (30,1 %, erythromycin (2,4 %, ciprofloxacin (2,41%, vancomycin (73,5 %, intrinsic resistance. Overall 19,3 % of the isolates showed resistance against multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes were studied by PCR and the following genes were detected; tet(M gene in Lactobacillus fermentum (1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (5, Enterococcus faecium (2, Weisella confusa (4 and the vancomycin resistance gene van(A in one Weisella confusa strain.

  7. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam......High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs...

  8. Efficacy of liposomal gentamicin against Rhodococcus equi in a mouse infection model and colocalization with R. equi in equine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alexandra J; Giguère, Steeve; Berghaus, Londa J; Hondalus, Mary K; Arnold, Robert D

    2015-04-17

    Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen and an important cause of pneumonia in foals, is highly susceptible to killing by gentamicin in vitro. However, gentamicin is not effective in vivo, due to its poor cellular penetration. Encapsulation of drugs in liposomes enhances cellular uptake. The objectives of this study were to compare liposomal gentamicin and free gentamicin with respect to their uptake by equine macrophages and intracellular colocalization with R. equi and to compare the efficacies of liposomal gentamicin, free gentamicin and clarithromycin with rifampin for the reduction of R. equi CFU in a mouse model of infection. After ex vivo exposure, a significantly higher mean (±SD) percentage of equine alveolar macrophages contained liposomal gentamicin (91.9±7.6%) as opposed to free gentamicin (16.8±12.5%). Intracellular colocalization of drug and R. equi, as assessed by confocal microscopy, occurred in a significantly higher proportion of cells exposed to liposomal gentamicin (81.2±17.8%) compared to those exposed to free gentamicin (10.4±8.7%). The number of R. equi CFU in the spleen was significantly lower in mice treated with liposomal gentamicin compared to that of mice treated with free gentamicin or to untreated control mice. Treatment with liposomal gentamicin also resulted in a significantly greater reduction in the number of R. equi CFU in the liver compared to treatment with clarithromycin in combination with rifampin. These results support further investigation of liposomal gentamicin as a new treatment for infections caused by R. equi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek and Damon 3 (Ormco both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets. For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05 than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and

  10. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam...

  11. Development and Comparison of Symptom Indices for Quantifying Grapevine Resistance to Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Stevenson, J F; Walker, M A

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Symptoms of Pierce's disease (PD) were assessed under greenhouse conditions on field-resistant and field-susceptible grapevines in order to characterize the PD resistance phenotype in the genus Vitis. A cane maturation index (CMI) was developed to quantify the green-islands symptom, which was measured at 12 weeks post-bacterial inoculation, along with leaf scorch and percentage of xylem vessels blocked by occlusions. Canes of resistant genotypes matured normally and had a significantly lower CMI score of 0.9 (on a 0-to-6 scale) compared with 5.1 for the susceptible genotypes. The CMI scoring method had a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91) with previously characterized field performance, whereas leaf scorch had only a moderate correlation (R(2) = 0.51) with field performance. Average scorched area on leaves of the susceptible and resistant genotypes was 80 and 48%, respectively, demonstrating that leaf scorch can be extensive in resistant genotypes under the presented screening conditions, and suggesting that systemic infection can occur in all evaluated genotypes. Occlusions within both stem and petiole vessels were composed principally of tyloses and were significantly higher in petioles than in stems of either resistant or susceptible backgrounds. Susceptible genotypes displayed a higher level of stem tylose occlusions relative to resistant genotypes, but correlation to field performance was low (R(2) = 0.13). Ease of use and high correlation to field performance makes CMI scoring a better choice for PD resistance evaluations relative to other phenotypic symptom assessments.

  12. Comparison of the ELF-MT resistivity structure and the thermal structure in Takenoyu geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Toru; Ehara, Sachio; Yuhara, Kozo; Asoshina, Keishi; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    1987-07-01

    Takenoyu goethermal area locates in the north-eastern part of Kumamoto Prefecture, extending at the western foot of Mt. Togai-san. Compression of specific resistance structure and thermal structure by means of ELF-MT method was made for the exploration of the geothermal areas. The results are as follows. (1) Distribution of apparent specific resistance well corresponds with the temperature distribution of the shallow zones and the distribution of the altered zone, but does not so much correspond to the temperature distribution of the deep zones. (2) ELF-MT method has only 300 m detectable depth for the low specific resistance zone with 5 ohm-cm. Its breadth into the deep zones is not known. (3) For the high specific resistance zone with 500 ohm-m, the detectable depth is as deep as 3 km. Low specific resistance layer does not exist where such a layer as above continues to the deep zone. (4) In the case when underground structure contains a low specific resistance layer in a high specific resistance layer, MT method excels in its detecting ability. It can often detect the low specific resistance layer even when the measuring frequency is wide. (10 figs, 4 refs)

  13. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction; Getamicina C Tritiada: II.- Productos de Degradacion Radiactivos y Bioactivos en el Intercambio Catalitico con H2O-3H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M. L.

    1992-07-01

    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3{sup -}N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs.

  14. Nephro-protective effect of vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin associated nephrotoxicity in rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saleem, Uzma; Ahmad, Bashir; Rehman, Kanwal; Mahmood, Saeed; Alam, Maqsood; Erum, Alia

    2012-01-01

    .... An aminoglycoside, gentamicin, has pronounced nephrotoxic effect in humans and animals and this study was planned to observe the nephro-protective effect of antioxidants, vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil...

  15. HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimukangara, Benjamin; Varyani, Bhavini; Shamu, Tinei; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Manasa, Justen; White, Elizabeth; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Luethy, Ruedi; Katzenstein, David

    2017-05-01

    HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of clinical decision support guidelines on therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamicin in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzo-Christe, Caroline; Guignard, Bertrand; Zaugg, Claudia; Coehlo, Ana; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Gervaix, Alain; Desmeules, Jules; Rollason, Victoria; Combescure, Christophe; Corbelli, Regula; Rimensberger, Peter; Pfister, Riccardo; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Our institution's gentamicin dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) practices for newborns were suspected to be very heterogeneous. Once-daily dosing (ODD) or extended-interval dosing (EID) and trough concentration measurement were recommended. Clinical decision support guidelines were developed and implemented as clinical decision support in the computerized prescriber order entry system. Impact on dosing, TDM practices, and blood sampling were evaluated. A 1-year retrospective historically controlled study before (April 2008-March 2009) and after the implementation of guidelines (January 2010-December 2010) for newborns ( 0.05). After implementation of the guidelines, an ODD/EID regimen was almost exclusively used (97.7% versus 61.6%, P Guideline implementation generated a sharp reduction in blood sampling. Clinical benefits of better gentamicin dosing and TDM practices were evident. Cost-effectiveness and clinical benefit of reduced blood sampling should be evaluated.

  17. Nitric oxide in guinea pig vestibular sensory cells following gentamicin exposure in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumida, M; Anniko, M

    2001-04-01

    Gentamicin-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in the vestibular end organs of the guinea pig was investigated using the new fluorescence indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate for direct detection of NO. Utricular maculae and isolated vestibular sensory cells were examined to locate NO production sites. The fluorescence intensity of the sensory cells was augmented by stimulation with gentamicin. This increase in fluorescence was inhibited by the presence of the non-specific inhibitor for nitric oxide synthase, L-N(G)-nitroarginine methylester, and by the non-specific N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate. These findings indicate that NO may play an important role in the ototoxicity of aminoglycoside.

  18. Naringin ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and associated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation in rats: possible mechanism of nephroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Tatireddy, Srujana; Koneru, Meghana; Borkar, Roshan M; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Srinivas, R; Shyam Sunder, R; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-05-15

    Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity has been well documented, although its underlying mechanisms and preventive strategies remain to be investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of naringin, a bioflavonoid, on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific renal function parameters (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) and histopathology of kidney tissues were evaluated to assess the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Renal oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), inflammatory (NF-kB [p65], TNF-α, IL-6 and MPO) and apoptotic (caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and DNA fragmentation) markers were also evaluated. Significant decrease in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial redox activity indicated the gentamicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Naringin (100mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored the mitochondrial function and increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65) and NF-κB-DNA binding activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were significantly decreased upon naringin treatment. In addition, naringin treatment significantly decreased the amount of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, and p53 protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. Naringin treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. U-HPLS-MS data revealed that naringin co-administration along with gentamicin did not alter the renal uptake and/or accumulation of gentamicin in kidney tissues. These findings suggest that naringin treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis in

  19. Effect of uric acid on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats - role of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Freddy; Pérez, Mariela; Chávez, Maribel; Parra, Gustavo; Durante, Paula

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we aimed to study the effect of uric acid on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of six groups (six rats each) which received intraperitoneal injections for 9 days: (S) saline; (UA) Uric acid alone; (G) Gentamicin alone; (G + UA) Gentamicin + uric acid; (G rec) Gentamicin recovery and (G + UA rec) Gentamicin + uric acid recovery. In (G rec) and (G + UA rec), rats recovered for 7 days after the last injection. Urine and blood samples were taken on day 0 and at the end of every stage. Kidneys were harvested for histological scoring, determination of renal malondialdehyde (MDA), zymography and western blots for matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Uric acid alone did not provoke changes in biochemical and histological parameters when compared to controls. Gentamicin alone increased significantly plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and caused a moderate histological damage. When combined with uric acid, these conditions worsened. MMP-9 activity and expression was decreased in rats from group G + UA as compared with rats from group G, while activity of MMP-2 was similarly increased in both groups when compared to controls. The increase in renal MDA induced by gentamicin was not altered when it was combined with uric acid. During the recovery stage, all biochemical parameters returned to normal levels, though a trend for delay of tubular damage recovery was observed in group G + UA rec when compared with group G rec. The results indicate that uric acid worsens gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The mechanism is likely to implicate down-regulation of MMP-9.

  20. Histological Evidence of Nephroprotective Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Root Extract against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

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    Sadia Choudhury Shimmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney damage can occur due to exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, chemicals, toxins and infectious agents, ultimately leading to renal failure, management of which is a great challenge. So, efforts have been focused on traditional and herbal medicines for the treatment of renal failure. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera may have free radical scavenging activity and can be used for the prevention and treatment of kidney damage. Objective: To observe the histological evidence of nephroprotective effect of Ashwagandha root against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka. A total number of 31 male Wistar albino rats were acclimatized for 14 days. Then, these were divided into two groups, control group consisted of 18 rats (Group A and Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group consisted of 13 rats (Group B. Control group was again subdivided into baseline control and gentamicin-treated control groups (A1 and A2 ─ each group contained 9 rats. All the animals received basal diet for 22 consecutive days. In addition to this, animals of Group A2 received gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day and animals of Group B received Ashwagandha root extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 22 consecutive days and gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day. All the animals were sacrificed on 23rd day. Then kidney samples were collected and histology was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Results: Histological examination of kidney revealed abnormal histological findings in 100% of gentamicin-treated rats. But 92.31% of rats in Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group showed almost normal structure and 7.69% showed mild histological changes. Conclusion: Ashwagandha root may have some nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced

  1. Novel Pathways for Ameliorating the Fitness Cost of Gentamicin Resistant Small Colony Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm; Leng, Bingfeng;

    2016-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections. Phenotypically, SCVs are characterized by slow growth and they can arise upon interruption of the electron transport chain that consequently reduce membrane potential and thereby li...

  2. Comparison of two versions of larval development test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Corba, Július; Letková, Valéria; Kovác, Gabriel

    2009-03-23

    Larval development (LDT) and micro-agar larval development tests (MALDT) were used to compare the reliability and sensitivity of two methods for detecting anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus. The tests were conducted using three resistant and four susceptible isolates of H. contortus. Both versions of the tests provided comparable results with regard to the characterization of benzimidazole and levamisole susceptibility but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to discrimination between an ivermectin (IVM) susceptible and an IVM resistant isolate. Each test has its own merits with the LDT having the advantage of being less time-consuming.

  3. Leishmanicidal Activity of Films Containing Paromomycin and Gentamicin Sulfate both In Vitro and In Vivo

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    SH Hejazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the efficacy of paromomycin ointment and recent ongoing clinical trials of combination of paromomycin and gentamicin, a new physical form of films of the paromomy­cin and gentamicin was prepared and anti-Leishmania activities of the prepared films were as­sessed in vitro and in vivo.Methods: Paromomycin 15% and gentamicin 0.5% was incorporated in a film using ethyl cellu­lose and HPMC (Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose. In order to assess the drug release and anti-Leishmania activities of the preparation, a clone L. major parasite was established using a set of modified NNN medium without overlay liquid layer. Therapeutic effects of the films were evalu­ated using Balb/c mice model. The mice were inoculated with 2×106 L. major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER and then when the lesions developed the mice were randomly divided in 3 groups, 10 mice per group, and treated with either perpetrated films or placebo for 28 days or left untreated.Results: Growth inhibition of cloned promastigotes showed that the films have enough releasing capacity and in vivo system, the films containing paromomycin and gentamicin was able to re­duce the lesion size and induced complete cure in 80% of the mice but relapse was seen in 60% of the cured mice and overall 50% cure rate was seen during 20 weeks period of the study.Conclusion: It seems that the prepared films might be further used in human clinical trials.

  4. Controlled gentamicin release from multi-layered electrospun nanofibrous structures of various thicknesses

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    Sirc J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jakub Sirc,1 Sarka Kubinova,2 Radka Hobzova,1 Denisa Stranska,3 Petr Kozlik,4 Zuzana Bosakova,4 Dana Marekova,2 Vladimir Holan,5 Eva Sykova,2 Jiri Michalek11Department of Polymer Gels, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Elmarco Ltd, Liberec, Czech Republic; 4Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Transplant Immunology, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers incorporating the wide spectrum antibiotic gentamicin were prepared by Nanospider™ needleless technology. A polyvinyl alcohol layer, serving as a drug reservoir, was covered from both sides by polyurethane layers of various thicknesses. The multilayered structure of the nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy, the porosity was characterized by mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were used to determine specific surface areas. The stability of the gentamicin released from the electrospun layers was proved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and inhibition of bacterial growth. Drug release was investigated using in vitro experiments with HPLC/MS quantification, while the antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated on Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both experiments proved that the released gentamicin retained its activity and showed that the retention of the drug in the nanofibers was prolonged with the increasing thickness of the covering layers.Keywords: nanofibers, electrospinning, multilayered structure, morphology, gentamicin, drug release

  5. Effect of caraway on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Erjaee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different potentially therapeutic approaches to prevent or attenuate gentamicin (GEM induced nephrotoxicity have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of caraway seed oil against GEM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats (24 were randomly assigned into four equal groups: i normal control group, ii treated with GEM, iii pretreated with orally caraway seed oil 10 (mg kg−1 plus GEM and iv treated with GEM and caraway seed oil 10 mg kg−1. Biochemical examinations were utilized for evaluation of the oxidative stress and renal nephrotoxicity. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities were determined. Administration of gentamicin to rats induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in plasma creatinine and BUN concentrations. The animals treated with gentamicin alone showed a significantly higher plasma MDA level andlower SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities when compared with the control group. Treatment and simultaneous treatment with caraway seed oil produced amelioration in MDA and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH-Px and CAT when compared with the gentamicin treated group. In addition, GEM nephrotoxicity increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased (P<0.05 in the test groups administered caraway seed oil. These findings suggest that caraway seed oil treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation in rats.

  6. Vestibular results after intratympanic gentamicin therapy in disabling Menière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junet, Philippe; Karkas, Alexandre; Dumas, Georges; Quesada, Jean Louis; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Intratympanic injection of gentamicin is increasingly used in the treatment of unilateral disabling Menière's disease (MD). Several objective functional and subjective tests have been developed to assess the control of vertigo after gentamicin treatment. The aim of this study was to show that subjective results require a vestibular deafferentation as profound as possible, evidenced with multifrequency vestibular assessment. Sixty four patients with intractable MD in situation of medical treatment failure longer than 6 months were included between 1998 and 2013 in this case control study. A 2-year follow-up was performed after the last intratympanic gentamicin performed with the titration technique. A vestibular assessment was applied before and after 2 years of treatment with a functional level score using the AAOHNS vertigo scale and multifrequency vestibular assessment: skull vibration-induced nystagmus test (SVINT), head-shaking test (HST) and caloric test (CaTe). The correlation between the results of the questionnaire and the level of the deafferentation as evaluated by the tests was analyzed with the Spearman test. Among the 64 included patients, 56 (87.5 %) described vertigo control. There was a correlation (=-0.33 [-0.53; -0.09], p = 0.008) between subjective improvement (AAO -HNS 1 or 2) and the degree of vestibular deafferentation as evidenced by a destructive nystagmus (beating toward the safe side) with the HST and the SVINT, as well as a caloric hypofunction >90 % with the CaTe. The present study demonstrates that a profound vestibular deafferentation confirmed with multifrequency test evaluation is needed to have a subjective improvement in the treatment of unilateral disabling MD with intratympanic gentamicin.

  7. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y

    1988-05-01

    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy.

  8. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (PTephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolics and flavonoidal compounds like rutin and quercetin. Thus, it can be said that Tephrosia purpurea could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxins like gentamicin.

  9. Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate reduces surgical site infection in vascular surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Perdigão; Reis, Luis; Carvalho, Luis; Costa Almeida, Carlos Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after vascular surgery. It may cause exposure of the underlying prosthesis causing graft infection, which may require the removal of the vascular graft, increasing amputation and mortality risks. Graft contamination usually occurs during operative procedure or by direct spread from an infected wound. It is therefore advisable to a strong effort in reducing SSI. Topic antibiotics have not been fully studied in vascular surgery, but collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate has shown to reduce SSI in cardiac surgery, orthopaedics, and general surgery procedures. Sixty (60) non-diabetic and non-obese patients with lower limb ischaemia with indication for femoropopliteal PTFE prosthetic bypass were allocated into 2 groups of 30 patients. A collagen implant impregnated with gentamicin sulphate (Collatamp(®)) was applied in the groin incision adjacent to the prosthesis in one group, and the other was a control group. The same surgical team operated all patients. Szilagyi classification was used. There was no SSI (0% - 0/30) in the collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate group, contrasting with 6 cases (20% - 6/30) of SSI (grade I and II) in the control group (p = 0.024). In-hospital day's data shows a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.004) with a mean of 5.66 days for implant group and 8.10 days for control group. There was no SSI grade III. Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate (Collatamp(®)) reduces SSI in the groin incision in ischaemic patients submitted to femoropopliteal PTFE prosthetic bypass. Days of hospitalization are also reduced. Decreasing SSI rate and in-hospital days, this implant may also reduce health care costs. Because this is a small pilot study, a multicentre RCT is necessary for validation. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of pomegranate flower extract against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Ferdos; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Noori-Diziche, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Mansouri, Azam; Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Shirdavani, Soheila; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gentamicin (GM) as an antibiotic is used in clinic. However, its administration is limited by side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Herbal extracts could be used in therapeutic approaches. Objectives: The present study was planned to investigate whether pomegranate flower extract (PFE) could ameliorate GM-induced renal toxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 respectively received PFE 25 and 50 mg/kg fo...

  11. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, N V; Shmelin, P S; Eremin, S A

    2016-01-01

    Three kinds of immunoassays for the determination of gentamicin in milk samples were developed and validated. First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1.9±0.4)×10(9)М(-1) and (6.0±0.2)×10(6)М(-1) for the high- and low-affinity fractions respectively. The assay was characterized with a good sensitivity, the limit of detection being 5μgkg(-1). Two different kinds of detection labels, i.e. colloidal gold (CG) and quantum dots (QDs), were evaluated for use in lateral-flow format with respect to rapid visual on-site testing. The cut-off levels for both qualitative formats were selected based on the maximum level for gentamicin in milk established by the European Commission, 100μgkg(-1), resulting in a 10μgkg(-1) cut-off considering sample dilution. The intra-laboratory validation was performed with sterilized milk samples artificially spiked with gentamicin at concentrations less than, equal to, and greater than the cut-off level. It was shown that milk products could be analyzed without any sample preparation, except for dilution with the buffer solution. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were below 5% for both labels. The different developed immunoassays were tested towards gentamicin determination in artificially-spiked and naturally contaminated milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Aguilar, Erika; Hinojosa-González, Ramon; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Coutinho-Toledo, Heloisa

    Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset) delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30dB. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials). Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Sildenafil Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Role of iNOS and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Morsy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. However, its usefulness is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was reported to prevent or decrease tissue injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential protective effects of sildenafil on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days with and without sildenafil. Sildenafil administration resulted in nephroprotective effect in gentamicin-intoxicated rats as it significantly decreased serum creatinine and urea, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate levels, with a concomitant increase in renal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to gentamicin-treated rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination revealed that sildenafil treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was markedly enhanced. The protective effects of sildenafil were verified histopathologically. In conclusion, sildenafil protects rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly, in part, through its antioxidant activity, inhibition of iNOS expression, and induction of eNOS production.

  14. Comparison of Drought-Resistance about Three Wild Rocky-Grasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xianjian; WEI Fangqiang; BAI Jingwen; LAI Ting

    2007-01-01

    In this experiment, using the methods of drought-stressin the pot and PEG simulative drought-stress, three native rockyslope grasses Pogonatherum panideum(Lam.) Hack, Erioophorumcomosum nees and Cynodon dactylon cultivated in the pots wereselected as materials to study their drought-resistance by analyzingthe indexes such as the leaf area index, the drying roots accumulation, the holding water ability of leaf, the relative conductance ofleaf, the soluble protein, chlorophyll. At the same time, by comparing with membership function value of each index, the order ofeach grass drought-resistance was decided. The results showedthat the drought-resistance of Erioophorum comosum nees wasstronger than Cynodon dactylon and drought-resistance of Cynodon dactylon was stronger than Pogonatherum panideum (Lam.)Hack. The purpose of the experimental results was to find theoretical foundations for selecting and cultivating native protecting-slope vegetations to adapt to rocky slopes.

  15. Gentamicin loaded PLGA nanoparticles as local drug delivery system for the osteomyelitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadowska, Urszula; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Since there are more and more cases of multiresistance among microorganisms, rational use of antibiotics (especially their systemic vs. local application) is of great importance. Here we propose polymeric nanoparticles as locally applied gentamicin delivery system useful in osteomyelitis therapy. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was encapsulated in the poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA 85:15) nanoparticles by double emulsification (water/oil/water, W1/O/W2). The nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, laser electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy (O-phthaldialdehyde assay, OPA) and Kirby-Bauer tests were used to evaluate drug release and antimicrobial activity, respectively. Physicochemical characterization showed that size, shape and drug solubilization of the nanoparticles mainly depended on GS content and concentration of surface stabilizer (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA). Laser electrophoresis demonstrated negative value of zeta potential of the nanoparticles attributed to PLGA carboxyl end group presence. Drug release studies showed initial burst release followed by prolonged 35-day sustained gentamicin delivery. Agar-diffusion tests performed with pathogens causing osteomyelitis (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, both reference strains and clinical isolates) showed antibacterial activity of GS loaded nanoparticles (GS-NPs). It can be concluded that GS-NPs are a promising form of biomaterials useful in osteomyelitis therapy.

  16. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  17. Application of a neural network for gentamicin concentration prediction in a general hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, B W; Mayo, P R; Jamali, F

    1997-02-01

    Neural network (NN) computation is computer modeling based in part on simulation of the structure and function of the brain. These modeling techniques have been found useful as pattern recognition tools. In the present study, data including age, sex, height, weight, serum creatinine concentration, dose, dosing interval, and time of measurement were collected from 240 patients with various diseases being treated with gentamicin in a general hospital setting. The patient records were randomly divided into two sets: a training set of 220 patients used to develop relationships between input and output variables (peak and trough plasma concentrations) and a testing set (blinded from the NN) of 20 to test the NN. The network model was the back-propagation, feed-forward model. Various networks were tested, and the most accurate networks for peak and trough (calculated as mean percent error, root mean squared error of the testing group, and tau value between observed and predicted values) were reported. The results indicate that NNs can predict gentamicin serum concentrations accurately from various input data over a range of patient ages and renal function and may offer advantages over traditional dose prediction methods for gentamicin.

  18. Effect of Momordica dioica Roxb on gentamicin model of acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avijeet; Singhai, A K

    2010-09-01

    The ethanolic extract of the fruits of Momordica dioica was studied for its protective and curative effect against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats of both sexes. Gentamicin intoxicated group showed significant increase in blood urea (69.48 +/- 4.34) and serum creatinine (3.017 +/- 0.208) from normal levels 33.72 +/- 1.92 and 0.818 +/- 0.073, respectively, in control group. In the preventive regimen, the extract at dose levels of 200 mg kg(-1) showed significant reduction in the elevated blood urea (47.93 +/- 2.46) and serum creatinine (2.067 +/- 0.1745), respectively. This treatment normalised the histopathological changes compared to the intoxicated group. In the curative regimen at 200 mg kg(-1) blood urea was found to be 48.21 +/- 2.36 and serum creatinine level was 2.050 +/- 0.183, which revealed significant curative effect. In vivo antioxidant and free radial scavenging activities were also determined. The maximum free radical scavenging activity with ethanolic extract was the basis of selection of this extract for in vivo study. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly (p Momordica dioica seeds possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity due to its antioxidant activity and could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxin-like gentamicin.

  19. DC resistance comparison between a current comparator bridge and the quantum Hall system at Inmetro

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. C.; Carvalho, H. R.; Vasconcellos, R. T. B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison results between the Quantum Hall System (QHS) under development at the Quantum Electrical Metrology Laboratory (Lameq) and the current comparator calibration system, traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), at the Electrical Standardization Metrology Laboratory (Lampe), both part of the Electrical Metrology Division, at Inmetro. Comparisons were performed with 1 Ω, 10 Ω, 100 Ω, 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ resistors. The results obtained over two years of work are presented here, showing that the comparison contributed to improve the calibration systems of both Lampe and Lameq.

