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Sample records for genotypes discriminates coronary

  1. Evaluation of salt tolerance in wheat genotypes using growth and carbon isotopes discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.U.; Khan, M.A.; Mujtaba, S.M.; Shereen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted in green house to select suitable salt tolerant wheat genotypes on the basis of growth performance and carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) technique. Nine newly developed double haploids (DH) wheat genotypes were tested under gravel culture, along with salt tolerant (LU-26s) and high yielding (Sarsabz) checks. The crop was irrigated by non-saline (control) and saline (12dS/m) water and raised up to maturity, growth parameters (i.e. plant height, plant biomass, productive tillers, spike length, number of spiklets/spike, number of grains / spike, grain weight/ spike and grain yield/ 15 plants) were recorded after harvesting. Plant samples (straw) were collected and were analyzed for carbon isotopic ratio (C12/ C13) from IAEA laboratories Vienna Austria. The data showed that there was significant decrease in all the growth parameters due to salinity. On the basis of performance in different growth parameters it was found that wheat genotypes V3-DH, V9-DH, V10-DH, V13-DH, and LU-26s had good response at 12dSm-1, thus can be categorized as better performing genotypes. Studies on carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) showed a decreasing trend under salinity. Mean CID values were 20.86 and 17.49 under two environments (non saline and saline, respectively), showing an overall 19% decrease under salinity. Generally the wheat genotypes having higher grain yield also had high carbon isotopes discrimination (CID). The relationship between grain yield and CID was positive (R2 = 0.695). The genotypes V10-DH, V13-DH with lower decrease in CID (i.e. 1.2 and 11.0%, respectively), also had high grain yield under salinity. Therefore the studies suggest that we can include CID technique as one of the selection criteria for salt tolerance. (author)

  2. Mutant DD genotype of NFKB1 gene is associated with the susceptibility and severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Yi; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Bang-Dang; Liu, Fen; Chen, Xiao-Cui; Zheng, Hong; Ma, Yi-Tong; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear factor κappa B (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Recent evidence suggests that -94 ATTG ins/del mutant in the promoter of NFKB1 gene is an essential functional mutant. The present study demonstrated the frequencies of the del/del (DD) genotype and del (D) allele were significantly higher in CAD patients than in controls. CAD patients carrying mutant DD genotype had worse stenosis of diseased coronary arteries compared to those carrying ins/ins (II) or ins/del (ID) genotype. Plasma levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were lower, while inflammatory cytokine incnterlukin-6 (IL-6) was higher in CAD patients with DD genotype than those with II or ID genotype (both PDD genotype HUVECs) were more susceptible to H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis, which was accompanied with a decreased Bcl-2 expression. Further, mutant HUVECs had lower eNOS but higher IL-6 mRNA levels and decreased phosphorylation of eNOS under H 2 O 2 -stimulation (both PDD genotype of NFKB1 gene is associated with the risk and severity of CAD. Dwonregulation of NF-κB p50 subunit leads to exacerbated endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis and enhanced inflammatory response that is the potential underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. Methods: we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase...

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme DD genotype is associated with acute coronary syndrome severity and sudden cardiac death in Taiwan: a case-control emergency room study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Hu, Sheng-Chuan; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chen, Shee-Ping; Jeng, Jing-Ren; Wu, Chieh-Lin; Ho, Jar-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Ping

    2012-02-15

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms have been associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, several controversial results have also been found in different studied populations. This hospital-based, emergency room, case-control study in Taiwan retrospectively investigated 111 ACS patients, and 195 non-coronary subjects as a control group, to study the effects of ACE I/D polymorphism in the most urgent ACS patients. ACE I/D polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based assays and their associations with ACS risk, severity, and sudden cardiac death were determined. The ACE DD genotype was associated with ACS incidence. The DD genotype was associated with a significant 4-fold higher risk of ACS in multivariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 4.295; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.436-12.851, p = 0.009), and a 3.35-fold higher risk of acute myocardial infarction. DD genotype carriers also had more than 3-fold higher risks of stenosis in all the three coronary arteries, left anterior descending artery infarction, and anterior wall infarction. In addition, the DD genotype was also associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death (OR = 6.484, 95% CI: 1.036-40.598, p = 0.046). This study demonstrated that the ACE DD genotype is an independent risk factor for ACS, and in particular, for acute myocardial infarction. In addition, the ACE DD genotype is also associated with greater ACS severity and a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. ACE genotyping is recommended for patients with a history of ACS, and more intensive preventive care is suggested for patients with the DD genotype.

  5. Variability in mesophyll conductance between barley genotypes, and effects on transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Margaret M; Warren, Charles R; Farquhar, Graham D; Forrester, Guy; Brown, Hamish

    2010-07-01

    Leaf internal, or mesophyll, conductance to CO(2) (g(m)) is a significant and variable limitation of photosynthesis that also affects leaf transpiration efficiency (TE). Genotypic variation in g(m) and the effect of g(m) on TE were assessed in six barley genotypes (four Hordeum vulgare and two H. bulbosum). Significant variation in g(m) was found between genotypes, and was correlated with photosynthetic rate. The genotype with the highest g(m) also had the highest TE and the lowest carbon isotope discrimination as recorded in leaf tissue (Delta(p)). These results suggest g(m) has unexplored potential to provide TE improvement within crop breeding programmes.

  6. Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Dairy Lactococcus lactis Biodiversity in Milk: Volatile Organic Compounds as Discriminating Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaisne, Amandine; Guellerin, Maeva; Laroute, Valérie; Laguerre, Sandrine; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Loubiere, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of nine dairy strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in fermented milk was investigated by both genotypic and phenotypic analyses. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used to establish an integrated genotypic classification. This classification was coherent with discrimination of the L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis lineage and reflected clonal complex phylogeny and the uniqueness of the genomes of these strains. To assess phenotypic diversity, 82 variables were selected as important dairy features; they included physiological descriptors and the production of metabolites and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Principal-component analysis (PCA) demonstrated the phenotypic uniqueness of each of these genetically closely related strains, allowing strain discrimination. A method of variable selection was developed to reduce the time-consuming experimentation. We therefore identified 20 variables, all associated with VOCs, as phenotypic markers allowing discrimination between strain groups. These markers are representative of the three metabolic pathways involved in flavor: lipolysis, proteolysis, and glycolysis. Despite great phenotypic diversity, the strains could be divided into four robust phenotypic clusters based on their metabolic orientations. Inclusion of genotypic diversity in addition to phenotypic characters in the classification led to five clusters rather than four being defined. However, genotypic characters make a smaller contribution than phenotypic variables (no genetic distances selected among the most contributory variables). This work proposes an original method for the phenotypic differentiation of closely related strains in milk and may be the first step toward a predictive classification for the manufacture of starters. PMID:23709512

  7. Paraoxonase 1 (Q192R) gene polymorphism, coronary heart disease and the risk of a new acute coronary event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna; Medina-Gil, José María; Garay-Sánchez, Paloma; Tugores, Antonio

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) plays a major role in the oxidation of low density lipoprotein and in the prevention of coronary atherogenesis. In this context, coding region polymorphisms of PON1 gene, responsible for the enzyme activity, has become of interest as a marker for atherogenesis. A study and follow-up was conducted on 529 patients with an acute coronary event in order to assess the association between the PON1 Q192R (rs662;A/G) polymorphism, the type of acute coronary syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and smoking), the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis, and the medium-term clinical follow-up. The QQ genotype was found in 245 (46.3%) patients, with 218 (41.2%) patients showing the QR genotype, and 66 (14.5%) patients had the RR genotype. No significant differences were found between the QQ and QR/RR genotypes as regards the clinical characteristics, the analytical data, and the angiographic variables. Similarly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no significant differences in presenting with a new acute coronary event (p=0.598), cardiac mortality (p=0.701), stent thrombosis (p=0.508), or stent re-stenosis (p=0.598) between QQ and QR/RR genotypes during the follow-up period (3.3±2.2 years). In patients with an acute coronary syndrome, the PON1 Q192R genotypes did not influence the risk of suffering a new acute coronary event during the medium-term follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted genotyping-by-sequencing permits cost-effective identification and discrimination of pasture grass species and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Luke W; Drayton, Michelle C; Bain, Melissa; Baillie, Rebecca C; Inch, Courtney; Spangenberg, German C; Wang, Junping; Forster, John W; Cogan, Noel O I

    2016-05-01

    A targeted amplicon-based genotyping-by-sequencing approach has permitted cost-effective and accurate discrimination between ryegrass species (perennial, Italian and inter-species hybrid), and identification of cultivars based on bulked samples. Perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass are the most important temperate forage species for global agriculture, and are represented in the commercial pasture seed market by numerous cultivars each composed of multiple highly heterozygous individuals. Previous studies have identified difficulties in the use of morphophysiological criteria to discriminate between these two closely related taxa. Recently, a highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping assay has been developed that permits accurate differentiation between both species and cultivars of ryegrasses at the genetic level. This assay has since been further developed into an amplicon-based genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach implemented on a second-generation sequencing platform, allowing accelerated throughput and ca. sixfold reduction in cost. Using the GBS approach, 63 cultivars of perennial, Italian and interspecific hybrid ryegrasses, as well as intergeneric Festulolium hybrids, were genotyped. The genetic relationships between cultivars were interpreted in terms of known breeding histories and indistinct species boundaries within the Lolium genus, as well as suitability of current cultivar registration methodologies. An example of applicability to quality assurance and control (QA/QC) of seed purity is also described. Rapid, low-cost genotypic assays provide new opportunities for breeders to more fully explore genetic diversity within breeding programs, allowing the combination of novel unique genetic backgrounds. Such tools also offer the potential to more accurately define cultivar identities, allowing protection of varieties in the commercial market and supporting processes of cultivar accreditation and quality assurance.

  9. Self-reported racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and coronary calcification in asymptomatic adults - the North Texas Healthy Heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Richard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accruing evidence supports the hypothesis that psychosocial factors are related to cardiovascular disease. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the pathophysiologic pathways through which these associations occur. The purpose of this study was to assess whether experiences of self-reported racial discrimination and reactions to unfair treatment were associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC, an indicator of subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 571 subjects (45 years and older who were asymptomatic of CHD from Fort Worth, Texas from 2006 to 2008. Subjects completed a questionnaire, a multi-slice computed tomography scan to assess for CAC presence (measured as Agatston score >0, and serum chemistries. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between self-reported discrimination and CAC. Results were stratified by response to unfair treatment as it was found to significantly modify the relationship between discrimination and CAC. Results Among those who passively responded to unfair treatment, the odds of having CAC present were approximately 3 times higher for those experiencing discrimination (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.19-7.32 after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, hyperlipidemia, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, and first degree relative with heart disease. Conclusions This is the first multi-racial/ethnic study to find racial discrimination associated with CAC, which differs based on how one responds to unfair treatment.

  10. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Bennett, Derrick A; Parish, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreci......Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR...

  11. Recent activation of the plaque immune response in coronary lesions underlying acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Piek, J. J.; de Boer, O. J.; Koch, K. T.; Teeling, P.; van der Loos, C. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discriminate between chronic inflammation and acute activation of the plaque immune response in culprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndromes. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. SUBJECTS: 71 patients having coronary atherectomy were classified

  12. Identification of durum wheat genotypes with efficiency on the uptake and Use of water using Carbon-13 discrimination and neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechergui, M.; Daaloul, A.; Snane, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-13 isotope discrimination method and water balance model Using neutron probe are the two tools used in this study to genotypes for water use efficiency. It is a three years experiment and the results presented will be for the last year. Four durum wheat Cvs were selected and planted in a randomnized block design with 6 replicates. Total consumption of water was calculated. Grain and strow yields and other parameters were recorded. The carbon isotope ratio which illustrates carbon 13 dicrimination is measured for each genotype in grain and strow. The total and the grain water use efficiency were calculated and correlated to the G C-13 isotope dicrimination to compare genotypes between them. The main results presented in this paper revealed that. Carbon-13 discrimination technique is an excellent screening technique for screening for water use in cultivars in semi-arid conditions. 2 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Identification of durum wheat genotypes with efficiency on the uptake and Use of water using Carbon-13 discrimination and neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechergui, M; Daaloul, A [Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 43, Avenue Charles Nicolle - 1082 Tunis Mahrajene - (Tunisia); Snane, M H [Institut National Agronomique de (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Carbon-13 isotope discrimination method and water balance model Using neutron probe are the two tools used in this study to genotypes for water use efficiency. It is a three years experiment and the results presented will be for the last year. Four durum wheat Cvs were selected and planted in a randomnized block design with 6 replicates. Total consumption of water was calculated. Grain and strow yields and other parameters were recorded. The carbon isotope ratio which illustrates carbon 13 dicrimination is measured for each genotype in grain and strow. The total and the grain water use efficiency were calculated and correlated to the G C-13 isotope dicrimination to compare genotypes between them. The main results presented in this paper revealed that. Carbon-13 discrimination technique is an excellent screening technique for screening for water use in cultivars in semi-arid conditions. 2 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. TLR-4 and CD14 Genotypes and Soluble CD14: Could They Predispose to Coronary Atherosclerosis?

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    Maria Kalliopi Konstantinidou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mechanisms are key to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Functional polymorphisms of TLR-4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, CD14 promoter area C260T polymorphism and plasma levels of soluble CD14 are studied in subjects with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. Methods: DNA was obtained from 100 human paraffin-embedded aortic specimens, from cadavers with known coronary atheromatosis (Group A and 100 blood samples from patients with CAD, as detected by cardiac Multi-Detector-row-Computed-Tomography (MDCT (Group B. Our control group consisted of 100 healthy individuals (Group C. Genotyping was performed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR. Plasma levels of sCD14 were measured with ELISA. Results: For TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms, no statistically significant differences were observed. Regarding the C260T polymorphism, frequencies of T allele were significantly higher in the control group compared to the case group (p = 0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR showed statistically significant association of TT genotype with healthy individuals (OR 0.25, 95% Confidence Interval CI 0.10–0.62, p = 0.0017. Plasma levels of sCD14 in patients with CAD (mean value = 1.35 μg/mL were reduced when compared to reference value. Conclusions: The studied polymorphisms ofTLR-4 showed no association with CAD. Conversely, the functional polymorphism of CD14 has a statistically significant difference in expression between healthy and affected by CAD individuals.

  15. Genotypic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and transpiration efficiency in wheat. Leaf gas exchange and whole plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, A.G.; Farquhar, G.D.; Richards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination, Δ, measured in plant dry matter and the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric partial pressures of CO 2 ,p i /p a , in leaves was examined in two glasshouse experiments using 14 wheat genotypes selected on the basis of variation in Δ of dry matter. Genotypic variation in Δ was similar in both experiments, with an average range of 1.8 x 10 -3 . Δ measured in dry matter and p i /p a measured in flag leaves were positively correlated. Variation among genotypes in p i /p a was attributed, approximately equally, to variation in leaf conductance and in photosynthetic capacity. The relationship between plant transpiration efficiency, W * (the amount of above-ground dry matter produced per unit water transpired) and Δ was was also examined. The results indicate that genotypic variation in Δ, measured in dry matter, should provide a reasonable measure of genotypic variation in long-term mean leaf p i /p a in wheat. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency, carbon-isotope discrimination and carbon allocation during early growth in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgona, J.M.; Farquhar, G.D.; Hubick, K.T.; Rawson, H.M.; Downes, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Transpiration efficiency of dry matter production (W), carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) and dry matter partitioning were measured on six sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown for 32 days in a glasshouse. Two watering regimes, one well watered (HW) and the other delivering half the water used by the HW plants (LW), were imposed. Four major results emerged from this study: Three was significant genotypic variation in W in sunflower and this was closely reflected in Δ for both watering treatments; the low watering regime caused a decrease in Δ but no change in W; nonetheless the genotypic ranking for either Δ or W was not significantly altered by water stress; a positive correlation between W and biomass accumulation occurred among genotypes of HW plants; ρ, the ratio of total plant carbon content to leaf area, was positively correlated with W and negatively correlated with Δ. These results are discussed with reference to the connection between transpiration efficiency and plant growth, indicating that Δ can be used to select for W among young sunflower plants. However, selection for W may be accompanied by changes in other important plant growth characteristics such as ρ. 19 refs., 4 figs

  17. Genotype-driven identification of a molecular network predictive of advanced coronary calcium in ClinSeq® and Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cihan; Sen, Shurjo K; Davis, Adam R; Fu, Yi-Ping; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Gibbons, Gary H

    2017-10-26

    One goal of personalized medicine is leveraging the emerging tools of data science to guide medical decision-making. Achieving this using disparate data sources is most daunting for polygenic traits. To this end, we employed random forests (RFs) and neural networks (NNs) for predictive modeling of coronary artery calcium (CAC), which is an intermediate endo-phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD). Model inputs were derived from advanced cases in the ClinSeq®; discovery cohort (n=16) and the FHS replication cohort (n=36) from 89 th -99 th CAC score percentile range, and age-matched controls (ClinSeq®; n=16, FHS n=36) with no detectable CAC (all subjects were Caucasian males). These inputs included clinical variables and genotypes of 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranked highest in terms of their nominal correlation with the advanced CAC state in the discovery cohort. Predictive performance was assessed by computing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUC). RF models trained and tested with clinical variables generated ROC-AUC values of 0.69 and 0.61 in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively. In contrast, in both cohorts, the set of SNPs derived from the discovery cohort were highly predictive (ROC-AUC ≥0.85) with no significant change in predictive performance upon integration of clinical and genotype variables. Using the 21 SNPs that produced optimal predictive performance in both cohorts, we developed NN models trained with ClinSeq®; data and tested with FHS data and obtained high predictive accuracy (ROC-AUC=0.80-0.85) with several topologies. Several CAD and "vascular aging" related biological processes were enriched in the network of genes constructed from the predictive SNPs. We identified a molecular network predictive of advanced coronary calcium using genotype data from ClinSeq®; and FHS cohorts. Our results illustrate that machine learning tools, which utilize complex interactions between disease

  18. FTO genotype, physical activity, and coronary heart disease risk in Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Jaana; Mehlig, Kirsten; Leander, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Nyberg, Fredrik

    2014-04-01

    Variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) predisposing to obesity and diabetes mellitus have also been associated with cardiovascular disease. Physical activity has been suggested to attenuate the FTO effect on obesity, but it is unknown whether this is also true for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we explored whether physical activity modifies the FTO association with coronary heart disease (CHD). FTO rs9939609 (T>A) polymorphism was genotyped in 2 Swedish population-based case-control studies with 1743 CHD cases and 4402 population controls (25-74 years of age; 41% women). Leisure time physical activity was assessed by questionnaires, and 3 levels were defined: low, medium, and high. Overall, carriers of the FTO A allele had an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.37) adjusted for age, sex, study, and body mass index. Although A-allele carriers with low physical activity had the highest CHD risk (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 2.44-4.46) compared with those with TT genotype and high activity, the effects of FTO genotype and physical activity on CHD risk were approximately additive, indicating the absence of additive interaction. The stratum-specific relative risks of CHD from the A allele in subjects with low, medium, and high physical activity were odds ratio 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.60), 1.22 (1.04-1.44), and 1.38 (1.06-1.80), respectively, but the suggested multiplicative interaction was not significant. FTO rs9939609 A-allele carriers have an increased CHD risk, and the association is not counteracted by increased physical activity.

  19. Fingerprinting for discriminating tea germplasm using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.Y.; Li, Y.Y.; Wang, P.S.; Wang, L.Y.; Wang, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    For the discrimination of tea germplasm at the inter-specific level, 134 tea varieties preserved in the China National Germplasm Tea Repositories (CNGTR) were analyzed using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Eighteen primers were chosen from 60 screened for ISSR amplification, generating 99.4% polymorphic bands. The mean Nei's gene diversity (H) and the overall mean Shannon's Information index (I) were 0.396 and 0.578, respectively, indicating a wide gene pool. Using the presence, sometimes absence of unique ISSR markers, it was possible to discriminate 32 of the genotypes tested. No single primer could discriminate all the 134 genotypes. However, UBC811 provided rich band patterns and it can discriminate 35 genotypes. The combination of two and three primers could discriminate 99 and 121 genotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of band patterns or the DNA fingerprinting based on specific ISSR markers generated by UBC811, UBC835, ISSR2 and ISSR3 could discriminate all 134 genotypes tested. ISSR markers also provide a powerful tool to discriminate tea germplasm at the inter-specific level. (author)

  20. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less c...

  1. Genotype differences in 13C discrimination between atmosphere and leaf matter match differences in transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant levels in hybrid Populus deltoides x nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Montpied, Pierre; Le Thiec, Didier

    2013-01-01

    (13) C discrimination between atmosphere and bulk leaf matter (Δ(13) C(lb) ) is frequently used as a proxy for transpiration efficiency (TE). Nevertheless, its relevance is challenged due to: (1) potential deviations from the theoretical discrimination model, and (2) complex time integration and upscaling from leaf to whole plant. Six hybrid genotypes of Populus deltoides×nigra genotypes were grown in climate chambers and tested for whole-plant TE (i.e. accumulated biomass/water transpired). Net CO(2) assimilation rates (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) were recorded in parallel to: (1) (13) C in leaf bulk material (δ(13) C(lb) ) and in soluble sugars (δ(13) C(ss) ) and (2) (18) O in leaf water and bulk leaf material. Genotypic means of δ(13) C(lb) and δ(13) C(ss) were tightly correlated. Discrimination between atmosphere and soluble sugars was correlated with daily intrinsic TE at leaf level (daily mean A/g(s) ), and with whole-plant TE. Finally, g(s) was positively correlated to (18) O enrichment of bulk matter or water of leaves at individual level, but not at genotype level. We conclude that Δ(13) C(lb) captures efficiently the genetic variability of whole-plant TE in poplar. Nevertheless, scaling from leaf level to whole-plant TE requires to take into account water losses and respiration independent of photosynthesis, which remain poorly documented. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Field-Based Metabolomics of Vitis vinifera L. Stems Provides New Insights for Genotype Discrimination and Polyphenol Metabolism Structuring

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    Kévin Billet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape accumulates numerous polyphenols with abundant health benefit and organoleptic properties that in planta act as key components of the plant defense system against diseases. Considerable advances have been made in the chemical characterization of wine metabolites particularly volatile and polyphenolic compounds. However, the metabotyping (metabolite-phenotype characterization of grape varieties, from polyphenolic-rich vineyard by-product is unprecedented. As this composition might result from the complex interaction between genotype, environment and viticultural practices, a field experiment was setting up with uniform pedo-climatic factors and viticultural practices of growing vines to favor the genetic determinism of polyphenol expression. As a result, UPLC-MS-based targeted metabolomic analyses of grape stems from 8 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars allowed the determination of 42 polyphenols related to phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins, and stilbenoids as resveratrol oligomers (degree of oligomerization 1–4. Using a partial least-square discriminant analysis approach, grape stem chemical profiles were discriminated according to their genotypic origin showing that polyphenol profile express a varietal signature. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering highlights various degree of polyphenol similarity between grape varieties that were in agreement with the genetic distance using clustering analyses of 22 microsatellite DNA markers. Metabolite correlation network suggested that several polyphenol subclasses were differently controlled. The present polyphenol metabotyping approach coupled to multivariate statistical analyses might assist grape selection programs to improve metabolites with both health-benefit potential and plant defense traits.

  3. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction

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    Tajinder Kumar Parpugga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. Results. We identified n=122 (32.4% 4G/4G, n=186 (49.5% 4G/5G, and n=68 (18.1% 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009–2.718, p=0.046. Conclusions. Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes.

  4. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpugga, Tajinder Kumar; Tatarunas, Vacis; Skipskis, Vilius; Kupstyte, Nora; Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, Diana; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2015-01-01

    Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism) factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. We identified n = 122 (32.4%) 4G/4G, n = 186 (49.5%) 4G/5G, and n = 68 (18.1%) 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009-2.718, p = 0.046). Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes.

  5. Correlates of lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, S.; Kaul, S.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied 306 patients with chest pain (262 with coronary artery disease and 44 with no coronary artery disease) to determine which of 23 clinical, exercise, thallium, and angiographic variables best discriminate between patients with increased lung/heart ratios of thallium versus those with normal ratios. Normal lung/heart ratio values were defined using an additional 45 subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease. The number of diseased vessels was the best discriminator between patients with increased ratios versus those with normal ratios. Double product at peak exercise, number of segments with abnormal wall motion, patient gender, and duration of exercise were also significant discriminators. Using discriminant function analysis these variables could correctly identify 81% of cases with increased lung/heart ratios and 72% of cases with normal ratios. These results indicate that an increased lung/heart ratio of thallium reflects exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction and affords a better understanding of why this thallium parameter is a powerful prognostic indicator in patients with chest pain

  6. The value of coronary artery calcium score assessed by dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography for predicting presence and severity of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, Alireza; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Sedghian, Ahmad; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Firouzi, Ata; Tehrai, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Measuring coronary artery calcium score (CACS) using a dual-source CT scanner is recognized as a major indicator for assessing coronary artery disease. The present study aimed to validate the clinical significance of CACS in predicting coronary artery stenosis and its severity. This prospective study was conducted on 202 consecutive patients who underwent both conventional coronary angiography and dual-source (256-slice) computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) for any reason in our cardiac imaging center from March to September 2013. CACS was measured by Agatston algorithm on non-enhanced CT. The severity of coronary artery disease was assessed by Gensini score on conventional angiography. There was a significant relationship between the number of diseased coronary vessels and mean calcium score, i.e. the mean calcium score was 202.25±450.06 in normal coronary status, 427.50±607.24 in single-vessel disease, 590.03±511.34 in two-vessel disease, and 953.35±1023.45 in three-vessel disease (p<0.001). There was a positive association between calcium score and Gensini score (r=0.636, p<0.001). In a linear regression model, calcium score was a strong determinant of the severity of coronary artery disease. Calcium scoring had an acceptable value for discriminating coronary disease from normal condition with optimal cutoff point of 350, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 70%, respectively. Our study confirmed the strong relationship between the coronary artery calcium score and the presence and severity of stenosis in coronary arteries assessed by both the number of diseased coronary vessels and also by the Gnesini score

  7. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, T.S.; Diamond, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the discriminant accuracy of exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. This is a survey of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database. The key medical subject headings used were coronary disease, myocardial infarction, radionuclide imaging, and thallium. A total of 122 retrieved studies were considered relevant and were reviewed in depth. Only studies reporting both the sensitivity and specificity of thallium scintigraphy were analyzed. Discriminant accuracy for diagnosis and prognosis was summarized in terms of pooled sensitivity and specificity. Exercise thallium scintigraphy is useful in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease, especially in patients with abnormal resting electrocardiograms, restricted exercise tolerance, and intermediate probability of having disease at the time of testing as well as of defining the prognosis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, especially in those with previous myocardial infarction. Because of various shortcomings in the published record, however, the marginal discriminant accuracy and cost effectiveness of thallium scintigraphy compared with conventional clinical assessment and exercise electrocardiography remain controversial. 193 references

  8. A protective effect of the BDNF Met/Met genotype in obesity in healthy Caucasian subjects but not in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustar, A; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Nedic Erjavec, G; Svob Strac, D; Pivac, N

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor with an important role in the regulation of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Increased BMI that leads to obesity is a substantial risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with CHD, obesity and BMI. The aim of the study was to determine the association between BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and CHD and/or BMI in patients with CHD and healthy control subjects. The study included 704 Caucasian subjects: 206 subjects with CHD and 498 healthy control subjects. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism was not associated with a diagnosis of CHD or with BMI categories among patients with CHD. In contrast, healthy Caucasians, carriers of the BDNF Met/Met genotype, had more

  9. Do physicians attend to base rates? Prevalence data and statistical discrimination in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Lutfey, Karen E; McKinlay, John B

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether physicians attend to gender prevalence data in diagnostic decision making for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to test the hypothesis that previously reported gender differences in CHD diagnostic certainty are due to discrimination arising from reliance on prevalence data ("statistical discrimination"). A vignette-based experiment of 256 randomly sampled primary care physicians conducted from 2006 to 2007. Factorial experiment. Physicians observed patient presentations of cardinal CHD symptoms, standardized across design factors (gender, race, age, socioeconomic status). Structured interview. Most physicians perceived the U.S. population CHD prevalence as higher in men (48.4 percent) or similar by gender (44.9 percent). For the observed patient, 52 percent did not change their CHD diagnostic certainty based on patient gender. Forty-eight percent of physicians were inconsistent in their population-level and individual-level CHD assessments. Physicians' assessments of CHD prevalence did not attenuate the observed gender effect in diagnostic certainty for the individual patient. Given an adequate presentation of CHD symptoms, physicians may deviate from their prevalence data during diagnostic decision making. Physicians' priors on CHD prevalence did not explain the gender effect in CHD certainty. Future research should examine personal stereotypes as an explanation for gender differences.

  10. COX-2 Gene Promoter Polymorphism and Coronary Artery Disease in Middle-Aged Men: The Helsinki Sudden Death Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati H. Huuskonen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase (COX catalyzes formation of prostaglandins that contribute to the inflammation in atherosclerosis. Our objective was to study whether the functional C variant of the −765G→C polymorphism in the human COX-2 gene associates with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis measured at the coronary artery level. The Helsinki sudden death study autopsy material (n = 300 comprised of Finnish men who died suddenly. The area of atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries was quantitated, and coronary narrowing was measured. The occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI was assessed. Genotyping was by restriction endonuclease analysis. Men carrying the minor C allele had larger areas of complicated lesions (P = .024 and a higher number of coronary arteries that had over 50% stenosis (P = .036 compared to men representing the common GG genotype. The COX-2 polymorphism was not associated with MI. Our data suggest that COX-2 may be involved in plaque growth.

  11. Significant association of RNF213 p.R4810K, a moyamoya susceptibility variant, with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takaaki; Mineharu, Yohei; Ono, Koh; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Kabata, Risako; Takagi, Yasushi; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Lanying; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Funaki, Takeshi; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Yamamoto, Ken; Izawa, Hideo; Kimura, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of coronary artery disease has not been fully elucidated, especially in Asian countries. Moyamoya disease is a progressive cerebrovascular disease that is reported to be complicated by coronary artery disease. Because most Japanese patients with moyamoya disease carry the p.R4810K variant of the ring finger 213 gene (RNF213), this may also be a risk factor for coronary artery disease; however, this possibility has never been tested. We genotyped the RNF213 p.R4810K variant in 956 coronary artery disease patients and 716 controls and tested the association between p.R4810K and coronary artery disease. We also validated the association in an independent population of 311 coronary artery disease patients and 494 controls. In the replication study, the p.R4810K genotypes were imputed from genome-wide genotyping data based on the 1000 Genomes Project. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to adjust for well-known risk factors such as dyslipidemia and smoking habits. In the primary study population, the frequency of the minor variant allele was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease than in controls (2.04% vs. 0.98%), with an odds ratio of 2.11 (p = 0.017). Under a dominant model, after adjustment for risk factors, the association remained significant, with an odds ratio of 2.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-6.61; p = 0.005). In the replication study, the association was significant after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio = 4.99; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-21.53; p = 0.031), although it did not reach statistical significance when further adjusted for risk factors (odds ratio = 3.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.87-16.77; p = 0.076). The RNF213 p.R4810K variant appears to be significantly associated with coronary artery disease in the Japanese population.

  12. Detection of coronary calcium with electron beam tomography in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberl, R.; Knez, A.; Becker, A.; Becker, C.; Bruening, R.; Reiser, M.; Maass, A.; Steinbeck, G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Coronary calcium is a powerful indicator of arteriosclerosis and can be detected very precisely with electron beam tomography. The method can be applied in patients with known coronary artery disease or in asymptomatic patients at risk of arteriosclerotic disease. Results: At the University of Munich we performed an EBT scan of the heart in 1100 patients within the last year. In 567 patients coronary angiography was performed also (±3 days). Confirming previous reports in the literature, we found a correlation of the calcium score with the age and gender of the patients. Severe coronary artery disease (stenoses ≥ 75%) was associated with significantly more calcium than less severe CAD. The calcium score did not discriminate between one-, two- and three-vessel disease. The site of calcification does not correlate with the localization of stenoses. Thirty-three percent of the patients with significant coronary artery disease showed a normal age-adjusted calcium score; a total of 8.1% of patients with severe stenoses did not reveal any coronary calcification (score =0). With asymptomatic patients there are only a few studies available. Soft plaques cannot be detected with EBT, but in most patients soft plaques occur together with hard plaques. Our results show that spiral CT of the newest generation may also be used for calcium screening. There was an excellent correlation of the calcium scores of EBT and spiral CT at all levels of calcification. Discussion: Coronary calcium is a sensitive marker of coronary artery disease. In the clinical setting EBT is indicated in patients with known coronary artery disease (to evaluate prognosis), in patients who are unable to perform a stress test, and in patients with atypical chest pain. However, lack of calcification may be associated with severe stenoses in a minority of patients. The clinical value in asymptomatic patients needs to be defined: Randomized studies are necessary. We see a possible indication in

  13. Prediction of acute coronary syndromes by urinary proteome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay M Htun

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals who are at risk of suffering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS may allow to introduce preventative measures. We aimed to identify ACS-related urinary peptides, that combined as a pattern can be used as prognostic biomarker. Proteomic data of 252 individuals enrolled in four prospective studies from Australia, Europe and North America were analyzed. 126 of these had suffered from ACS within a period of up to 5 years post urine sampling (cases. Proteomic analysis of 84 cases and 84 matched controls resulted in the discovery of 75 ACS-related urinary peptides. Combining these to a peptide pattern, we established a prognostic biomarker named Acute Coronary Syndrome Predictor 75 (ACSP75. ACSP75 demonstrated reasonable prognostic discrimination (c-statistic = 0.664, which was similar to Framingham risk scoring (c-statistics = 0.644 in a validation cohort of 42 cases and 42 controls. However, generating by a composite algorithm named Acute Coronary Syndrome Composite Predictor (ACSCP, combining the biomarker pattern ACSP75 with the previously established urinary proteomic biomarker CAD238 characterizing coronary artery disease as the underlying aetiology, and age as a risk factor, further improved discrimination (c-statistic = 0.751 resulting in an added prognostic value over Framingham risk scoring expressed by an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.273 ± 0.048 (P < 0.0001 and net reclassification improvement of 0.405 ± 0.113 (P = 0.0007. In conclusion, we demonstrate that urinary peptide biomarkers have the potential to predict future ACS events in asymptomatic patients. Further large scale studies are warranted to determine the role of urinary biomarkers in clinical practice.

  14. The X-X-/E+E+ genotype of the XbaI/EcoRI polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B gene as a marker of coronary artery disease in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scartezini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that consider polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein B (apo B gene as risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD have reported conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to search for associations between two DNA RFLPs (XbaI and EcoRI of the apo B gene and CAD diagnosed by angiography. In the present study we compared 116 Brazilian patients (92 men with CAD (CAD+ to 78 control patients (26 men without ischemia or arterial damage (CAD-. The allele frequencies at the XbaI (X and EcoRI (E sites did not differ between groups. The genotype distributions of CAD+ and CAD- patients were different (chi²(1 = 6.27, P = 0.012 when assigned to two classes (X-X-/E+E+ and the remaining XbaI/EcoRI genotypes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with the X-X-/E+E+ genotype presented a 6.1 higher chance of developing CAD than individuals with the other XbaI/EcoRI genotypes, independently of the other risk factors considered (sex, tobacco consumption, total cholesterol, hypertension, and triglycerides. We conclude that the X-X-/E+E genotype may be in linkage disequilibrium with an unknown variation in the apo B gene or with a variation in another gene that affects the risk of CAD.

  15. [Effect of polymorphisms on key enzymes in homocysteine metabolism, on plasma homocysteine level and on coronary artery-disease risk in a Tunisian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkahla, R; Omezzine, A; Kchok, K; Rebhi, L; Ben Hadj Mbarek, I; Rejeb, J; Ben Rejeb, N; Slimane, N; Nabli, N; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Boughzala, E; Bouslama, A

    2008-08-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent-risk factor for coronary-artery disease (CAD). However, the effect of homocystein metabolic enzymes polymorphisms on CAD is still controversed. We investigated the relation between homocystein metabolic key enzymes polymorphisms, homocystenemia and coronary stenosis in a Tunisian population. Samples were collected from 251 CAD patients documented by angiography. Genotyping were performed for C677T methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), A2756G methionine-synthase (MS) and 844ins 68 cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS). We measured fasting plasma tHcy, folate and vitamin B12. There was significant increase in homocysteinemia for homozygous genotypes of C677T MTHFR (p<0.001) and A2756G MS (p=0.01), but not for 844ins68 CBS (p=0.105). Potential confounders adjusted odds-ratios for significant coronary stenosis, associated with MTHFR TT, MS GG and CBS insertion, were respectively 1.78 (p=0.041); 2.33 (p=0.036) and 0.87 (p=0.823). The effect of mutated MTHFR genotype was more pronounced on homocysteinemia (21.4+/-9.1 micromol/L; p<0.001) and coronary stenosis (OR=2.73; p=0.033) at low folatemia (< or =6.1 ng/mL). MTHFR TT and MS GG genotypes increase tHcy concentration and coronary stenosis risk, especially with low folatemia.

  16. A Comparison of the Updated Diamond-Forrester, CAD Consortium, and CONFIRM History-Based Risk Scores for Predicting Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Stable Chest Pain: The SCOT-HEART Coronary CTA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Lohendran; Danad, Ibrahim; Gransar, Heidi; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Lin, Fay Y; Peña, Jessica M; Hunter, Amanda; Newby, David E; Adamson, Philip D; Min, James K

    2018-04-13

    This study sought to compare the performance of history-based risk scores in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with stable chest pain from the SCOT-HEART study. Risk scores for estimating pre-test probability of CAD are derived from referral-based populations with a high prevalence of disease. The generalizability of these scores to lower prevalence populations in the initial patient encounter for chest pain is uncertain. We compared 3 scores among patients with suspected CAD in the coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) randomized arm of the SCOT-HEART study for the outcome of obstructive CAD by coronary CTA: the updated Diamond-Forrester score (UDF), CAD Consortium clinical score (CAD2), and CONFIRM risk score (CRS). We tested calibration with goodness-of-fit, discrimination with area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC), and reclassification with net reclassification improvement (NRI) to identify low-risk patients. In 1,738 patients (58 ± 10 years and 44.0% women), overall calibration was best for UDF, with underestimation by CRS and CAD2. Discrimination by AUC was highest for CAD2 at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 0.81) than for UDF (0.77 [95% CI: 0.74 to 0.79]) or CRS (0.75 [95% CI: 0.73 to 0.77]) (p CAD2 (NRI 0.31, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.35) followed by CRS (NRI 0.21, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.25) compared with UDF (p CAD and uniform CAD evaluation by coronary CTA, CAD2 provided the best discrimination and classification, despite overestimation of obstructive CAD as evaluated by coronary CTA. CRS exhibited intermediate performance followed by UDF for discrimination and reclassification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. CYP2C19 activity and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna; Medina-Gil, José María; Garay-Sánchez, Paloma; Tugores, Antonio

    2017-09-20

    CYP2C19 is a major isoform of cytochrome P450 that metabolizes a number of drugs and is involved in the glucocorticoids synthesis. CYP2C19 polymorphisms have been associated with the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes. Five hundred and three patients with an acute coronary event were studied to assess the association between the CYP2C19 activity (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 variants) and the type of acute coronary syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors (arterial systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking), analytical parameters and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Genotype distribution in our series was similar to that expected in the Caucasian population. Among the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, very poor metabolizer patients (*2/*2, *3/*3 or *2/*3) had a greater tendency to present diabetes mellitus needing insuline (P=.067). Conversely, when we compared very poor, poor and normal metabolizers vs. rapid and ultrarapid metabolizers we found significant differences in those diabetic patients under insulin treatment (64 patients [18%] vs. 17 patients [11%]; P=.032). On the contrary, analytical parameters, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking or the personal/family history of coronary artery disease did not reach statistical significance regardless of CYP2C19 activity. Similarly, the number and the type of coronary disease (thrombotic, fibrotic or both) did not differ between patients with different CYP2C19 enzyme activity. Patients with an acute coronary event and a very poor, poor and normal CYP2C19 metabolizer genotype have a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus needing insuline than patients with the rapid and ultrarapid metabolizers CPY2C19 genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Noninvasive imaging in the assessment and prevention of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llerena Rojas, Luis Roberto; Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Valiente Mustelier, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear cardiology can all help prevent coronary heart disease. Echocardiography can identify asymptomatic individuals who are at risk of coronary disease and who should receive aggressive preventative therapy by providing data on the carotid intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. The calcium score is an independent predictor of cardiac events that influences clinical risk scores such as the Framingham risk score. By using multidetector computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for coronary angiography, it is possible to visualize both the lumen and vessel walls of coronary arteries and to discriminate between calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque before invasive coronary angiography is performed. With nuclear cardiology, the functional effects of atherosclerotic lesions can be evaluated by assessing perfusion and ventricular function simultaneously

  19. Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, T.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2010-01-01

    of the spread of genotypes to new geographical areas. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating this genotype from the other VHSV genotypes (I, II, III and IVb). Balb/c mice were injected with purified VHSV-JF00Ehil (genotype...... IVa) from diseased farmed Japanese flounder. Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. Using cell cultures that were transfected...