  20. Mechanism of hetero-erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a comparison of detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)hetero-resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin and compare their detection methods so as to report results accurately to guide clinical rational use of antibiotics.Methods D test was used to detect the phenotypes of S.aureus hetero-resistant to erythromycin.And then the results of two methods(automated instrument and disk diffusion)were analyzed.All strains were continuously passaged for 50 generations to

  1. Comparison of Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Trichomons vaginalis to Metronidazole Using PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fallah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole is drug of choice recommended by WHO for treatment of trichomoniasis, however, some reports claims drug resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis isolates recently. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC of metronidazole in resistant and sensitive strains, as well as genetic patterns of these stains by PCR method. Methods: From February 2006 to March 2007, in a cross sectional study, clinical and wet mount examination of vaginal smear along with culture were performed on 683 women attending to public and private outpatient clinics in Hamadan. Trichomoniasis marked based on major clinical symptoms. Diagnosis confirmed using wet mount microscopically and culture in Diamond medium. A serial concentration of metronidazole was provided and all isolated Trichomonas strains (resistant and sensitive tested by standard method. Finally, all sensitive and resistant strains examined by PCR technique. Results: Only 15/683, (2.2% of patients clinically diagnosed trichomonal vaginitis were positive for T. vaginalis by wet smear and culture. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC for clinically sensitive isolates was 25 µg/ml; however, this concentration for resistant isolates was 200 µg/ml after 24 h and 100 µg/ml after 50 h. The results of PCR examination of DNA from sensitive and resistant isolates had same pattern. The lanes appeared by two primers were 98 bp and 261 bp for both clinically sensitive and resistant strains. Conclusion: Resistance to metronidazole in T. vaginalis has not relation to genetic variations and might be related to some physiologic pathways of organism.

  2. Changes in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in Spain in the last 15 years: from ampicillin plus gentamicin to ampicillin plus ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericas, J M; Cervera, C; del Rio, A; Moreno, A; Garcia de la Maria, C; Almela, M; Falces, C; Ninot, S; Castañeda, X; Armero, Y; Soy, D; Gatell, J M; Marco, F; Mestres, C A; Miro, J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology and outcome among patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (A+G) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C). The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of EFIE patients treated in our centre from 1997 to 2011. Thirty patients were initially treated with A+G (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day) and 39 with A+C (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and ceftriaxone 2 g/12 h) for 4-6 weeks. Increased rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR; gentamicin MIC ≥512 mg/L, streptomycin MIC ≥1024 mg/L or both) were observed in recent years (24% in 1997-2006 and 49% in 2007-2011; p 0.03). The use of A+C increased over time: 1997-2001, 4/18 (22%); 2002-2006, 5/16 (31%); 2007-2011, 30/35 (86%) (p <0.001). Renal failure developed in 65% of the A+G group and in 34% of the A+C group (p 0.014). Thirteen patients (43%) in the A+G group had to discontinue treatment, whereas only one patient (3%) treated with A+C had to discontinue treatment (p <0.001). Only development of heart failure and previous chronic renal failure were independently associated with 1-year mortality, while the individual antibiotic regimen (A+C vs. A+G) did not affect outcome (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-2.2; p 0.549). Our study shows that the prevalence of HLAR EFIE has increased significantly in recent years and that alternative treatment with A+C is safer than A+G, with similar clinical outcomes, although the sample size is too small to draw firm conclusions. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

  3. Comparison of Respiratory Resistance Measurements Made with an Airflow Perturbation Device with Those from Impulse Oscillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The airflow perturbation device (APD has been developed as a portable, easy to use, and a rapid response instrument for measuring respiratory resistance in humans. However, the APD has limited data validating it against the established techniques. This study used a mechanical system to simulate the normal range of human breathing to validate the APD with the clinically accepted impulse oscillometry (IOS technique. The validation system consisted of a sinusoidal flow generator with ten standardized resistance configurations that were shown to represent a total range of resistances from 0.12 to 0.95 kPa·L−1·s (1.2–9.7 cm H2O·L−1·s. Impulse oscillometry measurements and APD measurements of the mechanical system were recorded and compared at a constant airflow of 0.15 L·s−1. Both the IOS and APD measurments were accurate in assessing nominal resistance. In addition, a strong linear relationship was observed between APD measurements and IOS measurements (R2 = 0.999. A second series of measurements was made on ten human volunteers with external resistors added in their respiratory flow paths. Once calibrated with the mechanical system, the APD gave respiratory resistance measurements within 5% of IOS measurements. Because of their comparability to IOS measurements, APD measurements are shown to be valid representations of respiratory resistance.

  4. Resistive index(RI) of the intratesticular artery in orchitis: comparison with normal testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Young Seok; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Lee, Jong Bouk; Yun, Jung Chul [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    Color doppler ultrasound is ideally suited for diagnosing acute scrotal disease as it provides simultaneous display of tissue morphology and blood flow. This study was performed in order to evaluate the utility of resistive index(RI) of intratesticular arteries in orchitis. We retrospectively analyzed 18 testes of 15 patients confirmed by means of appropriate response to antibiotic treatment and 20 testes of 10 asymptomatic volunteers.The resistive indexes ranged from 0.25 to 0.60 (mean, 0.48) in orchitis, and from 0.50 to 0.71 (mean, 0.62) in volunteers. Thus, the resistive index in orchitis is significantly lower than that of the volunteers (p<0.05).With a cut-off point of resistive index at 0.6, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 94%, 90%, 89%, 95% and 92%m respectively. We conclude that decreased resistive index is a helpful finding in the diagnosis of orchitis, and we suggest the resistive index of 0.6 as a cut-off point

  5. [ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA SPP. ISOLATED IN THE TERRITORY OF THE KRASNOIARSK REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetneva, I T; Per'ianova, O V; Dmitrieva, G M; Ostapova, T S

    2015-01-01

    There were studied Salmonella spp. isolated from various objects (sick patients, bacteria carriers, food, sewages) in the Krasnoyarsk region. Susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was estimated with disc diffusion method. Bacterial cultures form sick patients were highly susceptible to aminoglycosides (amikacin and gentamicin)--susceptible strains accounted for 98-99%, carbapenems (imipenem)--100%, cephalosporins (cephtriaxone)--97.8%, fluoroquinolones (ophloxacin)--95.8%, quinolones (ciprofloxacin)-- 88.9%, chloramphenicol--86.8%. Salmonella showed lesser susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim 81.4%. Ampicillin--73.6% inhibitor protected antibiotic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid--86.4%. Salmonella spp. are the most resistant to tetracycline, the proportion of susceptible strains was less than a third--22.1%. The comparison of resistance of serovar S. enterica Enteritidis. with other serologic strains 'of S. enterica (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Tshiongtve, S. Agama et al.) revealed greater resistance of anot Eneteritidis)) isolates to ampicillin, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid,. ciprofloxacin and greater differences in resistance were to ofloksacin and, co-trimoxasol. The most high resistance ofthe all serovars S. enterica is to tetracycline (S. Enteritidis--26.2%, "non Enteritidis"--9.1%). Thus salmonella circulating in the Krasnoyarsk region are characterized by susceptibility to the most of antimicrobial drugs. The high resistance of islitates is revealed to tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfonamides.

  6. Comparison of Thinopyrum intermedium derivatives carrying barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Navarrete, L; Tourton, E; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J

    2009-06-01

    Resistance to both barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) has been demonstrated in wheat genetic stocks with Thinopyrum intermedium chromatin. A number of resistance-bearing translocations have been reported on chromosome arm 7DL from two independent Th. intermedium sources; one source is the addition line L1 and the other is the spontaneous substitution line P29. Another source of resistance in wheat cytogenetic stocks is available as a 2Ai(2D) substitution line. We used a set of 38 molecular markers and the available deletion stocks to compare the size of the 7DL translocations more comprehensively than has been done previously. We also compared the efficacy of BYDV resistance of the various genetic stocks both before and after transfer to a common genetic background. TC14 was confirmed as carrying the smallest translocation, replacing about 20% of the distal end of 7DL. TC5 and TC10 had 90% of the chromosome arm replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin; the proximal 10% corresponded to wheat chromatin. YW642 appeared to have the whole 7DL replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, as confirmed by the co-dominant marker cfd68 mapping on the bin nearest the centromere. Translocation line P961341 had bins 3, 7, and 8 replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, making this the second smallest translocation with BYDV and CYDV resistance. The translocation sizes reported here differ from some of the previous estimates. The translocated Th. intermedium segments appeared to be bigger than the replaced wheat 7DL fragments. All the resistances derived from the L1 and P29 group 7 chromosomes and the 2Ai#2 chromosome were effective in reducing the number of infected plants and the mean virus titre, regardless of the background. Some evidence is discussed suggesting the long arm of the Th. intermedium group 7 chromosome 7Ai#1 carries two resistances, the distal Bdv2 and a proximal second gene.

  7. Comparison of resistance training progression models on maximal strength in sub-elite adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2016-02-01

    To determine changes in maximal strength between two different resistance training progression models, linear (LP) and daily undulating (DUP), over a 12-week resistance training programme in sub-elite adolescent rugby union players. The study used a quasi-experimental study design. Following baseline assessments, participants from Squad 1 were randomised to either LP or DUP; participants from Squad 2 formed a non-randomised comparison group (CON). Participants were 26 sub-elite adolescent rugby union players who were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Outcomes included 5 repetition maximum (RM) box squat and bench press, height, body weight, skeletal muscle mass, percentage body fat and maturation status. Participants in both the LP and DUP groups significantly increased their squat and bench press strength from baseline to 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between groups for squat and bench press increases after 12 weeks (p>0.05). No significant increases in squat or bench press strength were observed after 12 weeks in the CON group. Increases in lower body strength were large in the LP group (ES: 1.64) and very large in the DUP group (ES: 2.33). Upper body strength changes were small in both groups (LP, ES: 0.57; DUP, ES: 0.31). Twelve weeks of LP or DUP resistance training are both effective at increasing maximal lower and upper body strength in adolescent rugby athletes. Additionally, twice weekly frequency of resistance training in adolescent rugby athletes with greater than 6-months resistance training experience is sufficient to elicit substantial increases in maximal strength. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products......, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected...

  9. Study of aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia Gene in Clinical Strain of Enterococci and Identification of High-Level Gentamicin Resistante Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dadfarma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Enterococci have emerged as the leading nosocomial pathogens. In addition to natural resistance to many agents, enterococci have also developed plasmid- and transposon-mediated resistance to high concentrations of aminoglycosides. High-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR of enterococci results in the failure of drug synergism with an aminoglycoside plus cell-wall-active agents. HLGR (MIC=500μg/ml strains is usually due to the presence of the aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia gene . Materials & Methods: In the present experimental study 142 enterococci were isolated from the patients’ species. Identification was done by using standard methods and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion technique. MIC of Gentamicin was determined by a broth micro dilution method (NCCLS. PCR was performed to detect the aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia gene .Presence of the gene aac(6'-Ie-aph(2″-Ia was confirmed by digest with Sca1 enzyme. A PCR product was sequenced and BLAST analyzed at the NCBI database to be confirmed. Results: 62(43.7% out of the 142 isolates, were found to exhibit HLGR phenotype. MIC ranging from 512 to >1024 μg/ml in 55 HLGR isolates. All resistant isolates except one, were found to harbor the aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia gene. In our strain collection, 42% of E. faecalis and 44% of E. faecium were HLGR. In the HLGR isolates the prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR was higher than non–HLGR.This prevalence in E.faecium was higher than E.faecalis. The sequence was compared with a published sequence and confirmed. Conclusion: Our results indicate that high prevalence of MDR and HLGR enterococcal colonization is an important problem in our medical centers.Spread of the aac(6'-Ie-aph(2″-Ia gene was responsible for HLGR among enterococci isolated from the patients in Tehran. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:25-32

  10. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of original and counterfeit rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Huseyin; Capar, Ismail Davut; Arslan, Hakan; Akan, Ender

    2014-05-31

    In recent years, with the advances in counterfeiting methods, counterfeit products have reached the dental market. The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of original and counterfeit rotary root canal instruments. The cyclic fatigue of original and counterfeit ProTaper F2 endodontic instruments was tested (n = 20) in 3 mm radius steel canals with a 60° angle of curvature. The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated, and the data were subjected to the Student's t-test (α = 0.05). The original instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than the counterfeit ones (p counterfeit files. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the counterfeit instruments was very low. As a result, clinicians should be careful not to purchase counterfeit products.

  11. Comparison of the Mechanisms of Drug Resistance among HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Shafer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV are the most prevalent deadly chronic viral diseases. HIV is treated by small molecule inhibitors. HBV is treated by immunomodulation and small molecule inhibitors. HCV is currently treated primarily by immunomodulation but many small molecules are in clinical development. Although HIV is a retrovirus, HBV is a double-stranded DNA virus, and HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus, antiviral drug resistance complicates the development of drugs and the successful treatment of each of these viruses. Although their replication cycles, therapeutic targets, and evolutionary mechanisms are different, the fundamental approaches to identifying and characterizing HIV, HBV, and HCV drug resistance are similar. This review describes the evolution of HIV, HBV, and HCV within individuals and populations and the genetic mechanisms associated with drug resistance to each of the antiviral drug classes used for their treatment.

  12. Comparison of mutants of Toxoplasma gondii selected for resistance to azithromycin, spiramycin, or clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E R; Borotz, S E

    1994-01-01

    Azithromycin and spiramycin markedly inhibited the growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts. However, 3 days of treatment were required to reveal their full antitoxoplasma activity. This delayed onset of inhibition was similar to that previously reported for clindamycin. Mutants of T. gondii resistant to azithromycin (AziR-1) and spiramycin (SprR-1) were isolated and compared with a previously described mutant resistant to clindamycin (ClnR-2). Mutant ClnR-2 was cross-resistant to all three antibiotics, while AziR-1 was cross-resistant only to spiramycin and SprR-1 was cross-resistant only to azithromycin. In short-term studies of protein synthesis by freshly prepared extracellular parasites, clindamycin and azithromycin were effective only at concentrations much greater than their 50% inhibitory concentrations in infected cultures and the resistant mutants did not differ from the wild type in antibiotic sensitivity. Thus, protein synthesis on cytoplasmic ribosomes of the parasite did not seem to be the target of these antibiotics. To determine whether mitochondrial protein synthesis in T. gondii was inhibited by clindamycin or azithromycin, wild-type parasites were grown in cultured cells in the presence of antibiotic concentrations well above the 50% inhibitory concentrations. Mitochondrial function, measured by oxygen uptake per purified extracellular parasite, did not decrease substantially, after the parasites had multiplied 11-fold in the presence of antibiotic. Thus, mitochondrial protein synthesis did not seem to be the target of clindamycin or azithromycin. An alternative target is protein synthesis in the putative apicomplexan organelle that has a 35-kb genome. PMID:8141576

  13. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schweiger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods.

  14. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Hans-Georg; Obeidi, Ossama; Komesker, Oliver; Raschke, André; Schiemann, Michael; Zehner, Christian; Gehnen, Markus; Keller, Michael; Birke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current) methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods. PMID:22219678

  15. Activity of Daptomycin Alone and in Combination with Rifampin and Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus Assessed by Time-Kill Methodology▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The synergistic effects of daptomycin plus gentamicin or rifampin were tested against 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains, with daptomycin MICs ranging between 0.25 and 8 μg/ml. Daptomycin sub-MICs combined with gentamicin concentrations lower than the MIC yielded synergy in 34 (68%) of the 50 strains. Daptomycin combined with rifampin yielded synergy in one vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain only, and virtually all synergy occurred between daptomycin and gentamicin. PMID:17220402

  16. A comparison of fatigue resistance of three materials for cusp-replacing adhesive restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijs, R.H.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the fatigue resistance and failure behaviour of cusp-replacing restorations in premolars using different types of adhesive restorative materials. METHODS: A class 2 cavity was prepared and the buccal cusp was removed in an extracted sound human upper premolar. By using a c

  17. Extracellular gentamicin reduces the activity of connexin hemichannels and interferes with purinergic Ca2+ signaling in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania A Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gap junction channels (GJCs and hemichannels (HCs are composed of protein subunits termed connexins (Cxs and are permeable to ions and small molecules. In most organs, GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, while HCs communicate the intra and extracellular compartments. In this way, both channel types coordinate physiological responses of cell communities. Cx mutations explain several genetic diseases, including about 50% of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. However, the possible involvement of Cxs in the etiology of acquired hearing loss remains virtually unknown. Factors that induce post-lingual hearing loss are diverse, exposure to gentamicin an aminoglycoside antibiotic, being the most common. Gentamicin has been proposed to block GJCs, but its effect on HCs remains unknown. In this work, the effect of gentamicin on the functional state of HCs was studied and its effect on GJCs was reevaluated in HeLa cells stably transfected with Cxs. We focused on Cx26 because it is the main Cx expressed in the cochlea of mammals where it participates in purinergic signaling pathways. We found that gentamicin applied extracellularly reduces the activity of HCs, while dye transfer across GJCs was not affected. HCs were also blocked by streptomycin, another aminoglycoside antibiotic. Gentamicin also reduced the ATP release and the HC-dependent oscillations of cytosolic free-Ca2+ signal. Moreover, gentamicin drastically reduced the Cx26 HC-mediated membrane currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Therefore, the extracellular gentamicin-induced inhibition of Cx HCs may adversely affect autocrine and paracrine signaling, including the purinergic one, which might partially explain its ototoxic effects.

  18. Extracellular gentamicin reduces the activity of connexin hemichannels and interferes with purinergic Ca2+ signaling in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Vania A.; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Cea, Luis A.; Salas, José D.; Vargas, Aníbal A.; Verdugo, Christian A.; Jara, Oscar; Martínez, Agustín D.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction channels (GJCs) and hemichannels (HCs) are composed of protein subunits termed connexins (Cxs) and are permeable to ions and small molecules. In most organs, GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, while HCs communicate the intra and extracellular compartments. In this way, both channel types coordinate physiological responses of cell communities. Cx mutations explain several genetic diseases, including about 50% of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss. However, the possible involvement of Cxs in the etiology of acquired hearing loss remains virtually unknown. Factors that induce post-lingual hearing loss are diverse, exposure to gentamicin an aminoglycoside antibiotic, being the most common. Gentamicin has been proposed to block GJCs, but its effect on HCs remains unknown. In this work, the effect of gentamicin on the functional state of HCs was studied and its effect on GJCs was reevaluated in HeLa cells stably transfected with Cxs. We focused on Cx26 because it is the main Cx expressed in the cochlea of mammals where it participates in purinergic signaling pathways. We found that gentamicin applied extracellularly reduces the activity of HCs, while dye transfer across GJCs was not affected. HCs were also blocked by streptomycin, another aminoglycoside antibiotic. Gentamicin also reduced the adenosine triphosphate release and the HC-dependent oscillations of cytosolic free-Ca2+ signal. Moreover, gentamicin drastically reduced the Cx26 HC-mediated membrane currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Therefore, the extracellular gentamicin-induced inhibition of Cx HCs may adversely affect autocrine and paracrine signaling, including the purinergic one, which might partially explain its ototoxic effects. PMID:25237294

  19. In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal M Javed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv. Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a very wide host range for the ability to cause root rot and a very narrow host range for the ability to cause a leaf scorch. Arabidopsis thaliana is a host for many types of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes. Deciphering the variations among transcript abundances (TAs of functional orthologous genes of soybean and A. thaliana involved in the interaction will provide insights into plant resistance to F. viguliforme. Results In this study, we reported the analyses of microarrays measuring TA in whole plants after A. thaliana cv 'Columbia' was challenged with fungal pathogen F. virguliforme. Infection caused significant variations in TAs. The total number of increased transcripts was nearly four times more than that of decreased transcripts in abundance. A putative resistance pathway involved in responding to the pathogen infection in A. thaliana was identified and compared to that reported in soybean. Conclusion Microarray experiments allow the interrogation of tens of thousands of transcripts simultaneously and thus, the identification of plant pathways is likely to be involved in plant resistance to Fusarial pathogens. Dissection of the set functional orthologous genes between soybean and A. thaliana enabled a broad view of the functional relationships and molecular interactions among plant genes involved in F. virguliforme resistance.

  20. Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: As a physical property, wear resistance of the materials used in the fabrication of orthodontic retainers play a significant role in the stability and long term use of the appliances. Objectives: To evaluate the wear resistance of two commonly used materials for orthodontic retainers: Acropars OP, i.e. a polymethyl methacrylate based material, and 3A-GS060, i.e. a polyethylene based material. Materials and Methods: For each material, 30 orthodontic retainers were made according to the manufacturers’ instructions and a 30×30×2 mm block was cut out from the mid- palatal area of each retainer. Each specimen underwent 1000 cycles of wear stimulation in a pin on disc machine. The depth of wear of each specimen was measured using a Nano Wizard II atomic force microscope in 3 random points of each specimen’s wear trough. The average of these three measurements was calculated and considered as mean value wear depth of each specimen (µm. Results: The mean wear depth was 6.10µm and 2.15µm for 3A-GS060 and Acropars OP groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.001. The results show Polymethyl methacrylate base (Acropars is more wear resistance than the polyethylene based material (3A-GS060. Conclusions: As the higher wear resistance of the fabrication material can improve the retainers’ survival time and its cost-effectiveness, VFRs should be avoided in situations that the appliance needs high wear resistance such as bite blocks opposing occlusal forces.

  1. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: snychronicity, resistance and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean K. Carey; Doerthe Tetzlaff; Jan Seibert; Chris Soulsby; Jim Buttle; Hjalmar Laudon; Jeff McDonnell; Kevin McGuire; Daniel Caissie; Jamie Shanley; Mike Kennedy; Kevin Devito; John W. Pomeroy

    2010-01-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are particularly sensitive to climate change as small differences in temperature determine frozen ground status, precipitation phase, and the magnitude and timing of snow accumulation and melt. An international inter-catchment comparison program, North-Watch, seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of...

  2. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  3. Comparison of erythropoietin resistance in hemodialysis patients using calcitriol, cinacalcet, or paricalcitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Agca, Erhan; Turk, Suleyman

    2015-11-01

    The erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness index (EHRI) calculated as the weekly dose of EPO divided by weight (kg) divided by hemoglobin level (g/dL) has been considered useful to assess ESA resistance. Recent evidence suggests that active vitamin D, cinacalcet, and paricalcitol use may be related with lower ESA resistance. We conducted this observational cross-sectional study to investigate ESA resistance calculated by the EHRI among patients using calcitriol, cinacalcet, and paricalcitol. Participants underwent a medical history taken, physical examination, measurement of biochemical analysis, calculation of dialysis adequacy, and EHRI. Sixty-five patients did not receive any treatment regarding vitamin D, paricalcitol, and cinacalcet (group 1), 41 were taking only vitamin D (group 2), 50 were taking only paricalcitol (group 3), 19 were taking only cinacalcet (group 4), and 21 were taking paricalcitol + cinacalcet (group 5). The EHRI values for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.36 ± 8.72, 11.58 ± 5.72, 8.29 ± 5.54, 9.49 ± 4.61, and 8.91 ± 4.44 respectively (P =.034). Post hoc analysis showed that the EHRI differed between group 1 and group 3 (P =.017) and between group 2 and group 3 (P =.006). In linear regression analysis, use of paricalcitol was independently associated with EHRI. In conclusion, paricalcitol use was associated with lower EHRI levels as a measure of ESA resistance.

  4. Comparison of Molecular and Phenotypic Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somily, Ali M; Garaween, Ghada A; Abukhalid, Norah; Absar, Muhammad M; Senok, Abiola C

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid dissemination of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). This study aimed to compare phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and characterization of CRE isolates at a large tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out between January 2011 and November 2013 at the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Saudi Arabia. Determination of presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance was in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phenotypic classification was done by the MASTDISCS(TM) ID inhibitor combination disk method. Genotypic characterization of ESBL and carbapenemase genes was performed by the Check-MDR CT102. Diversilab rep-PCR was used for the determination of clonal relationship. Of the 883 ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae detected during the study period, 14 (1.6%) isolates were carbapenem resistant. Both the molecular genotypic characterization and phenotypic testing were in agreement in the detection of all 8 metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producing isolates. Of these 8 MBL-producers, 5 were positive for blaNDM gene and 3 were positive for blaVIM gene. Molecular method identified additional blaOXA gene isolates while MASTDISCS(TM) ID detected one AmpC producer isolate. Both methods agreed in identifying 2 carbapenem resistant isolates which were negative for carbapenemase genes. Diversilab rep-PCR analysis of the 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed polyclonal distribution into eight clusters. MASTDISCS(TM) ID is a reliable simple cheap phenotypic method for detection of majority of carbapenemase genes with the exception of the blaOXA gene. We recommend to use such method in the clinical laboratory.

  5. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  6. Comparison of Wear Resistance Mechanisms of Die Steel Implanted with C and mo Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M. F.; Yang, J. H.; Luo, X. D.; Zhang, T. H.

    Mo and C ions extracted from a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source were implanted into the surface of die steel (H13) to compare the wear resistance mechanisms of the implanted samples, respectively. The concentration depth profiles of implanted ions were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and calculated by a code called TRIDYN. The structures of the implanted steel were observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and grazing-angle X-ray diffraction, respectively. It was found that the conventional heat-treated H13 steel could not be further hardened by the subsequent implanted C ions, and the thickness of the implanted layer was not an important factor for the Mo and C ion implantation to improve the wear resistance of the H13 steel. Mo ion implantation could obviously improve the wear resistance of the steel at an extraction voltage of 48 kV and a dose of 5 × 1017cm-2 due to formation of a modification layer of little oxidation with Mo2C in the implanted surface.

  7. Aminoglycoside Resistance and Susceptibility Testing Errors in Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    evaluated AMEs detected by a combination of phenotypic inference and DNA hybridization in 1,189 Acineto- bacter sp. isolates from South Africa, Europe...resistance is prevalent, amikacin was used in greater quantities than gentamicin and tobramycin. While high rates of amikacin resistance in Acineto- bacter

  8. Gentamicin-induced ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity vary with circadian time of treatment and entail separate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunston, Mary A; Yonovitz, Al; Woodahl, Erica L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin can cause both ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, the severity of which varies with circadian time of daily treatment. However, it is not yet resolved if such drug-induced adverse effects are independent or interdependent phenomena. Two groups of 9 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g), each housed separately and entrained to a 12 h light (06:00-18:00 h) - 12 h dark cycle, received a daily subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg gentamicin. One group was treated at the beginning of the activity span, 2 Hours After Lights On (HALO), and the other at the beginning of the rest span, 14 HALO. Global toxicity was gauged by both body weight loss relative to the pre-treatment baseline and number of deaths. Ototoxicity, i.e., hearing loss, was assessed by changes in auditory brainstem response (ABR) for pure tone stimuli of 8, 16, 24, and 32 kHz before and after 2 and 4 weeks of gentamicin treatment. Renal toxicity was evaluated by changes in urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG)/creatinine (CR) concentration ratio before and after each week of treatment. In a complementary substudy of separate but comparable 2 and 14 HALO groups of rats, blood samples were obtained before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg gentamicin. Number of animal deaths was greater in the 2 (4 deaths) than 14 HALO (1 death) group, mirroring more severe initial (first two weeks of treatment) body weight losses from baseline, being more than 2-fold greater in animals of the 2 than 14 HALO group. Ototoxicity progressively worsened during the treatment; although, the extent of hearing loss varied according to circadian time of treatment across all frequencies (p ototoxicity. The mean urinary NAG/CR ratio peaked after the first week of treatment, averaging 13.64-fold greater than baseline for the 2 HALO-treated animals compared to 7.38-fold greater than baseline for the 14 HALO-treated ones. Ratio values declined

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates regeneration of human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells after gentamicin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasali, Reza; Mutsaers, Henricus A M; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein; Torensma, Ruurd; Wilmer, Martijn J G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2013-07-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to regenerate renal tubule epithelia and repair renal function without fusing with resident tubular cells. The goal of the present project was to investigate the role of MSCs secreted cytokines on tubule cell viability and regeneration after a toxic insult, using a conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) line. Gentamicin was used to induce nephrotoxicity, and cell viability and migration were studied in absence and presence of human MSC-conditioned medium (hMSC-CM) i.e. medium containing soluble factors produced and secreted by MSCs. Exposure of ciPTEC to 0-3000 μg/ml gentamicin for 24 h caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cell death. We further demonstrated that the nephrotoxic effect of 2000 μg/ml gentamicin was recovered partially by exposing cells to hMSC-CM. Moreover, exposure of ciPTEC to gentamicin (1500-3000 μg/ml) for 7 days completely attenuated the migratory capacity of the cells. In addition, following scrape-wounding, cell migration of both untreated and gentamicin-exposed cells was increased in the presence of hMSC-CM, as compared to exposures to normal medium, indicating improved cell recovery. Our data suggest that cytokines secreted by MSCs stimulate renal tubule cell regeneration after nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotrophic and antioxidant effects of silymarin comparable to 4-methylcatechol in protection against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draz, Eman I; Abdin, Amany A; Sarhan, Naglaa I; Gabr, Takwa A

    2015-04-01

    Despite that gentamicin is a very effective aminoglycoside, its potential ototoxicity which is of irreversible nature makes a challenge and limitation for its use. This study was designed to investigate possible neurotrophic and antioxidant effects of silymarin comparable to 4-methylcatechol in protection against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Twenty pigmented guinea pigs were divided into four equal groups, where group I served as normal control group. The other groups received gentamicin (120 mg/kg/day, ip) for 19 days where group II given vehicle of 1% CMC, group III and group IV were pre-treated 2h before gentamicin by 4-methylcatechol (10 μg/kg, ip) and silymarin (100mg/kg, oral gavage), respectively. The main findings indicated that silymarin exhibited restoration of nerve growth factor (NGF) levels and increased tropomyosin-related kinase receptors-A (Trk-A) m-RNA expression in cochlear tissue and preservation of hair cells of organ of Corti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with significant decrease in auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold compared to 4-methylcatechol. Only silymarin caused significant amelioration in oxidative stress state by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increasing catalase activity. Silymarin exerts superiority over 4-methylcatechol when recommended as protective agent against gentamicin ototoxicity based on its efficient neurotrophic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Gentamicin-loaded wound dressing with polyvinyl alcohol/dextran hydrogel: gel characterization and in vivo healing evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ma-Ro; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Chang, Sun Woo; Jin, Sung Gju; Kim, Jung Ae; Lyoo, Won Seok; Han, Sung Soo; Ku, Sae Kwang; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-09-01

    To develop a gentamicin-loaded wound dressing, cross-linked hydrogel films were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and dextran using the freezing-thawing method. Their gel properties such as gel fraction, swelling, water vapor transmission test, morphology, tensile strength, and thermal property were investigated. In vitro protein adsorption test, in vivo wound healing test, and histopathology were performed. Dextran decreased the gel fraction, maximum strength, and thermal stability of hydrogels. However, it increased the swelling ability, water vapor transmission rate, elasticity, porosity, and protein adsorption. The drug gave a little positive effect on the gel properties of hydrogels. The gentamicin-loaded wound dressing composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.13% dextran, and 0.1% drug was more swellable, flexible, and elastic than that with only PVA because of its cross-linking interaction with PVA. In particular, it could provide an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. From the in vivo wound healing and histological results, this gentamicin-loaded wound dressing enhanced the healing effect more compared to conventional product because of the potential healing effect of gentamicin. Thus, this gentamicin-loaded wound dressing would be used as a potential wound dressing with excellent forming and improved healing effect in wound care.

  12. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD

  13. Co-delivery of ibuprofen and gentamicin from nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Anna; Jarosz, Magdalena; Syrek, Karolina; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2017-04-01

    Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions. The third step lasted 2, 5 and 10min in order to obtain different thicknesses of nanoporous layers. Annealing the as-prepared amorphous layers at the temperature of 400°C led to obtaining the anatase phase. In this study, water-insoluble ibuprofen and water-soluble gentamicin were used as model drugs. Three different drug loading procedures were applied. The desorption-desorption-diffusion (DDD) model of the drug release was fitted to the experimental data. The effects of crystalline structure, depth of TiO2 nanopores and loading procedure on the drug release profiles were examined. The duration of the drug release process can be easily altered by changing the drug loading sequence. Water-soluble gentamicin is released for a long period of time if gentamicin is loaded in ATO as the first drug. Additionally, deeper nanopores and anatase phase suppress the initial burst release of drugs. These results confirm that factors such as morphological and crystalline structure of ATO layers, and the procedure of drug loading inside nanopores, allow to alter the drug release performance of nanoporous ATO layers.

  14. Electrochemical detection of tobramycin or gentamicin according to the European Pharmacopoeia analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinami, C; Giuliani, V; Menarini, A; Abballe, F; Travaini, S; Ladisa, T

    2007-01-12

    Tobramycin and gentamicin are two aminoglycosidic antibiotics used in lung infection, ophthalmic treatments as well as in skin infections. Pharmaceutical companies which produce remedies containing tobramycin and gentamicin need an analytical method for their internal quality control. For several years a simple chromatographic method based on anion exchange separation coupled with amperometric detection was proposed for aminoglycosides. This analytical approach was partially used in the last edition of the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for tobramycin and gentamicin analysis. In fact they use integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD) on a gold electrode while the separation is obtained on a polymeric wide pore reversed phase instead of anion exchange in alkaline conditions. Such coupling seems to be cumbersome and not so easy to realize and to reproduce from one laboratory to another. Besides, the described method lacks some of the details as important as the waveform steps duration. Unfortunately the quality control (QC) laboratories have to use exactly the method described in the EP, so they complained about the troubles. Therefore, the EP authors published recently a paper regarding the guidelines for good practice in the method application, but the suggestion was not yet resolutive. In our work we evaluated the eluent composition and the kind of amperometric cell, work electrode diameter and cell volume. Mainly we optimized the amperometric waveform. In addition, for tobramycin analysis another chromatographic phase was explored in order to achieve better efficiency and to separate all the impurities confirming the effectiveness of the detection. The conditions described in the paper seem to allow the analyst to operate in conformity with the EP method.

  15. Using Six Sigma to improve once daily gentamicin dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, Sean

    2012-08-07

    BACKGROUND: Safe, effective therapy with the antimicrobial gentamicin requires good practice in dose selection and monitoring of serum levels. Suboptimal therapy occurs with breakdown in the process of drug dosing, serum blood sampling, laboratory processing and level interpretation. Unintentional underdosing may result. This improvement effort aimed to optimise this process in an academic teaching hospital using Six Sigma process improvement methodology. METHODS: A multidisciplinary project team was formed. Process measures considered critical to quality were defined, and baseline practice was examined through process mapping and audit. Root cause analysis informed improvement measures. These included a new dosing and monitoring schedule, and standardised assay sampling and drug administration timing which maximised local capabilities. Three iterations of the improvement cycle were conducted over a 24-month period. RESULTS: The attainment of serum level sampling in the required time window improved by 85% (p≤0.0001). A 66% improvement in accuracy of dosing was observed (p≤0.0001). Unnecessary dose omission while awaiting level results and inadvertent disruption to therapy due to dosing and monitoring process breakdown were eliminated. Average daily dose administered increased from 3.39 mg\\/kg to 4.78 mg\\/kg\\/day. CONCLUSIONS: Using Six Sigma methodology enhanced gentamicin usage process performance. Local process related factors may adversely affect adherence to practice guidelines for gentamicin, a drug which is complex to use. It is vital to adapt dosing guidance and monitoring requirements so that they are capable of being implemented in the clinical environment as a matter of routine. Improvement may be achieved through a structured localised approach with multidisciplinary stakeholder involvement.

  16. Inhibition of K+ currents in type I vestibular hair cells by gentamicin and neomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Scott E; Johnson, Matthew; Meredith, Frances L; Rennie, Katherine J

    2013-01-01

    Significant ototoxicity limits the use of aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics. Several mechanisms may contribute to the death of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. In this study the effects of gentamicin and neomycin on K(+) currents in mature and early postnatal type I vestibular hair cells (HCI) were tested directly. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to assess the effects of AG and KCNQ channel modulators on K(+) currents (IK) in HCI acutely isolated from gerbil semicircular canals. Extracellular neomycin (1 mM) rapidly reduced peak outward IK by 16 ± 4% (n = 9) in mature HCI (postnatal days, P, 25-66). Gentamicin (5 mM) reduced outward IK by 16 ± 3% (n = 8). A similar reduction in outward current was seen in immature HCI (P5-9) that lacked the low-voltage-activated component of IK observed in mature cells. Intracellular application of gentamicin and neomycin also reduced IK in mature HCI. Modulators of KCNQ channels were used to probe KCNQ channel involvement. The selective KCNQ antagonist XE991 did not reduce IK and the neomycin-induced reduction in IK was not reversed by the KCNQ agonist flupirtine. Application of intracellular poly-D-lysine to sequester PIP2 did not reduce IK. Application of the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) strongly reduced IK, and extracellular AG in the presence of 4-AP gave no further inhibition of IK. In summary, AG significantly reduce the 4-AP-sensitive IK in early postnatal and mature HCI. K(+) current inhibition differs from that seen in outer hair cells, since it does not appear to involve PIP2 sequestration or KCNQ channels.

  17. Pharmacokinetic modeling of gentamicin in treatment of infective endocarditis: Model development and validation of existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Lars; Proost, Johannes H.; Sinha, Bhanu; Touw, Daan J.

    2017-01-01

    Gentamicin shows large variations in half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) within and between individuals. Thus, monitoring and accurately predicting serum levels are required to optimize effectiveness and minimize toxicity. Currently, two population pharmacokinetic models are applied for predicting gentamicin doses in adults. For endocarditis patients the optimal model is unknown. We aimed at: 1) creating an optimal model for endocarditis patients; and 2) assessing whether the endocarditis and existing models can accurately predict serum levels. We performed a retrospective observational two-cohort study: one cohort to parameterize the endocarditis model by iterative two-stage Bayesian analysis, and a second cohort to validate and compare all three models. The Akaike Information Criterion and the weighted sum of squares of the residuals divided by the degrees of freedom were used to select the endocarditis model. Median Prediction Error (MDPE) and Median Absolute Prediction Error (MDAPE) were used to test all models with the validation dataset. We built the endocarditis model based on data from the modeling cohort (65 patients) with a fixed 0.277 L/h/70kg metabolic clearance, 0.698 (±0.358) renal clearance as fraction of creatinine clearance, and Vd 0.312 (±0.076) L/kg corrected lean body mass. External validation with data from 14 validation cohort patients showed a similar predictive power of the endocarditis model (MDPE -1.77%, MDAPE 4.68%) as compared to the intensive-care (MDPE -1.33%, MDAPE 4.37%) and standard (MDPE -0.90%, MDAPE 4.82%) models. All models acceptably predicted pharmacokinetic parameters for gentamicin in endocarditis patients. However, these patients appear to have an increased Vd, similar to intensive care patients. Vd mainly determines the height of peak serum levels, which in turn correlate with bactericidal activity. In order to maintain simplicity, we advise to use the existing intensive-care model in clinical practice to avoid

  18. Synergy effects of the antibiotics gentamicin and the essential oil of Croton zehntneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2009-11-01

    The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity by gaseous contact. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MID of 0.5 and<1mg/l air, respectively. The activity of the antibiotic gentamicin was increased by 42,8% against P. aeruginosa after contact with the gaseous component, showing that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

  19. Combined action of carbenicillin and gentamicin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, M; Jawetz, E

    1969-06-01

    The minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations of carbenicillin and gentamicin were determined for 10 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the urinary tract. Combinations of the two drugs were tested for possible enhanced activity. Such enhancement was demonstrated in the inhibitory activity of combinations for eight strains. Striking bactericidal activity against five strains was achieved by the combination, whereas neither drug alone in low dosage was capable of bactericidal action. The possible mode of action and the possible merit of pursuing these preliminary findings are discussed.

  20. Electrical resistivity tomography applied to a complex lava dome: 2D and 3D models comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The study of volcanic domes growth (e.g. St. Helens, Unzen, Montserrat) shows that it is often characterized by a succession of extrusion phases, dome explosions and collapse events. Lava dome eruptive activity may last from days to decades. Therefore, their internal structure, at the end of the eruption, is complex and includes massive extrusions and lava lobes, talus and pyroclastic deposits as well as hydrothermal alteration. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for volcano structure imaging. Because a large range of resistivity values is often observed in volcanic environments, the method is well suited to study the internal structure of volcanic edifices. We performed an ERT survey on an 11ka years old trachytic lava dome, the Puy de Dôme volcano (French Massif Central). The analysis of a recent high resolution DEM (LiDAR 0.5 m), as well as other geophysical data, strongly suggest that the Puy de Dôme is a composite dome. 11 ERT profiles have been carried out, both at the scale of the entire dome (base diameter of ~2 km and height of 400 m) on the one hand, and at a smaller scale on the summit part on the other hand. Each profile is composed of 64 electrodes. Three different electrode spacing have been used depending on the study area (35 m for the entire dome, 10 m and 5 m for its summit part). Some profiles were performed with half-length roll-along acquisitions, in order to keep a good trade-off between depth of investigation and resolution. Both Wenner-alpha and Wenner-Schlumberger protocols were used. 2-D models of the electrical resistivity distribution were computed using RES2DINV software. In order to constrain inversion models interpretation, the depth of investigation (DOI) method was applied to those results. It aims to compute a sensitivity index on inversion results, illustrating how the data influence the model and constraining models

  1. Comparison of Chamfer and Deep Chamfer Preparation Designs on the Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Core Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Jalalian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. One of the major problems of all-ceramic restorations is their probable fracture under occlusal force. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer and deep chamfer on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic restorations, CERCON. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was carried out with single-blind experimental technique. One stainless steel die with 50’ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm deep was prepared using a milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dies were prepared. The same die was retrieved and 50' chamfer was converted into a deep chamfer design (1 mm. Again ten epoxy resin dies were prepared from the deep chamfer die. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 µm cement space were fabricated on the epoxy resin dies (10 chamfer and 10 deep chamfer samples. The zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dies and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine and the samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure. Results. The mean values of fracture resistance for deep chamfer and chamfer samples were 1426.10±182.60 and 991.75±112.00 N, respectively. Student’s t-test revealed statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion. The results indicated a relationship between the marginal design of zirconia cores and their fracture resistance. A deep chamfer margin improved the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations, which might be attributed to greater thickness and rounded internal angles in deep chamfer margins.

  2. A Comparison of Upper Body Strength between Rock Climbing and Resistance Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Macias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that advanced rock climbers have greater upper body strength than that of novice climbers or non-climbers. The purpose of this study was to compare upper body strength between rock climbing and resistance trained men. Fifteen resistance trained men (age 25.28 ± 2.26 yrs; height 177.45 ± 4.08 cm; mass 85.17 ± 10.23 kg; body fat 10.13 ± 5.40% and 15 rock climbing men (age 23.25 ± 2.23 yrs; height 175.57 ± 8.03 cm; mass 66.66 ± 9.40 kg; body fat 6.86 ± 3.82% volunteered to participate. Rock climbing (RC men had been climbing for at least two years, 2–3 times a week, able to climb at least a boulder rating of V4–5 and had no current injuries. Resistance trained (RT men had been total body strength training for at least two years, 2–3 times a week with no current injuries. Each participant performed pull-ups to failure, grip strength, and pinch strength. RT were significantly older and heavier than RC. RC performed significantly more pull-ups (19.31 ± 4.31 than RT (15.64 ± 4.82. RC had greater relative pinch strength (R 0.27 ± 0.10 kg/kg; L 0.24 ± 0.07 kg/kg than RT (R 0.19 ± 0.04 kg/kg; L 0.16 ± 0.05 kg/kg and greater relative grip strength (R 0.70 ± 0.10 kg/kg; L 0.65 ± 0.12 kg/kg than RT (R 0.57 ± 0.14 kg/kg; L 0.56 ± 0.15 kg/kg. Overall, RC men demonstrated greater performance in tests involving relative strength when compared to RT men. Rock climbing can promote increased upper body strength even in the absence of traditional resistance training.

  3. Comparison of resistance to cutting by selected types of cutters used on shearer loaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland))

    1990-02-01

    Presents investigation results on resistance to cutting by radial and tangential cutters used with worm-type ripping heads of shearers. A test stand is described where four types of cutters were tested. Cutting depth and pitch were varied during tests within 4-16 mm and 10-25 mm respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and exponential regression equations and confidence intervals obtained are presented. Graphs of specific cutting energy versus cutting depth and of pitch to cutting depth ratio are shown. Cutter types with the best and worst dynamic indices and energy consumption values were determined as a result of the tests conducted. 1 ref.

  4. Comparison of newly diagnosed and relapsed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide: insight into mechanisms of resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhilarasi Chendamarai

    Full Text Available There is limited data on the clinical, cellular and molecular changes in relapsed acute promyeloytic leukemia (RAPL in comparison with newly diagnosed cases (NAPL. We undertook a prospective study to compare NAPL and RAPL patients treated with arsenic trioxide (ATO based regimens. 98 NAPL and 28 RAPL were enrolled in this study. RAPL patients had a significantly lower WBC count and higher platelet count at diagnosis. IC bleeds was significantly lower in RAPL cases (P=0.022. The ability of malignant promyelocytes to concentrate ATO intracellularly and their in-vitro IC50 to ATO was not significantly different between the two groups. Targeted NGS revealed PML B2 domain mutations in 4 (15.38% of the RAPL subset and none were associated with secondary resistance to ATO. A microarray GEP revealed 1744 genes were 2 fold and above differentially expressed between the two groups. The most prominent differentially regulated pathways were cell adhesion (n=92, cell survival (n=50, immune regulation (n=74 and stem cell regulation (n=51. Consistent with the GEP data, immunophenotyping revealed significantly increased CD34 expression (P=0.001 in RAPL cases and there was in-vitro evidence of significant microenvironment mediated innate resistance (EM-DR to ATO. Resistance and relapse following treatment with ATO is probably multi-factorial, mutations in PML B2 domain while seen only in RAPL may not be the major clinically relevant cause of subsequent relapses. In RAPL additional factors such as expansion of the leukemia initiating compartment along with EM-DR may contribute significantly to relapse following treatment with ATO based regimens.

  5. Comparison of 1D, 2D and 2.5D Constrained Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, L. M.; West, J.; Clark, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    Clay-rich till plains cover much of the UK. Such sites are attractive locations for landfills, since the till cover lowers the risk of landfill leachate entering groundwater. However, such tills often contain discrete sand and gravel bodies that can act as leachate flow routes. Such bodies may not be detected by conventional site investigation techniques such as drilling boreholes and trial pitting. A combined geoelectrical survey was carried out at a study site typical of such till plains and close to cliff exposures, which allowed direct mapping of sand bodies. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), resistivity cone penetrometry (RCPT) and frequency-domain electromagnetic data were collected. In a previous study, the electromagnetic and RCPT data were used to construct reference models for 2D inversion of the ERT data. The use of these reference models improved the solution models produced by inversion. We showed that the best solution model produced by inversion with a range of reference models could be determined without a priori knowledge of the true geoelectrical structure. This was done by using the area-weighted L2 norm between the solution models and associated reference models as a proxy for the misfit between the solution models and the true geoelectrical structure of the ground. In order to assess the most suitable method for combining invasive and non-invasive measurements, we compare both constrained and unconstrained 1D, 2D and 2.5D inversions of resistivity data collected at the study site. Preliminary results suggest that for 2.5D inversion the true 3D geoelectrical structure of the ground at the field study site is not sufficiently well known for comparison between the solution models and the true geoelectrical structure of the ground to be made. The results of work in progress evaluating layer-depth- constrained 1D inversion will be presented at the meeting.

  6. Comparison of calculation methods used for the determination of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in a temperate continental climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, L C; van Leeuwen, J; Menzies, P I; Jones-Bitton, A; Sears, W; Jansen, J T; Peregrine, A S

    2015-04-01

    This study compared results obtained with five different fecal egg count reduction (FECR) calculation methods for defining resistance to ivermectin, fenbendazole, and levamisole in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in a temperate continental climate: FECR1 and FECR2 used pre-and posttreatment fecal egg count (FEC) means from both treated and control animals, but FECR1 used arithmetic means, whereas FECR2 used geometric means; FECR3 used arithmetic means for pre- and posttreatment FECs from treated animals only; FECR4 was calculated using only arithmetic means for posttreatment FECs from treated and control animals; and FECR5 was calculated using mean FEC estimates from a general linear mixed model. The classification of farm anthelmintic resistance (AR) status varied, depending on which FECR calculation method was used and whether a bias correction term (BCT, i.e., half the minimum detection limit) was added to the zeroes or not. Overall, agreement between all methods was higher when a BCT was used, particularly when levels of resistance were low. FECR4 showed the highest agreement with all the other FECR methods. We therefore recommend that small ruminant clinicians use the FECR4 formula with a BCT for AR determination, as this would reduce the cost of the FECRT, while still minimizing bias and allowing for comparisons between different farms. For researchers, we recommend the use of FECR1 or FECR2, as the inclusion of both pre- and posttreatment FECs and use of randomly allocated animals in treatment and control groups makes these methods mathematically more likely to estimate the true anthelmintic efficacy.

  7. Comparison of daunorubicin and Fluo-3 for detection of multidrug resistance in human tumor cells.

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    Gheuens, E E; van der Heyden, S A; Elst, H E; Van Oosterom, A T; De Bruijn, E A

    1997-01-01

    The detection of multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical samples is still a topic for discussion. One method, proven extremely useful for detection of membrane proteins in patients with hematological malignancies is the flow cytometrical analysis of individual tumor cells. Recently an assay was described based on the labeling of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with the monoclonal antibody MRK16, combined with detection of active daunorubicin (DNR) extrusion. In order to improve the specificity of the assay, on line with the results obtained by Wall et al., we exploited staining with Fluo-3. Both assays prove to be able to discriminate between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive cells. A major drawback of labeling with Fluo-3 in combination with the monoclonal antibody MRK16 is the important overlap of emission spectra of both fluorochromes. Moreover, using Fluo-3 for the detection of MDR might be complicated by the fact that differences in fluorescence intensities are not solely dependent on the presence of P-gp, but also on the activity of cytosolic esterases and the intracellular calcium concentration. Combination of the detection of structural and functional aspects of the MDR-associated protein may lead to a more precise detection of the MDR-positive patient.

  8. [Comparison of three selective chromogenic media for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, A; Devogel, P; Beken, C; Pille, C; Bernier, I; Gavage, P

    2007-11-01

    Rapid detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of major importance in hospital hygiene. In order to reduce the response time from screening laboratories, new selective chromogenic media have been developed and marketed by major microbiology companies. In this context, an evaluation of their performances was needed. Media produced by Bio-Rad Laboratories (MRSASelect), Becton Dickinson (CHROMagar MRSA) and bioMérieux (chromID MRSA) were studied by 203screening samples, 110 of which were MRSA positive. Each Stahylococcus aureus was identified by catalase detection, Staphytect Plus Dryspot latex agglutination test and free coagulase detection, in addition to mannitol fermentation and Voges-Proskauer tests in the case of doubtful identification. Resistance was verified by checking the inhibition zone diameter of under 20 mm on 30 microg cefoxitin disks. Bio-Rad Laboratories, Becton Dickinson and bioMérieux media read at 24 or 24/48 hours have a respective sensitivity of 91, 71 and 85/92%. The specificity of these media is 99, 100 and 99/93%. These media proved to be new powerful and rapid tools used in screening for MRSA detection. MRSASelect is one of the most effective media showing high sensitivity and specificity and the easiest interpretation. chromID MRSA exhibits similar performance but needs more time to be as effective as Bio-Rad media while CHROMagar MRSA isn't enough efficient with its slightly lack of sensitivity to perform a reliable screening.

  9. Comparison of different disinfection processes in the effective removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junsik; Salcedo, Dennis Espineli; Medriano, Carl Angelo; Kim, Sungpyo

    2014-06-01

    This study compared three different disinfection processes (chlorination, E-beam, and ozone) and the efficacy of three oxidants (H2O2, S2O(-)8, and peroxymonosulfate (MPS)) in removing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a synthetic wastewater. More than 30 mg/L of chlorine was needed to remove over 90% of ARB and ARG. For the E-beam method, only 1 dose (kGy) was needed to remove ARB and ARG, and ozone could reduce ARB and ARG by more than 90% even at 3 mg/L ozone concentration. In the ozone process, CT values (concentration × time) were compared for ozone alone and combined with different catalysts based on the 2-log removal of ARB and ARG. Ozone treatment yielded a value of 31 and 33 (mg·min)/L for ARB and ARGs respectively. On the other hand, ozone with persulfate yielded 15.9 and 18.5 (mg·min)/L while ozone with monopersulfate yielded a value of 12 and 14.5 (mg·min)/L. This implies that the addition of these catalysts significantly reduces the contact time to achieve a 2-log removal, thus enhancing the process in terms of its kinetics.