  20. CT Coronary Angiography vs. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for the Occupational Assessment of Military Aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Iain; Pavitt, Chris; Chamley, Rebecca; d'Arcy, Jo; Nicol, Ed

    2017-02-01

    To ensure flight safety military aircrew undergo regular clinical and occupational assessment. Coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) has been established as an imaging modality to noninvasively assess coronary artery disease (CAD). CT coronary angiography (CTCA) potentially offers a more accurate assessment of CAD, but has not been formally assessed in military aircrew. This retrospective cohort study is designed to compare the theoretical differences in downstream investigations and occupational outcomes in aircrew with suspected CAD comparing CTCA with existing CACS pathways. A 2-yr retrospective cohort study of consecutive UK military patients who underwent a CTCA and CACS was undertaken. Patient demographics, CTCA and CACS results, and initial and final occupational restrictions were analyzed comparing current UK, Canadian, and U.S. pathways. There were 44 patients who underwent CACS and CTCA. The commonest indication for a CTCA was a positive exercise ECG. Increasing CACS, stenosis severity, and stenosis burden were associated with significantly greater likelihood of occupational restriction (P = occupational restrictions. Two patients with a calcium score ≤10 had at least 1 single vessel stenosis ≥50%. A CTCA pathway is potentially a better discriminator of CAD burden in aircrew when compared with CACS and may reduce downstream testing, allowing a more efficacious approach to CAD assessment in military aircrew.Parsons I, Pavitt C, Chamley R, d'Arcy J, Nicol E. CT coronary angiography vs. coronary artery calcium scoring for the occupational assessment of military aircrew. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):76-81.

  1. Association of CRP gene polymorphism with CRP levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Askari Sede, Saeed; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Majidi, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods: We performed coronary angiography for 308 T2DM patients and classified them into two groups: T2DM with CAD and T2DM without CAD. All patients were from Ahvaz, Iran. serum levels of CRP, glucose and lipid profile were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the severity of coronary artery disease was determined by Gensini score. Results: The GG genotype of SNP rs279421 was associated with the increased risk of CAD (OR= 2.38; 95% CI: 1.12- 5.8; p= 0.02) and CA, TT, TA genotypes and A allele of SNP rs3091244 and GA genotypes and A allele of SNP rs3093062 were significantly associated with increased CRP levels. None of genotypes or alleles was associated with Gensini score. We found that the haplotype 7 (AGCG) was associated with decreased risk of CAD (OR= 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.66; p= 0.017) and the Gensini score was correlated with increased levels of CRP, only in CAD group. Conclusion: Although genetic polymorphisms were influenced on serum RP levels, none of the alleles and genotypes raising or falling C-reactive protein levels was consistently associated with an increased prevalence of CAD or protected from that. PMID:25337466

  2. The PLAU P141L single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Joan; Sánchez-Olavarría, Pilar; Mola, Marina; Götzens, Víctor; Carballo, Julio; Martín-Pelegrina, Eva; Petit, Màrius; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Dorado, David; de Anta, Josep M

    2014-07-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which is encoded by the PLAU gene, plays a prominent role during collateral arterial growth. We investigated whether the PLAU P141L (C > T) polymorphism, which causes a mutation in the kringle domain of the protein, is associated with coronary collateral circulation in a cohort of 676 patients with coronary artery disease. The polymorphism was genotyped in blood samples using a TaqMan-based genotyping assay, and collateral circulation was assessed by the Rentrop method. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted by clinically relevant variables to estimate odds ratios were used to examine associations of PLAU P141L allelic variants and genotypes with collateral circulation. Patients with poor collateral circulation (Rentrop 0-1; n = 547) showed a higher frequency of the TT genotype than those with good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2-3; n = 129; P = .020). The T allele variant was also more common in patients with poor collateral circulation (P = .006). The odds ratio of having poorly developed collaterals in patients bearing the T allele (adjusted for clinically relevant variables) was statistically significant under the dominant model (odds ratio = 1.83 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.90]; P = .010) and the additive model (odds ratio = 1.73 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.62]; P = .009). An association was found between coronary collateral circulation and the PLAU P141L polymorphism. Patients with the 141L variant are at greater risk of developing poor coronary collateral circulation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of hepatitis B virus genotyping EIA kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Matsuuraa, Kentaro; Naganuma, Hatsue; Tatematsu, Kanako; Takagi, Kazumi; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Kani, Satomi; Gotoh, Takaaki; Wakimoto, Yukio; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Clinical significance of Hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotyping is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based HBV genotyping kit, which designed to discriminate between genotypes to A, B, C, or D by detecting genotype-specific epitopes in PreS2 region. Using the four genotypes panels, the EIA demonstrated complete inter and intra-assay genotyping reproducibility. Serum specimens had stable results after 8 days at 4 degrees C, or 10 cycles of freezing-thawing. In 91 samples that have been genotyped by DNA sequencing, 87(95.6%) were in complete accordance with EIA genotyping. Of examined 344 HBsAg-positive serum specimens, genotypes A, B, C and D were determined in 26 (7.6%), 62 (18.0%), 228 (66.3%), and 9 (2.6%) cases, respectively. Of 19 (5.5%) specimens unclassified by the EIA, 13 were found to have low titer of HBsAg concentration (< 3 IU/ml), and the other 5 had amino acid mutations or deletions within targeted PreS2 epitopes. The EIA allowed genotyping even in HBV DNA negative samples (96.2%). In conclusion, HBV genotype EIA is reliable, sensitive and easy assay for HBV genotyping. The assay would be useful for clinical use.

  4. A 19-SNP coronary heart disease gene score profile in subjects with type 2 diabetes: the coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes (CoRDia study) study baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaney, Katherine E; Ward, Claire E; Bappa, Dauda A S; McGale, Nadine; Davies, Anna K; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Li, KaWah; Howard, Philip; Vance, Dwaine R; Crockard, Martin A; Lamont, John V; Newman, Stanton; Humphries, Steve E

    2016-10-03

    The coronary risk in diabetes (CoRDia) trial (n = 211) compares the effectiveness of usual diabetes care with a self-management intervention (SMI), with and without personalised risk information (including genetics), on clinical and behavioural outcomes. Here we present an assessment of randomisation, the cardiac risk genotyping assay, and the genetic characteristics of the recruits. Ten-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was calculated using the UKPDS score. Genetic CHD risk was determined by genotyping 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Randox's Cardiac Risk Prediction Array and calculating a gene score (GS). Accuracy of the array was assessed by genotyping a subset of pre-genotyped samples (n = 185). Overall, 10-year CHD risk ranged from 2-72 % but did not differ between the randomisation groups (p = 0.13). The array results were 99.8 % concordant with the pre-determined genotypes. The GS did not differ between the Caucasian participants in the CoRDia SMI plus risk group (n = 66) (p = 0.80) and a sample of UK healthy men (n = 1360). The GS was also associated with LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05) and family history (p = 0.03) in a sample of UK healthy men (n = 1360). CHD risk is high in this group of T2D subjects. The risk array is an accurate genotyping assay, and is suitable for estimating an individual's genetic CHD risk. Trial registration This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; registration identifier NCT01891786.

  5. Value of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification for Risk Prediction of Coronary and Cardiovascular Events: Result of the HNR Study (Heinz Nixdorf Recall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Nils; Erbel, Raimund; Mahabadi, Amir A; Rauwolf, Michael; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Kälsch, Hagen; Budde, Thomas; Schmermund, Axel; Stang, Andreas; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Weimar, Christian; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2018-02-13

    Computed tomography (CT) allows estimation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression. We evaluated several progression algorithms in our unselected, population-based cohort for risk prediction of coronary and cardiovascular events. In 3281 participants (45-74 years of age), free from cardiovascular disease until the second visit, risk factors, and CTs at baseline (b) and after a mean of 5.1 years (5y) were measured. Hard coronary and cardiovascular events, and total cardiovascular events including revascularization, as well, were recorded during a follow-up time of 7.8±2.2 years after the second CT. The added predictive value of 10 CAC progression algorithms on top of risk factors including baseline CAC was evaluated by using survival analysis, C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination index. A subgroup analysis of risk in CAC categories was performed. We observed 85 (2.6%) hard coronary, 161 (4.9%) hard cardiovascular, and 241 (7.3%) total cardiovascular events. Absolute CAC progression was higher with versus without subsequent coronary events (median, 115 [Q1-Q3, 23-360] versus 8 [0-83], P value of baseline CT and risk assessment in terms of C-statistic or integrated discrimination index, especially for total cardiovascular events. However, CAC progression did not improve models including CAC 5y and 5-year risk factors. An excellent prognosis was found for 921 participants with double-zero CAC b =CAC 5y =0 (10-year coronary and hard/total cardiovascular risk: 1.4%, 2.0%, and 2.8%), which was for participants with incident CAC 1.8%, 3.8%, and 6.6%, respectively. When CAC b progressed from 1 to 399 to CAC 5y ≥400, coronary and total cardiovascular risk were nearly 2-fold in comparison with subjects who remained below CAC 5y =400. Participants with CAC b ≥400 had high rates of hard coronary and hard/total cardiovascular events (10-year risk: 12.0%, 13.5%, and 30.9%, respectively). CAC progression is associated with

  6. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma levels association in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Fonseca Neto, Cirilo Pereira; Garcia, José Carlos Faria; Sousa, Marinez Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism may influence the PAI-1 expression. High plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the influence of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma PAI-1 levels and its association with CAD assessed by coronary angiography. Blood sample of 35 individuals with angiographically normal coronary arteries, 31 individuals presenting mild/moderate atheromatosis, 57 individuals presenting severe atheromatosis and 38 healthy individuals (controls) were evaluated. In patients and controls, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was determined by PCR amplification using allele-specific primers. Plasma PAI-1 levels were quantified by ELISA assay (American Diagnostica). No difference was found between groups regarding age, gender and body mass index. Plasma PAI-1 levels and 4G/4G genotype frequency were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups (p5G/5G genotype (r=0.02, p=0.4511). In addition, in a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for all the other variables, PAI-1 was observed to be independently associated with CAD > 70% (p<0.001). The most important finding of this study was the association between 4G/4G genotype, high plasma PAI-1 levels and coronary stenosis higher than 70% in Brazilian individuals. Whether high plasma PAI-1 levels are a decisive factor for atherosclerosis worsening or it is a consequence remains to be established.

  7. Molecular methods for bacterial genotyping and analyzed gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Yıldırım1, Seval Cing Yıldırım2, Nadir Koçak3

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strain typing is an important process for diagnosis, treatment and epidemiological investigations. Current bacterial strain typing methods may be classified into two main categories: phenotyping and genotyping. Phenotypic characters are the reflection of genetic contents. Genotyping, which refers discrimination of bacterial strains based on their genetic content, has recently become widely used for bacterial strain typing. The methods already used in genotypingof bacteria are quite different from each other. In this review we tried to summarize the basic principles of DNA-based methods used in genotyping of bacteria and describe some important DNA regions that are used in genotyping of bacteria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(1:42-46.

  8. High-throughput genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms with rolling circle amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhenyu

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the foundation of powerful complex trait and pharmacogenomic analyses. The availability of large SNP databases, however, has emphasized a need for inexpensive SNP genotyping methods of commensurate simplicity, robustness, and scalability. We describe a solution-based, microtiter plate method for SNP genotyping of human genomic DNA. The method is based upon allele discrimination by ligation of open circle probes followed by rolling circle amplification of the signal using fluorescent primers. Only the probe with a 3' base complementary to the SNP is circularized by ligation. Results SNP scoring by ligation was optimized to a 100,000 fold discrimination against probe mismatched to the SNP. The assay was used to genotype 10 SNPs from a set of 192 genomic DNA samples in a high-throughput format. Assay directly from genomic DNA eliminates the need to preamplify the target as done for many other genotyping methods. The sensitivity of the assay was demonstrated by genotyping from 1 ng of genomic DNA. We demonstrate that the assay can detect a single molecule of the circularized probe. Conclusions Compatibility with homogeneous formats and the ability to assay small amounts of genomic DNA meets the exacting requirements of automated, high-throughput SNP scoring.

  9. Tunisian Toxoplasma gondii strains genotyping by the use of AK69 marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoun Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical manifestation due to infection by Toxoplasma gondii is closely linked to the infecting strain of the parasite. Several genetic markers are available to determinate its genotype but few of them are able to discriminate between the three predominant lineages, namely types I, II and III. The number of markers decreases when atypical, recombinant/mixed genotypes need to be identified. Findings In our study, the contribution of sequence polymorphisms in the AK69 gene as typing markers for T. gondii was investigated for the first time in an epidemiological study. The coding region of the marker was amplified, sequenced and aligned for different Toxoplasma strains. The identified nucleotide polymorphism at 12 positions was able to highly discriminate between the different congenital toxoplasmosis Tunisian strains. Moreover the high detection sensitivity level of the marker enabled unambiguous identification of mixed/recombinant genotypes directly. Conclusion It can be, thus, very useful for direct typing in areas where such genotypes are frequently encountered, mainly in the African continent.

  10. Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schunkert (Heribert); I.R. König (Inke); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); H. Holm (Hilma); M. Preuss (Michael); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); M. Barbalic (maja); C. Gieger (Christian); D. Absher (Devin); Z. Aherrahrou (Zouhair); H. Allayee (Hooman); D. Altshuler (David); S.S. Anand (Sonia); K.K. Andersen (Karl); J.L. Anderson (Jeffrey); D. Ardissino (Diego); S.G. Ball (Stephen); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); T.A. Barnes (Timothy); D.M. Becker (Diane); K. Berger (Klaus); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); P.S. Braund (Peter); M.J. Brown (Morris); M.S. Burnett; I. Buysschaert (Ian); J.F. Carlquist (John); L. Chen (Li); S. Cichon (Sven); V. Codd (Veryan); R.W. Davies (Robert); G.V. Dedoussis (George); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Demissie (Serkalem); J. Devaney (Joseph); P. Diemert (Patrick); R. Do (Ron); A. Doering (Angela); S. Eifert (Sandra); N.E.E. Mokhtari; S.G. Ellis (Stephen); R. Elosua (Roberto); J.C. Engert (James); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Fischer (Marcus); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); J. Freyer (Jennifer); B. Gigante (Bruna); D. Girelli (Domenico); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); E. Halperin (Eran); N. Hammond (Naomi); S.L. Hazen (Stanley); A. Hofman (Albert); B.D. Horne (Benjamin); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); G.T. Jones (Gregory); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); M.A. Kaiser (Michael); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); G. Kolovou (Genovefa); A. Kong (Augustine); R. Laaksonen (Reijo); D. Lambrechts (Diether); K. Leander (Karin); G. Lettre (Guillaume); X. Li (Xiaohui); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); C. Loley (Christina); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); P.M. Mannucci (Pier); S. Maouche (Seraya); N. Martinelli (Nicola); P.P. McKeown (Pascal); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); O. Melander (Olle); P.A. Merlini; V. Mooser (Vincent); T. Morgan (Thomas); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); J.B. Muhlestein (Joseph); T. Münzel (Thomas); K. Musunuru (Kiran); J. Nahrstaedt (Janja); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); O. Olivieri (Oliviero); R.S. Patel (Riyaz); C.C. Patterson (Chris); A. Peters (Annette); F. Peyvandi (Flora); L. Qu (Liming); A.A. Quyyumi (Arshed); D.J. Rader (Daniel); L.S. Rallidis (Loukianos); C. Rice (Catherine); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); D. Rubin (Diana); V. Salomaa (Veikko); M.L. Sampietro (Maria Lourdes); M.S. Sandhu (Manj); E.E. Schadt (Eric); A. Scḧsignfer (Arne); A. Schillert (Arne); S. Schreiber (Stefan); J. Schrezenmeir (Jürgen); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); M. Sivananthan (Mohan); S. Sivapalaratnam (Suthesh); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); J.D. Snoep (Jaapjan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.A. Spertus (John); K. Stark (Klaus); K. Stirrups (Kathy); M. Stoll (Monika); W.H.W. Tang (Wilson); S. Tennstedt (Stephanie); G. Thorgeirsson (Gudmundur); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); M. Tomaszewski (Maciej); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A.M. van Rij (Andre); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); N.J. Wareham (Nick); G.A. Wells (George); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); P.S. Wild (Philipp); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); S. Ye (Shu); T. Zeller (Tanja); A. Ziegler (Andreas); F. Cambien (François); A.H. Goodall (Alison); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); T. Quertermous (Thomas); W. Mäsignrz (Winfried); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); S. Blankenberg (Stefan); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); A.S. Hall (Alistair); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); J.R. Thompson (John); K. Stefansson (Kari); R. Roberts (Robert); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); R. McPherson (Ruth); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); N.J. Samani (Nilesh)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 individuals with CAD (cases) and 64,762 controls of European descent followed by genotyping of top association signals in 56,682 additional individuals. This analysis

  11. Influence of 677 C→T Polymorphism of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase on Medium-Term Prognosis after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    García-Pinilla, José M.; Espinosa-Caliani, Salvador; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Gómez-Doblas, Juan J.; Cabrera-Bueno, Fernando; Reyes-Engel, Armando; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Various common genotypes of the polymorphism 677 C→T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme result in lower activity of the enzyme and in a subsequent increase in homocysteine levels. Many studies have analyzed the connection between this polymorphism and the beginning of coronary artery disease. However, conclusions have been controversial, and evidence of a connection between this polymorphism and the prognosis of coronary artery disease has been poorly evaluated.

  12. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Hall, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  13. Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schunkert, Heribert; König, Inke R.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Holm, Hilma; Preuss, Michael; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Barbalic, Maja; Gieger, Christian; Absher, Devin; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Allayee, Hooman; Altshuler, David; Anand, Sonia S.; Andersen, Karl; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Ardissino, Diego; Ball, Stephen G.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Barnes, Timothy A.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berger, Klaus; Bis, Joshua C.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Boerwinkle, Eric; Braund, Peter S.; Brown, Morris J.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Buysschaert, Ian; Carlquist, John F.; Chen, Li; Cichon, Sven; Codd, Veryan; Davies, Robert W.; Dedoussis, George; Dehghan, Abbas; Demissie, Serkalem; Devaney, Joseph M.; Diemert, Patrick; Do, Ron; Doering, Angela; Eifert, Sandra; Mokhtari, Nour Eddine El; Ellis, Stephen G.; Elosua, Roberto; Engert, James C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; de Faire, Ulf; Fischer, Marcus; Folsom, Aaron R.; Freyer, Jennifer; Gigante, Bruna; Girelli, Domenico; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Halperin, Eran; Hammond, Naomi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Hofman, Albert; Horne, Benjamin D.; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jones, Gregory T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaiser, Michael A.; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kong, Augustine; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lambrechts, Diether; Leander, Karin; Lettre, Guillaume; Li, Mingyao; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loley, Christina; Lotery, Andrew J.; Mannucci, Pier M.; Maouche, Seraya; Martinelli, Nicola; McKeown, Pascal P.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Mooser, Vincent; Morgan, Thomas; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.; Münzel, Thomas; Musunuru, Kiran; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Patel, Riyaz S.; Patterson, Chris C.; Peters, Annette; Peyvandi, Flora; Qu, Liming; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Rallidis, Loukianos S.; Rice, Catherine; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Rubin, Diana; Salomaa, Veikko; Sampietro, M. Lourdes; Sandhu, Manj S.; Schadt, Eric; Schäfer, Arne; Schillert, Arne; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Sivananthan, Mohan; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smith, Albert; Smith, Tamara B.; Snoep, Jaapjan D.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spertus, John A.; Stark, Klaus; Stirrups, Kathy; Stoll, Monika; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Rij, Andre M.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Wareham, Nick J.; Wells, George A.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wild, Philipp S.; Willenborg, Christina; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Ye, Shu; Zeller, Tanja; Ziegler, Andreas; Cambien, Francois; Goodall, Alison H.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Quertermous, Thomas; März, Winfried; Hengstenberg, Christian; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Hall, Alistair S.; Deloukas, Panos; Thompson, John R.; Stefansson, Kari; Roberts, Robert; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; McPherson, Ruth; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 individuals with CAD (cases) and 64,762 controls of European descent followed by genotyping of top association signals in 56,682 additional individuals. This analysis identified 13

  14. Variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 gene is associated with risk of acute coronary syndrome among women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dalgård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease possibly due to its anti-oxidative effects, beneficial effects on endothelial function and importance in collagen synthesis. The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is responsible for the transport of vitamin C into various cells and malfunction of this protein leads to reduced vitamin C in tissue, including the arterial wall. We tested the hypothesis that candidate variations rs6139591 and rs1776964 in the gene coding for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 are associated with development of acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN: In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study, we performed a case-cohort study among 57,053 subjects aged 50-64 years. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years, we identified 936 cases and randomly selected a sub-cohort (n = 1,580 with full information on genotypes and covariates. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that women with the rs6139591 TT genotype and a lower than median dietary vitamin C intake had a higher risk of acute coronary syndrome compared with those with the CC genotype (adjusted HR 5.39, 95% confidence interval, 2.01-14.50. We also observed a not as strong but positive although inconsistent association for women at a higher than median intake of vitamin C rich food. For the rs1776964 polymorphism, we found a higher risk (adjusted HR 3.45, 95% CI, 1.16-10.28 among TT-homozygous women with higher than median vitamin C intake compared with the CC genotype and low vitamin C intake. Among men, weaker and non-significant associations were observed for both polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is associated with risk of incident acute coronary syndrome in women. The genotype effects may not be fully compensated by a higher intake of vitamin C rich food.

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE SEVERITY OF ANGIOGRAPHIC CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE AND PARAOXONASE-1 PROMOTER GENE POLYMORPHISM T(-107C IN IRANIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalilian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and cell membrane lipids is believed to play an integral role in the development of fatty streak lesions, an initial step in coronary artery disease (CAD. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL particle. PON1 protects LDL from oxidative modification by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides, suggestive of a role for PON1 in the development of CAD. The present study tested the hypothesis that Paraoxonase-1 promoter polymorphism T(-107C could be a risk factor for severity of CAD in Iranian population. Paraoxonase-1 promoter genotypes were determined in 300 consecutive subjects (> 40 years old who underwent coronary angiography (150 subjects with >50% stenosis served as cases [CAD+] and 150 subjects with < 20% stenosis served as controls [CAD-]. PON1 promoter genotypes were determined by PCR and BSTU1 restriction enzyme digestion. CAD+ Subjects did not show any significant differences in the distribution of PON1 promoter genotypes as compared to CAD- Subjects (P = 0.075. However the analysis of PON1 promoter genotypes distribution showed a higher percentage of (-107 TT among CAD+ compared with CAD- (P = 0.027. After controlling for other risk factors, the T(-107C polymorphism had interaction with age (P = 0.012, but did not show any interaction with other risk factors such as BMI ,gender, smoking, diabetes, level of HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride and Total cholesterol. These data suggest that the TT genotype may represent a genetic risk factor for Coronary artery disease in Iranian population.

  16. The association of C-reactive protein and CRP genotype with coronary heart disease: findings from five studies with 4,610 cases amongst 18,637 participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether C-reactive protein (CRP is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD. Genetic variants that are known to be associated with CRP levels can be used to provide causal inference of the effect of CRP on CHD. Our objective was to examine the association between CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 and CHD risk in the largest study to date of this association. METHODS AND RESULTS: We estimated the association of CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 with CRP levels and with CHD in five studies and then pooled these analyses (N = 18,637 participants amongst whom there were 4,610 cases. CRP was associated with potential confounding factors (socioeconomic position, physical activity, smoking and body mass whereas genotype (rs1130864 was not associated with these confounders. The pooled odds ratio of CHD per doubling of circulating CRP level after adjustment for age and sex was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.21, and after further adjustment for confounding factors it was 1.07 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.13. Genotype (rs1130864 was associated with circulating CRP; the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level among individuals with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT/CC genotype was 1.21 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.28 and the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level per additional T allele was 1.14 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.18, with no strong evidence in either analyses of between study heterogeneity (I(2 = 0%, p>0.9 for both analyses. There was no association of genotype (rs1130864 with CHD: pooled odds ratio 1.01 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.16 comparing individuals with TT genotype to those with CT/CC genotype and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.90, 1.03 per additional T allele (I(20.6 for both meta-analyses. An instrumental variables analysis (in which the proportion of CRP levels explained by rs1130864 was related to CHD suggested that circulating CRP was not associated with CHD: the odds ratio for a doubling of CRP level was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.61, 1.80. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Troponin elevation in patients with various tachycardias and normal epicardial coronaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Kanjwal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Troponin elevation is usually synonymous with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Although sensitive for ACS, the elevation of serum troponin, in the absence of clinical evidence of ischemia, should prompt a search for other etiologies of myocardial necrosis. In fact, elevated values of troponin are correlated with myocardial necrosis even though it does not discriminate the mechanism involved. We report a series of seven patients (age range 18-67 years, who presented with complaints of chest discomfort and were found to have regular supraventricular tachycardia (5 patients and one patient each with atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. All these patients had elevated troponin I and underwent coronary angiography that revealed normal epicardial coronary arteries. This is first case series in which all patients underwent coronary angiography and none of the patients was hemodynamically unstable at the time of presentation. Patients with elevated troponin due to conditions other than ACS can receive inappropriate and delayed definitive diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Effect of Genotype and Environment on Salvia miltiorrhiza Roots Using LC/MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza Bunge is broadly used as herbal medicine for the clinical treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Despite its commercial and medicinal values, few systematic studies on the metabolome of S. miltiorrhiza roots have been carried out so far. We systematically described the metabolic profiles of S. miltiorrhiza using high pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS in conjunction with multivariate statistical analyses, aimed at monitoring their biological variations of secondary metabolites related to three locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes. A total of 40 bioactive constituents were putatively annotated in S. miltiorrhiza root samples. This study found that both the same S. miltiorrhiza genotype growing at three different locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes growing at the same location had significant metabonomic differences identified by the principal component analysis (PCA approach. By using orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, 16 and 14 secondary metabolites can be used as potential location-specific and genotype-specific markers in S. miltiorrhiza, respectively. The specificity of LC/MS profiles offered a powerful tool to discriminate S. miltiorrhiza samples according to genotypes or locations.

  19. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of PlA1/A2 glycoprotein IIIa gene polymorphism on the long-term outcome after successful coronary stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddell John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To prospectively determine the role of platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GP IIIa gene PlA1/PlA2 polymorphism on the long-term clinical outcome in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary stenting. Design and setting Prospective observational study in the University Hospital of Caen (France. Patients and methods 1 111 symptomatic consecutive Caucasian patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent implantation underwent genotyping for GP IIIa PlA1/A2. Main outcome measures Long-term clinical outcome in terms of the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, ie death from any cause, non-fatal Q wave or non Q wave myocardial infarction, and need for coronary revascularisation was obtained and subsequently stratified according to the GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism. Results Three groups of patients were determined according to the GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism (71.6% had the A1/A1, 25.8% had the A1/A2 and 2.6% had the A2/A2 genotype. These three groups were comparable for all clinical characteristics including sex ratio, mean age, vascular risk factors, previous coronary events, baseline angiographic exam, indication for the percutaneous coronary intervention and drug therapy. The incidence of MACE was similar in these 3 groups of patients during a mean follow-up period of 654+/-152 days. Independent risk factors for MACE were a left ventricular ejection fraction Conclusion The GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism does not influence the clinical long-term outcome in patients with symptomatic coronary disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation.

  1. Discriminative Power of the HEART Score for Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Acute Chest Pain Patients Referred for CCTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolff, Adriana Q; Bom, Michiel J; Knol, Remco J J; van de Zant, Friso M; van der Zee, Petrus M; Cornel, Jan H

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the ability of the HEART score to predict the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its ability to predict the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for CCTA after emergency department (ED) presentation. From December 2011 to August 2014, 710 ED patients with chest pain who underwent CCTA within 30 days were included. The HEART score was retrospectively calculated and patients were followed for MACE, comprised of death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. Association of CAD at CCTA in the different categories of the HEART score was analyzed using χ test. The performance of the HEART score in discriminating between those with and without obstructive CAD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess MACE-free survival stratified by HEART-score categories. During median follow-up of 826 days (interquartile range: 563-1056), MACE occurred in 46 (6.5%) patients; 3 (0.4%) myocardial infarction, 8 (1.1%) death, and 36 (5.1%) revascularizations. A low HEART score was a significant predictor for MACE-free survival (P = 0.010). CCTA revealed obstructive CAD in 11.7% of patients, with no significant difference between patients with a low and intermediate/high HEART score, respectively 10.7% and 13.2% (P = 0.29). The ability of the HEART score to identify obstructive CAD was poor with an AUC of the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.53. The HEART score does not adequately identify patients with obstructive CAD at CCTA. It does however predict occurrence of MACE in medium-term follow-up. Excluding patients from additional testing based solely on a low HEART score may lead to suboptimal patient management. CCTA had important implications on patient management and may be a more appropriate tool to further stratify risk in ED chest pain patients.

  2. Identification of High-Risk Plaques Destined to Cause Acute Coronary Syndrome Using Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography and Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Myung; Choi, Gilwoo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Tong, Yaliang; Kim, Hyun Jin; Grady, Leo; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Cho, Young-Seok; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Jin-Ho; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Christiansen, Evald H; Niemen, Koen; Otake, Hiromasa; Penicka, Martin; de Bruyne, Bernard; Kubo, Takashi; Akasaka, Takashi; Narula, Jagat; Douglas, Pamela S; Taylor, Charles A; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2018-03-14

    We investigated the utility of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in the identification of high-risk plaques that caused subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS is a critical event that impacts the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the role of hemodynamic factors in the development of ACS is not well-known. Seventy-two patients with clearly documented ACS and available coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) acquired between 1 month and 2 years before the development of ACS were included. In 66 culprit and 150 nonculprit lesions as a case-control design, the presence of adverse plaque characteristics (APC) was assessed and hemodynamic parameters (fractional flow reserve derived by coronary computed tomographic angiography [FFR CT ], change in FFR CT across the lesion [△FFR CT ], wall shear stress [WSS], and axial plaque stress) were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The best cut-off values for FFR CT , △FFR CT , WSS, and axial plaque stress were used to define the presence of adverse hemodynamic characteristics (AHC). The incremental discriminant and reclassification abilities for ACS prediction were compared among 3 models (model 1: percent diameter stenosis [%DS] and lesion length, model 2: model 1 + APC, and model 3: model 2 + AHC). The culprit lesions showed higher %DS (55.5 ± 15.4% vs. 43.1 ± 15.0%; p stress than nonculprit lesions (all p values statistic [c-index] 0.789 vs. 0.747; p = 0.014) and reclassification abilities (category-free net reclassification index 0.287; p = 0.047; relative integrated discrimination improvement 0.368; p < 0.001) than model 2. Lesions with both APC and AHC showed significantly higher risk of the culprit for subsequent ACS than those with no APC/AHC (hazard ratio: 11.75; 95% confidence interval: 2.85 to 48.51; p = 0.001) and with either APC or AHC (hazard ratio: 3.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.86 to 5.55; p < 0.001). Noninvasive hemodynamic assessment enhanced

  3. Automatic coronary calcium scoring using noncontrast and contrast CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guanyu, E-mail: yang.list@seu.edu.cn; Chen, Yang; Shu, Huazhong [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, No. 2, Si Pai Lou, Nanjing 210096 (China); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale Sino-Français (LIA CRIBs), Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration, Southeast University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210096 (China); Ning, Xiufang; Sun, Qiaoyu [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, No. 2, Si Pai Lou, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration, Southeast University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210096 (China); Coatrieux, Jean-Louis [INSERM-U1099, Rennes F-35000 (France); Labotatoire Traitement du Signal et de l’Image (LTSI), Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat. 22, Rennes 35042 Cedex (France); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale Sino-Français (LIA CRIBs), Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Calcium scoring is widely used to assess the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Accurate coronary artery calcification detection in noncontrast CT image is a prerequisite step for coronary calcium scoring. Currently, calcified lesions in the coronary arteries are manually identified by radiologists in clinical practice. Thus, in this paper, a fully automatic calcium scoring method was developed to alleviate the work load of the radiologists or cardiologists. Methods: The challenge of automatic coronary calcification detection is to discriminate the calcification in the coronary arteries from the calcification in the other tissues. Since the anatomy of coronary arteries is difficult to be observed in the noncontrast CT images, the contrast CT image of the same patient is used to extract the regions of the aorta, heart, and coronary arteries. Then, a patient-specific region-of-interest (ROI) is generated in the noncontrast CT image according to the segmentation results in the contrast CT image. This patient-specific ROI focuses on the regions in the neighborhood of coronary arteries for calcification detection, which can eliminate the calcifications in the surrounding tissues. A support vector machine classifier is applied finally to refine the results by removing possible image noise. Furthermore, the calcified lesions in the noncontrast images belonging to the different main coronary arteries are identified automatically using the labeling results of the extracted coronary arteries. Results: Forty datasets from four different CT machine vendors were used to evaluate their algorithm, which were provided by the MICCAI 2014 Coronary Calcium Scoring (orCaScore) Challenge. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the volume of detected calcifications are 0.989 and 0.948. Only one patient out of 40 patients had been assigned to the wrong risk category defined according to Agatston scores (0, 1–100, 101–300, >300) by comparing with the ground

  4. ASSOCIATION OF A LYMPHOTOXIN-α VARIABLE SITE rs1041981 WITH DEVELOPMENT OF LONG-TERM UNFAVORABLE OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITHOUT ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Shmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphotoxin-α (LTA is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine produced at the early stages of vascular inflammation, taking part in the formation of arterial atherosclerosis and development of coronary heart disease. Functional changes in the gene encoding LTA production may influence the development of coronary heart disease with unfavorable progression. However, studies for associations between rs1041981 (C-804A LTA gene variant and development of acute cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis have yielded contradictory results. The purpose of our study was to investigate an association of rs1041981 gene LTA with risk of adverse events within five years of follow-up in the patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation ST (nonST-ACS. 178 patients with nonST-ACS from the Kemerovo Cardiology Center Registry were included into the study. Genotyping of rs1041981 site variable LTA gene was performed by TaqMan technique using an “iCycler iQ” device (BIO-RAD, USA. Results: we have found that the A allele and A/A genotype polymorphism in LTA gene (rs1041981 have been associated with development of adverse cardiovascular events over five years of observation (respective p levels were 0.02 and 0.036. In patients with A/A genotype, the rs1041981 polymorphism in LTA gene was associated with 3.8-fold increase in adverse cardiovascular events, compared to patients having A/C or C/C genotype. Carriage of A allele in LTA gene (rs1041981 doubles the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with nonST-ACS at long observation terms. By means of Kaplan-Meier method, we have determined that survival to the first endpoint occurred more often in carriers of the genotype A/A of LTA gene (rs1041981. The A/A genotype of LTA gene (rs1041981 proved to be more significant (p = 0.016 for development of adverse outcomes, when combining the patients with A/C and C/C genotypes. One may draw a conclusion

  5. A Variant in COX-2 Gene Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease and Clinical Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a particular severe phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD, left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD is heritable. Genetic variants related to prostaglandin metabolism are associated with LMCAD. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, a key synthase in prostaglandin pathways, displays high density in atherosclerotic lesions and promotes early atherosclerosis in CAD progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants in COX-2 gene contribute to LMCAD phenotype susceptibility compared to more peripheral coronary artery disease (MPCAD. In this study, we genotyped COX-2 rs5275, rs5277, and rs689466 of 1544 CAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and found that rs5277 C allele carriage was associated with LMCAD (adjusted OR: 1.590; 95% CI: 1.103~2.291; p=0.013. Furtherly, long-term follow-up data suggested that rs5277 C allele carriage increased risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE in the whole cohort (adjusted HR: 1.561; 95% CI: 1.025~2.377; p=0.038 and LMCAD subgroup (adjusted HR: 2.014; 95% CI: 1.036~3.913; p=0.039 but not in MPCAD subgroup (adjusted HR: 1.375; 95% CI: 0.791~2.392; p=0.259. In conclusion, we demonstrate that COX-2 rs5277 C allele increases the risk of left main coronary artery lesion and is also correlated with poor prognosis of LMCAD patients with CABG therapy.

  6. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering genotype × environment (GE interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares (TSS, and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm, and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  7. Assessment of the myostatin Q204X allele using an allelic discrimination assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Puentes-Montiel,Herlinda E.; Moreno-Medina,Víctor R.; Rosa-Reyna,Xóchitl F. de la

    2006-01-01

    An allelic discrimination assay was designed and used to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the myostatin (MSTN) gene Q204X allele from two Mexican Full-French herds. The assay is a simple high throughput genotyping method that could be applied to investigate the effect of the Q204X allele on the Charolais breed.

  8. Assessing The Representative And Discriminative Ability Of Test Environments For Rice Breeding In Malaysia Using GGE Biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of outstanding rice genotype for target environments is complicated by genotype environment interactions. Using genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction GGE Biplot software fifteen rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations representing the major rice producing areas in peninsula Malaysia in two cropping seasons to i identify ideal test environment for selecting superior rice genotype and ii identify discriminative and representative ability of test locations. Genotypes locations years and genotypes by environment interaction effect revealed high significant difference P 0.01 for number of tillers per hill grains per panicle grain weight per hill and yield per hectare. Grain yield per hectare had a non-repeatable crossover pattern that formed a complex and single mega-environment. Based on the crossover pattern a set of cultivars were selected for the whole region on the merit of mean performance and their stability analysis. The tested environments were divided into two mega-environments. An ideal test environment that measures the discriminative and representative ability of test location reveal that environment Sekinchan SC is the best environment while Kedah KD and Penang PN can also be considered as favorable environment whereas Serdang SS and Tanjung Karang TK were the poorest locations for selecting genotypes adapted to the whole region. This study serves a reference for genotypes evaluation as well as identification of test locations for rice breeding in Malaysia.

  9. Differentiation of acute total occlusion of coronary artery from chronic total occlusion in coronary computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo

    2012-01-01

    To compare the features of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) imaging of the patients with acute total occlusion (ATO) of coronary artery with those of chronic total occlusion (CTO). CCTA of 26 patients with complete interruption of the coronary artery in CCTA and occlusion in conventional coronary angiography, were retrospectively analyzed. Discrimination between the ATO group (n = 11, patients with non ST elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina) and the CTO group (n = 15, patients with stable angina or nonspecific symptom) was arbitrarily determined by clinical diagnosis. Lesion length, remodeling index (RI), plaque density measured by Hounsfield units (HU), plaque composition, percentage attenuation drop across the lesion, and presence of myocardial thinning were evaluated. Comparisons between the ATO and CTO groups revealed significantly shorter lesion length in the ATO group (0.40 cm vs. 1.87 cm, respectively; p = 0.001), and significantly higher RI (1.56 vs. 1.10, respectively; p = 0.004). Plaque density of the ATO group was lower (37.0 HU vs. 104.7 HU, respectively; p < 0.001) and non calcified plaque was frequently seen in the ATO group (72.7% vs. 26.7%, respectively; p = 0.02). Percentage attenuation drop across the lesion was lower for the ATO group (10.92% vs. 25.44%, respectively; p = 0.005). Myocardial thinning was exclusively observed in the CTO group (seven of 15 patients, p = 0.01). CCTA shows various statistically significant differences between the ATO and CTO groups

  10. Differentiation of acute total occlusion of coronary artery from chronic total occlusion in coronary computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    To compare the features of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) imaging of the patients with acute total occlusion (ATO) of coronary artery with those of chronic total occlusion (CTO). CCTA of 26 patients with complete interruption of the coronary artery in CCTA and occlusion in conventional coronary angiography, were retrospectively analyzed. Discrimination between the ATO group (n = 11, patients with non ST elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina) and the CTO group (n = 15, patients with stable angina or nonspecific symptom) was arbitrarily determined by clinical diagnosis. Lesion length, remodeling index (RI), plaque density measured by Hounsfield units (HU), plaque composition, percentage attenuation drop across the lesion, and presence of myocardial thinning were evaluated. Comparisons between the ATO and CTO groups revealed significantly shorter lesion length in the ATO group (0.40 cm vs. 1.87 cm, respectively; p = 0.001), and significantly higher RI (1.56 vs. 1.10, respectively; p = 0.004). Plaque density of the ATO group was lower (37.0 HU vs. 104.7 HU, respectively; p < 0.001) and non calcified plaque was frequently seen in the ATO group (72.7% vs. 26.7%, respectively; p = 0.02). Percentage attenuation drop across the lesion was lower for the ATO group (10.92% vs. 25.44%, respectively; p = 0.005). Myocardial thinning was exclusively observed in the CTO group (seven of 15 patients, p = 0.01). CCTA shows various statistically significant differences between the ATO and CTO groups.