  10. Resistance to adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia in rats. Comparison of ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and mutated leptin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Shimabukuro, M; Chen, G; Wang, M Y; Lee, Y; Kalra, P S; Dube, M G; Kalra, S P; Newgard, C B; Unger, R H

    1998-01-01

    Leptin regulates appetite and body weight via hypothalamic targets, but it can act directly on cultured pancreatic islets to regulate their fat metabolism. To obtain in vivo evidence that leptin may act peripherally as well as centrally, we compared the effect of adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia on food intake, body weight, and islet fat content in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned (VMHL) rats, sham-lesioned (SL) controls, and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats in which the leptin receptor is mutated. Infusion with recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA increased plasma leptin by approximately 20 ng/ml in VMHL and ZDF rats but had no effect on their food intake, body weight, or fat tissue weight. Caloric matching of hyperphagic VMHL rats to SL controls did not reduce their resistance to hyperleptinemia. Whereas prediabetic ZDF rats had a fourfold elevation in islet fat, in VMHL rats islet fat was normal and none of them became diabetic. Isolated islets from ZDF rats were completely resistant to the lipopenic action of leptin, while VMHL islets exhibited 50% of the normal response; caloric matching of VMHL rats to SL controls increased leptin responsiveness of their islets to 92% of controls. We conclude that leptin regulation of adipocyte fat requires an intact VMH but that islet fat content is regulated independently of the VMH. PMID:9710441

  11. Comparison of resistance to corrosion on haz of a ferritic stainless steel by different surface finishings

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    Juvenilson Costa Damascena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain techniques, comprising machining and GTAW dressing, have been used in the weld bead edge (region of the welded joint between the weld metal and the base metal to increase the fillet radius of the region by reducing the stress concentrator factor, decreasing roughness, and increasing the life of weldings. Moreover, TIG Dressing may also provide a smooth change in the radius of the curvature and change the average grain size and promote a microstructural variation through the reflow of this region. Current study analyzes the effect of surface finish of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ on resistance to corrosion of welded joints of simple deposition under plate by using machining techniques with sandpaper of different particle sizes and GTAW Dressing, comparing the effect of the two techniques in the resistance to corrosion in environments with chloride ions. ACE P410D ferritic stainless steel was employed as base metal and austenitic wire 308L for welding. Results showed that the condition sweetened with GTAW Dressing with pure argon at current 100A generated the lowest mass loss among the conditions under analysis.

  12. The measurement of lactate threshold in resistance exercise: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Magosso, Rodrigo Ferro; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Leite, Richard Diego; Arakelian, Vivian Maria; Montagnolli, Arlindo Neto; Perez, Sérgio Andrade; Baldissera, Vilmar

    2011-09-01

    Resistance incremental tests (IT) make it possible to determine critical metabolic and cardiovascular changes, such as the lactate threshold (LT). Different methods are frequently used to improve the exactness of LT identification. The objective of the study was to identify LT by four different methods (visual inspection, log-log, algorithmic adjustment and QLac) during resistance exercise and to evaluate which methods present more precision. Twelve men performed a maximal IT on the leg press at relative intensities of 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of 1RM with 1-min stages. During the 2-min interval between stages, capillary blood was collected for blood lactate analysis. LT was detected using each of the four methods. The intensity of LT by visual inspection method was 26·9 (5·2)% of 1RM, adjustment algorithmic method was 27·8 (3·6)% of 1RM, log-log method was 23·3 (3·5)% of 1RM and QLac method was 31·6 (9·8)% of 1RM, with significant difference only between log-log and QLac methods. Bland and Altman analysis shows better concordance for visual inspection versus adjustment algorithmic methods. The visual inspection, algorithmic and log-log methods detected the LT at the same intensity. The mathematical models, specially the algorithmic method, provide more precision. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  13. Comparison of Energy Expenditure During Single-Set vs. Multiple-Set Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Swapan; Welikonich, Michael J; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure (EE) of single-set and multiple-set resistance exercise protocols using indirect calorimetry. Twelve men and twelve women (age = 21.4 ± 1.3 years) performed a single-set (SS) and multiple-set (MS) resistance exercise protocol in random order. The subjects performed two protocols at 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. The protocols consisted of 5 upper-body exercises of either 1 or 3 sets per exercise performed in random order. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory data were recorded over the entire exercise session and during 5 minutes of recovery by a portable metabolic measurement system. Gross (167.9 ± 58.7 kcal) and net (88.3 ± 41.6 kcal) EE for the MS protocol were significantly greater (p protocol. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the rate of EE between both protocols. Significant gender differences (p protocols where values in men were higher than women. Heart rate, respiratory rate, relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2, respiratory exchange ratio, and minute ventilation values were significantly higher during the MS than the SS protocol. The results of this study indicated that MS protocols yield greater metabolic and cardiovascular demands than SS protocols when the number of exercises performed is the same.

  14. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats

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    Mohammad Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carrot (Daucus carota L. is known to possess antifertility properties in female.However, according to Iranian traditional medicine, it can increase the potency in men. Theaim of this study was to investigate the influence of carrot seed extract (CSE on spermatogenesis,number and motility of sperms in cauda epididyme in male rats.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: controlgroup, groups receiving low- and high doses of CSE, animals that received high-dose of CSEwith gentamicin, and a gentamicin only group. After 4 weeks treatment, fasting serum sampleswere obtained for the sex hormone analysis. Under anesthesia, testis, cauda epididymidesand sperm ducts were dissected and sperm count, motility and cauda epididymis spermreserves (CESR were determined. Histopathological changes of testis were also studied toassess spermatogenesis. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed byTukey HSD tests.Results: Administration of CSE caused a significant increase in CESR compared with thecontrol (28.2 ± 1.8 vs. 45.1 ± 2.0, ×106. The extract could also protect testis from the gentamicin-induced necrosis. The CSE administration caused about 3.5-times increase in theLH levels even in spite of receiving 5 mg/kg/day gentamicin with no significant effect on FSHlevels. The testosterone concentrations in the group received 400 mg/kg CSE were 30% and83% higher than its levels in the control and the gentamicin treated group, respectively.Conclusion: CSE can overcome reproductive toxicity of gentamicin and induces spermatogenesisprobably mainly through the elevation of testosterone levels.

  15. Antibacterial efficacy of core-shell nanostructures encapsulating gentamicin against an in vivo intracellular  Salmonella model

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    Ashish Ranjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashish Ranjan1, Nikorn Pothayee2,3, Mohammed N Seleem2, Ronald D Tyler Jr4, Bonnie Brenseke4, Nammalwar Sriranganathan2,4, Judy S Riffle2,3, Ramanathan Kasimanickam11Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, 2Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 3Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VAAbstract: Pluronic based core-shell nanostructures encapsulating gentamicin were designed in this study. Block copolymers of (PAA–+Na-b-(PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO-b-PAA– +Na were blended with PAA– Na+ and complexed with the polycationic antibiotic gentamicin to form nanostructures. Synthesized nanostructures had a hydrodynamic diameter of 210 nm, zeta potentials of –0.7 (±0.2, and incorporated ~20% by weight of gentamicin. Nanostructures upon co-incubation with J774A.1 macrophage cells showed no adverse toxicity in vitro. Nanostructures administered in vivo either at multiple dosage of 5 µg g–1 or single dosage of 15 µg g–1 in AJ-646 mice infected with Salmonella resulted in significant reduction of viable bacteria in the liver and spleen. Histopathological evaluation for concentration-dependent toxicity at a dosage of 15 µg g–1 revealed mineralized deposits in 50% kidney tissues of free gentamicin-treated mice which in contrast was absent in nanostructure-treated mice. Thus, encapsulation of gentamicin in nanostructures may reduce toxicity and improve in vivo bacterial clearance.Keywords: gentamicin, core-shell nanostructures, Salmonella

  16. Quantitative differences in antibiotic resistance between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Hungary, Austria and Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A; Rozgonyi, F; Pesti, N; Kocsis, E; Malmos, G; Kristof, K; Nagy, K; Lagler, H; Presterl, E; Stich, K; Gattringer, R; Kotolacsi, G; Cekovska, Z; Graninger, W

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) strains from three European countries to nine antistaphylococcal agents. The antibiotic susceptibility of 274 MRSA and 284 MSSA strains from Hungary, Austria and macedonia was tested by the broth microdilution method. The clonal relationship of strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin appeared in Macedonian MRSA strains. Macedonian MRSA strains had high-level amikacin and gentamicin resistance. MSSA strains generally were susceptible to all drugs at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC(50)) except for gentamicin resistance in Macedonian strains. In Hungary and Austria a common antibiotic resistance phenotype of MRSA predominated, while in macedonia three other phenotypes were also prevalent. Geographical differences in the resistance of S. aureus are still high. Since resistance levels of MRSA and MSSA strains differ extensively, they should be considered separately for antibiotic resistance analysis.

  17. Comparison of Wear Resistance Between Innovative Composites and Nano- and Microfilled Composite Resins

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    Asefi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the most common causes of failure in class 2 posterior composite restorations is occlusal and proximal wear. Estelite composites used supra-nano monodispersing spherical fillers and a new photoinitiator, and the manufacturer claimed that the wear of these composites is less than 1 mm3 volumetric wear. Objectives Compare the wear resistance of new Estelite composites with that of other composites generations. Materials and Methods Thirty-five specimens were evaluated in five groups: three kinds of Estelite composites (Estelite Sigma Quick, Estelite Flow Quick, and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek Z350, and Filtek Z250. All specimens were prepared in 25 mm disks and cured with laboratory light for 120 seconds (60 s for each side. Then, they were polished by 600 grit sand paper and stored for one week in distilled water at room temperature. We used a two-body abrasion test and the pin-on-disk method with distilled water as medium. All specimens were worn under 15 N load, 0.05 m/seconds speed, 100 m distance, and steatite ceramic balls antagonists. After wearing, we measured wear volume by calculating the wear track cross-section area with a profilometer and analyzed the data with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Results The wear amounts of the composites are as follows in order: Estelite sigma quick (1886.9 ± 518.5 μm2, Estelite flow quick (2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2, Estelite high flow (3206 ± 2445.1 μm2, Filtek Z350 (3840 ± 1963.4 μm2, and Filtek Z250 (4667.2 ± 2351.1 μm2. No statistical difference was found among the groups (P value > 0.05. Conclusions Estelite sigma quick composite had wear resistance similar to that of nano- and microfilled composites. Estelite flowable composites demonstrated similar wear resistance to that of a posterior composite.

  18. Plasmid-determined resistance to fosfomycin in Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, C; Garcia, J M; Llaneza, J; Mendez, F J; Hardisson, C; Ortiz, J M

    1980-08-01

    Multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains of Serratia marcescens isolated from hospitalized patients were examined for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance to Escherichia coli by conjugation. Two different patterns of linked transferable resistance were found among the transconjugants. The first comprised resistance to carbenicillin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin; the second, and more common, pattern included resistance to carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamide, and fosfomycin. The two types of transconjugant strains carried a single plasmid of either 57 or 97 megadaltons in size. Both of these plasmids are present in parental S. marcescens strains resistant to fosfomycin. The 57-megadalton plasmid was transformed into E. coli.

  19. Tebal Struktur Histologis Duodenum Ayam Pedaging yang Diberi Kombinasi Tylosin dan Gentamicin

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    I Gede Gilang Ikra Raditya

    2013-12-01

    Usaha ternak broiler, sejak tahun 1998 semakin menonjol perannya dalam mempersempit kesenjangan terhadap meningkatnya kebutuhan akan daging. Daging ayam broiler dipilih sebagai salah satu alternatif, karena kita tahu bahwa ayam broiler sangat efisen diproduksi. Tujuan dilakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tebal struktur histologis duodenum ayam yang diberi kombinasi tylosin dan gentamicin. Metode yang dipakai pada penelitian ini menggunakan 32 ayam pedaging yang di bagi dalam 4 kelompok yang di mana masing masing kelompok terbagi atas 8 ayam. Hasil penelitian ini sendiri adalah ketebalan struktur histologis duodenum pada kontrol (P0 rata-rata 7,2 ?m, perlakuan P1 rata-rata 7,2 ?m, perlakuan P2 rata-rata adalah 7,6 ?m, dan perlakuan P3 rata-rata adalah 7,9 ?m. P3 lebih tebal dari P2 dan P2 lebih besar dari P1 dan P0. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kombinasi tylosin dan gentamicin ini efektif untuk menyeimbangkan flora normal yang ada di dalam duodenum sehingga membuat pertumbuhan ayam menjadi sempurna.

  20. Impairment of membrane phosphoinositide metabolism by aminoglycoside antibiotics: streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, dibekacin, gentamicin and neomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marche, P; Koutouzov, S; Girard, A

    1983-11-01

    Like many amphiphilic cationic drugs, aminoglycosides are able to produce phospholipidosis, mainly by inhibiting enzymes involved in phospholipid metabolism. Phosphoinositides have been suggested to function as receptors for aminoglycosides. Therefore, we investigated the influence of these drugs upon phosphoinositide metabolism by measuring the 32P-incorporation into the polyphosphoinositides, using the rat erythrocyte membrane as a model. Depending upon the experimental conditions, neomycin induced a decrease and/or an increase in the 32P-labeling of triphosphoinositides (TPI) and of diphosphoinositides (DPI), respectively. These variations were rapid and depended upon the drug concentration. At 0.3 mM, neomycin reversed the distribution of radioactivities associated with DPI and TPI without modifying the total radioactivity incorporated. This drug concentration altered neither the Mg++-activated TPI-specific phosphomonoesterase activity nor the Ca++-activated polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase activity. It appears likely that the drug inhibits the DPI-kinase activity, by interacting with DPI and thereby lowering the substrate availability. Over the range of concentrations studied (up to 1-2 mM), gentamicin, kanamycin and dibekacin behave as neomycin. However, their effects could be observed only at drug concentrations higher than those of neomycin. By contrast, streptomycin and amikacin did not alter the 32P-labeling of TPI and of DPI. The order of potency of aminoglycosides for the impairment of the phosphoinositide interconversion was neomycin, gentamicin, dibekacin, kanamycin. A possible relationship between the toxicity of aminoglycosides and their capacity to impair the phosphoinositide metabolism is discussed.

  1. Effect of n-Hexane extract of Nigella sativa on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Nasim A Begum

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of the n-hexane extract of the Nigella sativa Linn. (kalajira ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day for 7 days was administered and nephrotoxicity was evaluated biochemically (significantly decreased reduced glutathione in renal cortex and significantly increased serum creatinine and serum urea and histologically (moderate degree of proximal tubular damage. The n-hexane extract of N. sativa (5 ml/kg/day was administered as pre-, post- and concomitant treatment for 7 days in the nephrotoxic rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved renal cortical histology was observed in the n-hexane extract of N. sativa treated nephrotoxic rats, which was more evident in the post-treatment group than the pre- treatment and the concomitantly-treated group. It is suggested that some ingredients contained in the n-hexane extract of N. sativa effected in ameliorating the signs of nephrotoxicity and that the specific active principle of the n-hexane extract of N. sativa responsible for this amelioration if obtained, would be more useful.

  2. Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Gentamicin-induced Oxidative Stress and Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Hyungkyoung; Hah, Do-Yun; Heo, Jung Ho; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-03-01

    Development of a therapy providing protection from, or reversing gentamicin-sulfate (GS)-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would be of great clinical significance. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) against gentamicin sulfate-induced renal damage in rats. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, GS 100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection; group 3, GS 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. + HC 500 mg/kg/d, oral; and group 4, GS 100 mg/kg/d i.p. + HC 1000 mg/kg/d, oral administration). Treatments were administered once daily for 12 d. After 12 d, biochemical and histopathological analyses were conducted to evaluate oxidative stress and renal nephrotoxicity. Serum levels of creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), together with renal levels of MDA, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were quantified to evaluate antioxidant activity. Animals treated with GS alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of creatinine, BUN, and MDA, with decreased renal levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. Treatment of rats with HC showed significant improvement in renal function, presumably as a result of decreased biochemical indices and oxidative stress parameters associated with GS-induced nephrotoxicity. Histopathological examination of the rat kidneys confirmed these observations. Therefore, the novel natural antioxidant HC may protect against GSinduced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

  3. Application of Box-Behnken design to prepare gentamicin-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad-Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and optimize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles as carriers for gentamicin sulfate. A chemical precipitation method was used to prepare the gentamicin sulfate-loaded CaCO3 nanoparticles. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization procedure, with the molar ratio of CaCl2: Na2CO3 (X1), the concentration of drug (X2), and the speed of homogenization (X3) as the independent variables. The particle size and entrapment efficiency were considered as response variables. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used, along with the counter plots, to relate the dependent and independent variables. The results indicated that the speed of homogenization was the main variable contributing to particle size and entrapment efficiency. The combined effect of all three independent variables was also evaluated. Using the response optimization design, the optimized Xl-X3 levels were predicted. An optimized formulation was then prepared according to these levels, resulting in a particle size of 80.23 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 30.80%. It was concluded that the chemical precipitation technique, together with the Box-Behnken experimental design methodology, could be successfully used to optimize the formulation of drug-incorporated calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA SEEDS IN GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

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    Mahurkar N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to carry out the preliminary phytochemical studies and nephroprotective activity of metahanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds, family cucurbitaceae. These studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins (ellagitannins, saponins, polyphenols, triterpenes, lagenin (protein in the extracts. The extract was found to be potent diuretic which causes excretion of sodium and potassium. Gentamicin is an extensively used aminolgycoside antibiotic. It has been reported to produce nephrotoxicity even at normal therapeutic dose level. Gentamicin was administrated intraperitonealy at a dose of 80mg/kg body weight for 9 days. The biochemical parameters viz. serum createnine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum uric acid was found to be significantly increased whereas serum total protein was decreased. Histopathological sections showed marked glomerular, peritubular and blood vessel congestion. These increased levels of biochemical parameters and extent of renal damage were decreased by the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds at a dose of 250mg/kg, Cystone tab. (500mg/kg was used as reference standard to compare with the toxicant and test group animals.

  5. Comparison of medium, temperature, and length of incubation for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang D Hua; Evans, Kaye D; Goh, Rosalinda A; Tan, Grace L; Peterson, Ellena M

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter (Campy; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), Spectra VRE (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and bile-esculin-azide-vancomycin (BEAV; Remel) agars were compared for their ability to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in 750 stool specimens. The media were compared at 24 h and 48 h of incubation at 35°C and 42°C. When incubated for 24 h at 35°C, Campy was the most sensitive (97.8%) and specific (99.9%) but was comparable to Spectra, which has a sensitivity of 95.6% and a specificity of 99.1%, whereas BEAV was significantly less sensitive (90%) and specific (96.1%). Incubation at 42°C or extended incubation at 35°C for 48 h yielded no advantage over incubation at 35°C for 24 h.

  6. Increased expression of p38 mitogen- activated protein kinase is related to the acute renal lesions induced by gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpini R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. This study investigated the expression of p-p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB in the renal cortex of rats treated with gentamicin. Twenty rats were injected with gentamicin, 40 mg/kg, im, twice a day for 9 days, 20 with gentamicin + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-kappaB inhibitor, 14 with 0.15 M NaCl, im, twice a day for 9 days, and 14 with 0.15 M NaCl , im, twice a day for 9 days and PDTC, 50 mg kg-1 day-1, ip, twice a day for 15 days. The animals were killed 5 and 30 days after the last of the injections and the kidneys were removed for histological, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis and for nitrate determination. The results of the immunohistochemical study were evaluated by counting the p-p38 MAPK-positive cells per area of renal cortex measuring 0.05 mm². Creatinine was measured by the Jaffé method in blood samples collected 5 and 30 days after the end of the treatments. Gentamicin-treated rats presented a transitory increase in plasma creatinine levels. In addition, animals killed 5 days after the end of gentamicin treatment presented acute tubular necrosis and increased nitrate levels in the renal cortex. Increased expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB was also observed in the kidneys from these animals. The animals killed 30 days after gentamicin treatment showed residual areas of interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex, although the expression of p-p38 MAPK in their kidneys did not differ from control. Treatment with PDTC reduced the functional and structural changes induced by gentamicin as well as the expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. The increased expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB observed in these rats suggests that these signaling molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis induced by gentamicin.

  7. Flow cytometric functional analysis of multidrug resistance by Fluo-3: a comparison with rhodamine-123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, S; Konishi, M; Ichihara, T; Wada, H; Matsukawa, H; Goi, K; Mizutani, S

    1995-09-01

    Using four cell lines including drug-sensitive K562/Parent cells, P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug resistant (MDR) K562/VCR, K562/ADR and revertant K562/ADR-R cells, two fluorescent agents, Fluo-3 and rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), were compared as indicators in a functional assay of MDR. Cells were incubated with 4 microM Fluo-3 or 1 microM Rh-123 for 45 min and then the intracellular accumulation of the agent was measured using a flow cytometer. Verapamil (20 microM) or cepharanthine (biscoclaurine alkaloid, 10 microM) was added just before the fluorescent agents. Efflux patterns were also studied 60 min after incubation with or without verapamil and cepharanthine. Increased intracellular accumulation and a delayed efflux pattern of Fluo-3 by verapamil and cepharanthine were demonstrated in multidrug resistant K562/VCR and K562/ADR cells, indicating that Fluo-3 is another good indicator of MDR. However, a similar, but lower, increase in uptake and a delayed efflux pattern of Fluo-3 by verapamil and cepharanthine were also demonstrated even in Pgp-non-overexpressed K562/Parent cells. In contrast, accumulation of Rh-123 was not affected by verapamil and cepharanthine. To further study the Pgp dependency of Fluo-3, another cell line, K562/NC16 expressing minimum MDR1 mRNA, was cloned. Increased uptake and a delayed efflux pattern of Fluo-3, but not Rh-123, with verapamil or cepharanthine were again demonstrated in K562/NC16 cells, indicating that intracellular accumulation of Fluo-3 may be non-specifically influenced by verapamil and cepharanthine at very low levels of Pgp-related MDR, while the influx and efflux patterns of Rh-123 may be specifically affected by Pgp overexpression.

  8. Radiological Findings of Extensively Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Non-AIDS Adults: Comparisons with Findings of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Sensitive Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Koh, Won Jung; Kwon, O Jung; Yi, Chin A; Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was designed to describe the radiological findings of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare the observed findings with findings of drug-sensitive (DS) and non-XDR multidrug- resistant (MDR) TB in non-AIDS patients. From September 1994 to December 2007, 53 MDR TB patients (M:F = 32:21; mean age, 38 years) and 15 XDR TB non-AIDS patients (M:F = 8:7; mean age, 36 years) were enrolled in the study. All of the MDR TB patients had received no treatment or less than one month of anti-TB treatment. In addition, all XDR TB patients received either no anti-TB treatment or only first-line anti-TB drugs. In addition, 141 consecutive DS TB patients (M:F = 79:62; mean age, 51 years) were also enrolled in the study for comparison. Chest radiograph, CT and demographic findings were reviewed and were compared among the three patient groups. For patients with XDR TB, the most frequent radiographic abnormalities were nodules (15 of 15 patients, 100%), reticulo-nodular densities (11 of 15, 73%), consolidation (9 of 15, 60%) and cavities (7 of 15, 47%) that were located mainly in the upper and middle lung zones. As seen on radiographs, significant differences were found for the frequency of nodules and ground-glass opacity lesions (all p < 0.001) (more frequent in DS TB patients than in MDR and XDR TB patients). For the use of CT, significant differences (more frequent in MDR and XDR TB patients) were found for the frequency of multiple cavities, nodules and bronchial dilatation (p = 0.001 or p < 0.001). Patients with MDR TB and XDR TB were younger as compared to patients with DS TB (p < 0.001). Imaging findings were not different between patients with MDR TB and XDR TB. By observation of multiple cavities, nodules and bronchial dilatation as depicted on CT in young patients with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive sputum, the presence of MDR TB or XDR TB rather than DS TB can be suggested. There is no significant difference in imaging

  9. Intratympanic gentamicin treatment for Ménière's disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on dose efficacy - results of a prematurely ended study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Bremer (Hendrik G.); I. van Rooy (Ingrid); B. Pullens (Bas); C. Colijn (Carla); I. Stegeman; H.J. van der Zaag-Loonen (Hester); P.P. van Benthem (Peter P.); S.F.L. Klis (Sjaak F L.); W. Grolman (Wilko); Tj.D. Bruintjes

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Gentamicin is used as a therapeutic agent for Ménière's disease because of its vestibulotoxicity causing chemo-ablation of the vestibular sensory epithelia. Its use has increased in recent years. However, there is still no consensus about the dose regimen of gentamicin in the

  10. Tissue reactions to bacteria-inoculated rat lead samples .2. Effect of local gentamicin release through surface-modified polyurethane tubing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWachem, PB; vanLuyn, MJA; deWit, AW; Raatjes, D; Hendriks, M; Verhoeven, MLPM; Cahalan, PT

    1997-01-01

    A surface modification technique was developed to achieve controlled release of gentamicin from implanted polyurethane (PU) rat lead samples. PU tubing first was provided with an acrylic acid/acrylamide copolymer surface graft and then loaded with gentamicin. This surface modification technique resu

  11. Trends of resistance to antimicrobials recommended currently and in the past for management of gonorrhea in the Apex STD center in India and comparison of antimicrobial resistance profile between 2002-2006 and 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Singh, Vikram; Bhargava, Aradhana; Ramesh, V

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae jeopardizes public health and continues to spread out to currently recommended and older antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance provides essential clues toward the modification of treatment guidelines. The aim of the study was to determine gonococcal AMR profile and trends between 2007 and 2012 and to evaluate any change in AMR profile in comparison with published trends in 2002 to 2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 261 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from consecutive patients between 2007 and 2012 was determined for penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefixime, cefpodoxime) and azithromycin by the disk diffusion technique and the Etest method. P value was determined using χ test for comparisons of trends between the 2 periods. In comparison of AMR trends between 2002-2006 and 2007-2012, penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae, tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, and ciprofloxacin-resistant strains increased significantly from 21.2% to 47.9% (P 0.05) in decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and 0.8% to 1.5% (P > 0.05) for azithromycin resistance was observed. All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin over both the periods, except for one isolate in 2002. The study highlights that there is a continuous increase in resistance to previously recommended antibiotics despite their disuse for treatment. The increase in number of strains with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin resistance, currently recommended for management of gonorrhea, is of serious concern. These trends should be monitored continuously to change antibiotic policy.

  12. Comparison on Cold Resistance of 4 Pine Conifers%4种松树抗寒性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永学; 龚月桦; 樊军锋

    2011-01-01

    The cold resistance of Ponderosa pine, Austrian pine, Douglas Fir and Pinus tabulae forms were determined with artificial freezing method and conductometry. The results showed that the cold resistance of Douglas fir was the strongest in the four species, with LT50 - 20. 6℃. The cold resistance of Ponderosa pine was weaker than the there, with LT50-10. 7℃. Austrian pine was similar to that of P. Tabulae -forms. The bound water content, bound water / free water ratio of Douglas fir was very high. The free water content of Ponderosa pine was high, and that bound water / free water ratio was the lowest in the the four. The cold resistance of the four was in the order of Douglas fir>P. Tabulae forms, Austrian pine >Ponderosa pine after comprehensive comparison.%通过人工冰冻处理和电导法测定了美国黄松、奥地利黑松、花旗松和油松4个针叶树种在不同低温条件下的电解质渗出率,然后用Logistic方程进行配合,求算组织的半致死温度.结果表明,花旗松耐受低温能力强,组织半致死温度-20.6℃,美国黄松耐低温较差,半致死温度-10.7℃,奥地利黑松与油松接近,居于二者之间.花旗松针叶组织的束缚水含量及其与自由水比值最大,抗性强;美国黄松自由水含量高,束缚水与自由水比值小,抗性弱.综合比较结果,花旗松抗寒性最强,美国黄松最弱,奥地利黑松和油松居中.

  13. The 13C-Glucose Breath Test for Insulin Resistance Assessment in Adolescents: Comparison with Fasting and Post-Glucose Stimulus Surrogate Markers of Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Hernández, Jorge; Martínez-Basila, Azucena; Salas-Fernández, Alejandra; Navarro-Betancourt, José R.; Piña-Aguero, Mónica I.; Bernabe-García, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the 13C-glucose breath test (13C-GBT) for insulin resistance (IR) detection in adolescents through comparison with fasting and post-glucose stimulus surrogates. Methods: One hundred thirty-three adolescents aged between 10 and 16 years received an oral glucose load of 1.75 g per kg of body weight dissolved in 150 mL of water followed by an oral dose of 1.5 mg/kg of U-13C-Glucose, without a specific maximum dose. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and 120 minutes, while breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. The 13C-GBT was compared to homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) IR (≥p95 adjusted by gender and age), fasting plasma insulin (≥p90 adjusted by gender and Tanner stage), results of 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin levels (≥65 μU/mL) in order to determine the optimal cut-off point for IR diagnosis. Results: 13C-GBT data, expressed as adjusted cumulative percentage of oxidized dose (A% OD), correlated inversely with fasting and post-load IR surrogates. Sexual development alters A% OD results, therefore individuals were stratified into pubescent and post-pubescent. The optimal cut-off point for the 13C-GBT in pubescent individuals was 16.3% (sensitivity=82.8% & specificity=60.6%) and 13.0% in post-pubescents (sensitivity=87.5% & specificity=63.6%), when compared to fasting plasma insulin. Similar results were observed against HOMA and 2-h OGTT insulin. Conclusion: The 13C-GBT is a practical and non-invasive method to screen for IR in adolescents with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27354200

  14. Conditional probability analysis of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli isolated from tertiary medical institutions in South Korea during 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance of Gram-negative bacilli is a major problem globally. However, little is known about the combined probability of resistance to various antibiotics. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations of widely used antibiotics were determined using clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, randomly chosen from strain collections created during 1999-2009 in tertiary medical institutions in Seoul, South Korea. To analyze combined efficacy of antibiotics against a subgroup of isolates, conditional probabilities were determined based on arbitrary, non-independent patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics, was observed in the following order: A. baumannii (96%), P. aeruginosa (65%), E. coli (52%), and K. pneumoniae (7%). A. baumannii strains resistant to gentamicin were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics, except for colistin and polymyxin B. Resistance to gentamicin following exposure to this antibiotic was highly likely to lead to multidrug resistance in all four microbes. This study shows a causal relationship between gentamicin resistance and the prevalence of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Gramnegative bacilli in South Korea during 1999-2009 and suggests the importance of prudent use of gentamicin in hospitals.

  15. Comparison of physical, numerical and resistive force models of undulatory locomotion within granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel I.; Maladen, Ryan D.; Ding, Yang; Umbanhowar, Paul

    2010-11-01

    We integrate biological experiments, empirical theory, numerical simulation, and a physical robot model to reveal principles of undulatory locomotion in granular media. High speed x-ray imaging of the sandfish, Scincus scincus, in 3 mm glass particles reveals that it swims within the medium without limb use by propagating a single period traveling sinusoidal wave down its body, resulting in a wave efficiency, η, the ratio of its average forward speed to wave speed, of 0.54,,.13. A resistive force theory (RFT) which balances granular thrust and drag forces along the body predicts η close to the observed value. We test this prediction against two other modeling approaches: a numerical model of the sandfish coupled to a Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of the granular medium, and an undulatory robot which swims within granular media. We use these models and analytic solutions of the RFT to vary the ratio of undulation amplitude to wavelength (A/λ) and demonstrate an optimal condition for sand-swimming that results from competition between η and λ. The RFT, in agreement with simulation and robot models, predicts that for a single period sinusoidal wave, maximal speed occurs for A/λ 0.2, the same kinematics used by the sandfish.

  16. Comparison of the frictional resistance between archwire and different bracket system: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith R Pillai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frictional resistance generated by conventional stainless steel, radiance ceramic bracket, self-ligating and composite brackets using a 0.019 × 0.025 stainless steel straight length wires in a 022 slot and to select brackets based on their frictional characteristic. Methodology: In order to conduct this study, four different types of bracket system were selected of the mclaughlin-bennet-trevesi (MBT discipline. They are Group 1 - stainless steel, Group 2 - composite bracket Group 3 - (American Orthodontics radiance ceramic bracket Group 4 - self-ligating bracket (SLB (Empower. In this study, five maxillary brackets of an arch of each type were used. All brackets are 0.022 × 0.028" in preadjusted edgewise appliance which simulates the dental arch. Five brackets were bonded to a stainless steel bar of dimension 150 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm. The bracket-arch wire units were submitted to mechanical test with an Instron universal testing machine 3365. A testing apparatus or holding jig was designed to hold the bracket during the mechanical test. Each sample was pulled at a speed of 6 mm for 1 min. Descriptive statistical information including mean and standard deviation of maximum friction force was calculated for each bracket wire combination. Interpretation and Conclusion: The SLB has the least friction among the four groups. The ceramic bracket showed the highest friction followed by stainless steel bracket, composite bracket, and SLB.

  17. Water management by dormant insects: comparisons between dehydration resistance during summer aestivation and winter diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B

    2010-01-01

    During summer in temperate regions and tropical dry seasons insects are exposed to extended periods with little available water. To counter this dehydration stress, insects have two options. They can either remain active by utilizing mechanisms to function under severe water stress and high temperatures, or they can escape from the stressful environment by exploiting an aestivation mechanism. During aestivation, insects undergo a variety of molecular and biochemical changes to arrest development, reduce metabolism, tolerate high temperatures, and increase their ability to maintain water balance. In this review, I provide a synopsis of known and possible mechanisms utilized by insects to reduce the stress of dehydration during aestivation. Comparative observations of aestivating and diapausing insects are also discussed to assess similarities and differences in the methods used by insects to increase dehydration resistance between these two types of dormancies. Adaptations that alter moisture requirements during diapause (low metabolic rate, increases in osmolytes, shifts in cuticular hydrocarbons, cell membrane restructing) are likely similar to those utilized at the induction and during the maintenance phase of aestivation. Few studies have been conducted on the physiology, particularly the biochemistry and molecular regulation, of aestivating insects, indicating that much more research is needed to fully assess water balance characteristics of insects during aestivation. Whether an insect is in diapause or aestivation, behavioral, biochemical, and physiological adaptations are essential for suppressing water loss and enhancing survival in a desiccated state.

  18. Comparison of the Fracture Resistance of 3 Different Posts in Restoring Extensively Damaged Primary Maxillary Incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The management of mutilated primary incisors in early childhood caries is a clinical challenge. This study's purpose was to compare the resistance strength of 3 different types of posts in restoring broken primary incisors: (1 composite posts, (2 ortho-dontic wire posts and (3 quartz fiber posts. Materials & Methods: This semi experimental in vitro study was performed on 27 extracted human primary maxillary incisors. The coronal portion of specimens was sectioned 1-mm above the cementoenamel junction. Complete pulpectomy was performed for all specimens. The post space was created using a straight fissure bur approximately 3 mm. Samples were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1(composite posts and composite core, group 2(quartz fiber posts and composite core and group 3 (orthodontic ? wire posts and composite core. Mounted specimens were subjected for fracture strength on an instron testing ma-chine at 45 angles. Results: Mean fracture strength value for group 1 was 248.9± 72.36 N, group 2 was 446.7±116.4 N and group 3 was 365.6± 31.3. This result showed significant differences among the three groups. Conclusion: Quartz fiber posts showed greater fracture strength for extensively damaged primary incisors than composite posts and orthodontic wire posts. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:240-246

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  20. Comparisons in the Recovery Response from Resistance Exercise between Young and Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joseph A; Hoffman, Jay R; Arroyo, Eliott; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Coker, Nicholas A; Gepner, Yftach; Wells, Adam J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H

    2017-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a bout of high-volume isokinetic resistance exercise (HVP) on lower-body strength and markers of inflammation and muscle damage during recovery between young and middle-aged men. Nineteen recreationally-trained men were classified as either a young adult (YA: 21.8 ± 2.0 y; 90.7 ± 11.6 kg) or middle-aged adult (MA: 47.0 ± 4.4 y; 96.0 ± 21.5 kg) group. The HVP consisted of 8 sets of 10 repetitions, with one minute of rest between each set, performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·sec. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and isokinetic peak (PKT) and average (AVGT) torque (measured at 240° and 60°·sec) were assessed at baseline (BL), immediately-post (IP), 120-min (120P), 24-hr (24H) and 48-hr (48H) following HVP. Blood was obtained at BL, IP, 30-min, 60-min, 120-min, 24H and 48H following HVP to assess muscle damage and inflammation. All performance data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANCOVA, while all inflammatory and muscle damage markers were analyzed using a two-way (time x group) repeated-measures ANOVA. Results revealed no between-group differences for PKT, AVGT, or rate of torque development at 200ms (RTD200). No between-group differences in myoglobin, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 were observed. Although baseline differences in muscle performance were observed between YA and MA, no between group differences were noted in performance recovery measures from high-volume isokinetic exercise in recreationally-trained men. These results also indicate that the inflammatory and muscle damage response from high-volume isokinetic exercise is similar between recreationally-trained, young and middle-aged adult men.

  1. Water content dynamics at plot scale - comparison of time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography monitoring and pore pressure modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Markart, Gerhard; Ottowitz, David; Römer, Alexander; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Geitner, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Physically-based dynamic modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility rests on several assumptions and simplifications. However, the applicability of physically-based models is only rarely tested in the field at the appropriate scale. This paper presents results of a spray irrigation experiment conducted on a plot of 100 m2 on an Alpine slope susceptible to shallow landsliding. Infiltrating precipitation applied at a constant rate (27.5 mm/h for 5.3 h) was monitored by means of 2D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography, combined with time-domain reflectometry sensors installed at various depths. In addition, regolith characteristics were assessed by dynamic cone penetration tests using a light-weight cone penetrometer. The spray irrigation experiment resulted in a vertically progressing wetting front to a depth of 80-100 cm. Below that, the unconsolidated material was already saturated by rainfall in the previous days. The observed mean resistivity reduction attributed to infiltrating water during irrigation was scaled to pressure head. Mean variations in pore pressure were reproduced by a linear diffusion model also used in physically-based dynamic landslide susceptibility modelling. Sensitive parameters (hydraulic conductivity and specific storage) were tested over selected value ranges and calibrated. Calibrated parameter values are within published and experimentally derived ranges. The results of the comparison of observations and model results suggest that the model is capable of reproducing mean changes of pore pressure at a suitable scale for physically-based modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility. However, small-scale variations in pore pressure that may facilitate the triggering of shallow landslides are not captured by the model.

  2. Rapid Identification of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance by qPCR in Infants with Gram-Negative Septicaemia: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Chan, Kathy Y Y; Ip, Margaret; Leung, Kam Tong; Lo, Norman W S; Wong, Raymond P O; Li, Karen; Ng, Pak Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Tools to rapidly predict antibiotic resistance in neonatal sepsis would be extremely valuable. To develop quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer/probe sets that can rapidly detect antibiotic resistance genes common to a neonatal unit, and to investigate the feasibility of direct detection of antibiotic resistance genes in whole blood of infants with Gram-negative septicaemia without first isolating the organism. Primer/probe sets were designed to detect genes that produce aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes or extended-spectrum β-lactamase. In phase 1, Gram-negative organisms isolated from neonatal clinical specimens within a 12-month period were analysed by qPCR to detect preselected genes. In phase 2, blood specimens of infants with Gram-negative septicaemia were subjected to qPCR analysis to detect antibiotic resistance genes for comparison against conventional antibiotic resistance profile results. Two primer/probe sets showed promising diagnostic utilities for the prediction of antibiotic resistance; the diagnostic utilities (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) were 90.9, 96.4, 92.6 and 95.5%, respectively, for AAC3-2 [aac(3')-IIa/aacC3/aacC2, aac(3')-IIc/aacC2] to detect gentamicin resistance, and 59.3, 99.3, 94.1 and 92.6%, respectively, for BLA-C1 (blaCTX-M-9, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-24, blaCTX-M-27) to detect cephalosporin resistance. Twenty-six infants were tested in phase 2, and both gentamicin and cephalosporin resistance patterns were predicted with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity by AAC3-2 and BLA-C1, respectively. qPCR with appropriately designed primer/probe sets can predict antibiotic resistance directly from neonatal blood, and it can substantially reduce the turnaround time for antibiotic resistance results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Role of somatostatin receptor-2 in gentamicin-induced auditory hair cell loss in the Mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brand

    Full Text Available Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of the mammalian auditory system do not regenerate, and their loss leads to irreversible hearing loss. Aminoglycosides induce auditory hair cell death in vitro, and evidence suggests that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling opposes gentamicin toxicity via its downstream target, the protein kinase Akt. We previously demonstrated that somatostatin-a peptide with hormone/neurotransmitter properties-can protect hair cells from gentamicin-induced hair cell death in vitro, and that somatostatin receptors are expressed in the mammalian inner ear. However, it remains unknown how this protective effect is mediated. In the present study, we show a highly significant protective effect of octreotide (a drug that mimics and is more potent than somatostatin on gentamicin-induced hair cell death, and increased Akt phosphorylation in octreotide-treated organ of Corti explants in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrate that somatostatin receptor-1 knockout mice overexpress somatostatin receptor-2 in the organ of Corti, and are less susceptible to gentamicin-induced hair cell loss than wild-type or somatostatin-1/somatostatin-2 double-knockout mice. Finally, we show that octreotide affects auditory hair cells, enhances spiral ganglion neurite number, and decreases spiral ganglion neurite length.

  4. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, P. F.; Bodeis, S. M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    -control (QC) strain. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined for two incubation time/temperature combinations: 36degreesC for 48 hr and 42degreesC for 24 hr. Quality-control ranges were determined for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem. For all...

  5. Neamin as an immunogen for the development of a generic ELISA detecting gentamicin, kanamycin and neomycin in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, E.E.M.G.; Wiltenburg, van J.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.

    2003-01-01

    A broad-specific ELISA using one antibody preparation for the detection of gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomycin in milk is reported for the first time. For the immunization of rabbits, neamin was used as the generic hapten on the basis of the facts that it is a two-ring fragment of neomycin and, in s

  6. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  7. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. Extract Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rodent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was designed to investigate the protective effect of (Beta vulgaris L. beat root ethanolic extract (BVEE on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific kidney function parameters (urea, uric acid, total protein, creatinine, and histopathology of kidney tissue were evaluated to access gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The oxidative/nitrosative stress (Lipid peroxidation, MDA, NP-SH, Catalase, and nitric oxide levels was assessed. The inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, NF-κB (p65, and NF-κB (p65 DNA binding and apoptotic marker (Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were also evaluated. BVEE (250 and 500 mg/kg treatment along with gentamicin restored/increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin-induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6, nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65, NF-κB-DNA binding activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and nitric oxide level were significantly down regulated upon BVEE treatment. In addition, BVEE treatment significantly reduced the amount of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. BVEE treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. These findings suggest that BVEE treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidney.

  8. Biochemical assessment of nephroprotective and nephrocurative activity of Withania somnifera on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimlesh Kushwaha

    2016-01-01

    Results: BUN and serum creatinine values were significantly low as compared to GT group in all test duration in phase-1. In phase two there was no significant difference of these markers in two groups. Conclusions: Withania Somnifera root extract have nephroprotective activity against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 298-302

  9. Neamin as an immunogen for the development of a generic ELISA detecting gentamicin, kanamycin and neomycin in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, E.E.M.G.; Wiltenburg, van J.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.

    2003-01-01

    A broad-specific ELISA using one antibody preparation for the detection of gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomycin in milk is reported for the first time. For the immunization of rabbits, neamin was used as the generic hapten on the basis of the facts that it is a two-ring fragment of neomycin and, in s

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a novel controlled release zinc oxide/gentamicin-chitosan composite with potential applications in wounds care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Oprea, Ovidiu; Voicu, Georgeta; Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Teodorescu, Andrei; Holban, Alina

    2014-03-25

    Freshly prepared ZnO nanoparticles were incorporated into a chitosan solution in weight ratios ranging from 1:1 to 12:1. Starting from the ratio of 3:1 the chitosan solution was transformed into a gel with a high consistency, which incorporates 15mL water for only 0.1g solid substance. The powders obtained after drying the gel were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis (TG-DSC). The electronic (UV-vis), infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were also recorded. ZnO particles were coated with gentamicin and incorporated into the chitosan matrix, to yield a ZnO/gentamicin-chitosan gel. The release rate of gentamicin was monitored photometrically. This ZnO/gentamicin-chitosan gel proved great antimicrobial properties, inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in both planktonic and surface-attached conditions. The results indicate that the obtained composite can be used in cutaneous healing for developing improved wound dressings, which combine the antibacterial activity of all three components with the controlled release of the antibiotic. This wound dressing maintains a moist environment at the wound interface, providing a cooling sensation and soothing effect, while slowly releasing the antibiotic. The system is fully scalable to any other soluble drug, as the entire solution remains trapped in the ZnO-chitosan gel.

  11. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  12. Local Application of Gentamicin in the Prophylaxis of Perineal Wound Infection after Abdominoperineal Resection: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Musters (Gijsbert D.); J.W.A. Burger (Jacobus); C.J. Buskens (Christianne); W.A. Bemelman; P.J. Tanis (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Use of topical antibiotics to improve perineal wound healing after abdominoperineal resection (APR) is controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the impact of local application of gentamicin on perineal wound healing after APR. Methods: The electronic

  13. Protective effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis on gentamicin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paoulomi Chatterjee﹡; Aniruddha Mukherjee; Subhangkar Nandy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis (AEAB) on gentamicin and Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic Wistar rats. Methods: In each model of nephrotoxicity, thirty adult male Wistar rats were evenly divided into 5 groups. Groups I and II served as untreated and model controls, respectively while groups III-V were the treatment groups which were pretreated with 100-200 mg/kg bodyweight per day of AEAB 1 h before each dose of the nephrotoxicants. On the 8th day(in case of gentamicin) and on 6th day(in case of Cisplatin), blood samples for serum urea, total protein and creatinine as well as some ions like sodium, potassium, chloride and uric acid while the rat kidneys for histology were obtained under inhaled diethyl ether anesthesia. Results: In the gentamicin nephrotoxic rats, 100-200 mg/kg bodyweight per day significantly attenuated elevations in the serum creatinine, total protein and blood urea nitrogen levels in dose related fashion and no treatment related effect on uric acid and ions, and attenuated the gentamicin-induced tubulonephrosis. Similar effects were also recorded in the Cisplatin model of acute renal injury. Conclusions:The nephroprotective effect of AEAB could be due to the inherent antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging principle(s) contained in the extract.In the near future, AEAB could constitute a lead to discovery of a novel drug for the treatment of drug-induced nephrotoxicity.

  14. Extended-Interval Dosing of Gentamicin Aiming for a Drug-Free Period in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, Erik M; Sprij, Arwen; Touw, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current gentamicin dosing algorithms in adult populations target a high peak concentration (Cmax) assuring efficacy and a drug-free period (concentration 8 mg·L and estimated trough concentrations 8 mg·L with a Cmin value

  15. Extended-Interval Dosing of Gentamicin Aiming for a Drug-Free Period in Neonates : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, Erik M.; Sprij, Arwen; Touw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background:Current gentamicin dosing algorithms in adult populations target a high peak concentration (C-max) assuring efficacy and a drug-free period (concentration 8 mgL(-1) and estimated trough concentrations 8 mgL(-1) with a C-min value

  16. An experimental design approach to the preparation of pegylated polylactide-co-glicolide gentamicin loaded microparticles for local antibiotic delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorati, Rossella; DeTrizio, Antonella; Genta, Ida; Grisoli, Pietro; Merelli, Alessia [Department of Drug Sciences, Viale Taramelli 12, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Tomasi, Corrado [IENI CNR Lecco Unit, Via Promessi Sposi 29, 23900, Lecco (Italy); Conti, Bice, E-mail: bice.conti@unipv.it [Department of Drug Sciences, Viale Taramelli 12, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    The present paper takes into account the DOE application to the preparation process of biodegradable microspheres for osteomyelitis local therapy. With this goal gentamicin loaded polylactide-co-glycolide-co-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) microspheres were prepared and investigated. Two preparation protocols (o/w and w/o/w) with different process conditions, and three PLGA-PEG block copolymers with different compositions of lactic and glycolic acids and PEG, were tested. A Design Of Experiment (DOE) screening design was applied as an approach to scale up manufacturing step. The results of DOE screening design confirmed that w/o/w technique, the presence of salt and the 15%w/v polymer concentration positively affected the EE% (72.1–97.5%), and span values of particle size distribution (1.03–1.23), while salt addition alone negatively affected the yield process. Process scale up resulted in a decrease of gentamicin EE% that can be attributed to the high volume of water used to remove PVA and NaCl residues. The results of in vitro gentamicin release study show prolonged gentamicin release up to three months from the microspheres prepared with salt addition in the dispersing phase; the behavior being consistent with their highly compact structure highlighted by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The prolonged release of gentamicin is maintained even after embedding the biodegradable microspheres into a thermosetting composite gel made of chitosan and acellular bovine bone matrix (Orthoss® granules), and the microbiologic evaluation demonstrated the efficacy of the gentamicin loaded microspheres on Escherichia coli. The collected results confirm the feasibility of the scale up of microsphere manufacturing process and the high potential of the microparticulate drug delivery system to be used for the local antibiotic delivery to bone. - Highlights: • To get a more effective therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteomyelitis. • To exploit the local

  17. Comparison of the eight weeks of supplementation Creatine and Glutamine consumption along with resistance exercise on the level of ALP in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A eskandari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: in recent years, in order to improve power, speed, the increase in the volume of the musculature, preventing sports injuries and maintain the muscle performance athletes use from different resistance exercises and food supplements. In this regard, present study has been conducted with the aim of comparison the influence of an 8 week period consumption of creatine (2 gr.kg-1.day-1 in 1st week and 0.48 gr.kg-1.day-1during 2nd to 8th weeks and glutamine (1 gr.kg-1.day-1 from first to eighth weeks along with resistance exercise on level of ALP of female mice. Materials and methods: This experimental study was done on 80 Small adult female mice of Surrey species (28 ± 5 gram. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups of: resistance exercise, resistance exercise + creatine, resistance exercise + glutamine, resistance exercise + glutamine + creatine, creatine, glutamine, creatine + glutamine and control groups (N= 10. Resistance exercise (5 days a week was including: climbing (4 sets, 5 times repetition with two minutes rest between the sets from a ladder (with the height of one meter and including 26 steps and bearing 30 percent of the weight of the Mouse body (hanging from tail in the first week and the increasing it up to 200 percent of body weight till the last week of the experiment. During 48 hours after the last practice session of resistance exercise, the blood sample was taken and the the level of ALP has been measured. Findings:The results showed that the level of ALP enzyme in creatine + glutamine + resistance exercise groug had been increased in comparison with the control group (144.3 ± 15.86 in comparison with 234.7 ± 25.69 U.L-1 P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate Creatine and Glutamine supplementation consumption along with resistance exercise increases in the level of ALP enzyme in the liver of mice.

  18. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required.

  19. Comparison of DeLorme with Oxford resistance training techniques: effects of training on muscle damage markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was comparing DeLorme with Oxford methods through ten repetition maximum (10 RM performance and serum creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Methods: Before and after four weeks of training with the DEL (n=16 or OXF (n=16 resistance training (RT methods, rest and post exercise serum CK activity, serum LDH activity and 10 RM performance were measured and compared. Results: Both methods provide higher 10 RM results after training without significant differences between groups (p<0.05. Rest and post exercise CK and LDH activity was less after training with DeLorme (DEL and Oxford (OXF, but the magnitude of the relative peak response (48-hr our 72-hr post exercise, respectively was higher after each training protocol. Comparisons of CK activity between groups display non-significant differences. Conclusion: DEL or OXF training methods cause the same improvement on muscle performance and both alters CK activity without differences between methods in a 4-week RT program.