  11. Coding Variation in ANGPTL4, LPL, and SVEP1 and the Risk of Coronary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stitziel, Nathan O; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Masca, Nicholas G D; Erdmann, Jeanette; Ferrario, Paola G; König, Inke R; Weeke, Peter E; Webb, Thomas R; Auer, Paul L; Schick, Ursula M; Lu, Yingchang; Zhang, He; Dube, Marie-Pierre; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Peloso, Gina M; Won, Hong-Hee; Do, Ron; van Iperen, Erik; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kruppa, Jochen; Mahajan, Anubha; Scott, Robert A; Willenberg, Christina; Braund, Peter S; van Capelleveen, Julian C; Doney, Alex S F; Donnelly, Louise A; Asselta, Rosanna; Merlini, Piera A; Duga, Stefano; Marziliano, Nicola; Denny, Josh C; Shaffer, Christian M; El-Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Franke, Andre; Gottesman, Omri; Heilmann, Stefanie; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hoffman, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hveem, Kristian; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kessler, Thorsten; Kriebel, Jennifer; Laugwitz, Karl L; Marouli, Eirini; Martinelli, Nicola; McCarthy, Mark I; Van Zuydam, Natalie R; Meisinger, Christa; Esko, Tõnu; Mihailov, Evelin; Escher, Stefan A; Alvar, Maris; Moebus, Susanne; Morris, Andrew D; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nikpay, Majid; Olivieri, Oliviero; Lemieux Perreault, Louis-Philippe; AlQarawi, Alaa; Robertson, Neil R; Akinsanya, Karen O; Reilly, Dermot F; Vogt, Thomas F; Yin, Wu; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D; Stahl, Eli; Strauch, Konstantin; Varga, Tibor V; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeng, Lingyao; Kraja, Aldi T; Liu, Chunyu; Ehret, George B; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Chasman, Daniel I; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Ferrario, Marco; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Perola, Markus; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Surendran, Praveen; Tregouet, David; Young, Robin; Howson, Joanna M M; Butterworth, Adam S; Danesh, John; Ardissino, Diego; Bottinger, Erwin P; Erbel, Raimund; Franks, Paul W; Girelli, Domenico; Hall, Alistair S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastrati, Adnan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Kraus, William E; Shah, Svati H; McPherson, Ruth; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin N A; Peters, Annette; Rader, Daniel; Reilly, Muredach P; Loos, Ruth J F; Reiner, Alex P; Roden, Dan M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thompson, John R; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Willer, Cristen J; Kathiresan, Sekkar; Deloukas, Panos; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of low-frequency coding variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease has facilitated the identification of therapeutic targets. METHODS: Through DNA genotyping, we tested 54,003 coding-sequence variants covering 13,715 human genes in up to 72,868 patients with

  12. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Kang, Hyun Min; Ding, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands...... dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping...

  13. State of the Art Coronary Heart Disease Risk Estimation based on the Framingham Heart Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reissigová, Jindra; Tomečková, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2005), s. 180-186 ISSN 0022-1732 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Framingham heart study * coronary heart disease * risk validation study * calibration * discrimination Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Prediction of postpercutaneous coronary intervention myocardial infarction: insights from intravascular imaging, coronary flow, and biomarker evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoole, Stephen P; Hernández-Sánchez, Jules; Brown, Adam J; Giblett, Joel P; Bennett, Martin R; West, Nick E J

    2018-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention-induced myocardial infarction (PMI) has prognostic significance. Identifying patients at high risk for PMI is desirable as it may alter strategy and facilitate early preventative therapy. We therefore sought to establish whether preprocedural demographic, interventional (plaque characteristics and coronary microcirculatory function), and inflammatory, endothelial damage, and platelet-derived biomarker data could predict the risk of PMI. We performed target vessel pressure wire to assess fractional flow reserve, index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve, plaque characterization by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, and assayed peripheral biomarkers before uncomplicated PCI in 88 patients. We then analyzed post-PCI cardiac troponin level to adjudicate PMI based on the third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Overall incidence of PMI was 27%. Women [10/15 (66%) vs. 14/73 (19%), PPMI. Preprocedural coronary flow reserve was lower in individuals with a subsequent PMI (1.8±1.2 vs. 2.1±1.3. P=0.03), and patients with higher pre-PCI IMR were more likely to sustain PMI [IMR>22: 10/23 (44%) vs. ≤22: 14/65 (22%), P=0.04], although neither was predictive after multivariate analysis. Plaque characterization by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound did not discriminate those at risk of PMI. However, peripheral venous interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-8 levels were independently negatively and positively associated with PMI, respectively. Women and those with low BMI, particularly when associated with high IL-8 and low IL-18 levels, appear to be at increased risk of PMI.

  15. Genotyping of virulent Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soma Sekhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize virulent Escherichia coli isolated from different poultry species and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR genotyping. Materials and Methods: Fecal swabs from different poultry species (n=150 and poultry farm workers (n=15 were analyzed for E. coli and screened for virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA by multiplex PCR. Virulent E. coli was serotyped based on their "O" antigen and then genotyped using ERIC-PCR. Results: A total of 134 E. coli isolates (122/150 from poultry and 12/15 from farm workers were recovered. Virulence genes were detected in a total of 12 isolates. Serological typing of the 12 virulent E. coli revealed nine different serotypes (O2, O49, O60, O63, O83, O101, O120, UT, and Rough. ERIC-PCR genotyping allowed discrimination of 12 virulent E. coli isolates into 11 ERIC-PCR genotypes. The numerical index of discrimination was 0.999. Conclusion: Our findings provide information about the wide genetic diversity and discrimination of virulent E. coli in apparently healthy poultry and poultry farm workers of Andhra Pradesh (India based on their genotype.

  16. Interleukin-18 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with and without Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghaderi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several studies have revealed that inflammation plays an important role in development of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD and its other manifestations. IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine that enhances Th1( T helper 1 or Th2( T helper 2 immune response depending on its cytokine milieu and genetic background. It strongly induces formation of plaques in patients with CAD. Variations in the IL-18 gene found to influence both levels of IL-18 and clinical outcomes in individuals with history of heart disease. To investigate the association of two IL-18 promoter gene polymorphisms at -607C/A and -137G/C positions with CAD, and some CAD risk factors such as diabetes, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking and obesity.Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted by the salting out method from the peripheral arterial blood of 280 patients with CAD documented by coronary angiography (143 with a documented history of myocardial infarction termed positive MI and 137 without myocardial infarction designated negative MI and 140 age- sex matched persons with a normal coronary angiography (control group.The genotype of both CAD and control groups were assessed by ASP-PCR method. Arlequin program was used for gametic phase estimation and haplotype analysis.Results: There was no significant difference between patient and control groups either allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic for both variants (p>0.05. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between IL-18 genotypes and CAD risk factors in the patient group (P>0.05. Conclusion: These results suggest that the investigated IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms at -607C/A and -137G/C positions are not associated with genetic susceptibility to CAD in southern Iran.

  17. The study protocol for a non-randomized controlled clinical trial using a genotype-guided strategy in a dataset of patients who undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lucía Dávila-Fajardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Results of genotype–guided antiplatelet therapy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent” (J. Sánchez-Ramos, C.L. Dávila-Fajardo, P. Toledo Frías, X. Díaz Villamarín, L.J. Martínez-González, S. Martínez Huertas, F. Burillo Gómez, J. Caballero Borrego, A. Bautista Pavés, M.C. Marín Guzmán, J.A. Ramirez Hernández, C. Correa Vilches, J. Cabeza Barrera, 2016 (1. This data article reports, for the first time, about the non-randomized clinical trial protocol that check if CYP2C19/ABCB1 genotype–guided strategy in which the choice of antiplatelet therapy is based on the genetic test, reduces the rates of cardiovascular events and bleeding compared to a non-tailored strategy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with stent. The data included in this article are: design and setting of the study, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, definition of the intervention, objectives, variables (baseline characteristics and during the follow-up, study procedures, collection and treatment of the biological sample, genotyping, withdrawal criteria, sample size, statistic analysis, ethical aspects, information sheet and consent form. The authors confirm that this study has been registered in Eudra CT (Eudra CT: 2016-001294-33.

  18. Epidemiological markers in Neisseria meningitidis: an estimate of the performance of genotyping vs phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, N; Lind, I

    1998-01-01

    In order to estimate the performance of genotypic vs phenotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis, 2 methods, DNA fingerprinting and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), were assessed as regards applicability, reproducibility and discriminating capacity. 50 serogroup B and 52 serogro......, and as applied in the study MEE was superior to DNA fingerprinting. Clusters of invasive strains were reliably identified by phenotyping alone, whereas determination of identity of carrier strains and an invasive strain required genotyping.......In order to estimate the performance of genotypic vs phenotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis, 2 methods, DNA fingerprinting and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), were assessed as regards applicability, reproducibility and discriminating capacity. 50 serogroup B and 52 serogroup...... C Neisseria meningitidis strains from 96 patients with meningococcal disease and 22 serogroup C strains from healthy carriers were investigated. Both methods were 100% applicable to meningococcal strains and results of DNA fingerprinting as well as of MEE were reproducible. The number of types...

  19. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  20. Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome Score for the Prediction of In-hospital and 30-Day Mortality of Patients With an Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Notara, Venetia; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2015-01-01

    Risk evaluation of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may contribute to their short-term prognosis improvement. The aim of this work was to develop a prediction index (score) for the risk assessment of 30-day death of ACS patients, using clinical and biological measurements at hospital admission. A sample of 6 Greek hospitals was selected, and almost all consecutive 2172 ACS patients from October 2003 to September 2004 were enrolled. Sociodemographic, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Using as components age, systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, creatine kinase-MB, and creatinine levels at the time of admission and the time between the onset of symptoms and presentation at hospital, a risk score (Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome score; range, 6-36) was developed and tested against in-hospital and 30-day outcome of the patients. The Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome score showed strong discriminating ability for in-hospital mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.812; 95% confidence interval, 0.750-0.874; P period.

  1. Genotype-phenotype correlation in patients suspected of having Sotos syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Lonneke; Kant, Sarina G.; Karperien, Marcel; van Beers, Lotte; Tjon, Jennifer; Vink, Geraldine R.; van Tol, Dewy; Dauwerse, Hans; le Cessie, Saskia; Beemer, Frits A.; van der Burgt, Ineke; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Kuhnle, Ursula; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Stumpel, Connie T. Schrander; Breuning, Martijn H.; Wit, Jan M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deletions and mutations in the NSD1 gene are the major cause of Sotos syndrome. We wanted to evaluate the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients suspected of having Sotos syndrome and determine the best discriminating parameters for the presence of a NSD1 gene alteration. Methods:

  2. Genotype-phenotype correlation in patients suspected of having sotos syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Kant, S.; Karperien, M.; Beers, L. van; Tjon, J.; Vink, G.R.; Tol, D. van; Dauwerse, H.G.; Cessie, S. le; Beemer, F.A.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Hamel, B.C.J.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Kuhnle, U.; Mathijssen, I.B.; Veenstra-Knol, H.E.; Stumpel, C.T.; Breuning, M.H.; Wit, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deletions and mutations in the NSD1 gene are the major cause of Sotos syndrome. We wanted to evaluate the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients suspected of having Sotos syndrome and determine the best discriminating parameters for the presence of a NSD1 gene alteration. METHODS:

  3. Involvement of interleukin-1 genotypes in the association of coronary heart disease with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geismar, Karen; Enevold, Christian; Sørensen, Lars Korsbæk

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrated an association between periodontitis (PE) and coronary heart disease (CHD). The coexistence of the two disease entities could be dependent on mutual risk factors, and polymorphism of the interleukin (IL)-1 gene cluster associated with the severity of PE might also...

  4. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in the Experiences of Discrimination Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of instruments used to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination in epidemiologic studies are rarely assessed, especially regarding construct validity. The authors used 2000–2001 data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study to examine differential item functioning (DIF) in 2 versions of the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) Index, an index measuring self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic and gender discrimination. DIF may confound interpretation of subgroup differences. Large DIF was observed for 2 of 7 racial/ethnic discrimination items: White participants reported more racial/ethnic discrimination for the “at school” item, and black participants reported more racial/ethnic discrimination for the “getting housing” item. The large DIF by race/ethnicity in the index for racial/ethnic discrimination probably reflects item impact and is the result of valid group differences between blacks and whites regarding their respective experiences of discrimination. The authors also observed large DIF by race/ethnicity for 3 of 7 gender discrimination items. This is more likely to have been due to item bias. Users of the EOD Index must consider the advantages and disadvantages of DIF adjustment (omitting items, constructing separate measures, and retaining items). The EOD Index has substantial usefulness as an instrument that can assess self-reported experiences of discrimination. PMID:22038104

  5. Coronary arteries segmentation based on the 3D discrete wavelet transform and 3D neutrosophic transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Hung, Pei-Kai; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chung-Ming; Kung, Woon-Man

    2015-01-01

    Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  6. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  7. Urinary KIM-1, NGAL and L-FABP for the diagnosis of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure undergoing coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Juan, Isabel; Puchades, María Jesús; Blasco, María Luisa; Carratalá, Arturo; Sanjuán, Rafael; Miguel, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after coronary angiography. Early biomarkers of this disease are needed since increase in serum creatinine levels is a late marker. To assess the usefulness of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (uL-FABP) for early detection of AKI in these patients, comparing their performance with another group of cardiac surgery patients. Biomarkers were measured in 193 patients, 12 h after intervention. In the ROC analysis, AUC for KIM-1, NGAL and L-FABP was 0.713, 0.958 and 0.642, respectively, in the coronary angiography group, and 0.716, 0.916 and 0.743 in the cardiac surgery group. Urinary KIM-1 12 h after intervention is predictive of AKI in adult patients undergoing coronary angiography, but NGAL shows higher sensitivity and specificity. L-FABP provides inferior discrimination for AKI than KIM-1 or NGAL in contrast to its performance after cardiac surgery. This is the first study showing the predictive capacity of KIM-1 for AKI after coronary angiography. Further studies are still needed to answer relevant questions about the clinical utility of biomarkers for AKI in different clinical settings.

  8. Calcified Plaque of Coronary Artery: Factors Influencing Overestimation of Coronary Artery Stenosis on Coronary CT Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mok Hee; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Choi, Song; Seon, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Ko, Joon Seok

    2010-01-01

    To assess the influence of calcified plaque characteristics on the overestimation of coronary arterial stenosis on a coronary CT angiography (CCTA). The study included 271 coronary arteries with calcified plaques identified by CCTA, and based on 928 coronary arteries from 232 patients who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Individual coronary arteries were classified into two groups by agreement based on the degree of stenosis from each CCTA and ICA: 1) group A includes patients with concordant CCTA and ICA results and, 2) group B includes patients with an overestimation of CCTA compared to ICA. Parameters including total calcium score, calcium score of an individual coronary artery, calcium burden number of an individual coronary artery, and the density of each calcified plaque (calcium score / number of calcium burden) for each individual coronary artery were compared between the two groups. Of the 271 coronary arteries, 164 (60.5%) were overestimated on CCTA. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) had a significantly low rate of overestimation (47.1%) compared to the other coronary arteries (p=0.001). No significant differences for total calcium score, calcium score of individual coronary artery, and the density of each calcified plaque from individual coronary arteries between two groups was observed. However, a decreasing tendency for the rate of overestimation on CCTA was observed with an increase in calcium burden of individual coronary arteries (p<0.05). The evaluation of coronary arteries suggests that the degree of coronary arterial stenosis had a tendency to be overestimated by calcified plaques on CCTA. However, the rate of overestimation for the degree of coronary arterial stenosis by calcified plaques was not significantly influenced by total calcium score, calcium score of individual coronary artery, and density of each calcified plaque

  9. Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism modifies the effect of coffee intake on incidence of acute coronary events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Happonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of coffee intake as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD has been debated for decades. We examined whether the relationship between coffee intake and incidence of CHD events is dependent on the metabolism of circulating catecholamines, as determined by functional polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cohort of 773 men who were 42 to 60 years old and free of symptomatic CHD at baseline in 1984-89, 78 participants experienced an acute coronary event during an average follow-up of 13 years. In logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, family history of CHD, vitamin C deficiency, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol concentration, and diabetes, the odds ratio (90% confidence interval comparing heavy coffee drinkers with the low activity COMT genotype with those with the high activity or heterozygotic genotypes was 3.2 (1.2-8.4. Urinary adrenaline excretion increased with increasing coffee intake, being over two-fold in heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers (p = 0.008 for trend. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heavy coffee consumption increases the incidence of acute coronary events in men with low but not high COMT activity. Further studies are required to determine to which extent circulating catecholamines mediate the relationship between coffee intake and CHD.

  10. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke : Systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 015 stroke cases and pooled analysis of primary biomarker data from up to 60 883 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Tauseef A.; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David; Zhang, Weili; Price, Jackie; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Cooper, Jackie; Talmud, Philippa J.; Humphries, Steve E.; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Abdollahi, Mohammad R.; Slooter, Arjen J. C.; Szolnoki, Zoltan; Sandhu, Manjinder; Wareham, Nicholas; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Fillenbaum, Gerda; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Gromadzka, Grazyna; Singleton, Andrew; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hardy, John; Worrall, Bradford; Rich, Stephen S.; Matarin, Mar; Whittaker, John; Gaunt, Tom R.; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Deanfield, John; Donald, Ann; Smith, George Davey; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Smeeth, Liam; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Nalls, Michael; Meschia, James; Sun, Kai; Hui, Rutai; Day, Ian; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Casas, Juan P.

    Background At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the epsilon 2/epsilon 3/epsilon 4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk

  11. Determination of single-nucleotide polymorphism in the proximal promoter region of apolipoprotein M gene in coronary artery diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lu Zheng1, Guanghua Luo1, Xiaoying Zhang1, Jun Zhang1, Jiang Zhu1, Jiang Wei1, Qinfeng Mu1, Lujun Chen1, Peter Nilsson-Ehle2, Ning Xu21Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou University, Changzhou China; 2Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, SwedenObjective: It has been reported that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the proximal promoter region of apolipoprotein M (apoM gene may confer the risk in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and coronary artery disease (CAD in the Han Chinese. However, in a recent study demonstrated that plasma apoM level did not correlated to the coronary heart disease. In the present studies, we investigated the SNP T-778C of apoM gene in CAD patients and controls in the Han Chinese population. Moreover we examined whether serum apoM levels could be influenced by this promoter mutation.Material and methods: One hundred twenty-six CAD patients and 118 non-CAD patients were subjected in the present study. All patients were confirmed by the angiography. The genotyping of polymorphisms T-778C in apoM promoter was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum apoM levels were semi-quantitatively determined by the dot-blotting analysis. Results: Distribution of apoM T-778C genotype in non-CAD patients was as following: 84.7% were T/T, 15.3% were T/C and 0.0% was C/C. T allele frequencies were 92.4% and C allele, 7.6%. In the CAD patients, 99 patients (78.6% had the T/T genotype, 25 patients (19.8% with T/C genotype and 2 patients (1.6% with C/C genotype. The allele frequency was 88.5% for the T allele and 11.5% for the C allele. There was no statistical significant difference of serum apoM levels found in these three genotypes.Conclusions: There was no significant difference in allele or genotype frequencies between CAD patients and non-CAD patients. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age

  12. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice

    OpenAIRE

    Walentiny, D. Matthew; Vann, Robert E.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with sim...

  13. The minimum coronary artery diameter in which coronary spasm can be identified by synchrotron radiation coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Shonosuke; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Imazuru, Tomohiro; Tokunaga, Chiho; Sato, Fujio; Enomoto, Yoshiharu; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Sakakibara, Yuzuru

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coronary vasospasm is defined as a temporary, intense narrowing of the coronary conduit artery. It brings about ischemic chest pain and becomes one of the causes of myocardial infarction. Coronary spasms are divided into two categories. One is the coronary spasm of the conduit artery and the other is the coronary microvascular spasm. Although coronary spasms are diagnosed with the images of coronary angiography, microvascular spasms cannot be diagnosed because of the limitations of conventional angiographic systems. However, synchrotron radiation coronary angiography (SRCA) can identify coronary arteries down to 100 μm in diameter in the beating heart and 50 μm in arrested heart. Aim: The purpose of this study was to confirm whether microvascular spasms could be identified or not using SRCA, and then down that size identification was possible. Methods: The Langendorff perfusion system with isolated rat hearts was employed. Krebs-Henseleit solution (KH solution) was used as a perfusate. 10 mM of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP: a voltage-gated potassium channel blocker; spasm inducer) was added to the KH solution and maintained for 5 min. SRCA was performed at pre-, during and 10 min after cessation of the KH solution with 4-AP. Coronary spasms were defined as a temporal 75% reduction of coronary arterial diameter. Results and conclusion: Multiple sizes of coronary arteries showed coronary spasms. The minimum stenosed coronary artery size was 100 μm. Since coronary microvascular spasms are seen in the arterioles (50-400 μm), coronary microvascular spasms may be diagnosed with the use of synchrotron radiation coronary angiography

  14. AMMI analysis to evaluate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. is one of the most important crops in Brazil. The high demand for sugarcane-derived products has stimulated the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in recent years, exploring different environments. The adaptability and the phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were evaluated based on the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI method. We evaluated 15 genotypes (13 clones and two checks: RB867515 and RB72454 in nine environments. The average of two cuttings for the variable tons of pol per hectare (TPH measure was used to discriminate genotypes. Besides the check RB867515 (20.44 t ha-1, the genotype RB987935 showed a high average TPH (20.71 t ha-1, general adaptability and phenotypic stability, and should be suitable for cultivation in the target region. The AMMI method allowed for easy visual identification of superior genotypes for each set of environments.

  15. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  16. Prognostic Value of Geriatric Conditions Beyond Age After Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Juan; Ruiz, Vicente; Bonanad, Clara; Valero, Ernesto; Ruescas-Nicolau, Maria Arantzazu; Ezzatvar, Yasmin; Sastre, Clara; García-Blas, Sergio; Mollar, Anna; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Miñana, Gema; Núñez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of geriatric conditions beyond age after acute coronary syndrome. This was a prospective cohort design including 342 patients (from October 1, 2010, to February 1, 2012) hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome, older than 65 years, in whom 5 geriatric conditions were evaluated at discharge: frailty (Fried and Green scales), comorbidity (Charlson and simple comorbidity indexes), cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer test), physical disability (Barthel index), and instrumental disability (Lawton-Brody scale). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. The median follow-up for the entire population was 4.7 years (range, 3-2178 days). A total of 156 patients (46%) died. Among the geriatric conditions, frailty (Green score, per point; hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20; P=.01) and comorbidity (Charlson index, per point; hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.0-1.40; P=.05) were the independent predictors. The introduction of age in a basic model using well-established prognostic clinical variables resulted in an increase in discrimination accuracy (C-statistic=.716-.744; P=.05), though the addition of frailty and comorbidity provided a nonsignificant further increase (C-statistic=.759; P=.36). Likewise, the addition of age to the clinical model led to a significant risk reclassification (continuous net reclassification improvement, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-0.67; and integrated discrimination improvement, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09). However, the addition of frailty and comorbidity provided a further significant risk reclassification in comparison to the clinical model with age (continuous net reclassification improvement, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16-0.65; and integrated discrimination improvement, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.10). In conclusion, frailty and comorbidity are mortality predictors that significantly reclassify risk beyond age after acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and

  17. Sensitive Troponin I Assay in Patients with Chest Pain - Association with Significant Coronary Lesions with or Without Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Bossa, Aline Siqueira; Zullino, Cindel Nogueira; Biselli, Bruno; Soeiro, Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; Oliveira Junior, Mucio Tavares de

    2018-01-01

    Despite having higher sensitivity as compared to conventional troponins, sensitive troponins have lower specificity, mainly in patients with renal failure. Study aimed at assessing the sensitive troponin I levels in patients with chest pain, and relating them to the existence of significant coronary lesions. Retrospective, single-center, observational. This study included 991 patients divided into two groups: with (N = 681) and without (N = 310) significant coronary lesion. For posterior analysis, the patients were divided into two other groups: with (N = 184) and without (N = 807) chronic renal failure. The commercial ADVIA Centaur® TnI-Ultra assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) was used. The ROC curve analysis was performed to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cutoff point of troponin as a discriminator of the probability of significant coronary lesion. The associations were considered significant when p renal failure, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.703 (95% CI: 0.66 - 0.74) and 0.608 (95% CI: 0.52 - 0.70), respectively. The best cutoff points to discriminate the presence of significant coronary lesion were: in the general population, 0.605 ng/dL (sensitivity, 63.4%; specificity, 67%); in patients without renal failure, 0.605 ng/dL (sensitivity, 62.7%; specificity, 71%); and in patients with chronic renal failure, 0.515 ng/dL (sensitivity, 80.6%; specificity, 42%). In patients with chest pain, sensitive troponin I showed a good correlation with significant coronary lesions when its level was greater than 0.605 ng/dL. In patients with chronic renal failure, a significant decrease in specificity was observed in the correlation of troponin levels and severe coronary lesions.

  18. The involvement of multiple thrombogenic and atherogenic markers in premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio P. Mansur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atherogenic and thrombogenic markers and lymphotoxin-alfa gene mutations with the risk of premature coronary disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional, case-control, age-adjusted study was conducted in 336 patients with premature coronary disease (50% luminal reduction or a previous myocardial infarction. The laboratory data evaluated included thrombogenic factors (fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III, atherogenic factors (glucose and lipid profiles, lipoprotein(a, and apolipoproteins AI and B, and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations. Genetic variability of lymphotoxin-alfa was determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: Coronary disease patients exhibited lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and higher levels of glucose, lipoprotein(a, and protein S. The frequencies of AA, AG, and GG lymphotoxin-alfa mutation genotypes were 55.0%, 37.6%, and 7.4% for controls and 42.7%, 46.0%, and 11.3% for coronary disease patients (p = 0.02, respectively. Smoking, dyslipidemia, family history, and lipoprotein(a and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations in men were independent variables associated with coronary disease. The area under the curve (C-statistic increased from 0.779 to 0.802 (p<0.05 with the inclusion of lipoprotein(a and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations in the set of conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of lipoprotein(a and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations in the set of conventional risk factors showed an additive but small increase in the risk prediction of premature coronary disease.

  19. A quantitative and efficient approach to select MIRU-VNTR loci based on accumulation of the percentage differences of strains for discriminating divergent Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Nakajima, Chie; Fu, Jin; Shao, Chang-Xia; Zhao, Li-Na; Cui, Jia-Yi; Jiao, Na; Fan, Chang-Long; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio; Li, Di; Ling, Hong

    2017-07-26

    Although several optimal mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci have been suggested for genotyping homogenous Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the Beijing genotype, a more efficient and convenient selection strategy for identifying optimal VNTR loci is needed. Here 281 M. tuberculosis isolates were analyzed. Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotypes were identified, as well as Beijing sublineages, according to single nucleotide polymorphisms. A total of 22 MIRU-VNTR loci were used for genotyping. To efficiently select optimal MIRU-VNTR loci, we established accumulations of percentage differences (APDs) between the strains among the different genotypes. In addition, we constructed a minimum spanning tree for clustering analysis of the VNTR profiles. Our findings showed that eight MIRU-VNTR loci displayed disparities in h values of ≥0.2 between the Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotype isolates. To efficiently discriminate Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes, an optimal VNTR set was established by adding loci with APDs ranging from 87.2% to 58.8%, resulting in the construction of a nine-locus set. We also found that QUB11a is a powerful locus for separating ST10s (including ST10, STF and STCH1) and ST22s (including ST22 and ST8) strains, whereas a combination of QUB11a, QUB4156, QUB18, Mtub21 and QUB26 could efficiently discriminate Beijing sublineages. Our findings suggested that two nine-locus sets were not only efficient for distinguishing the Beijing genotype from non-Beijing genotype strains, but were also suitable for sublineage genotyping with different discriminatory powers. These results indicate that APD represents a quantitative and efficient approach for selecting MIRU-VNTR loci to discriminate between divergent M. tuberculosis sublineages.

  20. A quantitative and efficient approach to select MIRU–VNTR loci based on accumulation of the percentage differences of strains for discriminating divergent Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Nakajima, Chie; Fu, Jin; Shao, Chang-Xia; Zhao, Li-Na; Cui, Jia-Yi; Jiao, Na; Fan, Chang-Long; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio; Li, Di; Ling, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Although several optimal mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU–VNTR) loci have been suggested for genotyping homogenous Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the Beijing genotype, a more efficient and convenient selection strategy for identifying optimal VNTR loci is needed. Here 281 M. tuberculosis isolates were analyzed. Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotypes were identified, as well as Beijing sublineages, according to single nucleotide polymorphisms. A total of 22 MIRU–VNTR loci were used for genotyping. To efficiently select optimal MIRU–VNTR loci, we established accumulations of percentage differences (APDs) between the strains among the different genotypes. In addition, we constructed a minimum spanning tree for clustering analysis of the VNTR profiles. Our findings showed that eight MIRU–VNTR loci displayed disparities in h values of ≥0.2 between the Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotype isolates. To efficiently discriminate Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes, an optimal VNTR set was established by adding loci with APDs ranging from 87.2% to 58.8%, resulting in the construction of a nine-locus set. We also found that QUB11a is a powerful locus for separating ST10s (including ST10, STF and STCH1) and ST22s (including ST22 and ST8) strains, whereas a combination of QUB11a, QUB4156, QUB18, Mtub21 and QUB26 could efficiently discriminate Beijing sublineages. Our findings suggested that two nine-locus sets were not only efficient for distinguishing the Beijing genotype from non-Beijing genotype strains, but were also suitable for sublineage genotyping with different discriminatory powers. These results indicate that APD represents a quantitative and efficient approach for selecting MIRU–VNTR loci to discriminate between divergent M. tuberculosis sublineages. PMID:28745309

  1. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tsung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Results. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Conclusion. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  2. An accurate and efficient method for large-scale SSR genotyping and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lun; Fang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Junfei; Chen, Hong; Hu, Zhangfeng; Gao, Lifen; Chen, Lihong; Ren, Sheng; Ma, Hongyu; Lu, Long; Zhang, Weixiong; Peng, Hai

    2017-06-02

    Accurate and efficient genotyping of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) constitutes the basis of SSRs as an effective genetic marker with various applications. However, the existing methods for SSR genotyping suffer from low sensitivity, low accuracy, low efficiency and high cost. In order to fully exploit the potential of SSRs as genetic marker, we developed a novel method for SSR genotyping, named as AmpSeq-SSR, which combines multiplexing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), targeted deep sequencing and comprehensive analysis. AmpSeq-SSR is able to genotype potentially more than a million SSRs at once using the current sequencing techniques. In the current study, we simultaneously genotyped 3105 SSRs in eight rice varieties, which were further validated experimentally. The results showed that the accuracies of AmpSeq-SSR were nearly 100 and 94% with a single base resolution for homozygous and heterozygous samples, respectively. To demonstrate the power of AmpSeq-SSR, we adopted it in two applications. The first was to construct discriminative fingerprints of the rice varieties using 3105 SSRs, which offer much greater discriminative power than the 48 SSRs commonly used for rice. The second was to map Xa21, a gene that confers persistent resistance to rice bacterial blight. We demonstrated that genome-scale fingerprints of an organism can be efficiently constructed and candidate genes, such as Xa21 in rice, can be accurately and efficiently mapped using an innovative strategy consisting of multiplexing PCR, targeted sequencing and computational analysis. While the work we present focused on rice, AmpSeq-SSR can be readily extended to animals and micro-organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Optimal Combination of VNTR Typing for Discrimination of Isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Heeyoon; Kim, Sarang; Yoo, Heekyung; Kim, Hee Jin; Park, Young Kil

    2014-01-01

    Background Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is a promising method to discriminate the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in molecular epidemiology. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal VNTR combinations for discriminating isolated M. tuberculosis strains in Korea. Methods A total of 317 clinical isolates collected throughout Korea were genotyped by using the IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and then analysed for the number of VNTR copies fro...

  4. Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, George CM; Mavridis, Dimitris; Greenwood, John P; Coles, Bernadette; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Jüni, Peter; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-01-01

    suspected stable coronary artery disease, an initial diagnostic strategy of stress echocardiography or single photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging resulted in fewer downstream tests than coronary computed tomographic angiography (0.24 (0.08 to 0.74) and 0.57 (0.37 to 0.87), respectively). However, exercise electrocardiograms yielded the highest downstream testing rate. Estimates for death and myocardial infarction were imprecise without clear discrimination between strategies. Conclusions For patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome, an initial diagnostic strategy of stress echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance is associated with fewer referrals for invasive coronary angiography and revascularisation procedures than non-invasive anatomical testing, without apparent impact on the future risk of myocardial infarction. For suspected stable coronary artery disease, there was no clear discrimination between diagnostic strategies regarding the subsequent need for invasive coronary angiography, and differences in the risk of myocardial infarction cannot be ruled out. Systematic review registration PROSPERO registry no CRD42016049442. PMID:29467161

  5. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); A. Colombo (Antonio); D.R. Holmes Jr (David); M.J. Mack (Michael); E. Stahle (Elisabeth); T.E. Feldman (Ted); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); E.J. Bass (Eric); N. van Dyck (Nic); K. Leadly (Katrin); K.D. Dawkins (Keith); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involving drug-eluting stents is increasingly used to treat complex coronary artery disease, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the treatment of choice historically. Our trial compared PCI and CABG for treating

  6. Comprehensive genotyping in dyslipidemia: mendelian dyslipidemias caused by rare variants and Mendelian randomization studies using common variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hayato; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Dyslipidemias, especially hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, are important causal risk factors for coronary artery disease. Comprehensive genotyping using the 'next-generation sequencing' technique has facilitated the investigation of Mendelian dyslipidemias, in addition to Mendelian randomization studies using common genetic variants associated with plasma lipids and coronary artery disease. The beneficial effects of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapies on coronary artery disease have been verified by many randomized controlled trials over the years, and subsequent genetic studies have supported these findings. More recently, Mendelian randomization studies have preceded randomized controlled trials. When the on-target/off-target effects of rare variants and common variants exhibit the same direction, novel drugs targeting molecules identified by investigations of rare Mendelian lipid disorders could be promising. Such a strategy could aid in the search for drug discovery seeds other than those for dyslipidemias.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme DD polymorphism is associated with poor coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Koksal; Kadi, Hasan; Celik, Atac; Burucu, Turgay; Koc, Fatih; Sogut, Erkan; Sahin, Semsettin; Onalan, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Although association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and cardiovascular diseases was reported by many studies, the relation between ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) has not been studied yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and CCC. Patients who were subjected to coronary angiography in the 2006 to 2009 period and had at least a completely occluded major artery were included in this study. To classify collateral circulation, we used the Rentrop classification. Patients were classified as having poor CCC (Rentrop grades 0 to 1) or good CCC (Rentrop grades 2 to 3). Gene polymorphism was detected through the detailed melting curve analysis of polymerase chain reaction products after amplification using real-time polymerase chain reaction method and LightCycler 1.5 apparatus. We prospectively studied 113 patients who had at least 1 totally occluded major epicardial coronary artery. Forty-seven patients had poor CCC and 67 patients had good CCC. There were no differences among groups in age, sex, risk factors, lipid profile, uses of cardiovascular drugs, and number of diseased vessels. Plasma ACE levels were significantly higher in poor CCC group (P DD polymorphism was higher in the poor CCC group (P DD genotype (95% CI, 2.55-12.79; P = 0.001), presence of diabetes (95% CI, 1.03-3.16; P = 0.005), and pulse pressure (95% CI, 1.04-1.56; P = 0.045) were independent determinants of poor coronary collateral development. This study showed that ACE DD polymorphism is associated with poor CCC. Poor collateral circulation in patients carrying the D allele may be associated with endothelial dysfunction and elevated blood ACE levels in these patients.

  8. CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hagen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Various diagnostic tests including conventional invasive coronary angiography and non-invasive computed tomography (CT coronary angiography are used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD. Research questions: The present report aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of CT coronary angiography versus invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. in October 2010 and was completed with a manual search. The literature search was restricted to articles published from 2006 in German or English. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of the relevant publications. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of diagnostic studies with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard and on diagnostic studies with intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard. Study results were combined in a meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CI. Additionally, data on radiation doses from current non-systematic reviews were taken into account. A health economic evaluation was performed by modelling from the social perspective with clinical assumptions derived from the meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from contemporary German sources. Data on special indications (bypass or in-stent-restenosis were not included in the evaluation. Only data obtained using CT scanners with at least 64 slices were considered. Results: No studies were found regarding the clinical efficacy or prognostic value of CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, 15 systematic reviews with data from 44 diagnostic studies using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard (identification of obstructive

  9. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  10. A Polymorphism in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha, rs7310409, Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD is a particularly severe phenotypic form of CAD and has a genetic basis. We hypothesized that some inflammation- and hyperhomocysteinemia-related gene polymorphisms may contribute to LMCAD susceptibility in a Chinese population. We studied the association between polymorphisms in the genes hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A; rs7310409, G/A, C-reactive protein (rs1800947 and rs3093059 T/C, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (rs1801133, C/T, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (rs1076991, A/G in 402 LMCAD and 804 more peripheral CAD patients in a Chinese population. Genotyping was performed using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. When the HNF1A rs7310409 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, both the individual, GA and AA, and combined GA/AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of LMCAD. This single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7310409 is strongly associated with plasma CRP levels. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that the HNF1A rs7310409 G/A functional polymorphism may contribute to the risk of LMCAD.

  11. Diagnostic value of quantitative stenosis predictors with coronary CT angiography compared to invasive fractional flow reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Renker, Matthias [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Benekestrasse 2-8, 61231 Bad Nauheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Wichmann, Julian L. [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Fuller, Stephen R.; Rier, Jeremy D.; Bayer, Richard R.; Steinberg, Daniel H. [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Departments of Radiological Sciences, Oncology, and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”-Polo Pontino, Latina, Viale Regina Elena, 324-00161 Roma (Italy); Baumann, Stefan [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); First Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of CCTA predictors for coronary stenosis. • TAG was unable to detect hemodynamically significant coronary lesions. • CT-FFR, LL/MLD{sup 4} and CCO provide enhanced diagnostic performance over CCTA. • CT-FFR was the best parameter. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CCTA-derived stenosis predictors including CT-FFR for the detection of ischemia-inducing stenosis compared to invasive FFR. Materials and methods: Stenosis parameters were assessed using dual-source CT (DSCT). All patients underwent both CCTA and invasive FFR within 3 months and were retrospectively analyzed. Observers visually assessed all CCTA studies and performed multiple lesion measurements. Lesion length/minimal luminal diameter{sup 4} (LL/MLD{sup 4}), transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), corrected coronary attenuation (CCO) and CT-FFR were calculated. Results: The cohort included 32 patients (58 ± 12 years, 66%male). Among 32 coronary lesions, 8 (25%) were considered hemodynamically significant with an FFR <0.80. Compared to invasive FFR, the per-vessel sensitivity and specificity of CCTA, CT-FFR, LL/MLD{sup 4}, CCO and TAG for detecting hemodynamically significant lesions were 100% and 54%, 100% and 91%, 85% and 92%, 66% and 88%, 37% and 58%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in an area under the curve of 0.91 for CT-FFR (p = 0.0005), 0.88 for LL/MLD{sup 4} (p < 0.0001), 0.85 for CCO (p < 0.0001). TAG with an AUC of 0.67 (p = 0.152) was unable to discriminate between vessels with or without hemodynamically significant lesions. Conclusion: CT-FFR, LL/MLD{sup 4} and CCO provide enhanced diagnostic performance over CCTA analysis alone for discrimination of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis.

  12. Fifteen new risk loci for coronary artery disease highlight arterial wall-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Howson, Joanna M.M.; Zhao, Wei; Barnes, Daniel R.; Ho, Weang-Kee; Young, Robin; Paul, Dirk S.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Fauman, Eric B.; Salfati, Elias L.; Sun, Benjamin B.; Eicher, John D.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Sheu, Wayne H.H.; Nielsen, Sune F.

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier G...

  13. Fifteen new risk loci for coronary artery disease highlight arterial-wall-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Howson, Joanna McCammond; Zhao, W; Barnes, Daniel Robert; Ho, W-K; Young, R; Paul, Dirk Stefan; Waite, LL; Freitag, DF; Fauman, EB; Salfati, EL; Sun, Benjamin; Eicher, JD; Johnson, AD; Sheu, WHH; Nielsen, SF

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier G...