  20. Comparison of fracture resistance between cast, CAD/CAM milling, and direct metal laser sintering metal post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan; Ersoy, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of Co-Cr post-cores fabricated with 3 different techniques: traditional casting (TC), computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling (CCM) and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). Forty intact human mandibular premolar were endodontically treated. The roots were then randomly divided into four groups according to the post systems: the control group was only filled with gutta percha. Co-Cr metal posts were fabricated with TC, CCM and DMLS in the other three groups. The posts were luted with a resin cement and subjected to compression test at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison post hoc Tukey tests (α=.05). The samples were examined under a stereomicroscope with ×20 magnification for the evaluation of the fracture types. The mean fracture loads were 432.69 N for control, 608.89 N for TC, 689.40 N for DMLS and 959.26 N for CCM. One-way ANOVA revealed significant difference between the groups (pmetal posts fabricated by CCM and DMLS could be an alternative to TC processing in daily clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Eimeria species distribution and salinomycin resistance in commercial broiler operations utilizing different coccidiosis control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M; Klopp, S; Ritter, D; Miska, K; Fetterer, R

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species composition and salinomycin sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from commercial broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis control (anticoccidial drugs [ACD] vs. live oocyst vaccines [VAC]). A comparison of Eimeria species composition and salinomycin sensitivity was also made before and after a producer switched from salinomycin to live oocyst vaccines. In general, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of Eimeria spp. oocysts in litter from VAC-utilizing farms compared to litter from ACD-utilizing farms. Application of PCR-based methods to detect coccidia found that Eimeria species distribution in litter from VAC operations more closely resembled the species composition in the live oocyst vaccines. Drug sensitivity testing found that Eimeria oocysts from VAC operations displayed greater salinomycin sensitivity as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared to oocysts from ACD farms. These findings provide additional evidence for the usefulness of live oocyst vaccines to restore ionophore sensitivity in poultry operations that contain an ionophore-resistant population of Eimeria spp. oocysts.

  2. Effects of neuroactive steroids on cochlear hair cell death induced by gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamagoe, Mariko; Tabuchi, Keiji; Nishimura, Bungo; Hara, Akira

    2011-12-11

    As neuroactive steroids, sex steroid hormones have non-reproductive effects. We previously reported that 17β-estradiol (βE2) had protective effects against gentamicin (GM) ototoxicity in the cochlea. In the present study, we examined whether the protective action of βE2 on GM ototoxicity is mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER) and whether other estrogens (17α-estradiol (αE2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3)) and other neuroactive steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and progesterone (P), have similar protective effects. The basal turn of the organ of Corti was dissected from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in a medium containing 100 μM GM for 48h. The effects of βE2 and ICI 182,780, a selective ER antagonist, were examined. In addition, the effects of other estrogens, DHEA and P were tested using this culture system. Loss of outer hair cells induced by GM exposure was compared among groups. βE2 exhibited a protective effect against GM ototoxicity, but its protective effect was antagonized by ICI 182,780. αE2, E1, and E3 also protected hair cells against gentamicin ototoxicity. DHEA showed a protective effect; however, the addition of ICI 182,780 did not affect hair cell loss. P did not have any effect on GM-induced outer hair cell death. The present findings suggest that estrogens and DHEA are protective agents against GM ototoxicity. The results of the ER antagonist study also suggest that the protective action of βE2 is mediated via ER but that of DHEA is not related to its conversion to estrogen and binding to ER. Further studies on neuroactive steroids may lead to new insights regarding cochlear protection.

  3. Protective effect of selenium on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious, life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of selenium (Se) in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experiments were done on 32 adult Wistar rats divided into four groups of 8 animals each. The GM group received gentamicin (100 mg/kg), whereas the GM+Se group received the same dose of GM and selenium (1 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections on a daily basis. Animals in the Se group, serving as a positive control, received only selenium (1 mg/kg) and the control group received saline (1 mL/day), both given i.p. All groups were treated during 8 consecutive days. Quantitative evaluation of GM-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of selenium coadministration with GM. GM was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity, which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous selenium administration protected kidney tissue against oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by selenium pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that selenium supplementation attenuates oxidative-stress-associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in GM-treated rats.

  4. Ampicillin and gentamicin are a useful first-line combination for the management of sepsis in under-five children at an urban hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samira; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Akram, Farhana; Pietroni, Mark A C

    2012-12-01

    The study evaluated the commonly-used drugs for the management of sepsis and their outcome among under-five children. We evaluated the hospital-records of all paediatric sepsis patients (n = 183) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and longer-stay unit (LSU) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. These records were collected from the hospital management system (SHEBA) during November 2009 to October 2010. A total of 183 under-five children with clinical sepsis were found during the study period, and 14 (8%) of them were neonates. One hundred and eighty-one patients had received a combination of injection ampicilin and injection gentamicin, and two patients had received the combination of injection ceftriaxone and injection gentamicin. Only 46 (25%) patients required a change of antibiotics to the combination of intravenous ceftriaxone plus gentamicin after non-response of injection ampicilin and injection gentamicin combination; 7/181 (4%) patients died who received injection ampicilin and injection gentamicin whereas none died among the other two patients who received injection ceftriaxone and injection gentamicin (p = 1.00). The combination of injection ampicilin and injection gentamicin as the first-line antibiotics for the management of sepsis in children even beyond the neonatal age is very effective, resulting in lower mortality.

  5. In vitro gentamicin release from commercially available calcium-phosphate bone substitutes influence of carrier type on duration of the release profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronckers Antonius LJJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA beads releasing antibiotics are used extensively to treat osteomyelitis, but require surgical removal afterwards because they do not degrade. Methods As an alternative option, this report compares the in vitro gentamicin release profile from clinically used, biodegradable carrier-materials: six injectable cements and six granule-types. Cement cylinders and coated granules containing 3% gentamicin were submerged in dH2O and placed in a 48-sample parallel drug-release system. At regular intervals (30, 90, 180 min. and then every 24 h, for 21 days, the release fluid was exchanged and the gentamicin concentration was measured. The activity of released gentamicin was tested on Staphylococcus aureus. Results All combinations showed initial burst-release of active gentamicin, two cements had continuous-release (17 days. The relative release of all cements (36–85% and granules (30–62% was higher than previously reported for injectable PMMA-cements (up to 17% and comparable to other biodegradable carriers. From the cements residual gentamicin could be extracted, whereas the granules released all gentamicin that had adhered to the surface. Conclusion The high release achieved shows great promise for clinical application of these biodegradable drug-carriers. Using the appropriate combination, the required release profile (burst or sustained may be achieved.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and in vitro biofilm-forming ability of enterococci from intensive and extensive farming broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Santos, V; Fernandes, A; Bernardo, F; Vilela, C L

    2010-05-01

    Enterococci, major broiler intestinal colonizers, play a recognized role in antimicrobial resistance transmission. Several virulence mechanisms, such as biofilm expression, have been identified. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, and gentamicin and biofilm production of 34 isolates from intensive and extensive farming system broilers were evaluated. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. In extensive-reared broilers (n = 18), resistance to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, and gentamicin was high (83.33, 55.56, 100, and 83.33%, respectively). Intensive farming broilers (n = 16) showed a lower resistance level for enrofloxacin and streptomycin and a higher resistance level for oxytetracycline and gentamicin. The relation between antimicrobial susceptibility and farming system was not significant for all drugs tested (P > or = 0.05). Enterococci produced biofilm at 24 h (47.0%), 48 h (55.9%), and 72 h (58.8%). Resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin was related to biofilm production at all time points (P or = 0.05). Poultry are colonized by biofilm-producing and antimicrobial-resistant enterococci, independently of the farming system. Results show a relation between resistance to the majority of the drugs tested and biofilm production, which reenforces the importance of these virulence factors in animal and public health.

  7. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Two Dosage Regimens of Linezolid in Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; van Altena, Richard; Harmelink, Ilse M.; Filguera, Patricia; Molenaar, Esther; Wessels, A. Mireille A.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Uges, Donald R. A.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: For the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB), potent new drugs are urgently needed. Linezolid is a promising drug, but its use is limited by adverse effects with prolonged administration of 600 mg twice daily. In

  8. Polymorphism of a complex resistance gene candidate family in wild populations of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Argentina: comparison with phenotypic resistance polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meaux, J; Cattan-Toupance, I; Lavigne, C; Langin, T; Neema, C

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen populations of wild bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), located in three provinces in Argentina, were analysed for their polymorphism for a complex resistance gene candidate (RGC) family clustered on the genome and for resistance phenotypes to strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Results indicate that RGC polymorphism is high. Population structure obtained for markers related to resistance was compared to population structure obtained for RAPD markers in order to infer the evolutionary forces driving polymorphism for resistance in wild populations at both molecular and phenotypic levels. Hierarchical analysis of differentiation showed that, within provinces, populations were differentiated for RAPD as well as for molecular and phenotypic markers of resistance. In contrast, provinces were differentiated only for RAPD and RGC markers and not for resistance phenotypes. The discrepancies found between diversity structures for molecular markers (RAPD and RGCs) and for resistance phenotypes suggest an effect of selection and indicate that diversity for resistance may not be driven by the same selective forces at the molecular and phenotypic levels. We further discuss whether specific selective forces are exerted on RGC markers and underline the importance of spatial scale of analysis for demonstrating an impact of selection.

  9. Final report on bilateral comparison SIM.EM-S9.b: Comparison of resistance standards at 1 Ω and 10 kΩ between INIMET (Cuba) and INTI (Argentina), March to October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonina, A.; Currás, M.; Navarro, M.

    2014-01-01

    The CIPM MRA states that its technical basis is a set of results obtained in a course of time through key comparisons carried out by the Consultative Committees of the CIPM, the BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations (RMOs). As part of this process, INTI (Argentina) has participated in several key and supplementary comparisons. By means of procedures for linking key comparison data, a bilateral comparison would help to provide assurance of equality in measurements between the participating laboratories. With this end, the comparison SIM.EM-S9.b of 1 ohm and 10 kiloohm standard resistors of INIMET (Cuba) and INTI was carried out from March to October 2012. The obtained results were very good. They show that the resistance standards maintained by INTI and INIMET were equivalent, within their combined uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs on antimicrobial usage and resistance among common gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections: A multicenter comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Chih; Shi, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Fu-Der

    2016-02-01

    The effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on both antibiotic consumption and resistance among different hospitals within the same insurance system have rarely been investigated. This 6-year retrospective study included three medical centers with similar facilities and infection control measures in Taiwan. These hospitals used different types of ASPs: one had a hospital-wide preauthorization requirement by infectious diseases physicians for all broad-spectrum antibiotics, covering all intensive care units; the second used the same program, but excluded all intensive care units; and the third used postprescription review only. The nonsusceptibility of unduplicated isolates of gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections and consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics were analyzed. Overall, the usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics of all classes escalated significantly over time in all three hospitals, but consumption was lowest under the hospital-wide preauthorization program. Under this ASP, despite a 2-fold increase in the total broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption during study period, some declining trends of resistance were found, including ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. By contrast, the other two hospitals with preauthorization program excluding all intensive care units and postprescription review had similar high broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption, comparable growing trends of resistant strains in general, and the correlations of antibiotic consumption and resistance were basically positive. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii increased significantly over time in all three hospitals. This interhospital comparison suggested that hospital-wide preauthorization program is the most effective to reduce key gram-negative bacilli resistance, with the exception of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Properties of Achromobacter xylosoxidans highly resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Sachiko; Goda, Natsumi; Hayabuchi, Tatsuya; Tamaki, Hiroo; Ishida, Ayami; Suzuki, Ayaka; Nakano, Kaori; Yui, Shoko; Katsumata, Yuto; Yamagami, Yuki; Burioka, Naoto; Chikumi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    We herein discovered a highly resistant clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MICs to amikacin, gentamicin, and arbekacin of 128 μg/mL or higher in a drug sensitivity survey of 92 strains isolated from the specimens of Yoka hospital patients between January 2009 and October 2010, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans was separated from this P. aeruginosa isolate. The sensitivity of this bacterium to 29 antibiotics was investigated. The MICs of this A. xylosoxidans strain to 9 aminoglycoside antibiotics were: amikacin, gentamicin, arbekacin, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, and spectinomycin, 1,024 μg/mL or ≥ 1,024 μg/mL; netilmicin, 512 μg/mL; and tobramycin, 256 μg/mL. This strain was also resistant to dibekacin. This aminoglycoside antibiotic resistant phenotype is very rare, and we are the first report the emergence of A. xylosoxidans with this characteristic.

  12. In vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other antimicrobial agents against five pathogens isolated in calves in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other drugs was tested against 17 P. multocida, 16 P. haemolytica, 21 S. dublin, 21 S. typhimurium and 21 E. coli strains, isolated in (veal) calves in the Netherlands. The MIC50 of flumequine for the respective pasteurellas was 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, for the salmonellas and E. coli 0.5 micrograms/ml. In comparison with flumequine, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed higher in vitro activity, with MIC50 less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility of the pasteurellas was found for kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. The MIC50 of minocycline for P. multocida was 0.5 micrograms/ml and there was no cross resistance with the other tetracyclines. P. multocida was very susceptible to ampicillin (MIC50 less than or equal to 0.03 micrograms/ml), P. haemolytica, however, was 100% resistant to this drug. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to cephalothin and approximately 50% of the strains of both bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 of either spiramycin or tylosin was greater than or equal to their respective breakpoint-MIC values. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. However, for P. multocida, the addition of sulphamethoxazole to trimethoprim had no synergistic effect on its MIC. In comparison with trimethorpim, aditoprim was less potent. Therefore only P. multocida was susceptible to aditoprim.

  13. "Emergence of Multidrug Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections"

    OpenAIRE

    R Moniri; Khorshidi, A; H Akbari

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli has complicated treatment decision and may lead to treatment failures. From April to November 2001 we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), gentamicin, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin in 220 Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in kashan, Iran. To assess the current breadth of multidrug resistance among urinary isolates of E. c...

  14. Aminoglycoside-Resistant Mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Defective in Cytochrome c552 and Nitrate Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, L E; Nicas, Thalia; Holloway, B W; Crowther, Carol

    1980-01-01

    A gentamicin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO503 was selected after ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis. The strain, P. aeruginosa PAO2401 had increased resistance to all aminoglycosides tested but exhibited no change for other antibiotics. The mutation designated aglA (aminoglycoside resistance) was 50% cotransducible with the 8-min ilvB,C marker on the P. aeruginosa chromosome. It showed a marked reduction in cytochrome c552 and nitrate reductase (Nar) and a change in terminal...

  15. Long-term comparison of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae O1 and Shigella species between urban and rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klontz, Erik H; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Dilruba; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Klontz, Karl C

    2014-05-01

    From 2000 to 2012, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Shigella species isolates from urban Dhaka and rural Matlab were tested for resistance to all clinically relevant antibiotics in Bangladesh. Resistances in urban and rural Bangladesh tended to rise and fall together, especially a few years after the introduction of new resistance.

  16. A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung-Hwan Park; Hee-Seung Park; Ho-Yun Jang; Namkyun Im

    2014-01-01

    .... This reduces the area of the sinking surface of the boat to increase air resistance. Air resistance means the resistance that occurs when the hull and deck house over the surface of the water come in contact with the air current...

  17. Comparison of Super-Hydrophobicity and Corrosion Resistance of Micro-Nano Structured Nickel and Nickel- Cobalt Alloy Coatings on Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorsand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Super-hydrophobic nickel and nickel-cobalt alloy coatings with micro-nano structure were successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates with one and two steps electrodeposition. Surface morphology, wettability and corrosion  resistance were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedanc spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results showed that the wettability of the micro-nano Ni and Ni-Co films varied from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity by exposure of the surface to air at room temperature. The corrosion results revealed the positive effect of hydrophobicity on corrosion resistance of Ni coating (~10 times and Ni-Co coating (~100 times in comparison with their fresh coatings. The results showed that super-hydrophobic nickel coating had higher corrosion resistance than super-hydrophobic nickel-cobalt coating.

  18. A comparison of environmental contamination by patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelson, Lauren P; Williams, David A; Gergen, Maria F; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 1,023 environmental surfaces were sampled from 45 rooms with patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) before terminal room cleaning. Colonized patients had higher median total target colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA or VRE than did infected patients (median, 25 CFU [interquartile range, 0-106 CFU] vs 0 CFU [interquartile range, 0-29 CFU]; P = .033).

  19. Association of the novel aminoglycoside resistance determinant RmtF with NDM carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in India and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Laura; Hopkins, Katie L; Gutierrez, Belen;

    2013-01-01

    16S rRNA methyltransferases are an emerging mechanism conferring high-level resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides and have been associated with important mechanisms such as NDM-1. We sought genes encoding these enzymes in isolates highly resistant (MIC >200 mg/L) to gentamicin and ami...

  20. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Pork Processing Plant and Its Respective Meat Markets in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    ) being predominant (42.3%, 33/78). Antimicrobial resistance was most frequently observed for tetracycline (20.5%, 16/78), streptomycin (9.0%, 7/78), cefotaxime (7.7%, 6/78), and gentamicin (6.4%, 5/78). Multiple resistances occurred among 10.2% (8/78) isolates. All strains were sensitive to ampicillin...

  1. Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for control of vertigo in unilateral Meniere's disease : a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Rolf J.; Kingma, Charlotte M.; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Van Der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions. Intratympanic application of gentamicin is a relatively safe and efficient treatment for the reduction of complaints of vertigo attacks associated with Meniere's disease. The treatment also reduces the severity of the perceived aural fullness. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness

  2. Protective Effect of Hexane and Ethanol Extract of Piper Longum L. on Gentamicin-Induced Hair Cell Loss in Neonatal Cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. L. (PL...

  3. Adaptation of microvolume EMIT assays for theophylline, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, primidone, ethosuximide, and gentamicin to a CentrifiChem chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, D; Haven, G T; Kiser, E J

    1983-01-01

    We have developed microvolume EMIT procedures for theophylline, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, primidone, ethosuximide, and gentamicin using a centrifugal analyzer (CentrifiChem and Pipettor 1000) to reduce the manufacturer's recommended manual reagent consumption by one-sixth. In addition to developing the EMIT procedure, the performance of the analyzer and pipettor were verified. The analyzer and pipettor are capable of producing within-run precision at a 3-microliters sample volume and 210-microliters analyzer cuvette volume equal to or less than 1.5%. The performance of the EMIT procedures on the analyzer yielded spike drug recoveries of 90.8 to 106.1% for drug concentrations throughout the calibration concentration range of each assay. The percent error on standard reference material of the National Bureau of Standards ranged from a +12.0% to a -0.6% for ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone. Patient comparison data yielded slopes from 0.930 to 1.110 for all assays. The other important feature of the adapted EMIT assay is its simplicity for use on a routine basis.

  4. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  5. Identification and characterization of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    Full Text Available Four streptomycin-resistant isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2 were examined via PCR amplification for the presence of class 1, class 2, and class 3 integrons and aadA1 and aadA2 genes, which confer resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The class 1 integrase gene intI1 and the aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase gene aadA1 were identified in all four resistant isolates but not in 25 sensitive isolates. PCR amplifications showed that 7790-bp, 7162-bp, 7790-bp, and 7240-bp resistance integrons with transposition gene modules (tni module in 3' conserved segments existed in YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2, respectively. Subsequent analysis of sequences indicated that the integrons of YNA7-1 and YNA11-2 carried three gene cassettes in the order |aacA3|arr3|aadA1|. The integron of YNA10-2 carried only |arr3|aadA1| gene cassettes. The integron of YNA12-2 lacked a 550-bp sequence including part of intI1 but it still carried |aacA3|arr3|aadA1| gene cassettes. The analysis of inactive mutants and complementation tests confirmed that the aacA3 gene conferred resistance to tobramycin, kanamycin, gentamicin and netilmicin; the arr3 gene conferred resistance to rifampicin; and the aadA1 gene conferred resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The resistance phenotypes of the four isolates corresponded with their resistance gene cassettes, except that YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 did not show rifampicin resistance. Sequence comparison revealed that no gene cassette array in GenBank was in the same order as in the integrons of the four resistant isolates in this study and the aadA1, which was identical in the four resistant isolates, showed 99% identity with aadA1 sequences in GenBank. The result of a stability test showed that the resistance phenotype, the aadA1 gene, and the intI1 gene were completely stable in YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 but unstable in YNA10-2 and YNA11-2. To our knowledge, this is the first

  6. Evaluation of gentamicin and lidocaine release profile from gum acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-27

    In this manuscript an attempt has been made to incorporate both, antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into the gum acacia-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogel for wound dressing application. Drug release, gel strength, network parameter, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation properties of hydrogel have been evaluated. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. The release of these drugs occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile of the drugs was best fitted in first order kinetic model.

  7. Nephro-protective effect of vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin associated nephrotoxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Ahmad, Bashir; Rehman, Kanwal; Mahmood, Saeed; Alam, Maqsood; Erum, Alia

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress causes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to nephrotoxicity. An aminoglycoside, gentamicin, has pronounced nephrotoxic effect in humans and animals and this study was planned to observe the nephro-protective effect of antioxidants, vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and antioxidant activity were measured as indicators of nephrotoxicity for all the groups of rabbits. Results showed that vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil both had nephro-protective effect as they lowered the values of nephrotoxicity indicators (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and antioxidant activity) as compared to gentamicin control group values. When these two antioxidants were given as combination, they proved to have synergistic nephro-protective effect.

  8. RELEASE OF GENTAMICIN FROM CEMENT SPACERS IN TWO-STAGE PROCEDURES FOR HIP AND KNEE PROSTHETIC INFECTION: AN IN VIVO PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY WITH CLINICAL FOLLOW-UP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balato, G; Ascione, T; Rosa, D; Pagliano, P; Solarino, G; Moretti, B; Mariconda, M

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen patients undergoing two-stage exchange arthroplasty for infected total hip or knee arthroplasty using gentamicin-loaded bone cement spacers (80g bone cement, 2 g gentamicin and 2 g clindamycin) were studied. The concentration of gentamicin eluted from the spacers was assessed on samples of blood, urine, and drainage fluid that were collected from each patient at set intervals during the 48 hours following the first-stage surgery. The hip and knee cement spacers showed similar curve of release over the first postoperative hours (early peak followed by slow release), but the mean gentamicin concentration in the drainage fluid was higher in patients with hip spacers compared to patients with knee spacers (30.61±19.47 mg/L vs 17.43±13,63 mg/L, p less than 0.05). In patients with hip spacers, the mean, maximum, and minimum concentration of gentamicin was higher with respect to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) break point for Staphylococcus spp, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the first postoperative 48 h. Conversely, in 25% of patients with a knee spacer a drug concentration below the MIC break point for Gram negative bacteria was found in the drainage fluid after 12 h. Gentamicin levels in the blood samples were negligible over the entire time interval and were steadily well below the renal toxicity reference. The highest urinary concentration of gentamicin was observed between 4 and 9 h postoperatively. Subsequently, it gradually declined until 48 h. Clinically, the rate of cure was 100% at a mean follow-up of 113 weeks (range 90-182). Gentamicin-loaded cement spacers offer the advantage of achieving early high concentrations of the antibiotic directly at the site of infection but especially in the knee a systemic antibiotic therapy must be given as a complement to the spacer implantation to eradicate periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

  9. Assessing the relative importance of environmental effects, carry-over effects and species differences in thermal stress resistance: a comparison of Drosophilids across field and laboratory generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Michele; Hangartner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-10-15

    There is increasing interest in comparing species of related organisms for their susceptibility to thermal extremes in order to evaluate potential vulnerability to climate change. Comparisons are typically undertaken on individuals collected from the field with or without a period of acclimation. However, this approach does not allow the potential contributions of environmental and carry-over effects across generations to be separated from inherent species differences in susceptibility. To assess the importance of these different sources of variation, we here considered heat and cold resistance in Drosophilid species from tropical and temperate sites in the field and across two laboratory generations. Resistance in field-collected individuals tended to be lower when compared with F1 and F2 laboratory generations, and species differences in field flies were only weakly correlated to differences established under controlled rearing conditions, unlike in F1-F2 comparisons. This reflected large environmental effects on resistance associated with different sites and conditions experienced within sites. For the 8 h cold recovery assay there was no strong evidence of carry-over effects, whereas for the heat knockdown and 2 h cold recovery assays there was some evidence for such effects. However, for heat these were species specific in direction. Variance components for inherent species differences were substantial for resistance to heat and 8 h cold stress, but small for 2 h cold stress, though this may be a reflection of the species being considered in the comparisons. These findings highlight that inherent differences among species are difficult to characterise accurately without controlling for environmental sources of variation and carry-over effects. Moreover, they also emphasise the complex nature of carry-over effects that vary depending on the nature of stress traits and the species being evaluated.

  10. Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry for Gentamicin and its use for studying uptake of the drug in kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujiwara, Kunio; Shin, Masashi; Matsunaga, Hayato

    2009-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic but shows renal toxicity. We produced a serum against GM (anti-GM) conjugated to bovine serum albumin with N-(gamma-maleimidobutyryloxy)succinimide. The antiserum was monospecific for GM and did not cross-react with the analog streptomycin, tobramycin...... compartments. This approach should be useful for accurately detecting the uptake and toxicity of the antibiotic in different tissues....

  11. Kinetics of kill of bacterial conjunctivitis isolates with moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, compared with the aminoglycosides tobramycin and gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph S Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudolph S Wagner1, David B Granet2, Steven J Lichtenstein3, Tiffany Jamison4, Joseph J Dajcs4, Robert D Gross5, Paul Cockrum41New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Ratner Children’s Eye Center, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, USA; 4Alcon Research, Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To compare the kinetics and speed of kill of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae on exposure to three topical ophthalmic antibiotic solutions.Materials and methods: Bacterial conjunctivitis isolates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were exposed to 1:1000 dilutions of moxifloxacin 0.5%, tobramycin 0.3%, gentamicin 0.3%, and water (control. At 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after exposure, aliquots were collected, cells were cultured, and viable cell counts were determined using standard microbiological methods.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved 99.9% kill (3-log reduction at approximately 2 hours for S. pneumoniae and at 15 minutes for H. influenzae. Tobramycin and gentamicin did not achieve 3-log reduction of S. pneumoniae during the 180-minute study period. An increase in bacterial growth was noted for these isolates. Gentamicin took more than 120 minutes to achieve the 3-log reduction of H. influenzae and tobramycin did not reach the 3-log reduction of this pathogen during the 180-minute study period.Conclusion: Moxifloxacin killed S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in vitro faster than tobramycin and gentamicin, suggesting its potential clinical benefit as a first-line treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis to minimize patient symptoms and to limit the contagiousness of the disease.Keywords: kinetics of kill, bacterial conjunctivitis, in vitro, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides

  12. Evaluation of biochemical effects of Casuarina equisetifolia extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Phytochemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Mohamed, Shaza Abdel-Halim; Abd Al Haleem, Ekram Nemr

    2013-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is defined as renal dysfunction that arises as result of exposure to external agents such as drugs and environmental chemicals. The present work was undertaken to carry out the phytochemical study and nephroprotective activity of methanolic extract of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Subcutaneous injection of rats with gen...