  14. Integral diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis by coronary multidetector computed tomography and by invasive coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llerena Rojas, Luis Roberto; Llerena Rojas, Lorenzo D; Mendoza Rodriguez, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography by multidetector computed tomography (CMDCT) visualizes the wall and lumen of coronary arteries. Invasive coronary angiography (INVCA) only visualizes the arterial lumen but with better resolution

  15. The Relationship Between Genetic Variations of the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene and Coronary Artery Disease in Turkish Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Fuat; Gurlertop, Yekta; Pirim, Ibrahim; Sevimli, Serdar; Dogan, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Aksoy, Hulya; Karakelloglu, Sule; Senocak, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although the relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and cholesterol metabolism has been characterized in recent years, the effect of CETP genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between CETP gene polymorphism and levels of lipid in patients with CAD. Materials and Methods We conducted a case-control study that included 194 unrelated subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected ischemic heart disease. This group was divided into 96 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 98 subjects (individuals matched for age and gender) without angiographically documented CAD (CAD-free subjects), all of whom were studied to examine the genotypic distribution of the CETP gene polymorphism in CAD. Genotyping was performed via polymerase chain reaction. Results Of the 96 patients with CAD, 38 (40%) were B1B1, 42 (44%) B1B2 and 16 (16%) B2B2, compared with the control subjects, of which 35 (36%) were B1B1, 44 (45%) B1B2 and 19 (19%) B2B2. There were no significant differences between patients with CAD and control subjects in the distribution of the CETP gene polymorphism. Patients with the B1B1 genotype had lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher triglyceride (TG) levels than patients with the B2B2 genotype (p<0.05). In addition, among control subjects HDL-C levels were significantly higher in subjects with the B2B2 genotype than in subjects with the B1B1 genotype (p<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic variations of the CTEP gene may be responsible for low HDL-C levels but may not be considered as a risk factor for CAD in the Turkish population. PMID:25610061

  16. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice, to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in

  17. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fuertinger, Stefan; Fleysher, Lazar; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Background Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. Methods We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional MRI data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor vs. adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial vs. sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. Results We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in SD patients compared to healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortex. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Conclusions Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. PMID:27346568

  18. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G; Fuertinger, S; Fleysher, L; Ozelius, L J; Simonyan, K

    2016-10-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor versus adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial versus sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in patients with SD compared with healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortices. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from the left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. © 2016 EAN.

  19. Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, George Cm; Mavridis, Dimitris; Greenwood, John P; Coles, Bernadette; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Jüni, Peter; Salanti, Georgia; Windecker, Stephan

    2018-02-21

    single photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging resulted in fewer downstream tests than coronary computed tomographic angiography (0.24 (0.08 to 0.74) and 0.57 (0.37 to 0.87), respectively). However, exercise electrocardiograms yielded the highest downstream testing rate. Estimates for death and myocardial infarction were imprecise without clear discrimination between strategies. For patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome, an initial diagnostic strategy of stress echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance is associated with fewer referrals for invasive coronary angiography and revascularisation procedures than non-invasive anatomical testing, without apparent impact on the future risk of myocardial infarction. For suspected stable coronary artery disease, there was no clear discrimination between diagnostic strategies regarding the subsequent need for invasive coronary angiography, and differences in the risk of myocardial infarction cannot be ruled out. PROSPERO registry no CRD42016049442. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Coding Variation in ANGPTL4, LPL, and SVEP1 and the Risk of Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stitziel, Nathan O; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Masca, Nicholas G D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of low-frequency coding variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease has facilitated the identification of therapeutic targets. METHODS: Through DNA genotyping, we tested 54,003 coding-sequence variants covering 13,715 human genes in up to 72,868 patients with ...

  1. Polymorphism in Apoprotein-C III gene and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Syed S.; Buraiki, J.; Dzimiri, N.; Butt, Abdul Isalm; Vencer, L.; Basco, M.C.; Khan, B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look into the association, if any, apoprotein-CIII variant allele with hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). The prevalence of a C to G substitution in the 3 untranslated regions of apoprotein-CIII was studied in a sample of 92 angiographed Saudi subjects, consisting of 65 males and 27 females. The subjects were genotyped by amplification followed by digestion of the gene fragment containing the polymorphic site with Sac I restriction enzyme. The variant allele of apoprotein-CIII was found to be associated neither with hypertriglyceridemia nor with hypercholesterolemia. However, a significant association of this allele (P<0.01) was found with coronary heart disease, independent of other risk factors such as smoking, diabetes and hypertension. An estimation of odds ratio using logistic regression with various risk factors in the model showed that the individuals with this rare allele were 3.4 times more at risk of developing coronary disease. This estimation of risk held even after analyzing a subset of individuals above 45 years of age. While the association between apoprotein-CIII variant allele and dyslipidemia could not be established in this study, the relationship between this marker and CHD was highlighted in the studied subjects. (author)

  2. Polymorphism in Apoprotein-C III gene and coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Syed S; Buraiki, J; Dzimiri, N; Butt, Abdul Isalm; Vencer, L; Basco, M C; Khan, B [Dept. of Biological and Medical Research, Cardiovascular diseases and Biomedical Statistics and Scientific Computing, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to look into the association, if any, apoprotein-CIII variant allele with hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). The prevalence of a C to G substitution in the 3 untranslated regions of apoprotein-CIII was studied in a sample of 92 angiographed Saudi subjects, consisting of 65 males and 27 females. The subjects were genotyped by amplification followed by digestion of the gene fragment containing the polymorphic site with Sac I restriction enzyme. The variant allele of apoprotein-CIII was found to be associated neither with hypertriglyceridemia nor with hypercholesterolemia. However, a significant association of this allele (P<0.01) was found with coronary heart disease, independent of other risk factors such as smoking, diabetes and hypertension. An estimation of odds ratio using logistic regression with various risk factors in the model showed that the individuals with this rare allele were 3.4 times more at risk of developing coronary disease. This estimation of risk held even after analyzing a subset of individuals above 45 years of age. While the association between apoprotein-CIII variant allele and dyslipidemia could not be established in this study, the relationship between this marker and CHD was highlighted in the studied subjects. (author)

  3. Distal coronary hemoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muinck, Ebo Derk de

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis several aspects of passive and active coronary perfusion during coronary angioplasty are investigated. The autoperfusion balloon catheters that were evaluated are the Stack® and the RX-60® catheters (Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, inc., Santa Clara, California, U.S.A). The coronary

  4. HUMAN CORONARY ARTERIES- A STUDY BASED ON GROSS ANATOMY AND CORONARY CAST

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    Vijayamma K. N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Present study is an attempt to throw light upon the coronary arterial pattern, variations in arterial distribution and extent of intercoronary anastomosis and arterial preponderance in different age groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total of 115 hearts were made use for this study. Ninety hearts were dissected for the gross anatomical study of coronary arteries and 25 hearts including three fetal hearts were used for the coronary cast study. The right and left coronary arteries were traced from aortic sinus along the atrioventricular groove to the area of its termination. The atrial ventricular and septal branches were traced and looked for anastomosis. Coronary casts were prepared by injecting coloured liquid latex through the coronary ostia and the branching pattern and anastomosis were studied. The coronary arterial pattern, extent of distribution of its branches, arterial preponderance and variations were observed. RESULTS It was found that 73 % cases of SA nodal branch arise from right coronary artery and 27 % from circumflex branch of left coronary artery. SA node has dual blood supply from both coronary arteries in 4% cases. Right coronary preponderance was observed in 83% of cases and left coronary preponderance in 11 % cases, and balanced supply in 6% cases. Coronary cast was helpful to understand the branching pattern of vessels, and the anastomosis of small capillaries. It was also seen that all 11 % of left preponderance were seen in male hearts and all of the 31 female hearts dissected were right preponderant. CONCLUSION Coronary arteries are called end arteries functionally. Right coronary artery originates from anterior aortic sinus in all cases except one which takes origin from posterior left aortic sinus along with left coronary artery. Right coronary preponderance is observed in 83% cases. Left coronary artery branching pattern shows variability. Left coronary preponderance was observed in 11% and all cases are male

  5. A comparison of hybrid coronary revascularization and off-pump coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Gallion, Anna H; Byrne, John G

    2013-04-01

    Minimally invasive approaches to treat vascular disease have been accruing significant popularity over the last several decades. Due to progressive advances in technology, a variety of techniques are being now utilized in the field of cardiovascular surgery. The objectives of minimally invasive techniques are to curtail operative trauma and minimize perioperative morbidity without decreasing the quality of the treatment. The standard surgical approach for the treatment of coronary artery disease has traditionally been coronary artery bypass grafting surgery via median sternotomy. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery offers a less invasive alternative and enables coronary revascularization to be performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. Hybrid coronary revascularization offers an even less invasive option in which minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass can be combined with percutaneous coronary intervention. In this article, the authors review a recent publication comparing hybrid coronary revascularization and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  6. Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the effect of high- and standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GIFT (Genotype Information and Functional Testing) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew J; Murray, Sarah S; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Lillie, Elizabeth; Smith, Erin N; Tisch, Rebecca L; Schork, Nicholas J; Teirstein, Paul S; Topol, Eric J

    2012-05-29

    This study sought to evaluate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the pharmacodynamic effect of high- or standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There is a lack of prospective, multicenter data regarding the effect of different genetic variants on clopidogrel pharmacodynamics over time in patients undergoing PCI. The GRAVITAS (Gauging Responsiveness with A VerifyNow assay-Impact on Thrombosis And Safety) trial screened patients with platelet function testing after PCI and randomly assigned those with high on-treatment reactivity (OTR) to either high- or standard-dose clopidogrel; a cohort of patients without high OTR were also followed. DNA samples obtained from 1,028 patients were genotyped for 41 SNPs in 17 genes related to platelet reactivity. After adjusting for clinical characteristics, the associations between the SNPs and OTR using linear regression were evaluated. CYP2C19*2 was significantly associated with OTR at 12 to 24 h (R(2) = 0.07, p = 2.2 × 10(-15)), 30 days (R(2) = 0.10, p = 1.3 × 10(-7)), and 6 months after PCI (R(2) = 0.07, p = 1.9 × 10(-11)), whereas PON1, ABCB1 3435 C→T, and other candidate SNPs were not. Carriers of 1 and 2 reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles were significantly more likely to display persistently high OTR at 30 days and 6 months, irrespective of treatment assignment. The portion of the risk of persistently high OTR at 30 days attributable to reduced-function CYP2C19 allele carriage was 5.2% in the patients randomly assigned to high-dose clopidogrel. CYP2C19, but not PON1 or ABCB1, is a significant determinant of the pharmacodynamic effects of clopidogrel, both early and late after PCI. In patients with high OTR identified by platelet function testing, the CYP2C19 genotype provides limited incremental information regarding the risk of persistently high reactivity with clopidogrel 150-mg maintenance dosing. (Genotype Information and Functional Testing Study [GIFT]; NCT

  7. Implementation of Cell Samples as Controls in National Proficiency Testing for Clopidogrel Therapy-Related CYP2C19 Genotyping in China: A Novel Approach.

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    Guigao Lin

    Full Text Available Laboratories are increasingly requested to perform CYP2C19 genetic testing when managing clopidogrel therapy, especially in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To ensure high quality molecular testing and ascertain that the referring clinician has the correct information for CYP2C19 genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy, a proficiency testing scheme was set up to evaluate the laboratory performance for the entire testing process. Proficiency panels of 10 cell samples encompassing the common CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms were distributed to 62 participating laboratories for routine molecular testing and the responses were analyzed for accuracy of genotyping and the reporting of results. Data including the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and test methodology of each individual laboratory were also reviewed. Fifty-seven of the 62 participants correctly identified the CYP2C19 variants in all samples. There were six genotyping errors, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.5% (333/338 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.5-99.5% and an analytic specificity of 99.6% (281/282; 95% confidence interval: 98.0-99.9%. Reports of the CYP2C19 genotyping results often lacked essential information. In conclusion, clinical laboratories demonstrated good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, the pharmacogenetic testing community requires additional education regarding the correct reporting of CYP2C19 genetic test results.

  8. Associations between CD36 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to coronary artery heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ling, Z.Y.; Deng, S.B.; Du, H.A.; Yin, Y.H.; Yuan, J.; She, Q.; Chen, Y.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between polymorphisms of the CD36 gene and susceptibility to coronary artery heart disease (CHD) are not clear. We assessed allele frequencies and genotype distributions of CD36 gene polymorphisms in 112 CHD patients and 129 control patients using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Additionally, we detected CD36 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR, and we quantified plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05) in allele frequencies of rs1761667 or in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of rs3173798. The genotype distribution of rs1761667 significantly differed between CHD patients and controls (P=0.034), with a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype in the CHD group compared to the control group (P=0.011). The plasma levels of ox-LDL in patients with the AG genotype were remarkably higher than those with the GG and AA genotypes (P=0.010). In a randomized sample taken from patients in the two groups, the CD36 mRNA expression of the CHD patients was higher than that of the controls. In CHD patients, the CD36 mRNA expression in AG genotype patients was remarkably higher than in those with an AA genotype (P=0.005). After adjusted logistic regression analysis, the AG genotype of rs1761667 was associated with an increased risk of CHD (OR=2.337, 95% CI=1.336-4.087, P=0.003). In conclusion, the rs1761667 polymorphism may be closely associated with developing CHD in the Chongqing Han population of China, and an AG genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor for CHD

  9. Associations between CD36 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to coronary artery heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Ling, Z.Y.; Deng, S.B.; Du, H.A.; Yin, Y.H.; Yuan, J.; She, Q.; Chen, Y.Q. [Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2014-08-08

    Associations between polymorphisms of the CD36 gene and susceptibility to coronary artery heart disease (CHD) are not clear. We assessed allele frequencies and genotype distributions of CD36 gene polymorphisms in 112 CHD patients and 129 control patients using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Additionally, we detected CD36 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR, and we quantified plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05) in allele frequencies of rs1761667 or in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of rs3173798. The genotype distribution of rs1761667 significantly differed between CHD patients and controls (P=0.034), with a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype in the CHD group compared to the control group (P=0.011). The plasma levels of ox-LDL in patients with the AG genotype were remarkably higher than those with the GG and AA genotypes (P=0.010). In a randomized sample taken from patients in the two groups, the CD36 mRNA expression of the CHD patients was higher than that of the controls. In CHD patients, the CD36 mRNA expression in AG genotype patients was remarkably higher than in those with an AA genotype (P=0.005). After adjusted logistic regression analysis, the AG genotype of rs1761667 was associated with an increased risk of CHD (OR=2.337, 95% CI=1.336-4.087, P=0.003). In conclusion, the rs1761667 polymorphism may be closely associated with developing CHD in the Chongqing Han population of China, and an AG genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor for CHD.

  10. Coronary blood flow and coronary stenosis correlations in ischemic heart patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukov, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of the methodology for the C-TIMI frame count by Gibson for easy and fast determination of the coronary blood flow during a selective coronary angiography. 75 patient have been studied with one-branch affection of the coronary arteries. The criteria for exclusion are: myocardial hypertrophy, valve lesions, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia. Depending of the characteristics of the coronary stenotic changes, the patients have been divided into two groups: 1) Patients with 'ordinary' stenosis of the coronary artery and 2) Patients with 'complex' stenosis. The severity of the stenotic changes in percents is the same for the two groups - 78%±13% vs 81±12%, respectively. In the first group a pronounced correlation is observed between the severity of the coronary stenosis and the slowing of the coronary blood flow. The 'threshold' stenotic level is 89%. In the second group the lowest value of the coronary stenosis is 73% (p>0.01 vs group 1). No correlation is observed between the severity of the coronary stenosis and the slowing of the coronary blood flow. A conclusion is made that the Gibson method for the assessment of the blood flow is convenient for the daily practice not only for the assessment of the significance of the coronary changes, but also for fast analysis of the achieved reconstruction of the coronary arteries after angioplasty. Additional studies of the significance of the different signs of 'complexity' of the coronary stenosis for the slowing of the blood flow are necessary

  11. PeakSeeker: a program for interpreting genotypes of mononucleotide repeats

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    Salipante Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mononucleotide repeat microsatellites are abundant, highly polymorphic DNA sequences, having the potential to serve as valuable genetic markers. Use of mononucleotide microsatellites has been limited by their tendency to produce "stutter", confounding signals from insertions and deletions within the mononucleotide tract that occur during PCR, which complicates interpretation of genotypes by masking the true position of alleles. Consequently, microsatellites with larger repeating subunits (dinucleotide and trinucleotide motifs are used, which produce less stutter but are less genetically heterogeneous and less informative. A method to interpret the genotypes of mononucleotide repeats would permit the widespread use of those highly informative microsatellites in genetic research. Findings We have developed an approach to interpret genotypes of mononucleotide repeats using a software program, named PeakSeeker. PeakSeeker interprets experimental electropherograms as the most likely product of signals from individual alleles. Because mononucleotide tracts demonstrate locus-specific patterns of stutter peaks, this approach requires that the genotype pattern from a single allele is defined for each marker, which can be approximated by genotyping single DNA molecules or homozygotes. We have evaluated the program's ability to discriminate various types of homozygous and heterozygous mononucleotide loci using simulated and experimental data. Conclusion Mononucleotide tracts offer significant advantages over di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellite markers traditionally employed in genetic research. The PeakSeeker algorithm provides a high-throughput means to type mononucleotide tracts using conventional and widely implemented fragment length polymorphism genotyping. Furthermore, the PeakSeeker algorithm could potentially be adapted to improve, and perhaps to standardize, the analysis of conventional microsatellite genotypes.

  12. [Developments in percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, C; Daemen, J; Zijlstra, F

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, more than 30.000 patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention every year, during which a coronary stent implantation will be performed in 90% of the cases. It is estimated that more than 5 million coronary stent implantations will be performed worldwide this year. While these numbers are impressive, however, coronary stents still have as a limitation the possibility of stent thrombosis. This has been and is an important stimulus for the development of both coronary stents, from a bare metal stent via a drug eluting stent to the present-day development of bio-absorbable stents, and anti-platelet drugs,from acenocoumarol to thieropyridines. The possibility of shortening the period of use of this powerful medication by developing new kinds of non-thrombogenic stents would, for example, make it possible to achieve significant reductions in subsequent bleeding during (dental) procedures.

  13. In vitro application of integrated selection index for screening drought tolerant genotypes in common wheat

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    Ezatollah FARSHADFAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted on 20 wheat genotypes during 2010-2011 growing season at the Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. A completely randomized design with six replications was used for callus induction and a 20 × 2 factorial experiment with three replications was used for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress. ANOVA exhibited highly significant differences among the genotypes for callus growth rate, relative fresh mass growth, relative growth rate, callus water content, percent of callus chlorosis and proline content under stress condition (15 % PEG. PCA showed that the integrated selection index was correlated with callus growth index, relative fresh mass growth, relative growth rate and proline content indicating that these screening techniques can be useful for selecting drought tolerant genotypes. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes 2, 18 and 10 as the most drought tolerant. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance.

  14. Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates reveals eight P1 subtypes within two genomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three methods for genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates were applied to 2 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates. By a modified restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products of the M. pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene, 5 subtypes were discriminated among 13

  15. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery from left coronary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alex; Estarán, Rafael; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Voces, Roberto; Aramendi, José I

    2008-08-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is uncommon but clinically significant. Manifestations vary from asymptomatic patients to those who present with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, syncope, arrhythmias, and sudden death. We describe 4 patients, aged 34 to 59 years, who were diagnosed with right coronary artery arising from the left sinus of Valsalva, confirmed by coronary angiography, which was surgically repaired. Three patients presented dyspnea and angina, and one with acute myocardial infarction. At operation, the right coronary artery was dissected at the take-off from the intramural course, and reimplanted into the right sinus of Valsalva. There was no mortality. One patient had associated coronary artery disease that required stent placement postoperatively. This reimplantation technique provides a good physiological and anatomical repair, eliminates a slit-like ostium, avoids compression of the coronary artery between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, and gives superior results to coronary artery bypass grafting or the unroofing technique.

  16. The relationship of the gene polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3 and -9 to the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jian; Lu Lin; Wu Liqun; Zhang Qi; Ding Feghua; Yang Zhenkun; Zhang Ruiyan; Zhang Jiansheng; Shen Weifeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the gene polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase(mmp)-1, -2, -3 and -9 on coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression. Methods: During the period of January 2005-December 2008, 80 patients with coronary heart disease underwent two times coronary angiography at authors' hospital. Based on the angiographic findings, the patients were classified into plaque progression group (n = 31) and plaque non-progression group (n = 49). Coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression was arbitrarily defined as that the minimal lumen diameter (MLD) of coronary artery showed a decrease ≥ 0.4 mm on the second coronary angiography. The detailed history and clinical examination results were collected, including serum concentrations of lipid profiling, fasting glucose and hs-CRP. Genotypings for polymorphic variances of MMP-1 (-1607 G / GG), MMP-2 (-955 A / C), MMP-3 (-1612 5A / 6A ) and MMP-9 (-1562 C/T) were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis in two groups. Comparison of the clinical characteristics and polymorphisms between two groups was made to assess their effects on coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression. Results: More female patients and patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were noted in patients with plaque progression compare to those with no progression (41.9% vs. 18.4%, P < 0.05 and 77.4% vs. 46.3%, P < 0.01, respectively). The serum hs-CRP level also significantly increased in group with plaque progression (0.26 ± 0.44 mg / L vs. 0.02 ± 0.14 mg / L, P < 0.01). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that serum hs-CRP concentration and ACS were independent risk factors of coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression (OR: 12.63,95% CI:1.45-110.29, P < 0.05 and OR:2.99,95% CI:1.04-8.63, P < 0.05, respectively). The frequencies of 6A / 6A genotype and 6A allele of MMP-3 promoter at location -1612 were significantly higher in group with plaque progression than that in group with

  17. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits.

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    Benjamin F Voight

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands of loci with promising but not yet compelling association evidence. To establish association at additional loci and to characterize the genome-wide significant loci by fine-mapping, we designed the "Metabochip," a custom genotyping array that assays nearly 200,000 SNP markers. Here, we describe the Metabochip and its component SNP sets, evaluate its performance in capturing variation across the allele-frequency spectrum, describe solutions to methodological challenges commonly encountered in its analysis, and evaluate its performance as a platform for genotype imputation. The metabochip achieves dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping and sequencing studies and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of complex human diseases and traits.

  18. Carbon isotope discrimination and yield of upland rice as affected by drought at flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINHEIRO BEATRIZ DA SILVEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments involving upland rice genotypes, sown in various dates in late season, were carried out to assess the relationship of carbon isotope discrimination with grain yield and drought resistance. In each one of the three years, one trial was kept under good water availability, while other suffered water shortage for a period of 18-23 days, encompassing panicle emergence and flowering. Drought stress reduced carbon isotope discrimination measured on soluble sugars (deltas extracted from stem uppermost internode at the end of the imposition period, but had relatively less effect on bulk dry matter of leaves, sampled at the same period, or that of uppermost internodes and grains, sampled at harvest. The drought-induced reduction in deltas was accompanied of reduced spikelet fertility and grain yield. In the three trials subjected to drought, genotypes with the highest yield and spikelet fertility had the lowest deltas. However, this relationship was weak and it was concluded that deltas is not a sufficiently reliable indicator of rice drought resistance to be useful as a screening test in breeding programs. On the other hand, grain yield and spikelet fertility of genotypes which were the soonest to reach 50% flowering within the drought imposition period, were the least adversely affected by drought. Then, timing of drought in relation to panicle emergence and to flowering appeared to be a more important cause of yield variation among genotypes than variation in deltas.

  19. Evaluation of the restenosis of coronary artery after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by three-dimensional coronary magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisaka, Hiraku

    2000-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been recently brought into clinical use, however, there has not been reports on the comparison with MRA and conventional contrast coronary angiography (CAG) in the detection of the localization and characteristics of coronary restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). To assess the restenosis of coronary artery after PTCA, this study compared three-dimensional (3D) coronary MRA and CAG. One hundred three patients (76 males and 27 females, average age of 64.6±9.3 years old) were performed coronary MRA at 3-6 months after PTCA. The right coronary artery (RCA) group consist of 21 patients, the left anterior descending branch (LAD) 63 patients and the left circumflex branch (LCX) 19 patients. Coronary MRA was performed with the patients in supine position on a 1.5 T whole body scanner (MAGNETOM VISION, Siemens AG, Germany) using body array coil. The imaging technique used a 3-D gradient echo sequence with respiratory gating and fat suppression. The slice thickness was 2 mm, slab thickness 32 mm, a field of view of 300 mm and a matrix of 128 x 256. Other parameters were an echo time of 2.7 ms and a repetition time of 600 to 1100 msec. The measurement time of 1 imaging slab took 15 to 20 minutes depending on the patient's heart rate. The coronary arteries were reconstructed from the 3-D data set using a multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) technique. According to previous coronary MRA studies, a significant stenosis with a luminal reduction of ≥50% was assumed if a marked signal reduction or signal loss of a vessel segment was visible. In CAG, 57 of 103 patients showed restenosis. In coronary MRA, 37 of 103 patients demonstrated restenosis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 64.9%, 100%, 100% and 69.6%, respectively. Predictive accuracy was 79.6%. Three-dimensional coronary MRA is useful in a noninvasive diagnostic method to evaluate the coronary

  20. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

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    Zhonghua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques.

  1. Detection of coronary calcification in ultrafast CT compared to coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Hoffmann, U.; Rother, T.; Lieberenz, S.; Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.; Schulz, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    The angiographical findings of 24 patients with coronary artery disease were compared with qualitative and quantitative detection of coronary calcification by ultrafast CT. Doubts concerning the capabilities of the ultrafast CT for a screening of coronary artery disease arise when the results of one third false positive and fase negative findings are considered. Variations in the quantification of coronary calcification were too great to allow a realistic assessment of the degree of stenosis of the coronary arteries. (orig.) [de

  2. Cardiovascular risk indicators and perceived race/ethnic discrimination in the Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A; Ravenell, Joseph; Glynn, Robert J; Khera, Amit; Halevy, Nitsan; de Lemos, James A

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between race/ethnic (r/e) discrimination and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although r/e discrimination is a chronic stressor that might have negative health effects, cardiovascular data related to experiences with discrimination among different r/e groups in the United States remain sparse. Using data from the Dallas Heart Study, we assessed the association between perceived r/e discrimination and traditional CVD risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), aortic plaque area and wall thickness, and coronary calcium (CAC) score among black, white, and Hispanic participants. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score > or =10 Agatston units; CRP elevation was defined as > or =3 mg/L. Participants were asked, "Have you ever been discriminated against due to your race/ethnicity? (responses: yes, no, or don't know)". Blacks reported r/e discrimination more frequently than whites or Hispanics (P discrimination were more likely to be college graduates, to have a family history of myocardial infarction, and to be more physically active than blacks who did not report r/e discrimination (each P discrimination had a higher prevalence of smoking (P discrimination and aortic wall thickness, aortic plaque area, prevalent CAC, or elevated CRP in any of the r/e groups. Among blacks, stratification by gender and education did not change the observed relationship between perceived r/e discrimination and CAC or CRP. Although perceived r/e discrimination is associated with certain health characteristics that may result in negative health outcomes, in general, we found no association of r/e discrimination with either subclinical atherosclerosis as determined by CAC score, aortic wall thickness and aortic plaque area, or inflammation as assessed by elevated CRP levels.

  3. Correlation between genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with coronary artery disease and cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qibin; Li, Hanmei; Li, Linlin; Wang, Shaoye; Wu, Yongbo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the correlation between genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac remodeling. A total of 272 subjects who received coronary angiography in our hospital from July 2008 to September 2013 were selected, including 172 CAD patients (CAD group) and another 100 ones (control group). Both groups were subjected to MMP-9 and ultrasonic detections to determine vascular remodeling and atherosclerotic plaques. C1562G polymorphism of MMP-9 gene was detected, and correlation with vascular remodeling and atherosclerotic plaque was analyzed. Serum MMP-9 level of CAD group (330.87±50.39 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of control group (134.87±34.02 ng/ml) (P<0.05). Compared with control group, CAD group had significantly higher intima-media thickness, and significantly lower systolic peak velocity, mean systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity (P<0.05). Total area of stenotic blood vessels was 67.34±22.98 mm(2), while that of control blood vessels was 64.00±20.83 mm(2). G/G, G/C and C/C genotype frequencies of MMP-9 differed significantly in the two groups (P<0.05). G and C allele frequencies of CAD group (70.9% and 29.1%) were significantly different from those of control group (50.0% and 50.0%) (P<0.05). G/G, G/C and C/C genotypes were manifested as lipid-rich, fibrous and calcified or ulcerated plaques respectively. Total area of stenotic blood vessels of G/G genotype significantly exceeded those of G/C and C/C genotypes (P<0.05), whereas the latter two had no significant differences. CAD promoted 1562C-G transformation of MMP-9 gene into genetic polymorphism, thus facilitating arterial remodeling and increasing unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

  4. The role of common variants of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene in left main coronary artery disease

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    Giannakopoulou Vasiliki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP has a central role in the lipid metabolism and therefore may alter the susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Methods The DNA of 471 subjects [133 subjects with angiographically documented left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD, 241 subjects with more peripheral coronary artery disease (MPCAD and 97 subjects self reported healthy (Controls] was analyzed for the frequency of TaqIB and I405V polymorphisms in the gene coding CETP. Results There is no significant difference in CETP allele frequency or genotype distribution among LMCAD and MPCAD patients although there is statistical difference between LMCAD and Controls (p = 0.001. Specifically, patients with LMCAD and B1B1 genotype of TaqIB polymorphism were more frequent present compared to Controls (33.8% vs 22.9%, respectively. The frequency of B2B2 genotype was 3 times lower in the LMCAD group compared to Controls (10.5% vs 30.2%, respectively. In the LMCAD group the frequency of B1 allele compared to Controls was higher (62% vs 46%, respectively, p = 0.001. The relationship between TaqIB gene polymorphism and the LMCAD was independent of lipid profile, with the exception of apolipoprotein A. Conclusions These findings indicate that the TaqIB polymorphism may have potential importance in screening individuals at high risk for developing CAD. However, this polymorphism cannot distinguish between LMCAD and MPCAD. Further prospective investigations in larger populations are required to confirm these findings.

  5. Higher incidence of death in multi-vessel coronary artery disease patients associated with polymorphisms in chromosome 9p21

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    Gioli-Pereira Luciana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether 9p21 polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular events in a group of 611 patients enrolled in the Medical, Angioplasty or Surgery Study II (MASS II, a randomized trial comparing treatments for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and preserved left ventricular function. Methods The participants of the MASS II were genotyped for 9p21 polymorphisms (rs10757274, rs2383206, rs10757278 and rs1333049. Survival curves were calculated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank statistic. We assessed the relationship between baseline variables and the composite end-point of death, death from cardiac causes and myocardial infarction using a Cox proportional hazards survival model. Results We observed significant differences between patients within each polymorphism genotype group for baseline characteristics. The frequency of diabetes was lower in patients carrying GG genotype for rs10757274, rs2383206 and rs10757278 (29.4%, 32.8%, 32.0% compared to patients carrying AA or AG genotypes (49.1% and 39.2%, p = 0.01; 52.4% and 40.1%, p = 0.01; 47.8% and 37.9%, p = 0.04; respectively. Significant differences in genotype frequencies between double and triple vessel disease patients were observed for the rs10757274, rs10757278 and rs1333049. Finally, there was a higher incidence of overall mortality in patients with the GG genotype for rs2383206 compared to patients with AA and AG genotypes (19.5%, 11.9%, 11.0%, respectively; p = 0.04. Moreover, the rs2383206 was still significantly associated with a 1.75-fold increased risk of overall mortality (p = 0.02 even after adjustment of a Cox multivariate model for age, previous myocardial infarction, diabetes, smoking and type of coronary anatomy. Conclusions Our data are in accordance to previous evidence that chromosome 9p21 genetic variation may constitute a genetic modulator in the cardiovascular system in different

  6. Predicting Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease at a North American Center: An Assessment of Baseline z Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mary Beth F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kim, Susan; Tang, Alexander; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fulton, David R; Lo, Mindy S; Baker, Annette L; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-31

    Accurate risk prediction of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in North American children with Kawasaki disease remains a clinical challenge. We sought to determine the predictive utility of baseline coronary dimensions adjusted for body surface area ( z scores) for future CAAs in Kawasaki disease and explored the extent to which addition of established Japanese risk scores to baseline coronary artery z scores improved discrimination for CAA development. We explored the relationships of CAA with baseline z scores; with Kobayashi, Sano, Egami, and Harada risk scores; and with the combination of baseline z scores and risk scores. We defined CAA as a maximum z score (zMax) ≥2.5 of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery at 4 to 8 weeks of illness. Of 261 patients, 77 patients (29%) had a baseline zMax ≥2.0. CAAs occurred in 15 patients (6%). CAAs were strongly associated with baseline zMax ≥2.0 versus Baseline zMax ≥2.0 had a C statistic of 0.77, good sensitivity (80%), and excellent negative predictive value (98%). None of the risk scores alone had adequate discrimination. When high-risk status per the Japanese risk scores was added to models containing baseline zMax ≥2.0, none were significantly better than baseline zMax ≥2.0 alone. In a North American center, baseline zMax ≥2.0 in children with Kawasaki disease demonstrated high predictive utility for later development of CAA. Future studies should validate the utility of our findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Genetic risk analysis of coronary artery disease in Pakistani subjects using a genetic risk score of 21 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Saleem Ullah; Shabana; Cooper, Jackie A; Beaney, Katherine E; Li, Kawah; Rehman, Abdul; Humphries, Steve E

    2017-03-01

    Conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors like age, gender, blood lipids, hypertension and smoking have been the basis of CAD risk prediction algorithms, but provide only modest discrimination. Genetic risk score (GRS) may provide improved discrimination over and above conventional risk factors. Here we analyzed the genetic risk of CAD in subjects from Pakistan, using a GRS of 21 variants in 18 genes and examined whether the GRS is associated with blood lipid levels. 625 (405 cases and 220 controls) subjects were genotyped for variants, NOS3 rs1799983, SMAD3 rs17228212, APOB rs1042031, LPA rs3798220, LPA rs10455872, SORT1 rs646776, APOE rs429358, GLUL rs10911021, FTO rs9939609, MIA3 rs17465637, CDKN2Ars10757274, DAB2IP rs7025486, CXCL12 rs1746048, ACE rs4341, APOA5 rs662799, CETP rs708272, MRAS rs9818870, LPL rs328, LPL rs1801177, PCSK9 rs11591147 and APOE rs7412 by TaqMan and KASPar allele discrimination techniques. Individually, the single SNPs were not associated with CAD except APOB rs1042031 and FTO rs993969 (p = 0.01 and 0.009 respectively). However, the combined GRS of 21 SNPs was significantly higher in cases than controls (19.37 ± 2.56 vs. 18.47 ± 2.45, p = 2.9 × 10 -5 ), and compared to the bottom quintile, CAD risk in the top quintile of the GRS was 2.96 (95% CI 1.71-5.13). Atherogenic blood lipids showed significant positive association with GRS. The GRS was quantitatively associated with CAD risk and showed association with blood lipid levels, suggesting that the mechanism of these variants is likely to be, in part at least, through creating an atherogenic lipid profile in subjects carrying high numbers of risk alleles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inversion prepared coronary MR angiography: direct visualization of coronary blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, M.; Spuentrup, E.; Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W.; Stuber, M.; Manning, W.J.; Botnar, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: visualization of coronary blood flow by means of a slice-selective inversion pre-pulse in concert with bright-blood coronary MRA. Materials and methods: coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the right coronary artery (RCA) was performed in eight healthy adult subjects on a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Gyroscan ACS-NT, Philips Medical Systems, Best, NL) using a free-breathing navigator-gated and cardiac-triggered 3D steady-state free-precession (SSFP) sequence with radial k-space sampling. Imaging was performed with and without a slice-selective inversion pre-pulse, which was positioned along the main axis of the coronary artery but perpendicular to the imaging volume. Objective image quality parameters such as SNR, CNR, maximal visible vessel length, and vessel border definition were analyzed. Results: in contrast to conventional bright-blood 3D coronary MRA, the selective inversion pre-pulse provided a direct measure of coronary blood flow. In addition, CNR between the RCA and right ventricular blood pool was increased and the vessels had a tendency towards better delineation. Blood SNR and CNR between right coronary blood and epicardial fat were comparable in both sequences. (orig.)

  9. Interleukin-6 Receptor rs7529229 T/C Polymorphism Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease Phenotype in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD is a particular severe phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD and heritability. Interleukin (IL may play important roles in the pathogenesis of CAD. Although several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs identified in IL related genes have been evaluated for their roles in inflammatory diseases and CAD predisposition, the investigations between genetic variants and CAD phenotype are limited. We hypothesized that some of these gene SNPs may contribute to LMCAD phenotype susceptibility compared with more peripheral coronary artery disease (MPCAD. In a hospital-based case-only study, we studied IL-1A rs1800587 C/T, IL-1B rs16944 G/A, IL-6 rs1800796 C/G, IL-6R rs7529229 T/C, IL-8 rs4073 T/A, IL-10 rs1800872 A/C, and IL-10 rs1800896 A/G SNPs in 402 LMCAD patients and 804 MPCAD patients in a Chinese population. Genotyping was done using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and ligation detection reaction (LDR method. When the IL-6R rs7529229 TT homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the CC or TC/CC genotypes were associated with the increased risk for LMCAD (CC vs. TT, adjusted odds ratio(OR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.02–2.11, p = 0.042; CC + TC vs. TT, adjusted OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.02–1.69, p = 0.037. None of the other six SNPs achieved any significant differences between LMCAD and MPCAD. The present study suggests that IL-6R rs7529229 T/C functional SNP may contribute to the risk of LMCAD in a Chinese population. However, our results were limited. Validation by a larger study from a more diverse ethnic population is needed.

  10. Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii genotypes from Ethiopian ticks.

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    Kinga M Sulyok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is a highly infectious zoonotic bacterium. Genetic information about the strains of this worldwide distributed agent circulating on the African continent is limited. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of C. burnetii DNA samples detected in ticks collected from Ethiopian cattle and their comparison with other genotypes found previously in other parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 296 tick samples were screened by real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 region of C. burnetii genome and from the 32 positive samples, 8 cases with sufficient C. burnetii DNA load (Amblyomma cohaerens, n = 6; A. variegatum, n = 2 were characterized by multispacer sequence typing (MST and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. One novel sequence type (ST, the proposed ST52, was identified by MST. The MLVA-6 discriminated the proposed ST52 into two newly identified MLVA genotypes: type 24 or AH was detected in both Amblyomma species while type 26 or AI was found only in A. cohaerens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both the MST and MLVA genotypes of the present work are closely related to previously described genotypes found primarily in cattle samples from different parts of the globe. This finding is congruent with the source hosts of the analyzed Ethiopian ticks, as these were also collected from cattle. The present study provides genotype information of C. burnetii from this seldom studied East-African region as well as further evidence for the presumed host-specific adaptation of this agent.

  11. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

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    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  12. Association between previously identified loci affecting telomere length and coronary heart disease (CHD in Han Chinese population

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    Ding H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hui Ding,1 Fen Yan,1 Lin-Lin Zhou,2 Xiu-Hai Ji,3 Xin-Nan Gu,1 Zhi-Wei Tang,1 Ru-Hua Chen11Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The Affiliated Yixing People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, 2Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Cixi Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Oncology, Affiliated Taicang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: To replicate previously confirmed telomere-length loci in a Chinese Han population with coronary heart disease (CHD, and investigate these loci and the possibility of and age at onset of CHD.Patients and methods: 1514 CHD patients and 2470 normal controls were recruited. Medical data including age, sex, body mass index, lipid profiles, history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were collected from all the participants. Seven previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs related to leucocyte telomere length were genotyped, including rs10936599 in TERC, rs2736100 in TERT, rs7675998 in NAF1, rs9420907 in OBFC1, rs8105767 in ZNF208, rs755017 in RTEL1, and rs11125529 in ACYP2.Results: No significant difference in genotype frequencies from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test was noted for all tested SNPs both in the CHD patients and the normal controls. No polymorphism was observed for rs9420907, and AA genotype was noted in both the CHD patients and the controls. Neither the genotype nor the allele frequencies of rs2736100, rs8105767, rs11125529, and rs2967374 were significantly different between the CHD patients and the normal controls. For rs10936599 and rs755017, statistical difference was found for the allele frequency but not genotype. Distributions of genotype and allele were significantly different between the two groups for rs7675998. The odds ratio for carriers of CHD was 2.127 (95% confidence interval: 1.909–2.370 for the A allele of rs

  13. Screening for Terminal Drought Tolerance in Iranian and Exotic Safflower Genotypes Using Drought Tolerance and Susceptibility Indices

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    R. Maleki Nejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate drought tolerance of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L. at the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran during growing season of 2012. One hundred genotypes including 81 foreign genotypes along with 19 Iranian genotypes were evaluated under normal and moisture stress conditions according to a simple lattice design with two replications. Drought tolerance and sensitivity indices including mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL and stress susceptibility index (SSI were studied. Results of this study indicated that genotypes were significantly different for grain yield in both moisture conditions. Among all indices, MP, GMP and STI were identified as the best indices that can be used to determine tolerant genotypes. Based on MP, GMP and STI and also principal component analysis PI 369847 (Tajikistan, CART 56 (USA, PI 657820 (Jordan, PI 305527 (Soudan were determined as the most tolerant genotypes and PI 537652 (Mexico, CART 131 (Prague, PI 470942 (Bangladesh, PI 209286 (Romania and CART 32 (German as the most sensitive ones. Results also indicated that the biplot of principal component analysis is a powerful technique to discriminate genotypes based on the measured indices. The superior safflower genotypes can be used in future breeding programs.

  14. Association of six CpG-SNPs in the inflammation-related genes with coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaomin; Chen, Xiaoying; Xu, Yan; Yang, William; Wu, Nan; Ye, Huadan; Yang, Jack Y.; Hong, Qingxiao; Xin, Yanfei; Yang, Mary Qu; Deng, Youping; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been widely considered to be the major risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of our study was to explore the possible association with CHD for inflammation-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. A total of 784 CHD patients and 739 non-CHD controls were recruited from Zhejiang Province, China. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform, we measured the genotypes of six inflammatio...

  15. Vapour pressure deficit during growth has little impact on genotypic differences of transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant level: an example from Populus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Brendel, Oliver; Le Thiec, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Poplar genotypes differ in transpiration efficiency (TE) at leaf and whole-plant level under similar conditions. We tested whether atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) affected TE to the same extent across genotypes. Six Populus nigra genotypes were grown under two VPD. We recorded (1) (13)C content in soluble sugars; (2) (18)O enrichment in leaf water; (3) leaf-level gas exchange; and (4) whole-plant biomass accumulation and water use. Whole-plant and intrinsic leaf TE and (13)C content in soluble sugars differed significantly among genotypes. Stomatal conductance contributed more to these differences than net CO2 assimilation rate. VPD increased water use and reduced whole-plant TE. It increased intrinsic leaf-level TE due to a decline in stomatal conductance. It also promoted higher (18)O enrichment in leaf water. VPD had no genotype-specific effect. We detected a deviation in the relationship between (13)C in leaf sugars and (13)C predicted from gas exchange and the standard discrimination model. This may be partly due to genotypic differences in mesophyll conductance, and to its lack of sensitivity to VPD. Leaf-level (13)C discrimination was a powerful predictor of the genetic variability of whole-plant TE irrespective of VPD during growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association of molecular markers with polyphenol oxidase activity in selected wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Javad, B.; Majeed, N.; Naqvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a major staple food for the people of Pakistan and other Asian countries, is used as bread, chapatti, porridge, noodles and many other. It is established that color quality of wheat products depend on chemical and enzymatic factors especially the polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). These are copper containing enzymes which induce browning in wheat-based products. Various procedures for determining PPO activity available and differences in PPO activity among wheat genotypes have been documented. In present study, an attempt was made to establish the association of molecular markers with polyphenol oxidase activity in wheat genotypes having very high or very low PPO activities. Twelve pairs of markers were used out of which only three primer pairs viz. PPO43, PPO30 and WP2-2 yielded specific pattern discriminating high and low PPO genotypes. Cluster analysis for all 12 markers revealed that all the low PPO lline share the same sub cluster, but high PPO lines were dispersed in different clusters. (author)

  17. Association of Multiple Genetic Variants with the Extension and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

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    Simone Cristina Pinto Matheus Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS is a condition that, when associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular events, can be influenced by genetic variants and determine more severe coronary atherosclerosis. Objectives: To examine the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the extension and severity of coronary disease in subjects with MS and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods: Patients (n = 116, 68% males aged 56 (9 years, with criteria for MS, were prospectively enrolled to the study during the hospitalization period after an ACS. Clinical and laboratory parameters, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, adiponectin, endothelial function, and the Gensini score were assessed. Polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1, methylenotetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R, apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3, lipoprotein lipase (LPL were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, followed by the identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP, and a genetic score was calculated. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used, as appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Polymorphisms of PON-1, MTHFR and ENOS were not in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The DD genotype of LPL was associated with higher severity and greater extension of coronary lesions. Genetic score tended to be higher in patients with Gensini score < P50 (13.7 ± 1.5 vs. 13.0 ± 1.6, p = 0.066, with an inverse correlation between genetic and Gensini scores (R = -0.194, p = 0.078. Conclusions: The LPL polymorphism contributed to the severity of coronary disease in patients with MS and recent ACS. Combined polymorphisms were associated with the extension of coronary disease, and the lower the genetic score the more severe the disease.

  18. Rapid identification of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus using high resolution melting and TaqMan SNP Genotyping assays as allelic discrimination techniques.

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    Valentina di Rienzo

    Full Text Available In tomato, resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is conferred by the dominant gene, designated Sw-5. Virulent Sw-5 resistance breaking (SRB mutants of TSWV have been reported on Sw-5 tomato cultivars. Two different PCR-based allelic discrimination techniques, namely Custom TaqMan™ SNP Genotyping and high-resolution melting (HRM assays, were developed and compared for their ability to distinguish between avirulent (Sw-5 non-infecting, SNI and SRB biotypes. TaqMan assays proved to be more sensitive (threshold of detection in a range of 50-70 TSWV RNA copies and more reliable than HRM, assigning 25 TSWV isolates to their correct genotype with an accuracy of 100%. Moreover, the TaqMan SNP assays were further improved developing a rapid and simple protocol that included crude leaf extraction for RNA template preparations. On the other hand, HRM assays showed higher levels of sensitivity than TaqMan when used to co-detect both biotypes in different artificial mixtures. These diagnostic assays contributed to gain preliminary information on the epidemiology of TSWV isolates in open field conditions. In fact, the presented data suggest that SRB isolates are present as stable populations established year round, persisting on both winter (globe artichoke and summer (tomato crops, in the same cultivated areas of Southern Italy.

  19. Diagnosing coronary artery disease after a positive coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, L; Winther, S; Westra, J

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Perfusion scans after coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) may reduce unnecessary invasive coronary angiographies (ICAs). However, the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion scans after primary CCTA is unknown. The aim...

  20. Non-obstructive coronary artery disease assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Bøtker, H. E.; Sorensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary CT angiography (CTA) detects non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) that may not be recognized by functional testing, but the prognostic impact is not well understood. This study aimed to compare the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality...... in patients without or with non-obstructive and obstructive CAD assessed by coronary CTA. Methods: Consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) and with chest pain who underwent coronary CTA (>64-detector row) between January 2007 and December 2012 in the 10 centers participating...... in the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry were included. The endpoints were 3-year MI or all-cause mortality. The coronary CTA result was defined as normal (0% luminal stenosis), non-obstructive CAD (1%-49% luminal stenosis) or obstructive CAD (>50% luminal stenosis; 1-vessel, 2-vessel, or 3...

  1. Coronary hemodynamics in vasospastic angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kentaro; Kubota, Shinobu; Serizawa, Takashi; Nakase, Emiko; Kawai, Ichiro; Saito, Takayuki

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the coronary circulation and myocardial perfusion dynamics, we performed left coronary digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 35 patients with vasospastic angina. The left coronary circulation time (CCT) measured from the proximal left coronary artery to the coronary sinus was 5.77±0.86 sec, and the left epicardial conducting artery transmission time (CAT) measured from the proximal left coronary artery to the apical area was 2.65±0.82 sec in normal controls. The CCT and CAT were significantly prolonged in patients with vasospastic angina, indicating that the coronary peripheral vascular resistance is probably greater after the cessation of nitrates and Ca ++ -antagonists. After the intracoronary injection of ergonovine malate, the CCT was slightly shortened, but the apical T 1/2 was significantly prolonged in patients with vasospastic angina. This suggested that coronary vasospasm is present not only in the epicardial arteries but also in coronary arteries with peripheral resistance. These phenomena were not observed in normal controls. We performed left coronary DSA after conventional left coronary cineangiography. When the CCT exceeded 6.7 sec, we considered that the coronary circulation was significantly impaired. We concluded that the coronary DSA is very useful for evaluating abnormal coronary circulation in patients with vasospastic angina during myocardial perfusion. (author)

  2. Subgrouping of patients with oral lichen planus according to cytochrome P450 enzyme phenotype and genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Siri Beier; Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine if the activity of the environmentally influenced cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2, alone or in combination with CYP2D6*4 genotype, discriminates subgroups of oral lichen planus (OLP) according to lifestyle factors and clinical manifestations. Study Design...

  3. Statistical dependence of clinical data on the chosen treatment of patients with a multivessel coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walichiewicz, P; Wodniecki, J; Szczurek-Katański, K; Jacheć, W; Nowalany-Kozielska, E; Trzeciak, P; Janik, J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we tried to check which clinical data are connected with the choice of treatment in patients with a multivessel coronary artery disease. The data of 137 patients with a multivessel coronary artery disease, were analysed retrospectively. The patients were divided into three groups: treated conservatively, CABG and PTCA. Multivessel coronary artery disease was recognised when there were atherosclerotic changes in more a 2 vessels with a not less a 2 mm in diameter. Patients with previous CABG or a left main coronary artery disease were excluded. The data were analysed by means of several methods, variance analysis, correlation analysis, discriminant functions, chi-square test and T-Student test. For treatment decision making in multivessel coronary artery disease of statistical significance were: the state of the left anterior descendent artery below the first diagonal branch, the state of the first diagonal branch and peripheral parts of the left anterior descendent artery and right coronary artery, the systolic function of the antero-lateral, apical and phrenic segments of the left ventricle, the global left ventricular ejection fraction in angiography and echocardiography, local systolic disturbances of the left ventricular observed in echocardiography, the coexistence of symptoms of heart failure as well as unstable angina. Treatment decision making will always depend not only on diagnostic procedures but also on all the clinical data about the patient and the experience of coworking cardiology and surgery centres.

  4. Early results of coronary artery bypass grafting with coronary endarterectomy for severe coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toischer Karl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of controversial debates on the efficiency of coronary endarterectomy (CE, it is still used as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. This is particularly true in patients with endstage coronary artery disease. Given the improvements in cardiac surgery and postoperative care, as well as the rising number of elderly patient with numerous co-morbidities, re-evaluating the pros and cons of this technique is needed. Methods Patient demographic information, operative details and outcome data of 104 patients with diffuse calcified coronary artery disease were retrospectively analyzed with respect to functional capacity (NYHA, angina pectoris (CCS and mortality. Actuarial survival was reported using a Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Results Between August 2001 and March 2005, 104 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG with adjunctive coronary endarterectomy (CE in the Department of Thoracic-, Cardiac- and Vascular Surgery, University of Goettingen. Four patients were lost during follow-up. Data were gained from 88 male and 12 female patients; mean age was 65.5 ± 9 years. A total of 396 vessels were bypassed (4 ± 0.9 vessels per patient. In 98% left internal thoracic artery (LITA was used as arterial bypass graft and a total of 114 vessels were endarterectomized. CE was performed on right coronary artery (RCA (n = 55, on left anterior descending artery (LAD (n = 52 and circumflex artery (RCX (n = 7. Ninety-five patients suffered from 3-vessel-disease, 3 from 2-vessel- and 2 from 1-vessel-disease. Closed technique was used in 18%, open technique in 79% and in 3% a combination of both. The most frequent endarterectomized localization was right coronary artery (RCA = 55%. Despite the severity of endstage atherosclerosis, hospital mortality was only 5% (n = 5. During follow-up (24.5 ± 13.4 months, which is 96% complete (4 patients were lost caused by unknown address 8 patients died (cardiac

  5. [Comparison of 64 MDCT coronary CTA and coronary angiography in the detection of coronary artery stenosis in low risk patients with stable angina and acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalas, G; Sarran, A; Amabile, N; Chaumoitre, K; Marciano-Chagnaud, S; Jacquier, A; Paganelli, F; Panuel, M

    2009-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of 64 MDCT coronary CTA (CCTA) compared to coronary angiography in low risk patients with stable angina and acute coronary syndrome and determine the number of significant coronary artery stenoses ( 50%) in these patients. Materials and methods. Fifty-five patients underwent CCTA using a 32 MDCT unit with z flying focus allowing the acquisition of 64 slices of 0.6 mm thickness as well as coronary angiography (gold standard). Nine patients were excluded due to prior coronary artery bypass surgery (n=4), insufficient breath hold (n=3), calcium scoring>1000 (n=1) and delay between both examinations over 4 months (n=1). Forty-six patients: 27 males and 19 females were included. CCTA results were compared to coronary angiography per segment and artery with threshold detection of stenoses 50%. The degree of correlation between both examinations was performed using a regression analysis with a Pearson correlation coefficient<0.05 considered significant. The overall accuracy of CCTA was 90%; limitations related to the presence of calcifications, motion artifacts or insufficient vessel opacification. The correlation for all analyzed segments was 96.4%. Thirty-eight of 50 significant stenoses seen on coronary angiography were correctly detected on CCTA. Sensitivity, specificity, PPVC and NPV for detection of stenoses 50% were 76%, 98.3%, 80.3% and 97.7% respectively. Evaluation per segment had a NPV of 96.8% (interventricular and diagonal segments) to 100% (main trunk). Our results for specificity and NPV are similar to reports from the literature. This suggests that CCTA in this clinical setting may replace coronary angiography.

  6. Morphological study on coronary ostial and clinicoangiographic analysis of isolated coronary ostial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, Tatsuji

    2007-01-01

    A morphological study of coronary ostia was performed in 70 autopsied human hearts, with particular attention being focused on the funnel-shaped structure, aging changes, and relation to atherosclerosis. The following results were obtained: The ostium is particularly well-defined and forms a funnel-shaped structure. The structure is predominantly a double circular shape on the right and comet-shaped on the left. The funnel-shaped structure of coronary ostia is characterized by a longitudinal smooth muscle arrangement in the inner layer and circular one in the outer layer. Including overhang formation, coronary sclerosis of the ostium appears mainly on the upper margin of the funnel-shaped structure of the right ostium and at the upper right margin of the left. In ischemic heart disease, along with changes in coronary arteries themselves, changes in the ostia of these arteries should be paid close attention. Ostial stenosis of the coronary artery in the absence of distal vessel obstructions, isolated ostial stenosis, is a rare form of coronary artery disease. In a previous review of the international literature, the incidence of coronary ostial stenosis varied between 0.13% and 2.7%. Among 7,500 patients undergoing selective coronary cineangiography at Juntendo University Hospital and Juntendo Urayasu Hospital from 1975 to 1990, five women (0.07%) were diagnosed as having ''isolated coronary ostial stenosis'', of which the cause is unknown. Atherosclerosis, particularly early premature atherome, congenital coronary anomaly, fibro-muscular dysplasia, Takayasu's aortitis, humoral factors, spasm, and iatrogenic events have been considered as its causes. In contrast to usual atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, patients with isolated coronary ostial stenosis of unknown etiology were characterized as being middle-aged, premenopausal, slender females having few coronary risk factors, experiencing severe angina pector is with marked ischemic electrocardiogram changes

  7. Factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary angiography with DSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; Zhu, Xiaomei; Xu, Yi; Yu, Tongfu; Xu, Hai; Tang, Jinhua; Dogra, Vikram; Wang, Dehang

    2011-02-01

    CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in diagnosing coronary arterial disease. Delay time and density of the coronary arteries related with patient-specific factors are essential for getting an optimal CTA image. To investigate various factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary CTA with dual source CT. One hundred and sixteen consecutive subjects who underwent cardiac DSCT with retrospective ECG-gating were included. Factors including gender, age, height, weight, transversal cardiac diameter (TCD), transversal thoracic diameter (TTD), heart rate (HR), body surface area (BSA = [weight × height/3600](1/2)) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR = TCD/TTD) were recorded, measured and calculated before administration of contrast media during coronary CT angiography. Delay time was determined as duration from the beginning of the injection to the density in the descending aorta at the level of right main pulmonary artery reaching a threshold of 100 HU. Coronary arterial density was measured at the mid portion of the right coronary artery. Regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to investigate the influence of these factors on delay time and coronary arterial density. Delay time decreased with an increasing HR and it was shorter in women than men. Delay time increased with an increasing TCD. Delay time could be predicted by the formula: DT = 16.651-0.110 × HR + 1.902 × gender + 0.394 × TCD (where DT is abbreviation for delay time, gender is 0 for women and 1 for men). Coronary arterial density decreased with an increasing HR and weight. Coronary arterial density could be predicted by the formula: CAD = 923.42-4.099 × HR-3.293 × weight (CAD = coronary arterial density). There was no relationship between the other factors mentioned above and delay time or coronary arterial density. Delay time is influenced by HR, gender and TCD. Coronary arterial density also changes with HR and weight. So HR, gender, TCD and

  8. HFE gene mutations in coronary atherothrombotic disease

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    Calado R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although iron can catalyze the production of free radicals involved in LDL lipid peroxidation, the contribution of iron overload to atherosclerosis remains controversial. The description of two mutations in the HFE gene (Cys282Tyr and His63Asp related to hereditary hemochromatosis provides an opportunity to address the question of the association between iron overload and atherosclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of HFE mutations in 160 survivors of myocardial infarction with angiographically demonstrated severe coronary atherosclerotic disease, and in 160 age-, gender- and race-matched healthy control subjects. PCR amplification of genomic DNA followed by RsaI and BclI restriction enzyme digestion was used to determine the genotypes. The frequency of the mutant Cys282Tyr allele was identical among patients and controls (0.022; carrier frequency, 4.4%, whereas the mutant His63Asp allele had a frequency of 0.143 (carrier frequency, 27.5% in controls and of 0.134 (carrier frequency, 24.5% in patients. Compound heterozygotes were found in 2 of 160 (1.2% controls and in 1 of 160 (0.6% patients. The finding of a similar prevalence of Cys282Tyr and His63Asp mutations in the HFE gene among controls and patients with coronary atherothrombotic disease, indirectly questions the possibility of an association between hereditary hemochromatosis and atherosclerosis.

  9. Myocardial flow reserve is influenced by both coronary artery stenosis severity and coronary risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Naya, Masanao; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara

    2006-01-01

    Myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurement has an important role in assessing the functional severity of coronary artery stenosis. However, a discrepancy between the anatomical severity of coronary artery stenosis and MFR is often observed. Such a discrepancy may be explained by coronary risk factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of coronary artery stenosis severity and risk factors on MFR. Seventy-four patients suspected to have coronary artery disease and seven age-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MFR were measured using 15 O-labelled water PET. Regional MFR was calculated in regions with significant coronary artery stenosis (stenotic regions) and in regions without significant stenosis (remote regions). The contributions of coronary artery stenosis severity and coronary risk factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. In stenotic regions, MFR correlated inversely with coronary artery stenosis severity (r=-0.50, p<0.01). Univariate analysis did not show any significant difference in MFR between the patients with and the patients without each risk factor. In remote regions, however, MFR was significantly decreased in the diabetes and smoking groups (each p<0.05). By multivariate analysis, diabetes and smoking were independent predictors of MFR (each p<0.05). In the group with more than one risk factor, MFR was significantly lower (2.78±0.79) than in the other group (3.40±1.22, p<0.05). MFR is influenced not only by coronary stenosis severity but also by coronary risk factors. In particular, the influence of risk factors should be considered in regions without severe coronary stenosis. (orig.)

  10. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  11. Evaluation of diverse wheat genotypes for potential biomass production through physiological parameters at seedling stage under controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, G.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty wheat genotypes from UK, CIMMYT and Pakistan were evaluated under controlled environment conditions for their potential biomass production by measuring stomatal conductance (gs; porometry), leaf photosynthesis (IRGA), carbon isotope discrimination and carbon content (isotope ratio and mass analysis) at Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK during 2011. Amongst the dwarf genotypes, Rht2 and Rht3 showed lower stomatal conductance than Seri 32B, Seri 87B and Bathoor-07. For these 5 genotypes and another genotype Inqalab photosynthetic performance was determined by means of IRGA measurements. Of these genotypes Inqalab had the highest photosynthetic activity (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) and leaf intercellular CO/sub 2/ but it also had the lowest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). Seri-87B had the greatest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). All the Pakistani genotypes had large stomatal conductances and high 13C delta and thus may be expected to produce high biomass under irrigations and optimum inputs. (author)

  12. Severity of coronary artery disease in obese patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Ali, J.; Kayani, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship of severity of coronary artery disease with obesity in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology - National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD), 1st February 2010 to 31st August 2010 Patients and Methods: The study population included 468 patients undergoing coronary angiography. Obesity was classified according to the BMI using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria as normal (BMI 21-24 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-29 kg/m2), obesity class I (BMI 30-34 kg/m2), obesity class II (BMI 35 to 39 kg/m2 and obesity class III (BMI 40 or above kg/m2). Coronary angiography data were obtained from the Siemens Queries software system, which maintains the database including detailed angiographic findings of all patients at this institution. Significant lesions were defined as those with >70% diameter narrowing of coronary arteries (>50% for the left main coronary artery). We attempted to quantify the 'severity of CAD' by ascertaining the prevalence of High-Risk Coronary Anatomy (HRCA). Results: Insignificant difference was observed in traditional risk factors i.e. age, diabetes mellitus and smoking except hypertension and gender. Statistically significantly low prevalence of HRCA was encountered in the obese group (57.7%) as compared to normal/overweight group (75.8%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that obesity is associated with less severe coronary artery disease. (author)

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX AND NUM-BER OF INVOLVED CORONARIES IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ANGINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vascular disease which can involve peripheral and/or cardiac vessels. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible link between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI and coronary vessel involvement in patients with stable angina.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 on 120 individuals who were hospitalized in Chamran Heart Center and underwent coronary angiography. A questionnaire was completed to obtain demographic information, history of previous heart disease and smoking. Body height and weight, as blood pressure on hand and foot were measured. The patients underwent angiography and the extent of coronary involvement (> 75% was determined. After12-14-hour of fasting, blood sugar was obtained to measure total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABI was calculated as the ratio of the blood pressure in the ankles to the blood pressure in the arms. The data were analyzed by SPSS-15 using ANOVA, T-Student test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.    RESULTS: Samples were 46 women (38.33% and 74 men (61.67% with a mean age of 55.50 ± 10.49. Mean and SD of ABI in men and women was 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.80 ± 0.19 with no significant difference (p = 0.012. The correlation between ABI and extent of coronary involvement was 0.47 (p < 0.0001. The group with lower ABI had the highest levels of coronary involvement (triple vessel, p < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: ABI had a significant relationship with the degree of coronary involvement and a significant predictive value. Therefore ABI seems to be a reliable indicator of high coronary risk.      Keywords: Ankle to brachial index, Coronary involvement, Stable angina.  

  14. Coronary Anomaly and Coronary Artery Fistula as Cause of Angina Pectoris with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanth Koneru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistulas are rare anomalies of the coronary arteries that may sometimes cause symptoms by shunting blood flow away from the myocardial capillary network. We report the case of a 46-year old lady which shows the right coronary cusp giving rise to left main coronary artery called anomalous origin of a coronary artery (AOCA, and also a fistula between the left coronary artery and pulmonary artery. We describe our diagnostic approach and review the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, the diagnostic modalities, and treatment options.

  15. Role of coronary physiology in the contemporary management of coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Neil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 1 in 30 patients with stable CAD experiencing death or acute myocardial infarction each year. The presence and extent of resultant myocardial ischaemia has been shown to confer an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Whilst, optimal medical therapy (OMT) forms the cornerstone of the management of patients with stable CAD, a significant number of patients present with ischaemia refractory to OMT. Historically coronary angiography alone has been used to determine coronary lesion severity in both stable and acute settings. It is increasingly clear that this approach fails to accurately identify the haemodynamic significance of lesions; especially those that are visually “intermediate” in severity. Revascularisation based upon angiographic appearances alone may not reduce coronary events above OMT. Technological advances have enabled the measurement of physiological indices including the fractional flow reserve, the index of microcirculatory resistance and the coronary flow reserve. The integration of these parameters into the routine management of patients presenting to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with CAD represents a critical adjunctive tool in the optimal management of these patients by identifying patients that would most benefit from revascularisation and importantly also highlighting patients that would not gain benefit and therefore reducing the likelihood of adverse outcomes associated with coronary revascularisation. Furthermore, these techniques are applicable to a broad range of patients including those with left main stem disease, proximal coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, previous percutaneous coronary intervention and with previous coronary artery bypass grafting. This review will discuss current concepts relevant to coronary physiology assessment, its role in the management of both stable and acute patients and future applications. PMID

  16. Role of coronary physiology in the contemporary management of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Neil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K

    2015-02-16

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 1 in 30 patients with stable CAD experiencing death or acute myocardial infarction each year. The presence and extent of resultant myocardial ischaemia has been shown to confer an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Whilst, optimal medical therapy (OMT) forms the cornerstone of the management of patients with stable CAD, a significant number of patients present with ischaemia refractory to OMT. Historically coronary angiography alone has been used to determine coronary lesion severity in both stable and acute settings. It is increasingly clear that this approach fails to accurately identify the haemodynamic significance of lesions; especially those that are visually "intermediate" in severity. Revascularisation based upon angiographic appearances alone may not reduce coronary events above OMT. Technological advances have enabled the measurement of physiological indices including the fractional flow reserve, the index of microcirculatory resistance and the coronary flow reserve. The integration of these parameters into the routine management of patients presenting to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with CAD represents a critical adjunctive tool in the optimal management of these patients by identifying patients that would most benefit from revascularisation and importantly also highlighting patients that would not gain benefit and therefore reducing the likelihood of adverse outcomes associated with coronary revascularisation. Furthermore, these techniques are applicable to a broad range of patients including those with left main stem disease, proximal coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, previous percutaneous coronary intervention and with previous coronary artery bypass grafting. This review will discuss current concepts relevant to coronary physiology assessment, its role in the management of both stable and acute patients and future applications.

  17. Acute Thrombotic Coronary Occlusion in a Patient with Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beganu Elena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with coronary artery anomalies are more susceptible to develop acute thrombotic coronary occlusions due to the abnormal anatomy of these arteries and the disturbance of the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to an accelerated atherosclerosis development. The following article presents the case of a 64-year-old female patient diagnosed with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patient underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention, which revealed the absence of the right coronary artery and separated origins of the left anterior descending artery and the left circumflex artery from the aorta.

  18. Blood pressure in young adults with and without a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease in Europe: the EARS study. [European arteriosclerosis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masana, L.; Farinaro, E.; Henauw, S. de; Nicaud, V.

    1996-01-01

    Objective : The European Arteriosclerosis Study (EARS) was designed to identify variables which discriminate subjects with a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) from controls and to study the distribution of these variables across Europe. In this article we report on the blood

  19. Factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary angiography with DSCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijun Tang; Xiaomei Zhu; Yi Xu; Tongfu Yu; Hai Xu; Jinhua Tang; Dehang Wang; Dogra, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Background: CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in diagnosing coronary arterial disease. Delay time and density of the coronary arteries related with patient-specific factors are essential for getting an optimal CTA image. Purpose: To investigate various factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary CTA with dual source CT. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixteen consecutive subjects who underwent cardiac DSCT with retrospective ECG-gating were included. Factors including gender, age, height, weight, transversal cardiac diameter (TCD), transversal thoracic diameter (TTD), heart rate (HR), body surface area (BSA = [weight x height/3600]1/2) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR = TCD/TTD) were recorded, measured and calculated before administration of contrast media during coronary CT angiography. Delay time was determined as duration from the beginning of the injection to the density in the descending aorta at the level of right main pulmonary artery reaching a threshold of 100 HU. Coronary arterial density was measured at the mid portion of the right coronary artery. Regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to investigate the influence of these factors on delay time and coronary arterial density. Results: Delay time decreased with an increasing HR and it was shorter in women than men. Delay time increased with an increasing TCD. Delay time could be predicted by the formula: DT = 16.651-0.110 x HR + 1.902 x gender + 0.394 x TCD (where DT is abbreviation for delay time, gender is 0 for women and 1 for men). Coronary arterial density decreased with an increasing HR and weight. Coronary arterial density could be predicted by the formula: CAD = 923.42-4.099 x HR-3.293 x weight (CAD = coronary arterial density). There was no relationship between the other factors mentioned above and delay time or coronary arterial density. Conclusion: Delay time is influenced by HR, gender and TCD. Coronary arterial density

  20. [Methods of the multivariate statistical analysis of so-called polyetiological diseases using the example of coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshits, A M

    1979-01-01

    General characteristics of the multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) is given. Methodical premises and criteria for the selection of an adequate MSA method applicable to pathoanatomic investigations of the epidemiology of multicausal diseases are presented. The experience of using MSA with computors and standard computing programs in studies of coronary arteries aterosclerosis on the materials of 2060 autopsies is described. The combined use of 4 MSA methods: sequential, correlational, regressional, and discriminant permitted to quantitate the contribution of each of the 8 examined risk factors in the development of aterosclerosis. The most important factors were found to be the age, arterial hypertension, and heredity. Occupational hypodynamia and increased fatness were more important in men, whereas diabetes melitus--in women. The registration of this combination of risk factors by MSA methods provides for more reliable prognosis of the likelihood of coronary heart disease with a fatal outcome than prognosis of the degree of coronary aterosclerosis.

  1. Lack of MEF2A mutations in coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Kavaslar, Nihan; Ustaszewska, Anna; Doelle, Heather; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hebert, Sybil; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-12-01

    Mutations in MEF2A have been implicated in an autosomal dominant form of coronary artery disease (adCAD1). In this study we sought to determine whether severe mutations in MEF2A might also explain sporadic cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). To do this, we resequenced the coding sequence and splice sites of MEF2A in {approx}300 patients with premature CAD and failed to find causative mutations in the CAD cohort. However, we did identify the 21 base pair (bp) MEF2A coding sequence deletion originally implicated in adCAD1 in one of 300 elderly control subjects without CAD. Further screening of an additional {approx}1,500 non-CAD patients revealed two more subjects with the MEF2A 21 bp deletion. Genotyping of 19 family members of the three probands with the 21 bp deletion in MEF2A revealed that the mutation did not co-segregate with early CAD. These studies demonstrate that MEF2A mutations are not a common cause of CAD and cast serious doubt on the role of the MEF2A 21 bp deletion in adCAD1.

  2. Multiple Culprit Coronary Artery Thrombosis in a Patient with Coronary Ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Matte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a case of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI due to simultaneous acute coronary artery occlusions of two major coronary arteries in a patient with coronary ectasia. The patient had been previously submitted to percutaneous coronary angioplasty with bare metal stent implantation in both culprit vessels. Very late stent thrombosis could be the cause of the first occlusion, triggering the event in the other vessel. In addition, concomitant embolic sources were not identified. Although routine aspiration thrombectomy in STEMI was not proven to be beneficial in randomized clinical trials, it was of great value in this case. We also discuss the relation between coronary ectasia, chronic inflammatory status, and increased platelet activity which may have caused plaque disruption in another already vulnerable vessel.

  3. [Experimental evaluation of the role of the coronary sinus pressure in the regulation of coronary return volume via the coronary sinus. Surgical considerations in atrio-pulmonary diversion procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantidis, P; Fernández Ruiz, M A; Madero Jarabo, R; Moreno Granados, F; Cordovilla Zurdo, G; Sanz Galeote, E

    1990-11-01

    In order to find out the validity of the vascular waterfall mechanism in coronary venous circulation, the role of coronary sinus pressure in the regulation of coronary return volume via the coronary sinus is studied in healthy animals. An experimental model of pressure regulation in the coronary sinus was prepared, and aortic pressure, EKG and the cardiac output (measured by thermodilution) were recorded. The return volume via the coronary sinus was measured at coronary sinus pressure of 10 or less, 15, 20, and 25 mmHg or more, for a total of 36 determinations. Increased coronary sinus pressure did not produce significant changes in aortic pressure, heart rate, cardiac index or coronary return volume via coronary sinus. When coronary sinus pressure was 25 mmHg or more, there was a significant decline in the average of coronary return volume via coronary sinus. Nevertheless, stepwise variant regression showed that the coronary sinus pressure per se does not condition the volume of coronary return via the coronary sinus. Our results suggest that in the healthy animals, the vascular waterfall mechanism in coronary venous circulation is not valid. Our results suggest that in the correction of congenital cardiac malformations using atriopulmonary anastomosis procedures, employing techniques that ensure coronary sinus drainage into the left atrium, in order to avoid the hemodynamic repercussions attributable to the vascular waterfall mechanism, is not justified.

  4. Influence of apolipoprotein E genotype on senile dementia of the Alzheimer and Lewy body types. Significance for etiological theories of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C R; Louwagie, J; Rossau, R; Vanmechelen, E; Perry, R H; Perry, E K; Xuereb, J H; Roth, M; Wischik, C M

    1994-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an increased frequency of the apolipoprotein E type epsilon 4 allele. To address both the disease and the allele specificity of this association, we have examined the apolipoprotein E allele distribution in 255 elderly persons including those with autopsy-confirmed AD, senile dementia of the Lewy body type (SDLT), vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease (PD) or Huntington's disease and in nondemented controls either with or without coronary complications. The epsilon 4 allele frequency was increased in SDLT (0.365) and AD (0.328) as compared with controls (0.147), PD (0.098), or Huntington's chorea (0.171). Coronary disease and vascular dementia were associated with marginally higher epsilon 4 allele frequencies than in controls. In PD, amyloid beta-protein accumulated to a greater extent in those cases possessing an epsilon 4 allele than in those without. Those PD cases with dementia were not distinguished from either controls or PD cases without dementia, whether tested biochemically or by apolipoprotein E genotype. It is the comparison of the results in AD and SDLT that yielded the most significant findings. There was a 1.8-fold excess of amyloid beta-protein in AD as compared with controls, and the levels in SDLT were intermediate between those in AD and controls. In contrast, AD was discriminated from both controls and SDLT by the substantial accumulation of paired helical filament tau and phosphorylated tau (both increased more than 20-fold as compared with controls). SDLT was nevertheless characterized by an increased epsilon 4 allele frequency in the absence of significant tau pathology (at least 10-fold less than that in AD). These findings indicate that tau processing is more specifically associated with AD than is amyloid beta-protein accumulation and that presence of the epsilon 4 allele is not an etiological factor that accounts for tau pathology.

  5. Three-Dimensional Respiratory-Gated Coronary Mr Angiography with Reference to X-Ray Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A. E. J.; Manninen, H. I.; Vainio, P.; Vanninen, R. L.; Matsi, P. J.; Soimakallio, S.; Hirvonen, T.P.J.; Hartikainen, J.E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical value of three-dimensional coronary MR angiography (CMRA) in the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis using conventional X-ray angiography as the standard reference. Material and Methods: Sixty-nine patients underwent X-ray coronary angiography and CMRA because of suspected or previously diagnosed coronary artery disease. MRI was performed with a 1.5-T whole body imaging system using ECG-triggered 3D gradient echo sequence with retrospective navigator echo respiratory gating and fat suppression. Results: A total of 276 coronary artery segments were analyzed. The X-ray coronary angiography was normal in 22 patients. Significant proximal stenoses (exceeding 50%) or occlusions were present in 102 coronary artery segments. In all, 120 stenoses or occlusions were identified in CMRA. Sixteen percent of the coronary artery segments had to be excluded because of poor image quality. The overall sensitivity and specificity for MRA for identification of significant stenosis were 75% and 62%, respectively. CMRA correctly detected 89% of patients with at least one vessel disease, but 6 patients with coronary artery disease would have been missed. Conclusions: Because of the high data exclusion and false-negative case rate, CMRA with retrospective navigator echo triggering is at present not suitable as a clinical screening method in coronary artery disease

  6. Coronary artery anomalies in adults: imaging at dual source CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laspas, Fotios; Roussakis, Arkadios; Mourmouris, Christos; Kritikos, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Roxani; Andreou, John

    2013-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries have an incidence of 1%, and most of these are benign. However, a small number are associated with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Various imaging modalities are available for coronary artery assessment. Recently, multi-detector CT has emerged as an accurate diagnostic tool for defining coronary artery anomalies. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the dual source CT appearance of congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries in adults.

  7. Leaf gas exchange, carbon isotope discrimination, and grain yield in contrasting rice genotypes subjected to water deficits during the reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centritto, Mauro; Lauteri, Marco; Monteverdi, Maria Cristina; Serraj, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Genotypic variations in leaf gas exchange and yield were analysed in five upland-adapted and three lowland rice cultivars subjected to a differential soil moisture gradient, varying from well-watered to severely water-stressed conditions. A reduction in the amount of water applied resulted in a significant decrease in leaf gas exchange and, subsequently, in above-ground dry mass and grain yield, that varied among genotypes and distance from the line source. The comparison between the variable J and the Delta values in recently synthesized sugars methods, yielded congruent estimations of mesophyll conductance (g(m)), confirming the reliability of these two techniques. Our data demonstrate that g(m) is a major determinant of photosynthesis (A), because rice genotypes with inherently higher g(m) were capable of keeping higher A in stressed conditions. Furthermore, A, g(s), and g(m) of water-stressed genotypes rapidly recovered to the well-watered values upon the relief of water stress, indicating that drought did not cause any lasting metabolic limitation to photosynthesis. The comparisons between the A/C(i) and corresponding A/C(c) curves, measured in the genotypes that showed intrinsically higher and lower instantaneous A, confirmed this finding. Moreover, the effect of drought stress on grain yield was correlated with the effects on both A and total diffusional limitations to photosynthesis. Overall, these data indicate that genotypes which showed higher photosynthesis and conductances were also generally more productive across the entire soil moisture gradient. The analysis of Delta revealed a substantial variation of water use efficiency among the genotypes, both on the long-term (leaf pellet analysis) and short-term scale (leaf soluble sugars analysis).

  8. Discrimination of transgenic soybean seeds by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype. Results demonstrated clear differences among glyphosate-resistant, hybrid descendants and conventional non-transformed soybean seeds could easily be visualized with an excellent classification (accuracy was 88.33% in validation set) using the LS-SVM and the spectra with SNV pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy techniques together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to distinguish transgenic soybean seeds from non-transformed seeds with high efficiency and without any major sample preparation.

  9. Development of Coronary Pulse Wave Velocity: New Pathophysiological Insight Into Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaoui, Brahim; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Cividjian, Andrei; Lantelme, Pierre

    2017-02-02

    Although aortic stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease, the significance of local coronary stiffness has never been tackled. The first objective of this study was to describe a method of measuring coronary PWV (CoPWV) invasively and to describe its determinants. The second objective was to assess both CoPWV and aortic PWV in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes or stable coronary artery disease. In 53 patients, CoPWV was measured from the delay in pressure wave and distance traveled as a pressure wire was withdrawn from the distal to the proximal coronary segment. Similarly, aortic PWV was measured invasively when the wire was pulled across the ascending aorta; carotid-femoral PWV was also measured noninvasively using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical). Mean CoPWV was 10.3±6.1 m/s. Determinants of increased CoPWV were fractional flow reserve, diastolic blood pressure, and previous stent implantation in the recorded artery. CoPWV was lower in patients with acute coronary syndromes versus stable coronary artery disease (7.6±3 versus 11.5±6.4 m/s; P=0.02), and this persisted after adjustment for confounders. In contrast, aortic stiffness, assessed by aortic and carotid-femoral PWV, did not differ significantly. CoPWV seems associated with acute coronary events more closely than aortic PWV. High coronary compliance, whether per se or because it leads to a distal shift in compliance mismatch, may expose vulnerable plaques to high cyclic stretch. CoPWV is a new tool to assess local compliance at the coronary level; it paves the way for a new field of research. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Coronary MR angiography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danias, P.G.; Manning, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Since first described in the early 1990s, coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has evolved as a promising noninvasive modality for imaging of the coronary arteries and evaluation of coronary artery disease. Despite technical limitations, coronary MRA has established value for imaging of anomalous coronary arteries and assessment of bypass graft patency. Current research focuses on the development of optimal respiratory compensation strategies, improved spatial and temporal resolution and faster acquisition of image data. The accurate detection of stenoses and assessment of the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is presently being evaluated with large multi-center studies. With further technique enhancements and more clinical experience, coronary MRA is likely to become the dominant noninvasive modality in clinical cardiology. (orig.) [de

  11. Balloon Occlusion Types in the Treatment of Coronary Perforation during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery perforation is an uncommon complication in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, pericardial tamponade following coronary artery perforation may be lethal, and prompt treatment is crucial in managing such patients. Balloon occlusion and the reversal of anticoagulant activity are the common methods used to prevent cardiac tamponade by reducing the amount of bleeding. Herein, we discuss the pros and cons of currently used occlusion types for coronary perforation. Optimal balloon occlusion methods should reduce the amount of bleeding and ameliorate subsequent myocardial ischemia injury, even during cardiac surgery.