  13. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved b...... by intrafistular placement of a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and soaked in metronidazole solution and pouch drainage through a transanal Foley catheter....

  14. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved b...... by intrafistular placement of a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and soaked in metronidazole solution and pouch drainage through a transanal Foley catheter....

  15. Influence of osmotic and oncotic factors on gentamicin and insulin transport across the peritoneal membrane in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Teresa; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Szary, Beata; Czyzewska, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    Glucose or its polymer is usually added to dialysis solution for the development of sufficient ultrafiltration during peritoneal dialysis. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of glucose and icodextrin on the transport of gentamicin and insulin from the mesothelial to the interstitial side of the peritoneal membrane. Transfer values are expressed as a coefficient of diffusive permeability, P, in centimeters per second. Each of the molecules was tested in 3 series of experiments using rabbit parietal peritoneum, a modified Ussing chamber, and a mathematical model of mass transport. First, transperitoneal transfers of gentamicin (0.040 g/dL) and insulin (0.1 g/dL) were analyzed in control conditions for 120 minutes. Then, transport parameters for gentamicin and insulin were separately determined before (15-60 minutes) and after (75-120 minutes or 75-130 minutes) the application of glucose (1.8 g/dL) or icodextrin (2 g/ dL) on the mesothelial side of the peritoneal membrane. Insulin transport was observed to be stable in the control series. Gentamicin transfer was not stable; its passage declined by 52% (p insulin, the mean P (+ standard error of the mean) was 0.15 +/- 0.02 cm/s (x0.0001) at the first hour of transfer and 0.14 - 0.02 cm/s (x0.0001) at the second. Glucose induced a nonsignificant intensification of insulin transport. Icodextrin increased insulin passage by 107% (p insulin transport from the mesothelial to the interstitial side of the peritoneum. Similar modifications might be observed in vivo during peritoneal dialysis or continuous intraperitoneal administration of insulin, influencing the efficiency of those treatments.

  16. Electrochemical oxidation of drug residues in water by the example of tetracycline, gentamicin and Aspirin {sup trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management, Univ. of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation as a method to destroy drug residues like Aspirin {sup trademark}, tetracycline or gentamicin in water was investigated with C-Anode (modified by manganese oxides) and Pt Anode. The mechanism of Aspirin {sup trademark} and tetracycline oxidation and the influence of the biocide effect was observed using GC-MS and three different microbiological tests. In general the biological availability increases with progressive oxidation of the antibiotics. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of Two Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    W. Paul Williams; Michael N. Alpe; Gary L. Windham; Seval Ozkan; J Erik Mylroie

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination are generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin. Developing resistant hybrids requires reliable inoculation methods for screening maize germplasm for resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. The side-needle technique is a widely u...

  18. NaHS Protects Cochlear Hair Cells from Gentamicin-Induced Ototoxicity by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Dong

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin could cause ototoxicity in mammalians, by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in sensory hair cells of the cochlea. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS is reported to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis, but its role in protecting aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect of NaHS in in vitro cultured House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1 cells and isolated mouse cochlea. Results from cultured HEI-OC1 cells and cochlea consistently indicated that NaHS exhibited protective effects from gentamicin-induced ototoxicity, evident by maintained cell viability, hair cell number and cochlear morphology, reduced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, as well as apoptosis activation of the intrinsic pathway. Moreover, in the isolated cochlear culture, NaHS was also demonstrated to protect the explant from gentamicin-induced mechanotransduction loss. Our study using multiple in vitro models revealed for the first time, the potential of NaHS as a therapeutic agent in protecting against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.

  19. NaHS Protects Cochlear Hair Cells from Gentamicin-Induced Ototoxicity by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaodong; Liu, Dongliang; Hu, Yue; Ma, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin could cause ototoxicity in mammalians, by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in sensory hair cells of the cochlea. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) is reported to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis, but its role in protecting aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect of NaHS in in vitro cultured House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells and isolated mouse cochlea. Results from cultured HEI-OC1 cells and cochlea consistently indicated that NaHS exhibited protective effects from gentamicin-induced ototoxicity, evident by maintained cell viability, hair cell number and cochlear morphology, reduced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, as well as apoptosis activation of the intrinsic pathway. Moreover, in the isolated cochlear culture, NaHS was also demonstrated to protect the explant from gentamicin-induced mechanotransduction loss. Our study using multiple in vitro models revealed for the first time, the potential of NaHS as a therapeutic agent in protecting against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. PMID:26295804

  20. Evaluation of biochemical effects of Casuarina equisetifolia extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Mohamed, Shaza Abdel-Halim; Abd Al Haleem, Ekram Nemr

    2013-11-01

    Nephrotoxicity is defined as renal dysfunction that arises as result of exposure to external agents such as drugs and environmental chemicals. The present work was undertaken to carry out the phytochemical study and nephroprotective activity of methanolic extract of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Subcutaneous injection of rats with gentamicin (80 mg/kg body weight/day) for six consecutive days induced marked acute renal toxicity, manifested by a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and uric acid levels, along with a significant depletion of serum potassium level, compared to normal controls. Also oxidative stress was noticed in renal tissue as evidenced by a significant decrease in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, also a significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels when compared to control group. Administration of plant extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks restored normal renal functions and attenuated oxidative stress. In conclusion, Casuarina equisetifolia leaves extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage by scavenging oxygen free radicals, decreasing lipid peroxidation and improving intracellular antioxidant defense, thus extract may be used as nephroprotective agent.

  1. Determination of gentamicin sulfate and related compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarot, I; Chaimbault, P; Hasdenteufel, F; Netter, P; Nicolas, A

    2004-03-26

    A rapid and simple method for the separation and quantitation of gentamicin sulfate by HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) has been developed. Detection of the different components of gentamicin is problematic because of the lack of UV absorbing chromophore. The use of the universal ELSD avoids the need for sample derivatization or use of specific detector such as pulsed amperometry. Separation was performed on a highpurity C18 125 mm x 4 mm i.d., 3 microm, reversed phase column with 48.5 mM trifluoroacetic acid-methanol (97:3, v/v), as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The influence of the gas nature, gas pressure and temperature of the drift tube of the detector on the detection response was investigated. Optimization was performed with the help of a specific experimental design software. This method allows the determination of the composition in components C1, C1a, C2, C2a and C2b of gentamicin sulfate samples. Mass spectrometry was employed to confirm the ELSD chromatographic profile. The method was validated using methodology described by the International Conference of Harmonization in the field of Medicinal Substances. Commercial samples of different sources were analyzed and results were in good agreement with specifications of both European and United States Pharmacopoeia.

  2. Quantitative assessment of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring DNAPLs migration - Comparison with high-resolution light transmission visualization in laboratory sandbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaping; Shi, Xiaoqing; Xu, Hongxia; Sun, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jichun; Revil, André

    2017-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) migration and distribution is essential for the decision of an effective remediation strategy. Light transmission visualization (LTV) has shown its accuracy and efficiency for measuring DNAPLs saturation and water content in the laboratory, but it cannot be implemented in three dimensional sandbox or field-scale sites. Recently developed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been applied in monitoring the migration and distribution of DNAPLs in bench- and field-scale studies. However, the evaluation of the ability of ERT for monitoring DNAPLs migration by a direct comparison of ERT with high-resolution techniques such as LTV within an experimental system is still lacking. Two sandbox experiments with different permeability conditions are conducted to quantitatively assess the capability of ERT for monitoring the DNAPLs migration. During the injections, LTV method is used to visualize the DNAPLs migration and provide high-resolution saturation data while ERT method is applied to capture the change of resistivity. The results from the comparison between LTV and ERT methods show that ERT is successful in detecting the accumulation and flow bypassing phenomenon around the low-permeability lenses, as well as the penetration through the high-permeability lenses. There is a fair correlation between the resistivity and saturation with overall correlation coefficients above 0.6, except at last stage. However, using classical regularization techniques (based on smoothness), the area of DNAPLs plume determined by ERT is commonly overestimated. Compared to the plume around the low-permeability lenses, the plume around the high-permeability lenses estimated by ERT is more extensive due to larger resistivity contrasts. In addition, ERT measurements indicate that the resistivity increase caused by the low-saturation DNAPLs is not apparent enough, which is likely to be covered up under the changing

  3. [Preliminary results of antibiotic resistance monitoring in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van der Giessen, A; van Leeuwen, W J

    2000-03-01

    Qualitative tests are used to monitor antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin in the Netherlands. Quantitative information on trends in resistance is thus not obtained. Moreover, in general a limited panel of antibiotics is tested. The present study describes resistance in zoonotic food-borne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli O157 isolated from human clinical cases and from faeces of healthy food animals in 1998 and 1999, as determined with quantitative susceptibility tests. The resistance of the indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from faecal samples of broilers and pigs randomly sampled at slaughterhouses was also determined. For this end, faecal samples from veal calves were sampled in 1996 and 1997 at the three main Dutch veal calf slaughterhouses. In 1998 only a limited number of faecal samples of veal calves were taken at farms. For E. coli and Salmonella the following antibiotics were tested: amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, gentamicin, doxycycline, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, carbadox, and flumequine. For E. faecium the following antibiotics were tested: amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, streptomycin ('high level' > 2000 mg/ml), gentamicin ('high level' > 500 mg/ml), ciprofloxacin, bacitracin, flavofosfolipol, salinomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, virginiamycin, tilmicosin, avilamycin, and everninomycin. For Campylobacter the following antibiotics were tested: erythromycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, carbadox, flavofosfolipol, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole.

  4. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gentamicin sulfate-loaded porous natural rubber films for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Issarayungyuen, Pongsathorn; Pichayakorn, Wiwat

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial wound dressings have been developed for effectiveness of wound therapy. In this study, gentamicin sulfate was loaded into modified porous natural rubber films. The hydrophilic porous structure in natural rubber films was formed when the polar liquid such as glycerin or triethyl citrate and hydrophilic xanthan gum were blended. Film properties including morphology, drug release, water sorption and erosion, mechanical property, adhesive property, surface free energy, water vapor transmission rate, oxygen permeation, and antimicrobial activity were determined. The angiogenesis activity of films was investigated using chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. For the system containing triethyl citrate, bi-layers comprising of a dense-top layer and a high porous-bottom layer were observed. Xanthan gum enhanced the water sorption capacity and modified to obtain the optimum rate of the drug release from the film. The developed film topography with dense-top layer induced the low adhesive property, water vapor and oxygen permeability whereas demonstrated good antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with angiogenic activity. Therefore it had the potential use for medicated wound dressing.

  6. Melatonin prevents gentamicin-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Lee, I-C; Baek, H-S; Shin, I-S; Moon, C; Kim, S-H; Yun, W-K; Nam, K-H; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MT) against gentamicin (GM)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. GM (100 mg kg(-1) ) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats for 6 days. MT (15 mg kg(-1) ) was administered i.p. to rats for 6 days at 1 hr after the GM treatment. GM caused a decrease in prostate and seminal vesicle weights, sperm count and sperm motility. Histopathological examination showed various morphological alterations in the testis, characterised by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, decrease in the number of early spermatogenic cells and vacuolisation. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content and glutathione reductase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were found in the testis. In contrast, MT treatment significantly attenuated the testicular toxicity of GM, including decreased reproductive organ weights, sperm count, and sperm motility and increased histopathological alterations. MT also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing the lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde and increasing the level of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testis. These results indicate that MT prevents testicular toxicity induced by GM in rats, presumably due to its potent antioxidant activity, and its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, and restore antioxidant enzyme activity.

  7. Gentamicin rapidly inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in high-frequency cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Jensen-Smith

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides (AG, including gentamicin (GM, are the most frequently used antibiotics in the world and are proposed to cause irreversible cochlear damage and hearing loss (HL in 1/4 of the patients receiving these life-saving drugs. Akin to the results of AG ototoxicity studies, high-frequency, basal turn outer hair cells (OHCs preferentially succumb to multiple HL pathologies while inner hair cells (IHCs are much more resilient. To determine if endogenous differences in IHC and OHC mitochondrial metabolism dictate differential sensitivities to AG-induced HL, IHC- and OHC-specific changes in mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH fluorescence during acute (1 h GM treatment were compared. GM-mediated decreases in NADH fluorescence and succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed shortly after GM application. High-frequency basal turn OHCs were found to be metabolically biased to rapidly respond to alterations in their microenvironment including GM and elevated glucose exposures. These metabolic biases may predispose high-frequency OHCs to preferentially produce cell-damaging reactive oxygen species during traumatic challenge. Noise-induced and age-related HL pathologies share key characteristics with AG ototoxicity, including preferential OHC loss and reactive oxygen species production. Data from this report highlight the need to address the role of mitochondrial metabolism in regulating AG ototoxicity and the need to illuminate how fundamental differences in IHC and OHC metabolism may dictate differences in HC fate during multiple HL pathologies.

  8. Autophagic flux, a possible mechanism for delayed gentamicin-induced ototoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ju; Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Jangho; Shin, Beomyong; Choo, Oak-Sung; Kim, You-Sun; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics including gentamicin (GM) induce delayed ototoxic effects such as hearing loss after long-term use, unlike the early-onset ototoxicity caused by cisplatin. The purpose of the study was to identify the mechanism of the delayed GM-induced ototoxicity by exploring the role of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Treating HEI-OC1 auditory cells with GM led to a time-dependent increase of the autophagosome marker LC3-II, which was accompanied by cell death. In contrast, cisplatin and penicillin caused a rapid increase and had no effect on LC3-II levels, respectively. LC3-II-expressing autophagosomes co-localized with the labeled GM. GM-treated autophagosomes expressed reduced levels of Rab7, which is necessary for the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. When the autophagic flux enhancer rapamycin was applied to GM-treated cells, Rab7 and the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D were upregulated, and increased cell survival was observed. In animal studies, the intraperitoneal injection of GM worsened hearing thresholds and induced the accumulation of LC3 in the organ of Corti. This hearing impairment was attenuated by rapamycin. These findings suggest that the delayed onset-ototoxicity of GM may be closely related to the accumulation of autophagosomes via impaired autophagy. This GM-induced auditory cell death could be inhibited by enhancing autophagic flux. PMID:28145495

  9. Transient ischemia/hypoxia enhances gentamicin ototoxicity via caspase-dependent cell death pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Der; Kao, Ming-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lai, Chih-Ho; Wei, I-Hua; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2011-07-01

    Aminoglycoside ototoxicity is a common cause of drug-induced hearing loss. Toxicity is dose related, but some patients may still develop hearing loss even under safe dosage. Apart for genetic idiosyncrasy, indirect evidences imply that ischemia may increase the aminoglycoside ototoxic sensitivity because common clinical situations associated with cochlear ischemia such as noise, sepsis, and shock are known to augment the development of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. At present, a direct interaction of cochlear ischemia and aminoglycoside ototoxicity is still lacking. This study demonstrated a direct evidence of increased gentamicin (GM) ototoxic sensitivity in chronic guinea pig models of transient cochlear ischemia. No permanent auditory changes were observed after a single dose of GM (125 mg/kg) or after transient cochlear ischemia for 30 min. Persistent and significant auditory threshold shift was detected when GM was given after transient cochlear ischemia. Cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons are the major regions affected. Apoptosis contributes to hair cell death during acute interaction of ischemia and GM ototoxicity. Increased apoptotic cell death was also depicted when GM crossreacted with hypoxia in vitro, using cochlear cell lines. Generation of reactive oxygen species, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium release, and caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death were shown during the interaction of hypoxia and GM ototoxicity in vitro. This synergistic ototoxicity may be critical to aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss in clinical scenarios. The results should improve our understanding of the interacting mechanism and potential preventive strategy to aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

  10. Administration of BMSCs with muscone in rats with gentamicin-induced AKI improves their therapeutic efficacy.

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    Pengfei Liu

    Full Text Available The therapeutic action of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs in acute kidney injury (AKI has been reported by several groups. However, recent studies indicated that BMSCs homed to kidney tissues at very low levels after transplantation. The lack of specific homing of exogenously infused cells limited the effective implementation of BMSC-based therapies. In this study, we provided evidence that the administration of BMSCs combined with muscone in rats with gentamicin-induced AKI intravenously, was a feasible strategy to drive BMSCs to damaged tissues and improve the BMSC-based therapeutic effect. The effect of muscone on BMSC bioactivity was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that muscone could promote BMSC migration and proliferation. Some secretory capacity of BMSC still could be improved in some degree. The BMSC-based therapeutic action was ameliorated by promoting the recovery of biochemical variables in urine or blood, as well as the inhibition of cell apoptosis and inflammation. In addition, the up-regulation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in BMSCs could be the possible mechanism of muscone amelioration. Thus, our study indicated that enhancement of BMSCs bioactivities with muscone could increase the BMSC therapeutic potential and further developed a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AKI.

  11. Curcumin Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Mitochondrial Alterations: Possible Role of a Mitochondrial Biogenesis Mechanism

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    Mario Negrette-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that curcumin (CUR, a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, exerts a protective effect against gentamicin- (GM- induced nephrotoxicity in rats, associated with a preservation of the antioxidant status. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the GM-induced renal injury, the role of CUR in mitochondrial protection has not been studied. In this work, LLC-PK1 cells were preincubated 24 h with CUR and then coincubated 48 h with CUR and 8 mM GM. Treatment with CUR attenuated GM-induced drop in cell viability and led to an increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α cell expression attenuating GM-induced losses in these proteins. In vivo, Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with GM (75 mg/Kg/12 h during 7 days to develop kidney mitochondrial alterations. CUR (400 mg/Kg/day was administered orally 5 days before and during the GM exposure. The GM-induced mitochondrial alterations in ultrastructure and bioenergetics as well as decrease in activities of respiratory complexes I and IV and induction of calcium-dependent permeability transition were mostly attenuated by CUR. Protection of CUR against GM-induced nephrotoxicity could be in part mediated by maintenance of mitochondrial functions and biogenesis with some participation of the nuclear factor Nrf2.

  12. Curcumin Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Mitochondrial Alterations: Possible Role of a Mitochondrial Biogenesis Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrette-Guzmán, Mario; García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Madero, Magdalena; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that curcumin (CUR), a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, exerts a protective effect against gentamicin- (GM-) induced nephrotoxicity in rats, associated with a preservation of the antioxidant status. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the GM-induced renal injury, the role of CUR in mitochondrial protection has not been studied. In this work, LLC-PK1 cells were preincubated 24 h with CUR and then coincubated 48 h with CUR and 8 mM GM. Treatment with CUR attenuated GM-induced drop in cell viability and led to an increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) cell expression attenuating GM-induced losses in these proteins. In vivo, Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with GM (75 mg/Kg/12 h) during 7 days to develop kidney mitochondrial alterations. CUR (400 mg/Kg/day) was administered orally 5 days before and during the GM exposure. The GM-induced mitochondrial alterations in ultrastructure and bioenergetics as well as decrease in activities of respiratory complexes I and IV and induction of calcium-dependent permeability transition were mostly attenuated by CUR. Protection of CUR against GM-induced nephrotoxicity could be in part mediated by maintenance of mitochondrial functions and biogenesis with some participation of the nuclear factor Nrf2.

  13. Comparison of multi-drug resistant environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolated from recreational beaches and high touch surfaces in built environments

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    Marilyn C Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n=296, high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n=294, surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n=85, and the local community (n=130. Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying 2-6 different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B and tetracycline, with the majority [72%] carrying 4-6 different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment.

  14. Longitudinal Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance in Diarrheagenic and Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli from Young Tanzanian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Jessica C.; Johnson, Lashaunda B.; Levens, Joshua; Mkocha, Harran; Muñoz, Beatriz; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; West, Sheila K.; Coles, Christian L.

    2016-01-01

    Enteroaggregative, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contribute significantly to the burden of diarrheal infections particularly in developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is increasingly common among bacterial pathogens including pathogenic E. coli. We assessed the relationship between pathogenic E. coli carriage and resistance to six antibiotics in E. coli isolated from young children in rural Tanzania. We surveyed temporal stability in antibiotic resistance in 2492 E. coli isolated from fecal samples obtained from young children in rural Tanzania collected over a 6 months period. Approximately half of the 377 children sampled were exposed to an azithromycin mass treatment program for trachoma control and half resided in control villages. Children were sampled at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6 months following azithromycin treatment. We compared resistance to six antibiotics in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains at the population level, within fecal specimens, and within individuals over time using chi-square tests, paired odds ratios, and logistic regression, respectively. Resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was highly prevalent (>65%). Resistance to 5 of 6 antibiotics tested and multi-drug resistance occurred more frequently in pathogenic isolates (p ≤ 0.001) within fecal specimens and overall. Azithromycin mass treatment exposure was significantly associated with increased odds of carriage of isolates resistant to erythromycin (OR 3.64, p < 0.001) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (OR 1.60, p < 0.05). Pathogenic isolates were approximately twice as likely to be resistant to erythromycin, ampicillin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole compared to non-pathogenic isolates from the same fecal specimen. The potential linkage between resistance and virulence in E. coli suggests hygiene and sanitation interventions aimed at reducing disease burden could play a role in controlling transmission of antibiotic resistance. PMID

  15. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  16. Comparison of fracture resistance of teeth restored with ceramic inlay and resin composite: An in vitro study

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    Priti D Desai

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The fracture resistant strength of teeth restored with ceramic inlay was comparable to that of the normal intact teeth or slightly higher, while teeth restored with direct composite resin restoration showed less fracture resistant strength than that of the normal teeth.

  17. Comparison of direct inter-filament resistance measurement on Nb3Sn strands between University of Twente and ENEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Nijhuis, Arend; Breschi, M.; Spina, T.; Della Corte, A.; Corato, V.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results of interfilament resistance measurements obtained with different facilities are compared. Two internal tin Nb3Sn strand types are tested at the University of Twente (UT) and ENEA Frascati. The direct interfilament resistance is measured with a standard four-point voltage-current

  18. Comparison of the effect of inhaled anaesthetic with intravenous anaesthetic on pulmonary vascular resistance measurement during cardiac catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Leonie A; White, Michelle; Tulloh, Robert M R

    2015-02-01

    Children with pulmonary hypertension routinely undergo pulmonary vascular resistance studies to assess the disease severity and vasodilator responsiveness. It is vital that results are accurate and reliable and are not influenced by the choice of anaesthetic agent. However, there are anecdotal data to suggest that propofol and inhalational agents have different effects on pulmonary vascular resistance. A total of 10 children with pulmonary hypertension were selected sequentially to be included in the study. To avoid confounding because of baseline anatomic or demographic details, a crossover protocol was implemented, using propofol or isoflurane, with time for washout in between each agent and blinding of the interventionalist. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance were not significantly different when using propofol or isoflurane. However, the calculated resistance fraction - ratio of pulmonary resistance to systemic resistance - was significantly lower when using propofol than when using isoflurane. Although no difference in pulmonary vascular resistance was demonstrated, this pilot study suggests that the choice of anaesthetic agent may affect the calculation of relative pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, and provides some preliminary evidence to favour propofol over isoflurane. These findings require replication in a larger study, and thus they should be considered in future calculations to make informed decisions about the management of children with pulmonary hypertension.

  19. A novel multidrug resistance plasmid isolated from an Escherichia coli strain resistant to aminoglycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Li, Shasha; Xie, Zhijing; Yang, Fangfang; Sun, Yani; Zhu, Yanli; Zhao, Xiaomin; Jiang, Shijin

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have reported several different plasmids that confer multidrug resistance (MDR) including resistance to aminoglycosides. In this study, we investigated the aminoglycoside resistance patterns for 224 Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens and ducks in China, characterized a novel MDR plasmid, and collected prevalence data on similar resistance plasmids. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined using disc diffusion and the microdilution method. The plasmid pXZ was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with EcoRI and SalI, and sequenced. The prevalence of similar resistance plasmids was assessed by multiplex PCR and by RFLP analysis. Among the 224 E. coli isolates, 189 (84.4%) were resistant to streptomycin, 125 (55.8%) were resistant to kanamycin, 116 (51.8%) were resistant to gentamicin, 106 (47.3%) were resistant to neomycin and 98 (43.8%) were resistant to amikacin. Among the 224 E. coli isolates, 17 contained a plasmid with the MDR-encoding region of pXZ, which showed high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (MICs of gentamicin and amikacin ≥ 512 mg/L). The plasmid pXZ was digested into five fragments by EcoRI and six fragments by SalI. The plasmid pXZ was a circular DNA molecule of 76635 bp with a 51.65% guanine + cytosine content and included four resistance genes (rmtB, fosA3, bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M-24)). A novel MDR plasmid, pXZ, harbouring four resistance genes (rmtB, fosA3, bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M)) was identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an aminoglycoside resistance plasmid harbouring the fosA3 gene.

  20. Longitudinal Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance in Diarrheagenic and Non-pathogenic E. coli from Young Tanzanian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Couvillion Seidman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteroaggregative, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli contribute significantly to the burden of diarrheal infections particularly in developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is increasingly common among bacterial pathogens including pathogenic E. coli. We assessed the relationship between pathogenic E. coli carriage and resistance to 6 antibiotics in E. coli isolated from young children in rural Tanzania. We surveyed temporal stability in antibiotic resistance in 2492 E. coli isolated from fecal samples obtained from young children in rural Tanzania collected over a 6 month period. Enteroaggregative, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli contribute significantly to the burden of diarrheal infections particularly in developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is increasingly common among bacterial pathogens including pathogenic E. coli. We assessed the relationship between pathogenic E. coli carriage and resistance to 6 antibiotics in E. coli isolated from young children in rural Tanzania. We surveyed temporal stability in antibiotic resistance in 2492 E. coli isolated from fecal samples obtained from young children in rural Tanzania collected over a 6 month period. Approximately half of the 377 children sampled were exposed to an azithromycin mass treatment program for trachoma control and half resided in control villages. Children were sampled at baseline, 1-, 3- and 6 months following azithromycin treatment. We compared resistance to 6 antibiotics in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains at the population level, within fecal specimens, and within individuals over time using chi-square tests, paired odds ratios, and logistic regression, respectively. Resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was highly prevalent (>65%. Resistance to 5 of 6 antibiotics tested and multi-drug resistance occurred more frequently in pathogenic isolates (p≤0.001 within fecal specimens and overall. Azithromycin mass treatment

  1. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Claudia [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Degoutin, Stephanie [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chai, Feng [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Raoul, Gwenael [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Hornez, Jean-Chritophe [Laboratoire des Matériaux Céramiques et Procédés Associés (LMCPA), Université de Valenciennes, 59300 Valenciennes (France); Martel, Bernard [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Siepmann, Juergen [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Ferri, Joel [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Blanchemain, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.blanchemain@univ-lille2.fr [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the

  2. A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chung-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Planing crafts were specifically designed to achieve relatively high speeds on the water. When a planing craft is running at high speed, dynamic pressure on the bottom makes the boat rise on the surface of the water. This reduces the area of the sinking surface of the boat to increase air resistance. Air resistance means the resistance that occurs when the hull and deck house over the surface of the water come in contact with the air current. In this paper, we carried out a CFD numerical analysis to find optimal deck houses that decreased air-resistance on the water when planing crafts are running at high speed. We finally developed the deck house shape of high-speed planing crafts that optimally decreased air resistance.