  12. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  13. Utility of myeloperoxidase in the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmarza, Pilar; Lapresta, Carlos; Martínez, María; Lahoz, Raquel; Povar, Javier

    2017-12-07

    To determine the usefulness of myeloperoxidase in discriminating between patients with acute coronary syndrome and patients with chest pain by other causes. The study included all patients over 18 years of age who come consecutively to the emergency department from September 2015 to December 2015 with chest pain of non-traumatic origin. The initial patient evaluation was performed according to the study protocol for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in our Emergency Department. This included the serial measurement of troponin, and in this case myeloperoxidase, with serialization on admission and at 6h. For the determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a single step sandwich enzyme immunoassay by Siemens, automated on a Dimension analyser, was used. Statistically significant differences were observed in the concentration of myeloperoxidase at time 0 among patients diagnosed with ACS: 505 (413)pmol/L, and non-ACS patients: 388 (195)pmol/L (p<.001), as well as at 6h (p<.001). An area under the curve ROC of 0.824 was obtained at 6h for ACS patients, with a confidence interval of 95% from 0.715 to 0.933 and a level of significance of p<.001. Statistically significant differences were also found in the concentration of myeloperoxidase at time 0 and at 6h among patients with ACS and patients with heart disease other than coronary artery disease. The concentration of MPO helps to differentiate between ACS and non-ACS patients, as well as between ACS patients and patients with heart diseases other than coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Is ADH1C genotype relevant for the cardioprotective effect of alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Næss, Oyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Mørland, Jørg

    2013-03-01

    The cardioprotective effect of ethanol has been suggested to be linked to one of the ethanol metabolizing enzymes (ADH1C), which constitutes a high V(max) and a low V(max) variant. This has been demonstrated in some studies, while others have not been able to replicate the findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the different ADH1C genotypes, death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and alcohol in a material larger than the previously published studies. Eight hundred CHD deaths as well as 1303 controls were genotyped for the high V(max) (γ1) and the low V(max) (γ2) ADH1C variant. Information of alcohol use was available for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to study if the decreased risk of death from CHD in alcohol consuming subjects was more pronounced in subjects homozygous for the γ2 allele (γ2γ2 subjects) compared to γ1γ1 and γ1γ2 subjects. The odds ratio (OR) for death from CHD in alcohol consumers compared to abstainers was similar in the genotype groups, i.e., 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88) in γ1γ1 subjects and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.91) in γ2γ2 subjects. Also when stratifying the results by gender and when dividing alcohol consumers into different alcohol consumption groups, there was no difference in the OR between the different genotype groups. This study, which included the largest study group published so far, failed to find any link between the ADH1C genotype and the cardioprotective effects of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Congenital coronary artery fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seoc Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1986-01-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula (CCAF) is communication of a coronary artery or its main branch with one of the atria or ventricles, the coronary sinus, the superior vena cava, or the pulmonary artery. In Korean peoples, only 4 cases of the CCAF were reported as rare as worldwide and authors want to report another case of CCAF, confirmed by operation. 10-year-old girl shows a fistula between sinus node artery of the right coronary artery and right atrium on root aortogram with left-to-right shunt and Qp/Qs=1.58, in which simple ligation of the sinus node artery from right coronary artery was performed. All of the 5 Korean CCAF (4 were previously reported and 1 of authors) were originated from right coronary artery, and of which 4 were opening into right ventricle and 1 of authors were into right atrium. Associated cardiac anomaly was noted in only 1 case as single coronary artery. Ages were from 9 months of age to 10 years old and no adult left case were found. 3 were female and 2 were male patients.

  16. Noninvasive diagnostic test choices for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in women: a multivariate comparison of cardiac fluoroscopy, exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; Chaitman, B.R.; Lam, J.; Lesperance, J.; Dupras, G.; Fines, P.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Several diagnostic noninvasive tests to detect coronary and multivessel coronary disease are available for women. However, all are imperfect and it is not yet clear whether one particular test provides substantially more information than others. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical findings, exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy in 92 symptomatic women without previous infarction and determine which tests were most useful in determining the presence of coronary disease and its severity. Univariate analysis revealed two clinical, eight exercise electrocardiographic, seven myocardial scintigraphic and seven fluoroscopic variables predictive of coronary or multivessel disease with 70% or greater stenosis. The multivariate discriminant function analysis selected a reversible thallium defect, coronary calcification and character of chest pain syndrome as the variables most predictive of presence or absence of coronary disease. The ranked order of variables most predictive of multivessel disease were cardiac fluoroscopy score, thallium score and extent of ST segment depression in 14 electrocardiographic leads. Each provided statistically significant information to the model. The estimate of predictive accuracy was 89% for coronary disease and 97% for multivessel coronary disease. The results suggest that cardiac fluoroscopy or thallium scintigraphy provide significantly more diagnostic information than exercise electrocardiography in women over a wide range of clinical patient subsets

  17. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphism Is Associated with Susceptibility to Inflammatory Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangting Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a proinflammatory cytokine. This study explored the association of 173G/C polymorphism of the MIF gene with coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods. Sequencing was carried out after polymerase chain reaction with DNA specimens from 186 volunteers without CHD and 70 patients with CHD. Plasma MIF levels on admission were measured by ELISA. Patients were classified into either stable angina pectoris (SAP or unstable angina pectoris (UAP. Genotype distribution between cases and controls and the association of patients’ genotypes with MIF level and plaque stability were statistically evaluated (ethical approval number: 2012-01. Results. The frequency of the C genotype was higher in CHD patients than in the control (P=0.014. The frequency of the 173*CC genotype was higher in CHD patients than in the control (P=0.005. The plasma MIF level was higher in MIF173*C carriers than in MIF173*G carriers (P=0.033. CHD patients had higher plasma MIF levels than the control (P=0.000. Patients with UAP had higher plasma MIF levels than patients with SAP (P=0.014. Conclusions. These data suggest that MIF −173G/C polymorphism may be related to the development of CHD in a Chinese population. Plasma MIF level is a predictor of plaque stability. This trial is registered with NCT01750502 .

  18. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  19. Combined evaluation of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the identification of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, L.; Cuocolo, A.; Salvatore, M.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Prastaro, M.; Vezzuto, P.; Crisci, T.; Dellegrottaglie, S.; Piscione, F.; Chiariello, M.; Mainenti, P.P.; Varrone, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether combined evaluation by discriminant analysis of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the accuracy in identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Rest-redistribution 201 Tl has high sensitivity but low specificity in identifying viable myocardium, while the opposite is true for low-dose dobutamine echocardiography. Forty-six patients underwent low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography on the same day. Rest echocardiography was repeated at least 30 days (mean 40±20) after myocardial revascularization. Discriminant analysis was applied to the results of 201 Tl tomography and dobutamine echocardiography to classify a/dyskinetic segments as viable or non-viable. In 92 a/dyskinetic segments that were revascularized, rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography yielded an accuracy of 75%, while the accuracy of dobutamine echocardiography was 70% (P 201 Tl imaging are useful and complementary techniques for identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Combined evaluation by discriminant analysis significantly improves accuracy, although the cost-effectiveness of such an approach remains to be determined. (orig.)

  20. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhao

    Full Text Available Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months, 70 (14.58% patients experienced MACEs. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the baseline RDW content (11.30-12.90, 13.00-13.50, 13.60-16.40. GRACE score was positively correlated with RDW content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and RDW content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024-1.055; p < 0.001; 1.699; 1.294-2.232; p < 0.001; respectively. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the risk of MACEs increased with increasing RDW content (p < 0.001. For GRACE score alone, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for MACEs was 0.749 (95% CI: 0.707-0.787. The area under the ROC curve for MACEs increased to 0.805 (0.766-0.839, p = 0.034 after adding RDW content. The incremental predictive value of combining RDW content and GRACE risk score was significantly improved, also shown by the net reclassification improvement (NRI = 0.352, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI = 0.023, p = 0.002. Combining the predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score yielded a more accurate predictive value for long-term cardiovascular events in ACS patients who underwent PCI as compared to each measure alone.

  1. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of a Simple Angiographic Approach With a Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Score-Based Approach for Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting: A Pooled Analysis of Serial PRECOMBAT (Premier of Randomized Comparison of Bypass Surgery Versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease) Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Cheol Whan; Kim, Seon-Ok; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery scores to left main coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned. A simplified alternative is needed for guiding decision making. We evaluated the prognostic value of a simplified angiographic classification in comparison with a Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score-based approach for patients with left main CAD undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. The proposed approach classified left main CAD as either extensive (n=819), defined as left main bifurcation lesions with an involvement of ostial left circumflex artery or as any left main lesion plus multivessel CAD, or limited (n=453), defined as ostial/midshaft lesions or left main bifurcation lesions without an involvement of ostium of left circumflex artery, alone or plus 1-vessel disease. The databases from 4 prospective Premier of Randomized Comparison of Bypass Surgery versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease studies were pooled, and the primary outcome was a major adverse cardiac event, defined as death, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization. During follow-up (median 38 months; interquartile range, 36-61 months), the risk for major adverse cardiac event was significantly higher with extensive than with limited left main CAD (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.94; P Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score tertiles did not effectively stratify these 2 outcome measures. Compared with Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery scores, the simpler angiographic approach provided better discrimination for future cardiovascular events in patients with left main CAD undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Single coronary artery; extremely rare coronary anomaly successfully treated surgically in young adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, A R

    2010-05-01

    Single coronary artery arising from aortic root, is a rare congenital anomaly. A 30-year-old male presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complaining of chest pain and raised troponin levels. Emergency angiography showed no coronary lesions but both left and right coronary arteries arising from single ostium. Patient was operated electively and perioperative findings confirmed the diagnosis of single coronary artery, as left coronary artery after taking origin from right sinus of valsalva runs through the septum, before dividing into left anterior descending and circumflex branches. The single coronary ostium opened with a slit like incision over the course of left main coronary, making the size of ostium three to four times bigger than the native one. In addition left internal mammary artery was harvested and grafted to the left anterior descending branch distally. Patient made successful recovery. Four months follow up dobutamine stress echo showed no inducible ischemia.

  4. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the recA gene and discrimination of the three isolates of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolated from seagulls (Larus spp.) in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Tai, K; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Murayama, O

    2004-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing after TA cloning of the amplicon of the almost-full length recA gene from three strains of UPTC (A1, A2, and A3) isolated from seagulls in Northern Ireland, the phenotypical and genotypical characteristics of which have been demonstrated to be indistinguishable, clarified nucleotide differences at three nucleotide positions among the three strains. In conclusion, the nucleotide sequences of the recA gene were found to discriminate among the three strains of UPTC, A1, A2, and A3, which are indistinguishable phenotypically and genotypically. Thus, the present study strongly suggests that nucleotide sequence data of the amplicon of a suitable gene or region could aid in discriminating among isolates of the UPTC group, which are indistinguishable phenotypically and genotypically. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  5. PLACENTAL GROWTH FACTOR AND CORONARY NEOANGIOGENESIS IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tulikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoangiogenesis in coronary heart disease is a protective reaction aimed to improve ischemic myocardial perfusion, by increasing the number and size of arterial collaterals. Placental growth factor (PlGF is one of the key peptides regulating angiogenic processes in atherosclerosis. In particular, a number of investigators have shown that injection of recombinant PlGF into the system or regional blood flow can stimulate neoangiogenesis. On the other hand, there is evidence confirming the involvement of PlGF in the progression of atherosclerosis and in the development of acute coronary syndrome. In this connection, the problem of investigating the efficiency and safety of possible use of PlGF preparations, as well as its place in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome remains urgent

  6. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-05-27

    The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness), but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta) is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  7. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL. The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness, but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  8. [Development of an automated processing method to detect coronary motion for coronary magnetic resonance angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asou, Hiroya; Imada, N; Sato, T

    2010-06-20

    On coronary MR angiography (CMRA), cardiac motions worsen the image quality. To improve the image quality, detection of cardiac especially for individual coronary motion is very important. Usually, scan delay and duration were determined manually by the operator. We developed a new evaluation method to calculate static time of individual coronary artery. At first, coronary cine MRI was taken at the level of about 3 cm below the aortic valve (80 images/R-R). Chronological change of the signals were evaluated with Fourier transformation of each pixel of the images were done. Noise reduction with subtraction process and extraction process were done. To extract higher motion such as coronary arteries, morphological filter process and labeling process were added. Using these imaging processes, individual coronary motion was extracted and individual coronary static time was calculated automatically. We compared the images with ordinary manual method and new automated method in 10 healthy volunteers. Coronary static times were calculated with our method. Calculated coronary static time was shorter than that of ordinary manual method. And scan time became about 10% longer than that of ordinary method. Image qualities were improved in our method. Our automated detection method for coronary static time with chronological Fourier transformation has a potential to improve the image quality of CMRA and easy processing.

  9. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability in the species group Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is well recognised as affecting intermediate host susceptibility and other biological features of the parasites. Molecular methods have allowed discrimination of different genotypes (G1-10 and the 'lion strain'), some of which are now considered separate species. An accumulation of genotypic analyses undertaken on parasite isolates from human cases of cystic echinococcosis provides the basis upon which an assessment is made here of the relative contribution of the different genotypes to human disease. The allocation of samples to G-numbers becomes increasingly difficult, because much more variability than previously recognised exists in the genotypic clusters G1-3 (=E. granulosus sensu stricto) and G6-10 (Echinococcus canadensis). To accommodate the heterogeneous criteria used for genotyping in the literature, we restrict ourselves to differentiate between E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-7, G8, G10). The genotype G1 is responsible for the great majority of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide (88.44%), has the most cosmopolitan distribution and is often associated with transmission via sheep as intermediate hosts. The closely related genotypes G6 and G7 cause a significant number of human infections (11.07%). The genotype G6 was found to be responsible for 7.34% of infections worldwide. This strain is known from Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted mainly by camels (and goats), and South America, where it appears to be mainly transmitted by goats. The G7 genotype has been responsible for 3.73% of human cases of cystic echinococcosis in eastern European countries, where the parasite is transmitted by pigs. Some of the samples (11) could not be identified with a single specific genotype belonging to E. canadensis (G6/10). Rare cases of human cystic echinococcosis have been identified as having been caused by

  10. Congenital coronary-pulmonary artery fistula originating from right and left coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kemal Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula (CAF is a rare congenital anomalywith an incidence of 1 in 50 000 live births. The fistula wasobserved at the right coronary artery in 53%, the left coronaryartery in 42% and both coronary artery in 5% of thecases. Echocardiography examination in a 46 year-oldwoman with the symptoms of chest pain, palpitation anddyspnea revealed a severe mitral valve insufficiency anda moderate to severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. A CAForiginating from the proximal part of the left anterior descendingartery (LAD and another fistula originating fromosteal part of the right coronary artery (RCA were detectedby coronary angiography. Both fistulas were draininginto the main pulmonary artery. The coronary artery fistulaclosed under cardiopulmonary by-pass. Mitral insufficiencyoriginated from the posterior leaflet was diagnosedintra-operative exploration, and thereafter it was repairedwith mitral annuloplasty including a quadrangular resectionand use of a 32 No St Jude mitral ring. Tricuspid valvewas repaired with Calangos Ring annuloplasty. Followingsix day hospital stay, the woman was discharged free ofany symptom.Key words: Dyspnea, double arteriovenous fistula, mitral and tricuspid insufficiency

  11. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  12. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG Passiflora cristalina Vanderpl & Zappi. GENOTYPES BASED ON FLOWER AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICIELE FARIAS DA SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among Passiflora cristalina genotypes and quantify the relative contribution of 30 flower and fruit characteristics, seeking to support the preservation and characterization of genetic resources of the species for preservation and use in future breeding programs. We evaluated 150 fruit and 150 flowers collected in 15 genotypes with naturally occurring in the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. The characterization of genotypes was performed through 30 morphological characteristics of flowers and fruits, 21 of these for flower and 9 for fruit. Data were evaluated using the principal components and cluster methods obtained by UPGMA method from the similarity matrix (Euclidian mean distance, using the Genes software. By principal component analysis, it has been found that the first three components have absorbed 52.11% of the accumulated variation. The characteristics that most contributed to the discrimination of genotypes were fresh fruit weight, stigma length, length of corona filaments, fruit width, petal width and pulp weight, which are more responsive for the selection of P.cristalina genotypes. Smaller contributions to diversity were obtained from anther width, bract width and fruit length. The smallest contributions for diversity were obtained from the following characteristics: anther width, bract width and fruit length. Through UPGMA clustering method, it was found that there is a large genetic divergence among genotypes analyzed because all genotypes were grouped with over 50% of dissimilarity. This study identified genotypes 4, 5 and 9 as the most divergent and therefore the most suitable for breeding in future breeding programs and genetic conservation of the species.

  13. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery.

  14. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J.

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery

  15. Evaluation of a high resolution genotyping method for Chlamydia trachomatis using routine clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and the genitourinary genotypes D-K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing.We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or "MLVA-ompA" to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43% were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59% were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types.Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks.

  16. Coronary plaque quantification and fractional flow reserve by coronary computed tomography angiography identify ischaemia-causing lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaur, Sara; Øvrehus, Kristian Altern; Dey, Damini

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Coronary plaque characteristics are associated with ischaemia. Differences in plaque volumes and composition may explain the discordance between coronary stenosis severity and ischaemia. We evaluated the association between coronary stenosis severity, plaque characteristics, coronary computed...... tomography angiography (CTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and lesion-specific ischaemia identified by FFR in a substudy of the NXT trial (Analysis of Coronary Blood Flow Using CT Angiography: Next Steps). METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary CTA stenosis, plaque volumes, FFRCT, and FFR were assessed...

  17. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  18. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  19. Coronary artery anomalies in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuff, Mette H; Trolle, Christian; Wen, Jan; Jensen, Jesper M; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Gutmark, Ephraim J; Gutmark-Little, Iris; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Andersen, Niels H

    Congenital heart disease, primarily involving the left-sided structures, is often seen in patients with Turner Syndrome. Moreover, a few case reports have indicated that coronary anomalies may be more prevalent in Turner Syndrome than in the normal population. We therefore set out to systematically investigate coronary arterial anatomy by computed tomographic coronary angiography (coronary CTA) in Turner Syndrome patients. Fifty consecutive women with Turner Syndrome (mean age 47 years [17-71]) underwent coronary CTA. Patients were compared with 25 gender-matched controls. Coronary anomaly was more frequent in patients with Turner Syndrome than in healthy controls [20% vs. 4% (p = 0.043)]. Nine out of ten abnormal cases had an anomalous left coronary artery anatomy (absent left main trunk, n = 7; circumflex artery originating from the right aortic sinus, n = 2). One case had a tubular origin of the right coronary artery above the aortic sinus. There was no correlation between the presence of coronary arterial anomalies and karyotype, bicuspid aortic valve, or other congenital heart defects. Coronary anomalies are highly prevalent in Turner Syndrome. The left coronary artery is predominantly affected, with an absent left main coronary artery being the most common anomaly. No hemodynamically relevant coronary anomalies were found. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  20. Coronary stent on coronary CT angiography: Assessment with model-based iterative reconstruction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chae; Kim, Yeo Koon; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang IL [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) technique for evaluation of coronary artery stents on coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Twenty-two patients with coronary stent implantation who underwent CCTA were retrospectively enrolled for comparison of image quality between filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and MBIR. In each data set, image noise was measured as the standard deviation of the measured attenuation units within circular regions of interest in the ascending aorta (AA) and left main coronary artery (LM). To objectively assess the noise and blooming artifacts in coronary stent, we additionally measured the standard deviation of the measured attenuation and intra-luminal stent diameters of total 35 stents with dedicated software. All image noise measured in the AA (all p < 0.001), LM (p < 0.001, p = 0.001) and coronary stent (all p < 0.001) were significantly lower with MBIR in comparison to those with FBP or ASIR. Intraluminal stent diameter was significantly higher with MBIR, as compared with ASIR or FBP (p < 0.001, p = 0.001). MBIR can reduce image noise and blooming artifact from the stent, leading to better in-stent assessment in patients with coronary artery stent.

  1. Large coronary intramural hematomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2015-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous coronary intramural hematoma is a unique subset of spontaneous coronary artery dissection that is characterized by a hemorrhage limited to the medial-adventitial layers, causing subsequent hematoma formation without visible intimal flaps. It is an infrequent and serious...... diagnostics and treatment strategy. Coronary intramural hematomas can also occur iatrogenically, as a complication to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary angiography (CAG) has limited diagnostic value in the absence of intimal dissections, and lesions are often angiographically ambiguous....... Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an important diagnostic tool in establishing the correct diagnosis, as it provides a complete vessel wall assessment, and enables morphometric information regarding the magnitude and severity of the underlying hematoma. Due to the rarity of this clinical scenario...

  2. Multislice CT coronary angiography: effect of sublingual nitroglycerine on the diameter of coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, M.; Hamm, B.; Hoffmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate the influence of sublingual glycerol trinitrate (1.2 mg, Nitrate [nitroglycerine], Nitrolingual N spray) on the coronary artery diameter on multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography. Materials and methods: out of our database of patients who underwent MSCT (slice thickness of 0.5 mm, Aquilion, Toshiba) coronary angiography between July 2003 and November 2005 (950 patients) we retrospectively identified patients with follow-up examinations who received Nitrate for one examination while another examination was performed without Nitrate (10 patients). Another 10 patients who underwent two MSCT examinations with sublingual Nitrate administration were randomly selected from this database to serve as control group. For the resulting 40 MSCT examinations, blinded MSCT datasets were prepared, which were randomly evaluated by a reader blinded to the patient information and whether or not Nitrate had been given. The proximal coronary artery diameters were measured for the left main coronary artery (LMA), the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), and the right coronary artery (RCA) in all 40 datasets, resulting in altogether 160 measurements. Results: the proximal diameters of all four coronary arteries were significantly larger on the MSCT coronary angiograms obtained after sublingual administration of Nitrate compared with the examinations in the same 10 patients without Nitrate (p < 0.001). The average diameters without and with Nitrate for the LMA, LAD, LCX, and RCA were 4.3 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 mm (12% increase, p < 0.005), 3.0 ± 0.6 vs. 3.5 ± 0.5 mm (17% increase, p < 0.001), 2.7 ± 0.6 vs. 3.2 ± 0.7 mm (19% increase, p < 0.005), and 2.9 ± 0.9 vs. 3.5 ± 0.7 mm (21% increase, p < 0.005), respectively. In the control group of 10 patients who underwent two MSCT coronary angiographies after sublingual Nitrate, no significant difference in the proximal diameter of all four

  3. Breath-hold two-dimensional MR angiography of coronary arteries. Comparison with conventional coronary angiography in ten cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liwei; Zhang Wanshi; Liu Chaozhong; Lu Xiaoyan; Xu Jiaxing

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value of two-dimensional coronary magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in patients evaluated for ischemic heart disease. Materials and methods: Ten patients who underwent selective cardiac catheterization with coronary MR angiography were evaluated with two-dimensional coronary MR angiography. Coronary MR angiography was performed with breath-hold fat-suppressed ECG-gated Turbo-FLASH with K-space segmentation using a 1.5 T imager. Results: The left main coronary artery, proximal left anterior descending artery, circumflex artery and right coronary artery were demonstrated in all cases. Continuous segments (mean) of left anterior descending, circumflex and right coronary arteries visualized on MRA were 6.72 +- 3.16 cm, 3.67 +- 4.81 cm and 7.93 +- 3.12 cm respectively. The overall sensitivity for detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery lesion (≥50%) was 62.5% respectively. Conclusion: Breath-hold two-dimensional coronary MR angiography was useful in showing relatively long segments of the main coronary arteries and also has potential in depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery lesions

  4. Interlaboratory comparison of fig (Ficus carica L. microsatellite genotyping data and determination of reference alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been identified as the marker of choice in plant genotyping projects. However, due to length discrepancies obtained between different laboratories for the same allele, interlaboratory comparison of fingerprinting results is often a difficult task. The objectives of this study were to compare genotyping results of two laboratories, to evaluate genetic parameters of microsatellite markers and to determine reference allele sizes for fig cultivars from the Istrian peninsula.Genotyping results of ninety fig (Ficus carica L. accessions were comparable between the laboratories despite differences observed when comparing electropherograms of different capillary electrophoresis systems. Differences in lengths of the same alleles were detected due to different PCR methods and laboratory equipment, but the distances between alleles of the same locus were preserved. However, locus FSYC01 exhibited one allele dropout which led to misidentification of 28 heterozygotes as homozygote individuals suggesting this locus as unreliable. Allele dropout was assigned to the tail PCR technology or to a touchdown PCR protocol.Genotypes of twenty-four reference cultivars from the Istrian peninsula were confirmed by both laboratories. These results will contribute to the usage of markers with greater reliability, discrimination power and consequently, to more reliable standardization with other fig genotyping projects.

  5. The 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G Polymorphism Is Related with High Blood Pressure in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ilian Janet; Valle, Yeminia; Rivas, Fernando; Figuera-Villanueva, Luis Eduardo; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Flores-Salinas, Hector Enrique; Gutiérrez-Amavizca, Bianca Ethel; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory Omayra; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic and inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a negative regulator of the immune response. This study evaluates the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism in ACS and DM2. Three hundred and seventy individuals from Western Mexico were recruited and categorized into three groups: ACS (86), DM2 without coronary complications (70), and healthy subjects (214). Genotyping of the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism was performed by PCR and Native-PAGE. The most common risk factors were hypertension and overweight in ACS and DM2, respectively. The genetic distribution of the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism showed no significant differences between groups (P ≥ 0.23). Nonetheless, the Ins/Ins genotype was associated with high blood pressure (HBP) in the DM2 group (ORc = 1.65, P = 0.02). The genetic recessive model showed similar findings (ORc = 3.03, P = 0.04). No association was found in ACS, with a P of 0.05; nevertheless, the prevalence of Ins/Ins carriers was quite similar to that found in the DM2-HBP group. The 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism was not a susceptibility factor for ACS or DM2; however, the Ins/Ins genotype might have contributed to the development of HBP in the studied groups. PMID:24689061

  6. Current status of hybrid coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaik, Nikhil P; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Natalia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Hoff, Steven J; Ball, Stephen K; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combines coronary artery bypass surgery with percutaneous coronary intervention techniques to treat coronary artery disease. The potential benefits of such a technique are to offer the patients the best available treatments for coronary artery disease while minimizing the risks of the surgery. Hybrid coronary revascularization has resulted in the establishment of new 'hybrid operating suites', which incorporate and integrate the capabilities of a cardiac surgery operating room with that of an interventional cardiology laboratory. Hybrid coronary revascularization has greatly augmented teamwork and cooperation between both fields and has demonstrated encouraging as well as good initial outcomes.

  7. Correlação dos escores de risco com a anatomia coronária na síndrome coronária aguda sem supra-ST Correlation of risk scores with coronary anatomy in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Silva dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO:Há poucas publicações sobre a correlação entre escores de risco e anatomia coronária na síndrome coronária aguda (SCA. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os escores de risco com a gravidade da lesão coronária na SCA sem supra-ST. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 582 pacientes entre julho de 2004 e outubro de 2006. Avaliou-se a correlação entre os escores de risco TIMI, GRACE hospitalar e em seis meses com lesão coronária > 50%, por método não paramétrico de Spearman. Modelo de regressão logística múltipla foi realizado para determinar a habilidade preditiva dos escores em discriminar quem terá ou não lesão coronária > 50%. RESULTADOS: Foram 319 (54,8% homens e a média de idade era 59,9 (± 10,6 anos. Correlação positiva foi observada entre a pontuação dos escores de risco e lesão coronária > 50% (escore de risco TIMI r = 0,363 [p 50% foi: TIMI = 0,704 [IC95% 0,656-0,752; p BACKGROUND: The literature lacks studies regarding the correlation between risk scores and coronary anatomy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS OBJECTIVE: Correlate risk scores with the severity of the coronary lesion in ACS with non-ST elevation. METHODS: A total of 582 patients were analyzed between July 2004 and October 2006. The correlation between TIMI risk scores and GRACE (hospital and six months scores was performed for patients with coronary lesion > 50%, using Spearman´s non-parametric method. Multiple regression logistics was used to determine the predictive ability of the scores to discriminate to discriminate who will have a coronary lesion > 50%. RESULTS: Most subjects were male (319 or 54.8%, mean age of 59.9 (± 10.6 years. A positive correlation was observed between risk scores and >coronary lesion > 50% (TIMI r = 0.363 [p 50% was: TIMI = 0.704 [CI95% 0.656-0.752; p <0.0001]; hospital GRACE = 0.623 [CI95% 0.573-0.673; p < 0.0001]; GRACE at six months= 0.562 [CI95% 0.510-0.613; p ;= 0.0255]. Comparing the areas under the ROC curve, it was

  8. Coronary Heart Disease Preoperative Gesture Interactive Diagnostic System Based on Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi-Bo; Chen, Yi-Min; Gao, Ming-Ke; Liu, Quan; Jiang, Si-Yu; Lu, Jia-Hui; Huang, Chen; Li, Ze-Yu; Zhang, Dian-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Coronary heart disease preoperative diagnosis plays an important role in the treatment of vascular interventional surgery. Actually, most doctors are used to diagnosing the position of the vascular stenosis and then empirically estimating vascular stenosis by selective coronary angiography images instead of using mouse, keyboard and computer during preoperative diagnosis. The invasive diagnostic modality is short of intuitive and natural interaction and the results are not accurate enough. Aiming at above problems, the coronary heart disease preoperative gesture interactive diagnostic system based on Augmented Reality is proposed. The system uses Leap Motion Controller to capture hand gesture video sequences and extract the features which that are the position and orientation vector of the gesture motion trajectory and the change of the hand shape. The training planet is determined by K-means algorithm and then the effect of gesture training is improved by multi-features and multi-observation sequences for gesture training. The reusability of gesture is improved by establishing the state transition model. The algorithm efficiency is improved by gesture prejudgment which is used by threshold discriminating before recognition. The integrity of the trajectory is preserved and the gesture motion space is extended by employing space rotation transformation of gesture manipulation plane. Ultimately, the gesture recognition based on SRT-HMM is realized. The diagnosis and measurement of the vascular stenosis are intuitively and naturally realized by operating and measuring the coronary artery model with augmented reality and gesture interaction techniques. All of the gesture recognition experiments show the distinguish ability and generalization ability of the algorithm and gesture interaction experiments prove the availability and reliability of the system.

  9. Perceived discrimination, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region status, and the development of conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Beach, Steven R H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Obasi, Ezemenari; Philibert, Robert A; Kogan, Steven M; Simons, Ronald L

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations of adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and their genetic status with increases in conduct problems. Participants were 461 African American youths residing in rural Georgia (Wave 1 mean age = 15.5 years) who provided three waves of data and a saliva sample from which a polymorphism in the SCL6A4 (serotonin transporter [5-HTT]) gene polymorphism known as the 5-HTT linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) was genotyped. Data analyses using growth curve modeling indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related to the slope of conduct problems. As hypothesized, interactions between perceived discrimination and genetic status emerged for male but not female youths. Compared with those carrying two copies of the long allele variant of 5-HTTLPR, male youths carrying one or two copies of its short allele variant evinced higher rates of conduct problems over time when they perceived high levels of racial discrimination. These findings are consistent with resilience and differential susceptibility propositions stating that genes can both foster sensitivity to adverse events and confer protection from those events.

  10. Milrinone infusion: A therapeutic option in coronary vasospasm after primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amarpal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male presented to the emergency department with acute chest pain. The electrocardiogram revealed inferior wall myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography revealed total occlusion of the distal right coronary artery with thrombus. Patient was taken up for primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty with stenting of distal right coronary artery. Six hours following the procedure, the patient developed re-elevation of ST-segment in inferior leads of electrocardiogram and subsequent haemodynamic instability. Repeat coronary angiography revealed patent stent and coronary artery spasm in proximal part, which was relieved by intracoronary injection of nitroglycerine. After an hour, the patient re-developed symptoms of chest pain along with bradycardia, hypotension and ST segment elevation. Intravenous infusion of nitroglycerine did not improve the condition but produced persistent hypotension. Infusion of milrinone was then started. Over time, normalisation of electrocardiogram occurred. The patient was discharged in stable condition. This case suggests that milrinone may be effective in alleviating coronary artery spasm when the use of other agents fails

  11. A Case of Cardiac Cephalalgia Showing Reversible Coronary Vasospasm on Coronary Angiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YoungSoon; Jin, Dong Gyu; Jang, Il Mi; Jang, YoungHee; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, SanYun

    2010-01-01

    Background Under certain conditions, exertional headaches may reflect coronary ischemia. Case Report A 44-year-old woman developed intermittent exercise-induced headaches with chest tightness over a period of 10 months. Cardiac catheterization followed by acetylcholine provocation demonstrated a right coronary artery spasm with chest tightness, headache, and ischemic effect of continuous electrocardiography changes. The patient's headache disappeared following intra-arterial nitroglycerine injection. Conclusions A coronary angiogram with provocation study revealed variant angina and cardiac cephalalgia, as per the International Classification of Headache Disorders (code 10.6). We report herein a patient with cardiac cephalalgia that manifested as reversible coronary vasospasm following an acetylcholine provocation test. PMID:20607049

  12. Impact of coronary dominance on in-hospital outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kuno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the manner in which coronary dominance affects in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that left dominant coronary anatomies are associated with worse prognoses in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4873 ACS patients undergoing PCI between September 2008 and April 2013 at 14 hospitals participating in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database Registry. The patients were grouped based on diagnostic coronary angiograms performed prior to PCI; those with right- or co-dominant anatomy (RD group and those with left-dominant anatomy (LD group. RESULTS: The average patient age was 67.6±11.8 years and both patient groups had similar ages, coronary risk factors, comorbidities, and prior histories. The numbers of patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiopulmonary arrest were significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group (heart failure: 650 RD patients [14.7%] vs. 87 LD patients [18.8%], P = 0.025; cardiogenic shock: 322 RD patients [7.3%] vs. 48 LD patients [10.3%], P = 0.021; and cardiopulmonary arrest: 197 RD patients [4.5%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.003. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among LD patients than among RD patients (182 RD patients [4.1%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that LD anatomy was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.030. CONCLUSION: Among ACS patients who underwent PCI, LD patients had significantly worse in-hospital outcomes compared with RD patients, and LD anatomy was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.

  13. [Endarterectomy of the coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, V; Simkovic, I; Holoman, M; Verchvodko, P; Janotík, P; Galbánek, J; Hulman, M; Kostelnicák, J; Jurco, R; Slezák, J

    1992-02-01

    The authors analyze 50 patients with endarterectomy of the coronary arteries during the periods of 1972-1974 and 1988-1990. The results of endarterectomy of the right and left coronary artery provide evidence of its justification in indicated cases whereby contrary to some departments the results of endarterectomy of the left coronary artery are comparable with endarterectomy of the right coronary artery.

  14. [[Length polymorphism of minisatellite repeat B2-VNTR of the bradykinin B2 receptor gene in healthy Russians and in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchkova, I O; Pavlinova, L I; Larionova, E E; Alenina, N V; Solov'ev, K V; Baranova, T V; Belotserkovskaia, E V; Sasina, L K; Bader, M; Denisenko, A D; Mustafina, O E; Khusnutdinova, E K; Patkin, E L

    2014-01-01

    Bradykinin B2 receptor is involved in many processes, including the regulation of blood pressure and smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, inflammation, edema, cell proliferation, pain. It is suggested that this receptor may be one of the factors that have cardioprotective and infarct-limiting effects. It is assumed that certain genetic variants in both coding and non-coding regions ofBDKRB2 gene may influence its expression. In the 3'-untranslated region of BDKRB2 exon 3 the minisatellite repeat B2-VNTR is located. B2-VNTR has previously been shown to affect the BDKRB2 mRNA stability. Therefore, it is important to perform the molecular genetic analysis of this minisatellite in patients with different forms of coronary heart disease in order to reveal possible associations between specific B2-VNTR alleles and certain clinical forms of coronary heart disease. In the present study, a comparative analysis of the allele and genotype frequencies of B2-VNTR was carried out in groups of healthy individuals and patients with two clinical forms of coronary heart disease (angina pectoris and myocardial infarction), ethnically Russian. The results of the B2-VNTR length polymorphism analysis indicate that this tandem repeat may be attributed to a class of low polymorphic and non-hypervariable minisatellite. In all analyzed groups we revealed three B2-VNTR alleles, consisting of 43, 38 and 33 repeat units. Alleles of 43 and 33 repeats were major in all investigated groups. No statistically significant differences were found in the B2-VNTR allele and genotype frequencies between men and women in control group, and also between healthy men and men with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Thus, B2-VNTR length polymorphism was not associated with these clinical forms of coronary heart disease in Russian men. However, we do not exclude the possibility of association between the B2-VNTR short alleles (38 and 33 repeats) and cardioprotective effects of bradykinin B2 receptor

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Enhances Intravascular Ultrasound Assessment of Vulnerable Coronary Plaque: A Combined Pathological and In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Madder, Ryan D; Madden, Sean P; Sum, Stephen T; Wolski, Kathy; Muller, James E; Andrews, Jordan; King, Karilane L; Kataoka, Yu; Uno, Kiyoko; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Nissen, Steven E; Virmani, Renu; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Pathological studies demonstrate the dual significance of plaque burden (PB) and lipid composition for mediating coronary plaque vulnerability. We evaluated relationships between intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-derived PB and arterial remodeling with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived lipid content in ex vivo and in vivo human coronary arteries. Ex vivo coronary NIRS and IVUS imaging was performed through blood in 116 coronary arteries of 51 autopsied hearts, followed by 2-mm block sectioning (n=2070) and histological grading according to modified American Heart Association criteria. Lesions were defined as the most heavily diseased 2-mm block per imaged artery on IVUS. IVUS-derived PB and NIRS-derived lipid core burden index (LCBI) of each block and lesion were analyzed. Block-level analysis demonstrated significant trends of increasing PB and LCBI across more complex atheroma (Ptrend <0.001 for both LCBI and PB). Lesion-based analyses demonstrated the highest LCBI and remodeling index within coronary fibroatheroma (Ptrend <0.001 and 0.02 versus all plaque groups, respectively). Prediction models demonstrated similar abilities of PB, LCBI, and remodeling index for discriminating fibroatheroma (c indices: 0.675, 0.712, and 0.672, respectively). A combined PB+LCBI analysis significantly improved fibroatheroma detection accuracy (c index 0.77, P=0.028 versus PB; net-reclassification index 43%, P=0.003), whereas further adding remodeling index did not (c index 0.80, P=0.27 versus PB+LCBI). In vivo comparisons of 43 age- and sex-matched patients (to the autopsy cohort) undergoing combined NIRS-IVUS coronary imaging yielded similar associations to those demonstrated ex vivo. Adding NIRS to conventional IVUS-derived PB imaging significantly improves the ability to detect more active, potentially vulnerable coronary atheroma. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Multiple giant coronary aneurysms arising from coronary istula to the pulmonary artery revealed in aorta CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Hospital, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Coronary fistula is a rare coronary abnormality through which blood drains into the cardiac chamber, great vessel or other vessels. In addition, giant aneurysm arising from coronary fistula is rare pathologic manifestation. Herein, we presented a rare case of multiple giant coronary artery aneurysms arising from coronary to pulmonary artery fistula in a 79-year-old woman presenting with sudden loss of consciousness. The aneurysms were detected using thoracic computed tomography angiography and consequently confirmed by invasive coronary angiography.

  17. Role of endothelial function in coronary slow-flow phenomenon with angiographically normal coronaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Nathani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Coronary slow flow phenomenon is a marker of atherosclerosis (as documented by carotid intima media thickness and our study has also shown that endothelial function is significantly impaired in patients with coronary slow flow (as documented by impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation than that of patients with normal epicardial coronaries with normal flow.

  18. Determining the proportion of coronary segments assessable on 16-slice CT coronary angiography: a brief report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, K. H.; Cox, N.; Eccleston, D.; Lim, Y.; Chaitowitz, I.; Bell, K. W.; Kelly, A-M.

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CT-CA) is becoming a popular non-invasive coronary imaging method. We aimed to determine the proportion of coronary segments assessable on a 16-slice CT in comparison with conventional selective coronary angiography (SCA). We identified all patients who had both 16-slice CT-CA and recent SCA (less than 12 months) from March 2004 to July 2005. Two CT reporters blinded to SCA independently classified coronary segment assessability on CT-CA. A cardiologist blinded to CT findings classified assess-ability of coronary segments on SCA. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and proportion of agreement. Ninety-five study pairs were included in the analysis. Of those, 1161 coronary segments were deemed assessable on SCA and 1103 segments (95%) were also assessable on CT-CA. Nonassessable segments on CT-CA were predominantly in the distal segments and branches of coronary arteries. Reasons for nonassessability were small calibre (48.3%), motion artefacts (20.7%) and poorly reconstructed segments (22.4%). The 16-slice CT was able to assess a high proportion of but not all coronary segments. Nonassessable segments were predominantly distal segments or branches of coronary arteries. Motion artefacts due to heart-rate changes, small calibre and poorly reconstructed images were main causes of nonassessability on 16-slice CT-CA

  19. Relationship of Hypertension to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Events in Patients With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Rine; Baskaran, Lohendran; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; DeLago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Cury, Ricardo; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Bax, Jeroen; Jones, Erica; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is an atherosclerosis factor and is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship between hypertension and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in coronary computed tomographic angiography and cardiac events risk. Of 17 181 patients enrolled in the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry) who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography, we identified 14 803 patients without known coronary artery disease. Of these, 1434 hypertensive patients were matched to 1434 patients without hypertension. Major adverse cardiac events risk of hypertension and non-hypertensive patients was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models. The prognostic associations between hypertension and no-hypertension with increasing degree of coronary stenosis severity (nonobstructive or obstructive ≥50%) and extent of coronary artery disease (segment involvement score of 1-5, >5) was also assessed. Hypertension patients less commonly had no coronary atherosclerosis and more commonly had nonobstructive and 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease than the no-hypertension group. During a mean follow-up of 5.2±1.2 years, 180 patients experienced cardiac events, with 104 (2.0%) occurring in the hypertension group and 76 (1.5%) occurring in the no-hypertension group (hazard ratios, 1.4; 95% confidence intervals, 1.0-1.9). Compared with no-hypertension patients without coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension patients with no coronary atherosclerosis and obstructive coronary disease tended to have higher risk of cardiac events. Similar trends were observed with respect to extent of coronary artery disease. Compared with no-hypertension patients, hypertensive patients have increased presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and tend to have an increase in major adverse cardiac events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2009-07-01

    Coronary CT angiography has attained increasing scientific attention at academic institutions and has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality. Extending this knowledge into a practice setting is the purpose of 'Coronary CT Angiography'. This book will assist you in integrating cardiac CT into your daily practice, while also giving an overview of the current technical status and applications. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors are also presented providing an objective overview of noninvasive coronary angiography using CT. (orig.)

  1. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  2. Evaluation of Coronary Artery Stenosis by Quantitative Flow Ratio During Invasive Coronary Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, Jelmer; Tu, Shengxian; Winther, Simon

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel diagnostic modality for functional testing of coronary artery stenosis without the use of pressure wires and induction of hyperemia. QFR is based on computation of standard invasive coronary angiographic imaging. The purpose of WIFI II (Wire...... patients with suspected coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomographic angiography for diagnostic invasive coronary angiography. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured in all segments with 30% to 90% diameter stenosis. Blinded observers calculated QFR (Medis Medical Imaging bv......, The Netherlands) for comparison with FFR. FFR was measured in 292 lesions from 191 patients. Ten (5%) and 9 patients (5%) were excluded because of FFR and angiographic core laboratory criteria, respectively. QFR was successfully computed in 240 out of 255 lesions (94%) with a mean diameter stenosis of 50...

  3. Relation of coronary vasoreactivity and coronary calcification in asymptomatic subjects with a family history of premature coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirich, Christian; Leber, Alexander; Knez, Andreas; Bengel, Frank M.; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus; Haberl, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) allows non-invasive imaging of coronary calcification and has been promoted as a screening tool for coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic high-risk subjects. This study assessed the relation of coronary calcifications to alterations in coronary vascular reactivity by means of positron emission tomography (PET) in asymptomatic subjects with a familial history of premature CAD. Twenty-one subjects (mean age 51±10 years) underwent EBCT imaging for coronary calcifications expressed as the coronary calcium score (CCS according to Agatston) and rest/adenosine-stress nitrogen-13 ammonia PET with quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). The mean CCS was 237±256 (median 146, range 0-915). The CCS was 100 units in 13. As defined by age-related thresholds, 15 subjects had an increased CCS (>75th percentile). Overall mean resting and stress MBF and CFR were 71±16 ml 100 g -1 min -1 , 218±54 ml 100 g -1 min -1 and 3.20±0.77, respectively. Three subjects with CCS ranging from 114 to 451 units had an abnormal CFR (<2.5). There was no relation between CCS and resting or stress MBF or CFR (r=0.17, 0.18 and 0.10, respectively). In asymptomatic subjects a pathological CCS was five times more prevalent than an abnormal CFR. The absence of any close relationship between CCS and CFR reflects the fact that quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging with PET characterises the dynamic process of vascular reactivity while EBCT is a measure of more stable calcified lesions in the arterial wall whose presence is closely related to age. (orig.)

  4. Rest period duration of the coronary arteries: Implications for magnetic resonance coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shechter, Guy; Resar, Jon R.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography coronary imaging is susceptible to artifacts caused by motion of the heart. The presence of rest periods during the cardiac and respiratory cycles suggests that images free of motion artifacts could be acquired. In this paper, we studied the rest period (RP) duration of the coronary arteries during a cardiac contraction and a tidal respiratory cycle. We also studied whether three MR motion correction methods could be used to increase the respiratory RP duration. Free breathing x-ray coronary angiograms were acquired in ten patients. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the coronary arteries was reconstructed from a biplane acquisition using stereo reconstruction methods. The 3D motion of the arterial model was then recovered using an automatic motion tracking algorithm. The motion field was then decomposed into separate cardiac and respiratory components using a cardiac respiratory parametric model. For the proximal-to-middle segments of the right coronary artery (RCA), a cardiac RP (<1 mm 3D displacement) of 76±34 ms was measured at end systole (ES), and 65±42 ms in mid-diastole (MD). The cardiac RP was 80±25 ms at ES and 112±42 ms at MD for the proximal 5 cm of the left coronary tree. At end expiration, the respiratory RP (in percent of the respiratory period) was 26±8% for the RCA and 27±17% for the left coronary tree. Left coronary respiratory RP (<0.5 mm 3D displacement) increased with translation (32% of the respiratory period), rigid body (51%), and affine (79%) motion correction. The RCA respiratory RP using translational (27%) and rigid body (33%) motion correction were not statistically different from each other. Measurements of the cardiac and respiratory rest periods will improve our understanding of the temporal and spatial resolution constraints for coronary imaging

  5. Indications for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.

    1985-01-01

    Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Optimal timing of coronary invasive strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Gurbel, Paul A; Andreotti, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations.......The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations....

  7. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  8. First insight into the genotypic diversity of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Gansu Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in China have indicated a significant regional distribution. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Gansu, which has a special geographic location in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 467 clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Gansu Province were genotyped by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The results showed that 445 isolates belonged to six known spoligotype lineages, whereas 22 isolates were unknown. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent (87.58%, n = 409, while the shared type 1 was the dominant genotype (80.94%, n = 378. The second most common lineage was the T lineage, with 25 isolates (5.35%, followed by the H lineage with 5 isolates (1.07%, the MANU family (0.64%, 3 isolates, the U family (0.43%, 2 isolates and the CAS lineage with 1 isolate (0.21%. By using the VNTR15China method, we observed 15 groups and 228 genotypes among the 467 isolates. We found no association between the five larger groups (including the Beijing genotype and sex, age, or treatment status, and there was no noticeable difference in the group analysis in different areas. In the present study, seven of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Beijing genotype is the predominant genotype in Gansu province. We confirm that VNTR15China is suitable for typing Beijing strains in China and that it has a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping. Therefore, the use of both methods is the most suitable for genotyping analysis of M. tuberculosis.

  9. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  10. Model of the coronary circulation based on pressure dependence of coronary resistance and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, P.; Arts, T.; Dankelman, J.; Spaan, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pressure-dependent changes in vascular volume, resistance and capacitance in the coronary micro-circulation, has been studied by a distributed mathematical model of the coronary micro-vasculature in the left ventricular wall. The model does not include regulation of coronary blood flow

  11. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  12. Subclinical Coronary Plaque Burden in Asymptomatic Relatives of Patients With Documented Premature Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    Introduction: A family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a well-known risk factor for adverse coronary events with age of onset being inversely related to the degree of heritability. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that asymptomatic first degree relatives, of patients with premature...... CAD, suffer a high burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: First degree relatives, aged 30-65 years, of patients with a documented coronary revascularization procedure before the age of 40 years, were invited to participate in the study. Participants were matched by age, sex...... and absence of a family history, with patients referred for coronary CT angiography (CTA) because of atypical angina or non-anginal chest pain. A pooled blinded analysis was performed. The main outcome measure was the number of plaque-affected coronary segments. Results: 88 relatives and 88 symptomatic...

  13. Instrument for assessing coronary symptoms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Rosa Castañeda Valencia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design and validate an instrument for assessing the symptoms in women with coronary disease framed in the Theory of the Unpleasant Symptoms. Methodology: Methodological, psychometric study oriented by The symptoms, first concept of the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms by Lenz et al. Theoretical critique of the construct chosen was performed proving usefulness in research and practice discipline. From the empirical, 260 evidences were weighted through methodological and empirical critique, applying the Integrative Review System articulated to the Empirical Conceptual Model by Fawcett Garity. Only 30 research pieces were obtained, used for the construction of the items. To the Lenz symptoms were added the reported psychosocial symptoms in women with coronary disease, generating a first design composed of 87 items. Results:The design was done by experts Content Validation with the Escobar and Cuervo Model 2008 (statistical analysis spss, 20 with Kendall Correlation Coefficient k = 0.682 (p ; 0.05 with good agreement between judges. Lawshe Model normalized by Tristán 2008 reported a Content Validity Ratio = 0.57 and Content Validity Index = 0.797, showing that items are units of essential analysis. Finally, Validation Facial made by means of the pilot test, conducted on 21 women who met the inclusion criteria, allowed the discrimination semiotics of items, obtaining an instrument consisting of 67 items.  Conclusions:This is a remnant of research that requires further validation to increase its psychometric capacity.

  14. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  15. The Angio-Seal™ femoral closure device allows immediate ambulation after coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Jeger, Raban; Osterwalder, Remo

    2011-01-01

    To test the safety of immediate mobilisation of patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) closed with Angio-Seal™ -a femoral vascular closure device.......To test the safety of immediate mobilisation of patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) closed with Angio-Seal™ -a femoral vascular closure device....

  16. Optimization of coronary attenuation in coronary computed tomography angiography using diluted contrast material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Naoto; Kurata, Akira; Kido, Teruhito; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Kido, Tomoyuki; Miyagawa, Masao; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a personalized protocol with diluted contrast material (CM) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). One hundred patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent retrospective electrocardiogram-gated coronary CTA on a 256-slice multidetector-row CT scanner. In the diluted CM protocol (n=50), the optimal scan timing and CM dilution rate were determined by the timing bolus scan, with 20% CM dilution (5ml/s during 10s) being considered suitable to achieve the target arterial attenuation of 350 Hounsfield units (HU). In the body weight (BW)-adjusted protocol (n=50, 222mg iodine/kg), only the optimal scan timing was determined by the timing bolus scan. The injection rate and volume in the timing bolus scan and real scan were identical between the 2 protocols. We compared the means and variations in coronary attenuation between the 2 protocols. Coronary attenuation (mean±SD) in the diluted CM and BW-adjusted protocols was 346.1±23.9 HU and 298.8±45.2 HU, respectively. The diluted CM protocol provided significantly higher coronary attenuation and lower variance than did the BW-adjusted protocol (P<0.05, in each). The diluted CM protocol facilitates more uniform attenuation on coronary CTA in comparison with the BW-adjusted protocol.  

  17. Presurgical levels of circulating cell-derived microparticles discriminate between patients with and without transfusion in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jy, Wenche; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Salerno, Tomas A; Panos, Anthony L; Williams, Donald; Horstman, Lawrence L; Ahn, Yeon S

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of presurgical risk factors for transfusions will lead to reduction in their number and related complications. The goal of this study is to identify these factors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Presented herein are results of analyses of data from an ongoing study of transfusion in CABG surgery. Of 122 patients, 81 received transfusion (Tx) and 41 did not (NoTx). In addition to routine tests, presurgical levels of microparticles from platelets (PMPs), red cells (RMPs), and other lineages were assayed. The Tx and NoTx groups were similar with respect to most presurgical variables but differed in distribution of gender, blood type, diabetes prevalence, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), hemoglobin (HGB), and microparticle levels. Stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate presurgical variables and to develop a model to assess risk factors for transfusion. CD41(+) PMP and CD235(+) RMP levels were found to be the main risk factors for transfusion. The Model's discriminating ability was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, which showed that the area under the model curve (± standard error) was 0.86 ± 0.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.94). According to the model, patients with higher presurgical levels of circulating CD41(+) PMP, CD235a(+) RMP, and HGB, as well as a shorter aPTT, are less likely to receive transfusion(s). Presurgical levels of CD41(+) PMPs and CD235a(+) RMPs are the main risk factors for transfusion in CABG, followed by HGB and aPTT. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Barszcz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch, type II (12 animals, 26%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch, type III (11 animals, 23%-triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch. The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat.

  19. Coronary heart disease risk assessment and characterization of coronary artery disease using coronary CT angiography: comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Kim, Y.; Chung, I.-M.; Ryu, J.; Park, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and assess plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and ninety consecutive patients [asymptomatic group, n = 138; symptomatic group (atypical or non-anginal chest pain), n = 252] were retrospectively enrolled. They were subsequently classified into three CHD risk categories, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, and 10 year risks of coronary events were calculated using Framingham risk score. CT was evaluated for stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary calcium scores. Results: CAD was observed in 42% of the asymptomatic group and 62% of the symptomatic group. In the former, the prevalence of CAD in low-, moderate- and high-risk subgroups was 21.4, 47.4 and 65%, respectively, and was 33.3, 74.4, and 72.4% in the symptomatic group. Framingham 10-year risks of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than in normal participants, and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that discriminatory power was poor in the asymptomatic group and symptomatic men, and good in symptomatic women. Of the participants in the asymptomatic group, 12% exhibited only non-calcified plaques and of the symptomatic group, 7% exhibited only non-calcified plaques. The coronary calcium score was significantly higher for significant stenosis than for non-significant stenosis in both groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD was not negligible even in subgroups with low-to-moderate CHD risk. Additionally, the Framingham risk score was effective for predicting CAD only in symptomatic women. Coronary calcium scores correlated with significant stenosis; however, a sizeable percentage of both groups had only non-calcified plaques.

  20. Coronary artery calcification in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, T.; Shimazaki, S.; Akimoto, K.; Park, I.; Nishimoto, K.; Yabuta, K.; Tanaka, A.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the angiographic features of coronary lesions in Kawasaki disease with coronary artery calcification, cinefluoroscopy and cineangiography were retrospectively reviewed in 116 patients who had undergone coronary angiography between 1982 and 1989. Angiographic abnormalities of coronary arteries were demonstrated in 55 of 116 patients. In 5 (9.1%) of the 55 patients, 9 with calcification were identified by cinefluoroscopy and chest X-ray. Eight of the 9 calcified lesions showed a circular or ring-shape configuration. Coronary angiography revealed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery with collateral circulation from the distal left coronary artery in 2 patients and a severe stenosis of the right coronary artery in 2 patients, in whom anticoagulant therapy had not been continued during the follow-up periods. The remaining patient in whom anticoagulant therapy had been continued had bilateral aneurysms but no significant stenosis. These results indicate that a ring-shape calcification on chest X-ray in 2 patients with a history of Kawasaki disease may suggest an involvement by coronary artery stenosis even when anticoagulant drugs had been given. Therefore, coronary angiography should be performed to evaluate the stenotic lesions if this type of calcification is found by routine radiographic examination. (orig.)

  1. Association of a transforming growth factor-β1 polymorphism with acute coronary syndrome in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y N; Zhao, B; Li, X M; Xie, X; Liu, F; Chen, B D

    2014-04-03

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a complex multifactorial and polygenic disorder that is thought to result from the interaction between an individual's genetic makeup and various environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) polymorphism (-509C>T) with ACS in a Chinese Han population. The TGF-β1 polymorphism was evaluated in 336 patients with ACS and 396 healthy control subjects by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype distributions of the control and ACS groups were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X(2) = 3.54 and X(2) = 1.72, respectively, P > 0.05). The frequencies of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 22.61, 53.57, and 20.83% in the ACS group, respectively, whereas they were 8.33, 48.74, and 42.17% in controls. There were significant differences between controls and ACS patients in the frequencies of the CC genotype and the C allele. These results suggest that the promoter polymorphism (-509C>T) in TGF-β1 is associated with ACS in this population. The CC genotype and the C allele of TGF-β1 might be a specific risk factor of ACS in the Chinese Han population in Xinjiang.

  2. Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years......), and to characterize and quantify subclinical atherosclerosis in their relatives. Furthermore, the aim was to explore the impact of common genetic risk variants on the age of onset, familial clustering and disease severity. In study I, 143 patients with early- onset CAD were recruited from the Western Denmark Heart...... Registry and risk factor control was evaluated. The study revealed that risk factors are common in early-onset CAD and that a large room for risk factor improvement remains. In study II, we used coronary computed tomography angiography to compare the coronary plaque burden and characteristics between 88...

  3. Effects of grown origin, genotype, harvest year, and their interactions of wheat kernels on near infrared spectral fingerprints for geographical traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of origin, genotype, harvest year, and their interactions on wheat near infrared (NIR) spectra were studied to find the reasons for differences in NIR fingerprints of wheat from different geographical origins and the stability of NIR fingerprints among different years. Ten varieties were grown in three regions of China for 2 years. 180 kernel samples were analysed by NIR. The spectra after pre-treatment were analysed by principal component analysis, multi-way analysis of variance, and discriminant partial least-squares. The results showed that origin, genotype, year, and their interactions all had significant effects on wheat NIR fingerprints. The second overtones of N-H and C-H stretching vibrations and a combination of stretch and deformation of C-H group in wheat were mainly influenced by the geographical origin. The wavelength ranges 975-990 nm, 1200 nm, and 1355-1380 nm contained plenty of origin information to build robust discriminant models of wheat geographical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography with 64-Channel Multidetector Computed Tomography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulimoen, G. R.; Gjoennaess, E.; Atar, D.; Dahl, T.; Stranden, E.; Sandbaek, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Dept. of Vascular Diagnosis and Research, and Division of Cardiology, Aker Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-12-15

    Background: Advances in computer tomography (CT) imaging technology in recent years have facilitated the possibility of noninvasive coronary angiography. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with conventional invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for the detection of significant coronary stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and Methods: MDCT was performed in 60 patients classified with non-ST-elevation infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina and scheduled for ICA within 3 days. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT was evaluated using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as the gold standard. Results: 48 out of 60 patients had interpretable scans by both MDCT and ICA. On a segment-based analysis, 488 out of 665 segments with a diameter of =1.5 mm, as defined by QCA, were interpretable by MDCT. Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 47%, and negative predictive value 97% in detecting and excluding significant coronary stenosis, as defined with MDCT. On a per patient-based analysis, sensitivity was 89%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 84%, and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: Limited diagnostic accuracy restricts the usefulness of coronary MDCT in patient groups with a high pretest probability of disease, such as in acute coronary syndrome.

  5. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography with 64-Channel Multidetector Computed Tomography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulimoen, G. R.; Gjoennaess, E.; Atar, D.; Dahl, T.; Stranden, E.; Sandbaek, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Advances in computer tomography (CT) imaging technology in recent years have facilitated the possibility of noninvasive coronary angiography. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with conventional invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for the detection of significant coronary stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and Methods: MDCT was performed in 60 patients classified with non-ST-elevation infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina and scheduled for ICA within 3 days. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT was evaluated using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as the gold standard. Results: 48 out of 60 patients had interpretable scans by both MDCT and ICA. On a segment-based analysis, 488 out of 665 segments with a diameter of =1.5 mm, as defined by QCA, were interpretable by MDCT. Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 47%, and negative predictive value 97% in detecting and excluding significant coronary stenosis, as defined with MDCT. On a per patient-based analysis, sensitivity was 89%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 84%, and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: Limited diagnostic accuracy restricts the usefulness of coronary MDCT in patient groups with a high pretest probability of disease, such as in acute coronary syndrome

  6. Aneurysmal coronary artery disease: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElGuindy, Mohamed S.

    Aneurysmal coronary artery disease (ACAD) comprises both coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) and coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The reported prevalence of ACAD varies widely from 0.2 to 10%, with male predominance and a predilection for the right coronary artery (RCA). Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ACAD in adults, while Kawasaki disease is the commonest cause in children and adolescents, as well as in the Far East. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms do exist, they are usually related to myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography is the mainstay of diagnosis, but follow up is best achieved using noninvasive imaging that does not involve exposure to radiation. The optimal management strategy in patients with ACAD remains controversial. Medical therapy is indicated for the vast majority of patients and includes antiplatelets and/or anticoagulants. Covered stents effectively limit further expansion of the affected coronary segments. Surgical ligation, resection, and coronary artery bypass grafting are appropriate for large lesions and for associated obstructive coronary artery disease. PMID:29564347

  7. Features of Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in Yersinia pestis and the Development of a Hierarchical Genotyping Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    Full Text Available Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs that are widely distributed in the genome of Yersinia pestis proved to be useful markers for the genotyping and source-tracing of this notorious pathogen. In this study, we probed into the features of VNTRs in the Y. pestis genome and developed a simple hierarchical genotyping system based on optimized VNTR loci.Capillary electrophoresis was used in this study for multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA in 956 Y. pestis strains. The general features and genetic diversities of 88 VNTR loci in Y. pestis were analyzed with BioNumerics, and a "14+12" loci-based hierarchical genotyping system, which is compatible with single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenic analysis, was established.Appropriate selection of target loci reduces the impact of homoplasies caused by the rapid mutation rates of VNTR loci. The optimized "14+12" loci are highly discriminative in genotyping and source-tracing Y. pestis for molecular epidemiological or microbial forensic investigations with less time and lower cost. An MLVA genotyping datasets of representative strains will improve future research on the source-tracing and microevolution of Y. pestis.

  8. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  9. PARP-1 Variant Rs1136410 Confers Protection against Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Han Population: A Two-Stage Case-Control Study Involving 5643 Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-bin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP may protect against coronary artery disease (CAD in animal models, and rs1136410, a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in PARP-1, has a potential impact on PARP activities in vitro. This two-stage case-control study, involving 2803 CAD patients and 2840 controls, aimed to investigate the associations of PARP-1 rs1136410 with CAD development, lipid levels, PARP activities, 8-hydroxy-2′-dexyguanosine (8-OHdG, and interleukin (IL-6 levels in a Chinese Han population. Assuming a recessive model, the variant genotype GG of SNP rs1136410 showed a significantly inverse association with CAD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.73, P < 0.001, left main coronary artery (LMCA lesions (P = 0.003, vessel scores (P = 0.003, and modified Gensini scores (P < 0.001. There were significant correlations of SNP rs1136410 with higher levels of total cholesterol (TC and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c. In gene-environment interaction analyses, participants with the variant genotype GG, but without smoking habit, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, conferred an 84% (P < 0.001 decreased risk of CAD. The genotype-phenotype correlation analyses further supported the functional roles of SNP rs1136410 in decreasing PARP activities and 8-OHdG levels. Taken together, our data suggest that SNP rs1136410 may confer protection against CAD through modulation of PARP activities and gene-environment interactions in a Chinese Han population.

  10. Nuclear cardiology and coronary surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, R.; Andersen, L.I.; Hesse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rising age, repeated percutaneous coronary revascularizations, and co-morbidity such as overweight, diabetes, and hypertension, characterize a change over the last 20-30 years in coronary patients referred to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This patient group represents a great part of to...

  11. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Mai NT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, some reports indicated that VNTR typing may be less suitable for Beijing genotype isolates. We therefore compared the performance of internationally standardized RFLP and 24 loci VNTR typing to discriminate among 100 Beijing genotype isolates from the Southern Vietnam. Methods Hundred Beijing genotype strains defined by spoligotyping were randomly selected and typed by RFLP and VNTR typing. The discriminatory power of VNTR and RFLP typing was compared using the Bionumerics software. Results Among 95 Beijing strains available for analysis, 14 clusters were identified comprising 34 strains and 61 unique profiles in 24 loci VNTR typing ((Hunter Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI = 0.994. 13 clusters containing 31 strains and 64 unique patterns in RFLP typing (HGDI = 0.994 were found. Nine RFLP clusters were subdivided by VNTR typing and 12 VNTR clusters were split by RFLP. Five isolates (5% revealing double alleles or no signal in two or more loci in VNTR typing could not be analyzed. Conclusions Overall, 24 loci VNTR typing and RFLP typing had similar high-level of discrimination among 95 Beijing strains from Southern Vietnam. However, loci VNTR 154, VNTR 2461 and VNTR 3171 had hardly added any value to the level of discrimination.

  12. Role of cytochrome P450 genotype in the steps toward personalized drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallari LH

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Larisa H Cavallari1,2, Hyunyoung Jeong1,2, Adam Bress11Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Genetic polymorphism for cytochrome 450 (P450 enzymes leads to interindividual variability in the plasma concentrations of many drugs. In some cases, P450 genotype results in decreased enzyme activity and an increased risk for adverse drug effects. For example, individuals with the CYP2D6 loss-of-function genotype are at increased risk for ventricular arrhythmia if treated with usual does of thioridazine. In other cases, P450 genotype may influence the dose of a drug required to achieve a desired effect. This is the case with warfarin, with lower doses often necessary in carriers of a variant CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele to avoid supratherapeutic anticoagulation. When a prodrug, such as clopidogrel or codeine, must undergo hepatic biotransformation to its active form, a loss-of-function P450 genotype leads to reduced concentrations of the active drug and decreased drug efficacy. In contrast, patients with multiple CYP2D6 gene copies are at risk for opioid-related toxicity if treated with usual doses of codeine-containing analgesics. At least 25 drugs contain information in their US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling regarding P450 genotype. The CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genes are the P450 genes most often cited. To date, integration of P450 genetic information into clinical decision making is limited. However, some institutions are beginning to embrace routine P450 genotyping to assist in the treatment of their patients. Genotyping for P450 variants may carry less risk for discrimination compared with genotyping for disease-associated variants. As such, P450 genotyping is likely to lead the way in the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. This review discusses variability in the CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genes and the

  13. Frequency and importance of radiologically visible coronary scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, B.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of radiologically visible coronary sceleroses for an early diagnosing of coronary heart disease was investigated. In 3 mixed collectives of patients with and without coronary heart diseases who had had a coronary angiography were examined retrospectively for coronary sclerosis (group I: standard films, group II: old X-ray findings, group III: fluoroscopy before beginning coronary angiography). In the retrospective evaluation, the sensitivity to the recognition of coronary heart disease was low. With prospective examination by means of fluoroscopy, coronary calcification could be proven in 37.66% of the patients with coronary diseases (sensitivity); the specificity (no coronary calcification in persons without coronary disease) was 99%. The duration and extent of a calcification do not show a definite influence on the severity of the disease. Several coronary scleroses in one or several vessels mostly indicate a vascular disease. Coronary scleroses are not necessarily located in the same point as coronary stenoses: in 85.5% of the patients with coronary sclerosis of the left truncus, haemodynamically important stenoses were found only in following vascular regions. Considering the high specificity of coronary scleroses in the fluoroscopic picture and the high sensitivity under favourable conditions, this method seems to be suitable as a screening method for early recognition of coronary heart diseases in the asymptomatic stage. A proven coronary sclerosis should in any case be the cause for continuing the search for a coronary heart disease. The radiation exposure during fluoroscopy of coronary sclerosis is low if the adjustment is correct, it takes little time, the patient is not put to discomfort. (orig./MG) [de

  14. THE PLURAL LESION CORONARY AND CYTOKINES DISBALANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

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    Martynov AV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the levels of the main pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with ischemic heart disease, and the study of the possible impact of persistent herpes virus infection plural lesion coronary arteries. A total of 57 patients (mean age 49,3 ± 3,7 years IHD s hemodynamically significant stenoses of the coronary vessels. Conducted virological examination, including the definition of hypertension HSV1, HSV2, HHV6, SMV, VZV and VEB immunofluorescent and cytokines ІL-1β, ІL-6 ІL-8, TNF by ELISA in serum. Found increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines ІL-1β, ІL-6 and FNPα of IHD patients who had hemodynamically significant stenoses of coronary vessels. ІL-6 level in patients with 2 or more significant coronary artery lesions exceeded the rate of patients with a damaged coronary artery in 1.67 TNFα, ІL-8 - 1.37 ІL-1β and 1.28 times respectively. In patients with plural coronary vascular damage was the most common combination of CMV, VEB and HHV6. Since CMV was detected in more than 60% of patients with injuries of two spacecraft and nearly 76% from three spacecraft, VEB was detected in 72% and 88%, respectively.

  15. A rare anomaly: Double right coronary artery

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    Dursun Çayan Akkoyun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare anomalies. Theseare usually asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally.Double right coronary artery (RCA is a rare coronaryartery anomaly. Although there is controversy aboutidentification and classification of double RCA, it is oftena benign condition, but it can be complicated by atherosclerosisand can lead to serious conditions such asmyocardial infarction (MI and may be accompanied byother anomalies. In our case, double RCA were detectedin coronary angiography for acute anterior MI, and in thenext session successful percutaneous coronary interventionwas performed.Key words: Coronary anomaly, coronary angiography,coronary stenosis

  16. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass grafting in treatment of unprotected left main stenosis (NOBLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkikallio, Timo; Holm, Niels R; Lindsay, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the standard treatment for revascularisation in patients with left main coronary artery disease, but use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for this indication is increasing. We aimed to compare PCI and CABG for treatment of left main...... coronary artery disease. Methods In this prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, patients with left main coronary artery disease were enrolled in 36 centres in northern Europe and randomised 1: 1 to treatment with PCI or CABG. Eligible patients had stable angina pectoris, unstable......, and 5% versus 2% (2 . 25, 0 . 93-5 . 48, p= 0 . 073) for stroke. Interpretation The findings of this study suggest that CABG might be better than PCI for treatment of left main stem coronary artery disease....

  17. Single left coronary ostium and an anomalous prepulmonic right coronary artery in 2 dogs with congenital pulmonary valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Lance C; Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E

    2013-06-01

    A coronary artery anomaly characterized by the presence of a single left coronary ostium with absence of the right coronary ostium and an anomalous prepulmonic right coronary artery course was observed in two dogs with concurrent congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. This unique coronary artery anatomy is similar to the previously described single right coronary ostium with anomalous prepulmonic left coronary artery, the so-called type R2A anomaly, in that an anomalous coronary artery encircles the pulmonary valve annulus. Both dogs of this report, a boxer and an English bulldog, were of breeds known to be at risk for the type R2A anomaly. As such, veterinarians should be aware that the echocardiographic presence of a left coronary ostium in a dog with pulmonary valve stenosis does not exclude the possibility of a prepulmonic coronary artery anomaly that may enhance the risk of complications during balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. A descriptive naming convention for coronary artery anomalies in dogs is also presented, which may be preferable to the older coding classification scheme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antithrombotic strategies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son V Pham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Son V Pham1, Phuong-Chi T Pham2, Phuong-Mai T Pham3, Jeffrey M Miller4, Phuong-Thu T Pham5, Phuong-Anh T Pham61Bay Pines VA Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Bay Pines, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Greater Los Angeles VA Medical Center, 4Department of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology Division, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, 5Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 6Mercy General Hospital, Heart and Vascular Institute, Department of Cardiology, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, both periprocedural acute myocardial infarction and bleeding complications have been shown to be associated with early and late mortality. Current standard antithrombotic therapy after coronary stent implantation consists of lifelong aspirin and clopidogrel for a variable period depending in part on the stent type. Despite its well-established efficacy in reducing cardiac-related death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is not without shortcomings. While clopidogrel may be of little beneficial effect if administered immediately prior to PCI and may even increase major bleeding risk if coronary artery bypass grafting is anticipated, early discontinuation of the drug may result in insufficient antiplatelet coverage with thrombotic complications. Optimal and rapid inhibition of platelet activity to suppress ischemic and thrombotic events while minimizing bleeding complications is an important therapeutic goal in the management of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. In this article we present an overview of the literature on clinical trials evaluating the different aspects of antithrombotic therapy in patients

  19. Coronary arterio-venous fistula associated acute coronary syndrome: A case-report and review of literature

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    V.H. Contreras-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman with no medical history presented to the emergency department complaining of oppressive chest pain of three hours of duration triggered by walking. An electrocardiogram (ECG performed at hospital admission showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in left precordial and inferior leads. Serum troponin I levels were above the normal values. Non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS was diagnosed and an invasive approach with a percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. No obstructive coronary lesions were observed. However a tortuous coronary fistula emerging from the left-anterior descending coronary artery to the pulmonary artery was observed. Coronary arterio-venous fistulas are present in 0.002% of the general population and in 0.25% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for any cause. Most of them are asymptomatic. Ischemic symptoms may develop but are infrequent in patients with no atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Persistence of recruitable coronary collaterals in the absence of coronary vasospasm in a patient with variant angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakashima, Yasuhide

    1998-01-01

    Recruitable coronary collaterals may appear when spasm suddenly occludes the coronary artery. We report a patient with variant angina who had visible collateral vessels on a control coronary angiogram, despite the presence of normally appearing coronary arteries. These collaterals disappeared after intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin. These findings suggest that recruitable collateral vessels can remain patent long after spontaneous attacks of angina have resolved, and become visible when there is a pressure difference between two small coronary arteries.

  1. Persistence of Recruitable Coronary Collaterals in the Absence of Coronary Vasospasm in a Patient with Variant Angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakashima, Yasuhide

    1998-01-01

    Recruitable coronary collaterals may appear when spasm suddenly occludes the coronary artery. We report a patient with variant angina who had visible collateral vessels on a control coronary angiogram, despite the presence of normally appearing coronary arteries. These collaterals disappeared after intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin. These findings suggest that recruitable collateral vessels can remain patent long after spontaneous attacks of angina have resolved, and become visible when there is a pressure difference between two small coronary arteries

  2. Evaluation of hemodynamic significance of coronary fistulae. Diagnostic integration between coronary angiography and stress/rest myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, G.; Sebastiani, M.

    2000-01-01

    It is here reported on the importance of the integration of data obtained from digital coronary angiography and stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography in evaluationing the hemodynamic significance of coronary arteriovenous fistulae. Coronary fistulae were detected with coronary angiography in 9 patients. All patients underwent clinical examination, trans thoracic echocardiography, stress electrocardiogram and stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography. Stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon tomography and stress electrocardiogram showed stress-induced myocardial ischemia in 2 patients. The first patient with familial predisposition and risk factors for ischemic heart disease presented a mesocardic heart murmur on clinical examination. At stress ECG (125 Watt, 153 b/m max frequency 93%, arterial pressure 230 mmHg, max frequency pressure product 35200) ischemic alterations were recorded at the first minute of the second stage of the Bruce protocol. Coronary angiography detected a circumflex artery fistula in the coronary sinus. Stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography for the evaluation of stress/rest perfusion detected a reversible perfusion defect of the proximal portion of the posterolateral and lateral walls, thus confirming the hemodynamic importance of the flow through the fistula during stress cycloergometric testing. In the second patient familial predisposition to ischemic heart disease and previous inferior wall myocardial infarction and non-significant stress ECG, coronary angiography identified a seclusive stenosis of the right coronary artery and anomaly between the anterior interventricular artery and the left pulmonary artery. The presence of the contrast medium in the left pulmonary artery identified a flow from the left ventricle to the left pulmonary artery. Good angiographic results were obtained

  3. Chemical compounds related to nutraceutical and industrial qualities of non-transgenic soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Dardanelli, Julio L; Soldini, Diego O

    2014-05-01

    Information about the chemical profile of soybean seed is valuable for breeding programs aimed at obtaining value-added products to meet the demands of niche markets. The objective of this study was to determine seed composition of non-transgenic soybean genotypes with specialty characters in different environments of Argentina. Protein and oil contents ranged from 396 to 424 g kg⁻¹ and from 210 to 226 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Oleic and linolenic acid ratio, the general indicator of oil quality, varied from 2.7 to 3.8. The oil contained high levels of total tocopherols (1429-1558 mg kg⁻¹) and the meal exhibited high levels of total isoflavones (2.91-4.62 mg g⁻¹). The biplot showed that oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols, genistin, malonyl daidzin and genistin, acetyl daidzin and glycitin and total isoflavones allowed the greatest discrimination among the genotypes studied. Different chemical profiles of each non-transgenic genotype analyzed were established and, therefore, their identity was defined. These results are important for breeders who intend to obtain new genotypes with improved meal and oil quality, as well as for processors and exporters, who could use them directly as raw material for soyfood processing for nutraceutical purposes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Chevli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50 and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement.

  5. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events.We conducted a case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies. Baseline RANTES serum levels were measured in 363 individuals with incident coronary events and 1,908 non-cases (mean follow-up: 10.2±4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, metabolic factors and lifestyle factors revealed no significant association between RANTES and incident coronary events (HR [95% CI] for increasing RANTES tertiles 1.0, 1.03 [0.75-1.42] and 1.11 [0.81-1.54]. None of six CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and no common haplotype showed significant associations with coronary events. Also in the CARDIoGRAM study (>22,000 cases, >60,000 controls, none of these CCL5 SNPs was significantly associated with coronary artery disease. In the prospective Athero-Express biobank study, RANTES plaque levels were measured in 606 atherosclerotic lesions from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. RANTES content in atherosclerotic plaques was positively associated with macrophage infiltration and inversely associated with plaque calcification. However, there was no significant association between RANTES content in plaques and risk for coronary events (mean follow-up 2.8±0.8 years.High RANTES plaque levels were associated with an unstable plaque phenotype. However, the absence of associations between (i RANTES serum levels, (ii CCL5 genotypes and (iii RANTES content in carotid plaques and either coronary artery disease or incident coronary events in our cohorts suggests that RANTES may not be a

  6. "HOOF-Print" Genotyping and Haplotype Inference Discriminates among Brucella spp Isolates From a Small Spatial Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate that the “HOOF-Print” assay provides high power to discriminate among Brucella isolates collected on a small spatial scale (within Portugal). Additionally, we illustrate how haplotype identification using non-random association among markers allows resolution of B. melitensis biovars ...

  7. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Janeczek, Maciej; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Dzierzęcka, Małgorzata; Janczyk, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2–18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch), type II (12 animals, 26%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch), type III (11 animals, 23%)–triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch). The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat. PMID:29020103

  8. Lack of a relationship between serum ferritin levels and coronary atherosclerosis evaluated by coronary arteriography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C. Manfroi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the relationship between serum ferritin and ischemic heart disease. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD and serum ferritin levels in patients submitted to coronary arteriography. We evaluated 307 patients (210 (68.7% males; median age: 60 years who were submitted to coronary angiography, measurement of serum ferritin and identification of clinical events of ischemic heart disease. Serum ferritin is reported as quartiles. Ninety-six patients (31.27% had normal coronary angiography (group 1 and 211 (68.73% had coronary heart disease (group 2. Of the patients with CHD, 61 (28.9% had serum ferritin levels higher than 194 ng/ml (4th quartile, as opposed to only 14 (14.58% of those without CHD (P = 0.0067. In the 2nd quartile, 39 patients (18.48% had CHD, while 35 patients (36.46% had normal coronary arteries (P = 0.00064. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.33. We conclude that there is no independent relationship between coronary heart disease and increased levels of serum ferritin.