  3. Imipenem resistance in nonfermenters causing nosocomial urinary tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja N

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. These organisms show high level of resistance to b-lactam agents, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Imipenem is a carbapenem antibiotic, which can be very useful for treatment of infections caused by nonfermenters. Eighty-five nonfermenters causing nosocomial UTI were tested for MIC to imipenem by agar dilution method. Resistance to other antimicrobial agents was compared between imipenem sensitive (S and resistance (R groups. Overall 36.4% of nonfermenters were resistant to imipenem. Forty two percent of P. aeruginosa and 18.5% of Acinetobacter baumanii were imipenem resistant. Other nonfermenters showed variable resistance, resistance in Alcaligenes spp. being very high. More than 70% of the nonfermenters were resistant to ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Piperacillin and amikacin had the best in vitro susceptibility. No significant difference was found in the antibiotic susceptibility profile among imipenem sensitive (S or resistant (R strains.

  4. Novel Inhibitors of Staphyloxanthin Virulence Factor in Comparison with Linezolid and Vancomycin versus Methicillin-Resistant, Linezolid-Resistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Infections in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shuaishuai; Wei, Hanwen; Li, Baoli; Chen, Feifei; Liu, Yifu; Chen, Wenhua; Xu, Yixiang; Qiu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaokang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Wenwen; Hu, Linhao; Lin, Dazheng; Wang, Manjiong; Zheng, Xinyu; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Lan, Le-Fu; Li, Jian

    2017-09-07

    Our previous work (Wang, et al. J. Med. Chem. 2016, 59, 4831-4848) revealed that effective benzocycloalkane-derived staphyloxanthin inhibitors against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections were accompanied by poor water solubility and high hERG inhibition and dosages (pre-administration). In this study, ninety-two chroman and coumaran derivatives as novel inhibitors have been addressed for overcoming deficiencies above. Derivatives 69 and 105 displayed the excellent pigment inhibitory activities and low hERG inhibition, along with the improvement of solubility by salt type selection. The broad and significantly potent antibacterial spectra of 69 and 105 were displayed firstly with normal administration in the livers and hearts in mice against pigmented S. aureus Newman, Mu50 (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) and NRS271 (linezolid-resistant S. aureus), compared with linezolid and vancomycin. In summary, both 69 and 105 have the potential to be developed as good antibacterial candidates targeting virulence factors.

  5. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  6. Sensitive fluorimetric determination of gentamicin sulfate in biological matrices using solid-phase extraction, pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, D A; Richards, R M

    1996-01-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of gentamicin in bacterial culture medium or plasma with increased sensitivity and improved separation of the C1 component. Gentamicin was extracted from the biological matrix with high efficiency using carboxypropyl (CBA)-bonded silica. Derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) followed by C18 reversed-phase chromatography allowed the fluorimetric detection of gentamicins C1, C1a and C2. A fourth component, considered to be gentamicin C2a, was partially resolved from the C2 peak. Optimal conditions for the extraction and derivatization of gentamicin are described. The detection limit was below 50 micrograms/l, the assay was linear to 5 mg/l and showed good reproducibility. It is concluded that pre-column derivatization with FMOC-Cl substantially improves the analysis of gentamicin compared with present methods based on reaction with o-phthaldialdehyde.

  7. Comparison of the multi-drug resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Bel-7402/ADM model established by three methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Xingguo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the biological characteristics of three types of human hepatocellular carcinoma multi-drug resistant cell sub-lines Bel-7402/ADM models established by three methods. Methods Established human hepatocellular carcinoma adriamycin (ADM multi-drug resistant cell sub-lines models Bel-7402/ADMV, Bel-7402/ADML and Bel-7402/ADMS by three methods of in vitro concentration gradient increased induction, nude mice liver-implanted induction and subcutaneous-implanted induction respectively. Phase contrast microscopy was used to observe the cells and the MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method was used to detect drug resistance of the three different sub-lines of cells. Results The three groups of drug resistant cells, Bel-7402/ADMV, Bel-7402/ADML and Bel-7402/ADMS generated cross-resistance to ADM and CDDP (cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum, but showed a significant difference in resistance to Bel-7402 IC50 value (P V, 46 h (Bel-7402/ADML, and 45 h (Bel-7402/ADMS. The excretion rates of ADM were significantly increased compared with the parent cell (34.14% line and were 81.06% (Bel-7402/ADMV, 66.56% (Bel-7402/ADML and 61.56% (Bel-7402/ADMS. Expression of P-gp and MRP in the three groups of resistant cells was significantly enhanced (P P > 0.05. Conclusions Stable resistance was involved in the resistant cell line model established by the above three methods. Liver implantation was a good simulation of human hepatocellular and proved to be an ideal model with characteristics similar to human hepatocellular biology and the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs.

  8. Gentamicin-induced preconditioning of proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells stimulates nitric oxide production but not the synthesis of heat shock protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Pessoa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of antibiotics such as gentamicin. Preconditioning has been reported to protect against injuries as ischemia/reperfusion. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of preconditioning with gentamicin on LLC-PK1 cells. Preconditioning was induced in LLC-PK1 cells by 24-h exposure to 2.0 mM gentamicin (G/IU. After 4 or 15 days of preconditioning, cells were again exposed to gentamicin (2.0 mM and compared to untreated control or G/IU cells. Necrosis and apoptosis were assessed by acridine orange and HOESCHT 33346. Nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 were assessed by the Griess method and available kit. Heat shock proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. After 15 days of preconditioning, LLC-PK1 cells exhibited a significant decrease in necrosis (23.5 ± 4.3 to 6.5 ± 0.3% and apoptosis (23.5 ± 4.3 to 6.5 ± 2.1% and an increase in cell proliferation compared to G/IU. NO (0.177 ± 0.05 to 0.368 ± 0.073 µg/mg protein and endothelin-1 (1.88 ± 0.47 to 2.75 ± 0.53 pg/mL production significantly increased after 15 days of preconditioning compared to G/IU. No difference in inducible HSP 70, constitutive HSC 70 or HSP 90 synthesis in tubular cells was observed after preconditioning with gentamicin. The present data suggest that preconditioning with gentamicin has protective effects on proximal tubular cells, that involved NO synthesis but not reduction of endothelin-1 or production of HSP 70, HSC 70, or HSP 90. We conclude that preconditioning could be a useful tool to prevent the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin.

  9. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  10. Comparison of metals and tetracycline as selective agents for development of tetracycline resistant bacterial communities in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jianxiao; Rensing, Christopher; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    with unrealistically high levels of tetracycline (up to 100 mg kg(-1)). These observations were consistent with bioreporter data showing that metals remained bioavailable, whereas tetracycline was only transiently bioavailable. Community-level tetracycline resistance was correlated to the initial toxicant......-induced inhibition of bacterial growth. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that toxic metals in some cases may exert a stronger selection pressure for environmental selection of resistance to an antibiotic than the specific antibiotic itself.......Environmental selection of antibiotic resistance may be caused by either antibiotic residues or coselecting agents. Using a strictly controlled experimental design, we compared the ability of metals (Cu or Zn) and tetracycline to (co)select for tetracycline resistance in bacterial communities. Soil...

  11. Use of P-glycoprotein gene probes to investigate anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus and comparison with Onchocerca volvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, M.S.G.; Okoli, M.N.; Schulz-Key, H.; Okongkwo, P.O.; Roos, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein gene probe from the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was developed and used to analyse restriction fragment length polymorphisms between susceptible isolates and isolates resistant to either benzimidazole; levamisole and benzimidazole; or benzimidazole, ivermectin and

  12. Use of P-glycoprotein gene probes to investigate anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus and comparison with Onchocerca volvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, M.S.G.; Okoli, M.N.; Schulz-Key, H.; Okongkwo, P.O.; Roos, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein gene probe from the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was developed and used to analyse restriction fragment length polymorphisms between susceptible isolates and isolates resistant to either benzimidazole; levamisole and benzimidazole; or benzimidazole, ivermectin and c

  13. Comparison of automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems to detect mecC-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenda, Camille; Dupieux, Céline; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Pichon, Bruno; Holmes, Mark; Bès, Michèle; Teale, Christopher; Dickson, Elizabeth; Hill, Robert; Skov, Robert; Kearns, Angela; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-09-13

    Methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is classically mediated by the mecA gene carried on a mobile genetic element, called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec).…. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG ENTERIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL WASTES AND IMPACTED SURFACE WATERS: COMPARISON WITH NARMS FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...

  15. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  16. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  17. Comparison of transcriptome profiles by Fusarium oxysporum inoculation between Fusarium yellows resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Naomi; Shimizu, Motoki; Miyazaki, Junji; Osabe, Kenji; Sato, Maho; Ebe, Yusuke; Takada, Satoko; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2017-08-17

    Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples. Most of the DEGs were up-regulated by Foc inoculation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that most up-regulated genes increased their expression levels from 24 HAI. An independent transcriptome analysis at 24 and 72 HAI was performed in resistant and susceptible lines. GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 24 HAI indicated that Foc inoculation activated systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in resistant lines and tryptophan biosynthetic process and responses to chitin and ethylene in susceptible lines. By contrast, GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 72 HAI showed the overrepresentation of some categories for the defense response in susceptible lines but not in the resistant lines. We also compared DEGs between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana after F. oxysporum inoculation at the same time point, and identified genes related to defense response that were up-regulated in the resistant lines of Chinese cabbage and A. thaliana. Particular genes that changed expression levels overlapped between the two species, suggesting that they are candidates for genes involved in the resistance mechanisms against F. oxysporum.

  18. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld; Ogborn; Contreras,, J. g.; Cappaert; Silva Ribeiro; Alvar; Vigotsky

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. ...

  19. Structural Comparison of Three Types of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Integrated in the Chromosome in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Teruyo; Katayama, Yuki; Asada, Kazumi; Mori, Namiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kanae; Tiensasitorn, Chuntima; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2001-01-01

    The β-lactam resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus is carried by a novel mobile genetic element, designated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), identified in the chromosome of a Japanese methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. We now report identification of two additional types of mecA-carrying genetic elements found in the MRSA strains isolated in other countries of the world. There were substantial differences in the size and nucleotide sequences between the ele...

  20. Opsonisation and phagocytosis of group B meningococci by polymorphonuclear leucocytes: comparison of sulphonamide sensitive and resistant strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, K N; Fleer, A; Verhoef, J; Jones, D M

    1987-01-01

    A large proportion of disease caused by sulphonamide resistant strains of group B type 15 meningococci affects patients 10-24 years. In contrast, disease caused by sulphonamide sensitive strains conforms to the usual pattern, and most infection occurs in early childhood. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon possible differences in susceptibility of resistant and sensitive strains to phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leucocytes were investigated, using radioactively labelled bacteria. In i...

  1. Comparison of fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated premolars with different esthetic onlay systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praffulla Mynampati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the fracture resistance and modes of failures of three different aesthetic MOD onlays on endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods: Forty sound maxillary premolars were selected of which 10 untreated teeth were taken as control (Group I. The other thirty premolars were subjected to standardized MOD onlay preparations and root canal treatments and divided into 3 equal groups. Onlays were prepared in Group II- Indirect composite, Group III- Lithium Disilicate ceramic and Group IV- Full Zirconia. All onlays were cemented using Multilink Automix. All the 40 samples were subjected to fracture resistance testing on Universal testing machine. Also fractured specimens were observed under stereo-microscope for modes of failure. Results: Group IV presented the highest fracture resistance. Groups II and III presented no significant difference in fracture resistance from each other (P > 0.05. Group II and Group III showed significantly lower fracture resistance values than Group I. Coming to modes of failure, only Group IV had showed no cracks in any of the restorations. Conclusion: Full Zirconia MOD onlays increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars to a significantly higher level than the sound teeth.

  2. Comparison of fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated premolars with different esthetic onlay systems: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Praffulla; Babu, Mandava Ramesh; Saraswathi, Devabhaktuni Disha; Kumar, Janga Ravi; Gudugunta, Leneena; Gaddam, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the fracture resistance and modes of failures of three different aesthetic MOD onlays on endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods: Forty sound maxillary premolars were selected of which 10 untreated teeth were taken as control (Group I). The other thirty premolars were subjected to standardized MOD onlay preparations and root canal treatments and divided into 3 equal groups. Onlays were prepared in Group II- Indirect composite, Group III- Lithium Disilicate ceramic and Group IV- Full Zirconia. All onlays were cemented using Multilink Automix. All the 40 samples were subjected to fracture resistance testing on Universal testing machine. Also fractured specimens were observed under stereo-microscope for modes of failure. Results: Group IV presented the highest fracture resistance. Groups II and III presented no significant difference in fracture resistance from each other (P > 0.05). Group II and Group III showed significantly lower fracture resistance values than Group I. Coming to modes of failure, only Group IV had showed no cracks in any of the restorations. Conclusion: Full Zirconia MOD onlays increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars to a significantly higher level than the sound teeth. PMID:25829694

  3. Estimating rate of insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia using HOMA-IR index and comparison with nonpreeclampsia pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  4. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  5. Comparison of Metals and Tetracycline as Selective Agents for Development of Tetracycline Resistant Bacterial Communities in Agricultural Soil.

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    Song, Jianxiao; Rensing, Christopher; Holm, Peter E; Virta, Marko; Brandt, Kristian K

    2017-03-07

    Environmental selection of antibiotic resistance may be caused by either antibiotic residues or coselecting agents. Using a strictly controlled experimental design, we compared the ability of metals (Cu or Zn) and tetracycline to (co)select for tetracycline resistance in bacterial communities. Soil microcosms were established by amending agricultural soil with known levels of Cu, Zn, or tetracycline known to represent commonly used metals and antibiotics for pig farming. Soil bacterial growth dynamics and bacterial community-level tetracycline resistance were determined using the [(3)H]leucine incorporation technique, whereas soil Cu, Zn, and tetracycline exposure were quantified by a panel of whole-cell bacterial bioreporters. Tetracycline resistance increased significantly in soils containing environmentally relevant levels of Cu (≥365 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (≥264 mg kg(-1)) but not in soil spiked with unrealistically high levels of tetracycline (up to 100 mg kg(-1)). These observations were consistent with bioreporter data showing that metals remained bioavailable, whereas tetracycline was only transiently bioavailable. Community-level tetracycline resistance was correlated to the initial toxicant-induced inhibition of bacterial growth. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that toxic metals in some cases may exert a stronger selection pressure for environmental selection of resistance to an antibiotic than the specific antibiotic itself.

  6. Comparison of Two Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation

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    W. Paul Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination are generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin. Developing resistant hybrids requires reliable inoculation methods for screening maize germplasm for resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. The side-needle technique is a widely used inoculation technique: an A. flavus conidial suspension is injected underneath the husks into the side of the ear. This wounds the ear and limits expression of resistance associated with husk coverage, pericarp thickness, and seed coat integrity. In this investigation, the side-needle technique was compared with a second inoculation method that involved dispensing wheat kernels infected with A. flavus into plant whorls at 35 and 49 days after planting. Results showed that although the side-needle technique produced higher levels of aflatoxin accumulation, differences in A. flavus biomass produced by the two inoculation techniques were not significant. Both inoculation techniques were effective in differentiating resistant and susceptible single cross hybrids irrespective of the use of A. flavus infection or aflatoxin accumulation as a basis to define resistance.

  7. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin-gentamicin combination therapy in murine bubonic plague.

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    Nadine Lemaître

    Full Text Available Potential benefits of combination antibiotic therapy for the treatment of plague have never been evaluated. We compared the efficacy of a ciprofloxacin (CIN and gentamicin (GEN combination therapy with that of each antibiotic administered alone (i against Yersinia pestis in vitro and (ii in a mouse model of bubonic plague in which animals were intravenously injected with antibiotics for five days, starting at two different times after infection (44 h and 56 h. In vitro, the CIN+GEN combination was synergistic at 0.5x the individual drugs' MICs and indifferent at 1x- or 2x MIC. In vivo, the survival rate for mice treated with CIN+GEN was similar to that observed with CIN alone and slightly higher than that observed for GEN alone 100, 100 and 85%, respectively when treatment was started 44 h post challenge. 100% of survivors were recorded in the CIN+GEN group vs 86 and 83% in the CIN and GEN groups, respectively when treatment was delayed to 56 h post-challenge. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Five days after the end of treatment, Y. pestis were observed in lymph nodes draining the inoculation site (but not in the spleen in surviving mice in each of the three groups. The median lymph node log(10 CFU recovered from persistently infected lymph nodes was significantly higher with GEN than with CIN (5.8 vs. 3.2, p = 0.04 or CIN+GEN (5.8 vs. 2.8, p = 0.01. Taken as the whole, our data show that CIN+GEN combination is as effective as CIN alone but, regimens containing CIN are more effective to eradicate Y. pestis from the draining lymph node than the recommended GEN monotherapy. Moreover, draining lymph nodes may serve as a reservoir for the continued release of Y. pestis into the blood - even after five days of intravenous antibiotic treatment.

  8. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin-gentamicin combination therapy in murine bubonic plague.

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    Lemaître, Nadine; Ricard, Isabelle; Pradel, Elizabeth; Foligné, Benoît; Courcol, René; Simonet, Michel; Sebbane, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Potential benefits of combination antibiotic therapy for the treatment of plague have never been evaluated. We compared the efficacy of a ciprofloxacin (CIN) and gentamicin (GEN) combination therapy with that of each antibiotic administered alone (i) against Yersinia pestis in vitro and (ii) in a mouse model of bubonic plague in which animals were intravenously injected with antibiotics for five days, starting at two different times after infection (44 h and 56 h). In vitro, the CIN+GEN combination was synergistic at 0.5x the individual drugs' MICs and indifferent at 1x- or 2x MIC. In vivo, the survival rate for mice treated with CIN+GEN was similar to that observed with CIN alone and slightly higher than that observed for GEN alone 100, 100 and 85%, respectively when treatment was started 44 h post challenge. 100% of survivors were recorded in the CIN+GEN group vs 86 and 83% in the CIN and GEN groups, respectively when treatment was delayed to 56 h post-challenge. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Five days after the end of treatment, Y. pestis were observed in lymph nodes draining the inoculation site (but not in the spleen) in surviving mice in each of the three groups. The median lymph node log(10) CFU recovered from persistently infected lymph nodes was significantly higher with GEN than with CIN (5.8 vs. 3.2, p = 0.04) or CIN+GEN (5.8 vs. 2.8, p = 0.01). Taken as the whole, our data show that CIN+GEN combination is as effective as CIN alone but, regimens containing CIN are more effective to eradicate Y. pestis from the draining lymph node than the recommended GEN monotherapy. Moreover, draining lymph nodes may serve as a reservoir for the continued release of Y. pestis into the blood - even after five days of intravenous antibiotic treatment.

  9. Beneficial effects of calcium oral coadministration in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

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    Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Mihailovic, Dragan; Randjelovic, Pavle; Ilic, Sonja; Gocmanac-Ignjatovic, Marija; Veljkovic, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Frequent therapeutical use of an aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin (GM) is limited by its nephrotoxic effects often characterized by both morphological and functional alterations of kidney leading to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary calcium supplementation on GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experiments were performed on 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups of 10 animals each. G-group received GM intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg; GCa-group received the same dose of GM concomitantly with 1 g/kg calcium carbonate given orally; and C-group, serving as control, received 1 mL/day of normal saline. All groups were treated during 8 consecutive days. Quantitative evaluation of GM-induced structural and functional changes of kidney was performed by histopathological, morphometrical, and biochemical analyses. Compared with control, G-group of rats were found to have diffusely and unequally thickened glomerular basement membrane with neutrophil cells infiltration. In addition, vacuolization of cytoplasm of proximal tubule cells with coagulation-type necrosis was observed. These GM-induced pathological lesions were significantly reduced in the rats of GCa-group. Morphometric analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the size of glomeruli (area, major and minor axes, perimeter), optical density, and roundness of glomeruli (p Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation in blood urea and serum creatinine concentrations, whereas potassium concentration was lowered in G-group compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). It is concluded that oral supplementation of calcium during treatment with GM resulted in significant reduction of morphological and functional kidney alterations.

  10. Evaluation of various gentamicin dosage regimens in geriatric patients: a simulation study.

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    Bourguignon, Laurent; Goutelle, Sylvain; De Saint-Martin, Julie Burdin; Maire, Pascal; Ducher, Michel

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this simulation study was to evaluate the ability of three regimens proposed in official French recommendations for gentamicin to hit defined pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic targets in a population of elderly patients. The first drug regimen tested consisted of a loading dose of 1 mg/kg and a maintenance dose weighted by creatininemia, every 8 h. The second regimen consisted of a fixed dose of 1 mg/kg at various intervals of time, calculated from creatinine clearance. The last regimen was a fixed dose of 3 mg/kg once a day. All regimens were for 5 days. We used a bicompartmental PK model and implemented a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a large sample of geriatric subjects. The analysis examined three ranges of creatinine clearance. Simulations showed that for the two regimens using multiple doses per day, neither was able to reach an efficacy level without significant toxicity after 5 days of treatment, regardless of the level of renal function. The use of creatininemia or creatinine clearance to adjust the drug dose did not alter these findings. The once-a-day dosing regimen gave better results both in efficacy and toxicity, except for patients with creatinine clearance lower than 60 mL/min, where the incidence of potential toxicity was above 25%. These results strongly suggest that official French recommendations about aminoglycoside dosage regimens in elderly patients with renal impairment should be updated, and that the frequent need for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosage individualization should be clearly stated.

  11. Analysis of resistance, cross-resistance and antimicrobial combinations for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 1997 to 2009.

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    Master, Ronald N; Clark, Richard B; Karlowsky, James A; Ramirez, Julio; Bordon, Jose M

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen associated with considerable patient morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa is a concern owing to the limited therapeutic options available to treat infections due to this organism. In this study, rates of antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates collected by The Surveillance Network Database-USA (Eurofins Medinet, Chantilly, VA) from 1997 to 2009 were examined. The patient population and specimens were stratified according to patient setting and age as well as specimen source. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to three or more of the following antimicrobial agents: aztreonam; cefepime; ciprofloxacin; imipenem; gentamicin; and piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP). A total of 924740 P. aeruginosa isolates were examined in this study. Changes in resistance rates to individual antimicrobial agents were resistant P. aeruginosa to four, five and six antimicrobial agents. For isolates resistant to imipenem, aztreonam and gentamicin, ciprofloxacin had the highest cross-resistance rates. The greatest coverage against P. aeruginosa was by the combination of TZP plus amikacin (94%) followed by aztreonam plus amikacin (90%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance rates remained steady or minimally declined to all antimicrobials from 1997 to 2009. Amongst the β-lactams, TZP has the greatest activity against P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparisons of resistance of CF and Non-CF pathogens to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hypochlorous Acid Oxidants In Vitro

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    Ledet Elisa M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease has a unique profile of pathogens predominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA and Staphylococcus aureus (SA. These microorganisms must overcome host immune defense to colonize the CF lungs. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are a major component of the host defense against bacterial infection. A crucial microbicidal mechanism is the production of oxidants including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hypochlorous acid (HOCl by neutrophils to achieve efficient bacterial killing. To determine to what degrees various CF pathogens resist the oxidants relative to non-CF pathogens, we compared the susceptibility of PsA, SA, Burkholderia cepacia (BC, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP, and Escherichia coli (EC to various concentrations of H2O2 or HOCl, in vitro. The comparative oxidant-resistant profiles were established. Oxidant-induced damage to ATP production and cell membrane integrity of the microbes were quantitatively assessed. Correlation of membrane permeability and ATP levels with bacterial viability was statistically evaluated. Results PsA was relatively resistant to both H2O2 (LD50 = 1.5 mM and HOCl (LD50 = 0.035 mM. SA was susceptible to H2O2 (LD50 = 0.1 mM but resistant to HOCl (LD50 = 0.035 mM. Interestingly, KP was extremely resistant to high doses of H2O2 (LD50 = 2.5-5.0 mM but was very sensitive to low doses of HOCl (LD50 = 0.015 mM. BC was intermediate to resist both oxidants: H2O2 (LD50 = 0.3-0.4 mM and HOCl (LD50 = 0.025 mM. EC displayed the least resistance to H2O2 (LD50 = 0.2-0.3 mM and HOCl (LD50 = 0.015 mM. The identified profile of H2O2-resistance was KP > PsA > BC > EC > SA and the profile of HOCl-resistance PsA > SA > BC > EC > KP. Moreover, both oxidants affected ATP production and membrane integrity of the cells. However, the effects varied among the tested organisms and, the oxidant-mediated damage correlated differentially with the bacterial viability. Conclusions The order of HOCl-resistance

  13. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

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    Farideh Rezaei Abhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021. Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  14. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

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    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  15. Comparison of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli obtained from drinking water sources in northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

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    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R

    2016-11-03

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health on a global scale. Escherichia coli comprises Gram-negative, fecal-borne pathogenic and commensal bacteria that are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance. AMR E. coli can be ingested via food, water and direct contact with fecal contamination. We estimated the prevalence of AMR Escherichia coli from select drinking water sources in northern Tanzania. Water samples (n = 155) were collected and plated onto Hi-Crome E. coli and MacConkey agar. Presumptive E. col