  9. High-resolution coronary MR angiography for evaluation of patients with anomalous coronary arteries: visualization of the intramural segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chung, Claudia; Chung, Taylor [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Hitt, David M. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kurio, Gregory [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiology, Oakland, CA (United States); Reinhartz, Olaf [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the contralateral coronary sinus is a rare coronary anomaly associated with sudden death. The inter-arterial course is most closely associated with sudden death, but it has been suggested that the presence of an intramural segment of a right anomalous coronary is associated with more symptoms and therefore may be an important criterion for intervention in these patients. To demonstrate that MR angiography can accurately determine the presence or absence of an intramural segment in an anomalous coronary artery. All studies of children who underwent MR angiography for the evaluation of an anomalous coronary artery were retrospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists in consensus. Criteria for an intramural anomalous coronary artery were the presence of a small or slit-like ostium and the relative smaller size of the proximal intramural portion of the coronary artery in relation to the more distal epicardial coronary artery. The anomalous coronary artery was classified as not intramural if these two findings were absent. These findings were correlated with operative reports confirming the presence or absence of an intramural segment. Twelve patients (86%) met MR angiography criteria for the presence of an intramural course. Only 2 patients (14%) met MR angiography criteria for a non-intramural course. When correlating with intraoperative findings, MR angiography was successful in distinguishing between intramural and non-intramural anomalous coronary arteries in all cases (P = 0.01). MR angiography may be able to reliably identify the intramural segment of an anomalous coronary artery in older children using the imaging criteria of a small or slit-like ostium and relative decrease in size of the proximal portion of the anomalous coronary artery compared to the distal portion of the anomalous coronary artery. Determining the presence of the intramural segment may help with surgical planning and may be an important

  10. Association of TLL1 Gene Polymorphism (rs1503298, T > C) with Coronary Heart Disease in PREDICT, UDACS and ED Cohorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, M.; Cooper, J. A.; Li, K. W.; Palmen, J.; Acharya, J.; Howard, P.; Ireland, H.; Humphries, S. E.; Awan, F. R.; Baig, S. M.; Elkeles, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the sequence variant of TLL1 gene (rs1503298, T > C) in three British cohorts (PREDICT, UDACS and ED) of patients with type-2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in order to assess its association with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: UCL, London, UK. Participants were genotyped in 2011-2012 for TLL1 SNP. Samples and related information were previously collected in 2001-2003 for PREDICT, and in 2001-2002 for UDACS and ED groups. Methodology: Patients included in PREDICT (n=600), UDACS (n=1020) and ED (n=1240) had Diabetes. TLL1 SNP (rs1503298, T > C) was genotyped using TaqMan technology. Allele frequencies were compared using c2 test, and tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The risk of disease was assessed from Odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Moreover, for the PREDICT cohort, the SNP association was tested with Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) scores. Results: No significant association was found for this SNP with CHD or CAC scores in these cohorts. Conclusion: This SNP could not be confirmed as a risk factor for CHD in T2DM patients. However, the low power of the small sample size available is a limitation to the modest effect on risk. Further studies in larger samples would be useful. (author)

  11. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs1044925 and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Feng Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to clarify the association between the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1044925 and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD and ischemic stroke (IS in the Guangxi Han population. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to determine the genotypes of the ACAT-1 SNP rs1044925 in 1730 unrelated subjects (CAD, 587; IS, 555; and healthy controls; 588. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs1044925 were significantly different between the CAD patients and controls (p = 0.015 and borderline different between the IS patients and controls (p = 0.05. The AC/CC genotypes and C allele were associated with a decreased risk of CAD and IS (CAD: p = 0.014 for AC/CC vs. AA, p = 0.022 for C vs. A; IS: p = 0.014 for AC/CC vs. AA; p = 0.017 for C vs. A. The AC/CC genotypes in the healthy controls, but not in CAD or IS patients, were associated with an increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration. The present study shows that the C allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 were associated with an increased serum HDL-C level in the healthy controls and decreased risk in CAD and IS patients.

  12. Responses of meristematic callus cells of two Cynodon dactylon genotypes to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgareeb, Sumita; Cooke, John A; Watt, M Paula

    2004-11-01

    Responses to Al3+ of embryogenic callus cells of an Al-sensitive (Al-S) and Al-resistant (Al-R) Cynodon dactylon genotype were evaluated with regard to Al3+ toxicity and resistance. A chemical equilibrium speciation model (MINTEQA2) was used to ensure the availability of the Al3+ ion in culture media, which was supplied as 0.08-2.3 mM Al3+ for 2-8 weeks. Increasing Al3+ concentration and exposure time had a greater negative impact on the Al-S than on the Al-R genotype, in terms of callus growth rate and frequency of non-embryogenic cells. Exposure to 0.8 mM Al3+ for 2 weeks resulted in an 88% reduction in the Al-S meristematic cell number, whereas that of the Al-R genotype remained unaffected. In addition, the Al-S cells accumulated three times more Al in the nucleus than did the Al-R cells, suggesting that Al interfered with mitosis. The Al-R cells appeared to exclude Al3+ from its cells through an increase in extracellular pH (4.34 in Al-R and 4.08 in Al-S) and by the immobilisation of Al in the cell wall (33% more in Al-R). The results showed that by studying the cellular responses to Al3+ it is possible to discriminate between the Al-S and Al-R C. dactylon genotypes.

  13. Carbon isotope discrimination and indirect selection for seed yield in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matus, A.; Slinkard, A.E.; Van Kessel, C.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) has been proposed as a secondary trait to indirectly select for improved seed yield and water-use efficiency. To determine the effectiveness of CID to indirectly select for seed yield, 10 diverse lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) genotypes were grown at four locations in Saskatchewan in 1992 and 1993. Samples were collected for CID determination from leaves at flowering (CIDLF), leaves at maturity (CIDML) and seed at maturity (CIDMS). Variability for CID was present, but no crossover G x E interactions were observed. A significant crossover genotype by sampling date interaction for CID resulted from a change in ranking of genotypes for CIDLF and CIDML. Seed yield was positively correlated with CIDLF and CIDML. The phenotypic correlation between seed yield and CIDLF was 0.82** (df = 8). However, this highly significant relationship was an artifact resulting from the fact that samples for CIDLF were collected for all genotypes on the same day, although PI 244026, an early maturing genotype, flowered about 15 d earlier than the other lentil lines. When PI244026 was removed from the analysis, variability in CID was greatly reduced and the correlation between CIDLF and seed yield approached zero (r = 0.22, df = 7). The correlation between seed yield and CIDML remained positive and significant, but was inconsistent across locations and years. The broad sense heritability for CIDML (0.73 +/- 0.16) was lower than the broad sense heritability for seed yield (0.98 +/- 0.029). These results suggest that under the conditions tested CID should not be used to indirectly select for seed yield in lentil

  14. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Aamir; Steinberg, Daniel H; Buch, Ashesh N; Corso, Paul J; Boyce, Steven W; Pinto Slottow, Tina L; Roy, Probal K; Hill, Peter; Okabe, Teruo; Torguson, Rebecca; Smith, Kimberly A; Xue, Zhenyi; Gevorkian, Natalie; Suddath, William O; Kent, Kenneth M; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2007-09-11

    Advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents have dramatically improved results of these procedures. The optimal treatment for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease is uncertain given the lack of prospective, randomized data reflecting current practice. This study represents a "real-world" evaluation of current technology in the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease. A total of 1680 patients undergoing revascularization for multivessel coronary artery disease were identified. Of these, 1080 patients were treated for 2-vessel disease (196 CABG and 884 PCI) and 600 for 3-vessel disease (505 CABG and 95 PCI). One-year mortality, cerebrovascular events, Q-wave myocardial infarction, target vessel failure, and composite major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were compared between the CABG and PCI cohorts. Outcomes were adjusted for baseline covariates and reported as hazard ratios. The unadjusted major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event rate was reduced with CABG for patients with 2-vessel disease (9.7% CABG versus 21.2% PCI; P<0.001) and 3-vessel disease (10.8% CABG versus 28.4% PCI; P<0.001). Adjusted outcomes showed increased major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event with PCI for patients with 2-vessel (hazard ratio 2.29; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.76; P=0.01) and 3-vessel disease (hazard ratio 2.90; 95% CI 1.76 to 4.78; P<0.001). Adjusted outcomes for the nondiabetic subpopulation demonstrated equivalent major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event with PCI for 2-vessel (hazard ratio 1.77; 95% CI 0.96 to 3.25; P=0.07) and 3-vessel disease (hazard ratio 1.70; 95% CI 0.77 to 3.61; P=0.19). Compared with PCI with drug-eluting stents, CABG resulted in improved major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event in patients with 2- and 3-vessel coronary artery disease, primarily in those with underlying diabetes

  15. Prognosis of non-significant coronary atherosclerotic disease detected by coronary artery tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Siqueira, Bruna Pinto; Guimaraes, Carolina Camargos Braichi; Cruz, David Filipe Silva; Guimaraes, Leiziane Assuncao Alves; Lima, Maicom Marcio Perigolo, E-mail: marciovlbarros@gmail.com [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira [Universidade de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz [Hospital Materdei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Introduction: Although studies have shown high diagnostic accuracy of coronary tomography (CT) in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), data on the prognostic value of this method in patients with no significant coronary obstruction are limited. Objective: To evaluate the value of CT in predicting adverse events in patients with suspected CAD and no significant coronary obstruction. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 440 patients between January 2008 and July 2013 by MDCT, diagnosed with no significant obstruction or no atherosclerotic coronary obstruction with an average follow-up of 33 months. The outcomes evaluated were: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina associated with hospitalization or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results: Of the 440 patients studied, 295 (67%) were men with mean age 55.9 ± 12.0 years. Non-significant obstruction was found in 152 (35%) of the patients and there were 49 (11%) outcomes. In the multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model, the predictors of clinical outcomes were non-significant obstruction on CT (hazard ratio 3.51; 95% CI 1.73 - 7.8; p <0.01), age and hypertension. Non-significant obstruction on CT was associated with adverse clinical outcomes and survival analysis showed a significant difference (log-rank 24.6; p <0.01) in predicting these outcomes. Conclusion: The detection of non-significant atherosclerotic obstruction by CT was associated with the presence of adverse events in patients with suspected CAD, which may prove useful in the risk stratification of these patients. (author)

  16. Anatomical studies of the coronary system in elasmobranchs: II. Coronary arteries in hexanchoid, squaloid, and carcharhinoid sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrés, A V; Muñoz-Chápuli, R; Sans-Coma, V; García-Garrido, L

    1992-07-01

    Coronary artery anatomy was studied in 16 shark species belonging to 9 families of the orders Hexanchiformes, Squaliformes, and Carcharhiniformes. The study included 101 specimens and used an injection-corrosion technique that obtained internal casts of the main trunks and coronary arterial branches. The results showed 2 main patterns of coronary arterial arrangement: the dorsoventral coronary trunk pattern, shared by lamnoid and advanced carcharhinoid sharks, and the lateral coronary trunk pattern, shown by hexanchoid and squaloid sharks. Scyliorhinus and Galeus had intermediate arrangements of their vessels.

  17. Preliminary assessment of AFLP fingerprinting of Rubus glaucus Benth. elite genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Delgado Diana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. is a promissory fruit crop for Colombia with potential to become an international commodity due to its high nutritional and nutraceutical value. Farmer genotypes from the national R. glaucus collection were selected from eight outstanding accessions according to their nutritional and agronomic value, for distribution among local producers. The goal of this work is to evaluate the genomic fingerprint by AFLP analysis of these elite genotypes using three primer combinations. From 179 total amplified loci produced by the three combinations, 20% resulted polymorphic. The EAGG/MCTT combination was the most informative with a 32% polymorphism and greater discrimination power. The genotypes tested showed a high average similarity (96% and the accessions San Antonio and ILS-1863 formed independent groups with good statistical support in the clustering analysis. The remaining accessions did not form discrete groups with good support (<50%, probably due to genetic homogeneity among them and/or low resolving power of markers. This study is one of the first attempts to generate a genomic fingerprint of these farmer elite genotypes for protection, seed certification and future support to breeding programs.

     

  18. Coronary 64-slice CT angiography predicts outcome in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver; Valenta, Ines; Schepis, Tiziano [University Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Husmann, Lars; Scheffel, Hans; Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixty-four-slice coronary CTA was performed in 220 patients [mean age 63 {+-} 11 years, 77 (35%) female] with known or suspected CAD. CTA images were analyzed with regard to the presence and number of coronary lesions. Patients were followed-up for the occurrence of the following clinical endpoints: death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. During a mean follow-up of 14 {+-} 4 months, 59 patients (27%) reached at least one of the predefined clinical endpoints. Patients with abnormal coronary arteries on CTA (i.e., presence of coronary plaques) had a 1st-year event rate of 34%, whereas in patients with normal coronary arteries no events occurred (event rate, 0%, p < 0.001). Similarly, obstructive lesions ({>=}50% luminal narrowing) on CTA were associated with a high first-year event rate (59%) compared to patients without stenoses (3%, p < 0.001). The presence of obstructive lesions was a significant independent predictor of an adverse cardiac outcome. Sixty-four-slice CTA predicts cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD. Conversely, patients with normal coronary arteries on CTA have an excellent mid-term prognosis. (orig.)

  19. Optical coherence tomography following percutaneous coronary intervention with Excimer laser coronary atherectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, John, E-mail: john.rawlins@doctors.net.uk; Talwar, Suneel; Green, Mark; O’Kane, Peter

    2014-01-15

    The indications for Excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA) have been refined in modern interventional practice. With the expanding role for optical coherence tomography (OCT) providing high-resolution intra-coronary imaging, this article examines the appearance of the coronary lumen after ELCA. Each indication for ELCA is discussed and illustrated with a clinical case, followed by detailed analysis of the OCT imaging pre and post ELCA. The aim of the article is to provide information to interventional cardiologists to facilitate decision making during PCI, when ELCA has been used as part of the interventional strategy.

  20. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coronary Microvascular Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women With Angina Pectoris and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Naja Dam; Michelsen, Marie Mide; Peña, Adam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of women with angina-like chest pain have no obstructive coronary artery disease when evaluated with coronary angiography. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is a possible explanation and associated with a poor prognosis. This study evaluated the prevalence of coronary...... microvascular dysfunction and the association with symptoms, cardiovascular risk factors, psychosocial factors, and results from diagnostic stress testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: After screening 3568 women, 963 women with angina-like chest pain and a diagnostic coronary angiogram without significant coronary.......01), hypertension (P=0.02), current smoking (Ppain characteristics or results from diagnostic stress testing...

  2. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, A.F.; El Said, A.M.; El Maghraby, T.K.; Hassan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokine gene variations are contributory factors in inflammatory pathology. Allele frequencies of Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene intron 2 VNTR were measured in healthy blood donors (healthy control subjects) and patients with angina, myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome(ACS). Patients were classified into three groups: thirty one MI patients, twenty two angina patients and thirteen ACS patients. A1/A2 genotype showed significant resistant factor for angina and myocardial infarction and angina (70.97% vs. 29.03%; p=0.0001, 70.97% vs. 31.82%; p0.0004, respectively). A1/A1 homo zygote was a risk factor in MI and angina (p=0.012; p= 0.0001), Moreover, A1/A3 and A2/A3 heterozygotes were found in MI only (p= 0.025; p= 0.0047, respectively). All genotypes didn't show any effect on ACS patients. In conclusion, the data reflected that A1/A1 homo zygote was considered as a significantly risk factor associated with patients with angina as well as MI patients. But, A1/A2 heterozygote was considered a resistance factor against both diseases.

  3. Prevalence of Congenital Coronary Artery Anomalies and Variants in 2697 Consecutive Patients Using 64-Detector Row Coronary CTAngiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestari, Abbas Arjmand; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Tayebivaljozi, Reza; Fattahi Masrour, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are not common, but could be very serious. This study determines the frequency of coronary anomalies and normal variants by multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT). The results of cardiac MDCT study in 2697 consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. Acquisition was performed by a 64-detector row CT machine. Imaging results were assessed by experienced radiologists. Myocardial bridging was by far the most frequent coronary variant (n = 576, 21.3%). Eighty-three subjects (3.1%) showed other coronary anomalies and variants. Anomalies of origination and course of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) were detected in 1.09% of the subjects. The frequency of these anomalies in the right coronary artery (RCA), left circumflex artery (LCx), left anterior descending artery (LAD), posterior descending artery (PDA) and obtuse marginal (OM) artery were 1.24%, 0.33%, 0.1%, 0.07% and 0.03%, respectively. The single coronary pattern was seen in 0.18% and coronary fistulas in 0.07%. Based on the fact that coronary CT-angiography using MDCT can display different coronary anomalies, this study shows similar results to other reports on the subject. Future advances in the performance of CT machines will further improve the quality of CT-based cardiac imaging

  4. Genotype X/C recombinant (putative genotype I) of hepatitis B virus is rare in Hanoi, Vietnam--genotypes B4 and C1 predominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thi Bich Thuy; Alestig, Erik; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Hannoun, Charles; Lindh, Magnus

    2010-08-01

    There are eight known genotypes of hepatitis B virus, A-H, and several subgenotypes, with rather well-defined geographic distributions. HBV genotypes were evaluated in 153 serum samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. Of the 87 samples that could be genotyped, genotype B was found in 67 (77%) and genotype C in 19 (22%). All genotype C strains were of subgenotype C1, and the majority of genotype B strains were B4, while a few were B2. The genotype X/C recombinant strain, identified previously in Swedish patients of indigenous Vietnamese origin, was found in one sample. This variant, proposed to be classified as genotype I, has been found recently also by others in Vietnam and Laos. The current study indicates that the genotype X/C recombinant may represent approximately 1% of the HBV strains circulating in Vietnam. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Genotyping and Molecular Identification of Date Palm Cultivars Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesh, Basim M

    2017-01-01

    Molecular markers are credible for the discrimination of genotypes and estimation of the extent of genetic diversity and relatedness in a set of genotypes. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers rapidly reveal high polymorphic fingerprints and have been used frequently to determine the genetic diversity among date palm cultivars. This chapter describes the application of ISSR markers for genotyping of date palm cultivars. The application involves extraction of genomic DNA from the target cultivars with reliable quality and quantity. Subsequently the extracted DNA serves as a template for amplification of genomic regions flanked by inverted simple sequence repeats using a single primer. The similarity of each pair of samples is measured by calculating the number of mono- and polymorphic bands revealed by gel electrophoresis. Matrices constructed for similarity and genetic distance are used to build a phylogenetic tree and cluster analysis, to determine the molecular relatedness of cultivars. The protocol describes 3 out of 9 tested primers consistently amplified 31 loci in 6 date palm cultivars, with 28 polymorphic loci.

  6. Existence of various human parvovirus B19 genotypes in Chinese plasma pools: genotype 1, genotype 3, putative intergenotypic recombinant variants and new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junting; Ma, Yuyuan; Zhao, Xiong; Huangfu, Chaoji; Zhong, Yadi; Fang, Chi; Fan, Rui; Lv, Maomin; Zhang, Jingang

    2016-09-17

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a frequent contaminant of blood and plasma-derived medicinal products. Three distinct genotypes of B19V have been identified. The distribution of the three B19V genotypes has been investigated in various regions or countries. However, in China, data on the existence of different B19V genotypes are limited. One hundred and eighteen B19V-DNA positive source plasma pool samples collected from three Chinese blood products manufacturers were analyzed. The subgenomic NS1/VP1u region junction of B19V was amplified by nested PCR. These amplified products were then cloned and subsequently sequenced. For genotyping, their phylogenetic inferences were constructed based on the NS1/VP1-unique region. Then putative recombination events were analyzed and identified. Phylogenetic analysis of 118 B19V sequences attributed 61.86 % to genotype 1a, 10.17 % to genotype 1b, and 17.80 % to genotype 3b. All the genotype 3b sequences obtained in this study grouped as a specific, closely related cluster with B19V strain D91.1. Four 1a/3b recombinants and 5 new atypical B19V variants with no recombination events were identified. There were at least 3 subtypes (1a, 1b and 3b) of B19V circulating in China. Furthermore, putative B19V 1a/3b recombinants and unclassified strains were identified as well. Such recombinant and unclassified strains may contribute to the genetic diversity of B19V and consequently complicate the B19V infection diagnosis and NAT screening. Further studies will be required to elucidate the biological significance of the recombinant and unclassified strains.

  7. A Multiplex PCR for the Simultaneous Detection and Genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Prada, Laura; Cucher, Marcela A.; Rosenzvit, Mara C.; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Saarma, Urmas; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1–G10) and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1–G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), and E. canadensis (G6–G10). The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) allowing three levels of discrimination: (i) Echinococcus genus, (ii) E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii) the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20) and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13). The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (Echinococcus genus. PMID:23350011

  8. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Prada, Laura; Cucher, Marcela A; Rosenzvit, Mara C; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Saarma, Urmas; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1-G10) and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), and E. canadensis (G6-G10). The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) allowing three levels of discrimination: (i) Echinococcus genus, (ii) E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii) the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20) and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13). The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (Echinococcus genus.

  9. Use of Sequenom sample ID Plus® SNP genotyping in identification of FFPE tumor samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Miller

    Full Text Available Short tandem repeat (STR analysis, such as the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, is a standard, PCR-based human genotyping method used in the field of forensics. Misidentification of cell line and tissue DNA can be costly if not detected early; therefore it is necessary to have quality control measures such as STR profiling in place. A major issue in large-scale research studies involving archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues is that varying levels of DNA degradation can result in failure to correctly identify samples using STR genotyping. PCR amplification of STRs of several hundred base pairs is not always possible when DNA is degraded. The Sample ID Plus® panel from Sequenom allows for human DNA identification and authentication using SNP genotyping. In comparison to lengthy STR amplicons, this multiplexing PCR assay requires amplification of only 76-139 base pairs, and utilizes 47 SNPs to discriminate between individual samples. In this study, we evaluated both STR and SNP genotyping methods of sample identification, with a focus on paired FFPE tumor/normal DNA samples intended for next-generation sequencing (NGS. The ability to successfully validate the identity of FFPE samples can enable cost savings by reducing rework.

  10. Coronary In-Stent Restenosis: Assessment with Corrected Coronary Opacification Difference across Coronary Stents Measured with CT Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Lu, Bin; Hou, Zhi Hui; Yu, Fang Fang; Yin, Wei Hua; Wang, Zhi Qiang; Wu, Yong Jian; Mu, Chao Wei; Meinel, Felix G; McQuiston, Andrew D; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether changes in coronary opacification normalized to the aorta (corrected coronary opacification [CCO]) across stents can help identify in-stent restenosis (ISR) severity with use of invasive coronary angiography as the standard of reference. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively analyzed 106 patients (88 men, 18 women; mean age, 59.6 years ± 10.4; age range, 36-84 years) who had previously undergone stent implantation within 3 months of coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Attenuation values in the coronary lumen were measured proximal and distal to the stents and normalized to the descending aorta. The CCO difference across the stent was compared with the severity of ISR. One-way analysis of variance least significant difference was used for comparison. A total of 141 stents were assessed. Seventy-six stents were normally patent, 18 had ISR of less than 50%, 28 had ISR of 50%-99%, and 19 were fully occluded. The median CCO differences in the four groups were 0.078, 0.163, 0.346, and 0.606, respectively. There was no significant difference between stents with an ISR of at least 50% and those with total occlusion (P = .056), although the other groups had significant differences at pairwise comparison (P stents smaller than 3 mm in diameter, the median CCO differences in the four groups were 0.086, 0.136, 0.390, and 0.471, respectively. The CCO differences across normal stents and stents with ISR of less than 50% were significantly less than those across stents with an ISR of at least 50% and those with total occlusion (P stents with no ISR and those with an ISR of less than 50% (P = .821) and between stents with an ISR of at least 50% and those with an ISR of 100% (P = .836). The CCO difference across coronary stents is related to ISR severity in obstructive ISR in stents smaller than 3 mm in diameter. © RSNA, 2014.

  11. Coronary tortuosity: a long and winding road.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, E.S.; Meursing, B.T.J.; Oude Ophuis, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Coronary tortuosity is a phenomenon often encountered by cardiologists performing coronary angiography. The aetiology and clinical importance of coronary tortuosity are still unclear. Coronary tortuosity without fixed atherosclerotic stenosis in patients with angina pectoris and an abnormal exercise

  12. Auxetic coronary stent endoprosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal; Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Ansari, Umar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular heart disease is one of the leading health issues in the present era and requires considerable health care resources to prevent it. The present study was focused on the development of a new coronary stent based on novel auxetic geometry which enables the stent to exhibit...... a negative Poisson's ratio. Commercially available coronary stents have isotropic properties, whereas the vascular system of the body shows anisotropic characteristics. This results in a mismatch between anisotropic-isotropic properties of the stent and arterial wall, and this in turn is not favorable...... for mechanical adhesion of the commercially available coronary stents with the arterial wall. It is believed that an auxetic coronary stent with inherent anisotropic mechanical properties and negative Poisson's ratio will have good mechanical adhesion with the arterial wall. METHODS: The auxetic design...

  13. PlA polymorphism and platelet reactivity following clopidogrel loading dose in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernardo, Esther; Alfonso, Fernando; Sabaté, Manel; Fernández, Cristina; Stranieri, Chiara; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Macaya, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The PlA polymorphism (Leu33Pro) of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa gene has been suggested to play an important role in coronary thrombosis. In vitro studies have shown differences for this polymorphism in platelet sensitivity towards antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and abciximab), suggesting a pharmacogenetic modulation. The aim of the study was to assess the modulatory effect of the PlA polymorphism on clopidogrel-induced antiplatelet effects in 38 patients undergoing coronary stent implantation receiving a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose. Platelet reactivity was assessed as GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression in platelets stimulated with 2 micromol/l adenosine diphosphate using whole blood flow cytometry. The distribution of the homozygous PlA1/A1 and heterozygous PlA1/A2 genotypes were 74 and 26%, respectively. PlA2 carriers had a higher degree of GPIIb/IIIa activation (P = 0.05) and P-selectin expression (P = 0.02) during the overall study time course and a lower antiplatelet effect to a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose up to 24 h following intervention (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Pl polymorphism of the GPIIIa gene modulates platelet reactivity towards clopidogrel front loading in patients undergoing coronary stenting. This suggests the need for individualized antithrombotic regimens to optimally inhibit platelet reactivity. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

  14. Clinical perspective of coronary computed tomographic angiography in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik

    2011-01-01

    Since a 4-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was launched in 1998, CCTA has experienced rapid improvement of imaging qualities with the ongoing evolution of computed tomography (CT) technology. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA to detect coronary artery stenosis is well established, whereas improvements are still needed to reduce the overestimation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and assess plaque composition. CCTA has been used to evaluate CAD in various clinical settings. For example, CCTA could be an efficient initial triage tool at emergency departments for patients with acute chest pain with low-to-intermediate risk because of its high negative predictive value. In patients with suspected CAD, CCTA could be a cost-effective alternative to myocardial perfusion imaging and exercise electrocardiogram for the initial coronary evaluation of patients with intermediate pre-test likelihood suspected CAD. However, in asymptomatic populations, there is a lack of studies that show an improved prognostic power of CCTA over other modalities. Therefore, the clinical use of CCTA to detect CAD for purposes of risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals should be discouraged. As CT technology evolves, CCTA will provide better quality coronary imaging and non-coronary information with lower radiation exposure. Future studies should cover these ongoing technical improvements and evaluate the prognostic power of CCTA in various clinical settings of CAD in large, well-designed, randomized trials. (author)

  15. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgolino Helaine A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV isolates have been classified in eight genotypes, A to H, which exhibit distinct geographical distributions. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region. Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns. A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. Results Genotyping by PCR-RFLP of 303 HBV isolates from HBsAg-positive blood donors showed that at least two of the three genotypes, A, D, and F, co-circulate in each of the five geographic regions of Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent (48.5%, and most of these isolates were classified as subgenotype A1 (138/153; 90.2%. Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South (84.2% and Central (47.6% regions. The prevalence of genotype F was low (13% countrywide. Nucleotide sequencing of the S gene and a phylogenetic analysis of 32 HBV genotype F isolates showed that a great majority (28/32; 87.5% belonged to subgenotype F2, cluster II. The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 127. Conclusion The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population. The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 (of African origin indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F

  16. Hemodynamic analysis of sequential graft from right coronary system to left coronary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxin; Mao, Boyan; Wang, Haoran; Geng, Xueying; Zhao, Xi; Zhang, Huixia; Xie, Jinsheng; Zhao, Zhou; Lian, Bo; Liu, Youjun

    2016-12-28

    Sequential and single grafting are two surgical procedures of coronary artery bypass grafting. However, it remains unclear if the sequential graft can be used between the right and left coronary artery system. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the possibility of right coronary artery system anastomosis to left coronary system. A patient-specific 3D model was first reconstructed based on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images. Two different grafts, the normal multi-graft (Model 1) and the novel multi-graft (Model 2), were then implemented on this patient-specific model using virtual surgery techniques. In Model 1, the single graft was anastomosed to right coronary artery (RCA) and the sequential graft was adopted to anastomose left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCX). While in Model 2, the single graft was anastomosed to LAD and the sequential graft was adopted to anastomose RCA and LCX. A zero-dimensional/three-dimensional (0D/3D) coupling method was used to realize the multi-scale simulation of both the pre-operative and two post-operative models. Flow rates in the coronary artery and grafts were obtained. The hemodynamic parameters were also showed, including wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). The area of low WSS and OSI in Model 1 was much less than that in Model 2. Model 1 shows optimistic hemodynamic modifications which may enhance the long-term patency of grafts. The anterior segments of sequential graft have better long-term patency than the posterior segments. With rational spatial position of the heart vessels, the last anastomosis of sequential graft should be connected to the main branch.

  17. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype, Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Saphenous Vein Graft Atherosclerosis in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Zeinali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interactions among Angiotensin-I converting enzyme genotype, insertion/deletion polymorphism and atherosclerosis of vein grafts in Iranian patients, and characterize their clinical and demographic profile. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery more than five years ago, were included for angiographic analysis. Atherosclerosis was determined by quantitative angiography and adjusted Gensini score. The gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients participated in this study. Eighty-four patients were male. The frequency distribution of DD, ID and II polymorphism were 23.6%, 62.7% and 13.7% respectively. There were no differences among genotypic groups in age, sex, number of risk factors, number of vein grafts and months since bypass surgery. According to adjusted Gensini score [0.18±0.12 (II vs. 0.11±0.09 (ID and 0.1±0.09 (DD P=0.021] the II genotype was associated with severity of vein graft atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Although there are conflicting results about gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and the degree of venous bypass graft degeneration, this study suggests an association between ACE genotype II and atherosclerosis of saphenous vein grafts, however, large samples considering clinical, demographic and ethnic profile are necessary to confirm these results.

  18. Intraoperative echocardiographic imaging of coronary arteries and graft anastomoses during coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y; Takamoto, S; Ohtsuka, T

    2001-12-01

    No accepted approach exists for the intraoperative evaluation of the quality of coronary arteries and the technical adequacy of graft anastomoses during coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the accuracy of high-frequency epicardial echocardiography and power Doppler imaging in evaluating coronary arteries during coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass. To validate measurements of coronary arteries and graft anastomoses by high-frequency epicardial echocardiography and power Doppler imaging, we compared luminal diameters determined by these methods with diameters determined histologically in a study of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in 20 dogs. Technical errors were deliberately created in 10 grafts (stenosis group). The results of these animal validation studies showed that the maximum luminal diameters of coronary arteries and graft anastomoses measured by high-frequency epicardial echocardiography (HEE) and power Doppler imaging (PDI) correlated well with the histologic measurements: HEE = 1.027 x Histologic measurements + 0.005 (P anastomoses were examined intraoperatively by high-frequency epicardial echocardiography and power Doppler imaging, and luminal diameters determined by power Doppler imaging were compared with those determined by postoperative coronary angiography. The results demonstrated that graft anastomosis by power Doppler imaging correlated well with the angiographic measurements: PDI = 1.018 x Angiographic measurements - 0.106 (P anastomoses and can detect technical errors and inadequacies during coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass.

  19. Coronary artery atherosclerosis associated with shift work in chemical plant workers by using coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WonYang; Park, Won-Ju; Jang, Keun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Gwon, Do-Hyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sung; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work is related to elevated risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by determining the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the presence of coronary artery stenosis by using coronary artery CT angiography (CCTA). In this study, 110 male workers participated and underwent a CCTA examination for CAC scoring, which represents coronary artery plaque, and were evaluated for luminal stenosis. All of the participants were working in the same chemical plant, of whom 70 worked day shifts and 40 worked rotating shifts. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise and waist circumference, shift work was associated with a 2.89-fold increase in the odds of developing coronary plaque compared with day work (OR, 2.89; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.82). The association between shift work and coronary plaque was strong after adjustment for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.92; 95% CI 1.02 to 8.33). In addition, the number of years of shift work employment was associated with coronary plaque. However, no association was found between shift work and coronary artery stenosis. Shift work could induce CAD onset via the atherosclerotic process, and shift work employment duration was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis in male workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Reduced risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in homozygous carriers of the chromosome 9p21 rs1333049 C risk allele in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Masahiko; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Suna, Shinichiro; Usami, Masaya; Matsumoto, Sen; Ozaki, Kouichi; Nishino, Masami; Sato, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nanto, Shinsuke; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a susceptibility variant for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the primary prevention setting. However, it is controversial whether this SNP is also associated with recurrent myocardial infarction (ReMI) in the secondary prevention setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of chromosome 9p21 SNP on ReMI in patients receiving secondary prevention programmes after AMI. Design A prospective observational study. Setting Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study (OACIS) in Japan. Participants 2022 patients from the OACIS database. Interventions Genotyping of the 9p21 rs1333049 variant. Primary outcome measures ReMI event after survival discharge for 1 year. Results A total of 43 ReMI occurred during the 1 year follow-up period. Although the rs1333049 C allele had an increased susceptibility to their first AMI in an additive model when compared with 1373 healthy controls (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.33, p=2.3*10−4), patients with the CC genotype had a lower incidence of ReMI at 1 year after discharge of AMI (log-rank p=0.005). The adjusted HR of the CC genotype as compared with the CG/GG genotypes was 0.20 (0.06 to 0.65, p=0.007). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the association between the rs1333049 CC genotype and a lower incidence of 1 year ReMI was common to all subgroups. Conclusions Homozygous carriers of the rs1333049 C allele on chromosome 9p21 showed a reduced risk of 1 year ReMI in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era, although the C allele had conferred susceptibility to their first AMI. PMID:25232560

  1. Effect of Heart Rate and Coronary Calcification on the Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Lingdong; Cui, Lianqun; Cheng, Yuntao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yuansheng; Wang, Yong; Xu, Fayun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography, with a particular focus on the effect of heart rate and calcifications. One hundred and nine patients with suspected coronary disease were divided into 2 groups according to a mean heart rate ( 400). Next, the effect of heart rate and calcification on the accuracy of coronary artery stenosis detection was analyzed by using an invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. Coronary segments of less than 1.5 mm in diameter in an American Heart Association (AHA) 15-segment model were independently assessed. The mean heart rate during the scan was 71.8 bpm, whereas the mean Agatston score was 226.5. Of the 1,588 segments examined, 1,533 (97%) were assessable. A total of 17 patients had calcium scores above 400 Agatston U, whereas 50 had heart rates ≥ 70 bpm. Overall the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for significant stenoses were: 95%, 91%, 65%, and 99% (by segment), respectively and 97%, 90%, 81%, and 91% (by artery), respectively (n = 475). Heart rate showed no significant impact on lesion detection; however, vessel calcification did show a significant impact on accuracy of assessment for coronary segments. The specificity, PPV and accuracy were 96%, 80%, and 96% (by segment), respectively for an Agatston score less than 100% and 99%, 96% and 98% (by artery). For an Agatston score of greater to or equal to 400 the specificity, PPV and accuracy were reduced to 79%, 55%, and 83% (by segment), respectively and to 79%, 69%, and 85% (by artery), respectively. The DSCT provides a high rate of accuracy for the detection of significant coronary artery disease, even in patients with high heart rates and evidence of coronary calcification. However, patients with severe coronary calcification (> 400 U) remain a challenge to diagnose

  2. Association between ghrelin gene (Leu72Met) polymorphism and ghrelin serum level with coronary artery diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Rafiei, Alireza; Khajavi, Rezvan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Mokhberi, Vahid; Moradzadeh, Kambiz

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that ghrelin gene polymorphism has some association with coronary artery diseases (CAD). Due to genetic differences among nations and the high prevalence of CAD, we conducted this study to examine the possible association between the polymorphism of ghrelin gene Leu72Met and CAD among an Iranian population. This case-control study was undertaken with patients who were referred to referral heart center, in 2011, with chest pain or a positive exercise test. Patients with risk factors for heart disease or who were surgery candidates, who underwent angiography and echocardiography, were also included. DNA extractions were performed using a modified salting out method, and the ghrelin region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The presence of the Leu72Met polymorphism and the serum levels of ghrelin were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The results indicated that in CAD patients, the incidence of heart failure was significantly different between the groups with genotypes CC or AA+CA (p=0.041). Mean serum level of ghrelin in the CAD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (pghrelin genotypes and serum levels of ghrelin in both the CAD and control groups (ppolymorphism, as well as an increase in serum levels of ghrelin associated with genotype distribution such that ghrelin levels have an inverse relationship with the frequency of the CC genotype.

  3. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: A retrospective analysis of 19,676 coronary angiograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesha Basavanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare cause of angina, myocardial infarction (MI, and sudden cardiac death (SCD and may frequently manifest as acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The diagnosis of SCAD relies on angiographic visualization of a radiolucent intimal flap. Therapeutic options include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and bypass surgery. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical profile, inhospital outcomes, management, and follow-up of patients with angiographic SCAD. Methods: About 19,676 diagnostic coronary angiograms (CAGs were reviewed retrospectively during a 2-year period; 64 patients had SCAD and were included in the study. Complete medical histories before and during the event as well as treatment regimens were obtained from patients' hospital files. Results: A total of 64 cases of SCAD were considered for the study within an age range of 25–70 years. Fifty-eight patients presented with ACS, two patients presented with unstable angina, one patient presented with rheumatic mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation, one patient presented with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, one patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction, and one patient with effort. Out of 64 patients, four patients died and the average hospital stay is 3–5 days. Conclusion: SCAD occurs in 0.32% of patients undergoing CAG for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Majority of SCAD occurs in men. The left coronary artery is most commonly affected. The inhospital outcomes are good. Most of the patients with SCAD have good prognosis following optimal medical therapy.

  4. Influence of psychological and coronary parameters on coronary patient rehospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychological reactions are often comorbid with coronary risk factors and could be important for a six-month outcome. Objective. Determination of anxiety level, depression and aggression, persistence of risk health behaviour, stress life events, and coronary risk factors after coronary event and a predictive value of those parameters for six-month rehospitalization. Methods. In the group with Angina Pectoris (E1=30 and the group with Acute Myocardial Infarction (E2=33, there were applied, at baseline and after 6 months, the following: Semistructured Clinical Interview based on ICD-10, for depressive episode and anxiety disorder, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD, KON-6 sigma Scale for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for stress events and Questionnaire for risk behaviour: alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of physical activity. Group differences were assessed by t-test and chi-square test, p<0.05, regression analysis for assessing initial variables, a predictive value for six month rehospitalization. Results. After acute coronary event, the anxiety and depression levels were mild and aggression was low in E1 and mild in E2. Stress event score was significantly higher in E2 (H-R=115.18 than in E1 (H-R=72.20, p<0.05. After 6 months, the results were the same except for a significantly lower stress event score in E1 (H-R=49.48, and in E2 (H-R=91.65, but still significantly higher than in E1. Coronary parameters were reduced, smokers' rate was increased in E1. Alcohol consumption, hypercholesterolaemia and hereditary tendency were predictive for six- month rehospitalization. Conclusion. After acute cardiac event, hospitalized coronary patients had a mild anxiety, depression and aggression level as well as after six months. The infarct patients had experienced more stress life events in the previous year than the angina patients. Risk health behaviour did not change in the following six months, with the

  5. Dynamic variable selection in SNP genotype autocalling from APEX microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamar Ruben H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are DNA sequence variations, occurring when a single nucleotide – adenine (A, thymine (T, cytosine (C or guanine (G – is altered. Arguably, SNPs account for more than 90% of human genetic variation. Our laboratory has developed a highly redundant SNP genotyping assay consisting of multiple probes with signals from multiple channels for a single SNP, based on arrayed primer extension (APEX. This mini-sequencing method is a powerful combination of a highly parallel microarray with distinctive Sanger-based dideoxy terminator sequencing chemistry. Using this microarray platform, our current genotype calling system (known as SNP Chart is capable of calling single SNP genotypes by manual inspection of the APEX data, which is time-consuming and exposed to user subjectivity bias. Results Using a set of 32 Coriell DNA samples plus three negative PCR controls as a training data set, we have developed a fully-automated genotyping algorithm based on simple linear discriminant analysis (LDA using dynamic variable selection. The algorithm combines separate analyses based on the multiple probe sets to give a final posterior probability for each candidate genotype. We have tested our algorithm on a completely independent data set of 270 DNA samples, with validated genotypes, from patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU of St. Paul's Hospital (plus one negative PCR control sample. Our method achieves a concordance rate of 98.9% with a 99.6% call rate for a set of 96 SNPs. By adjusting the threshold value for the final posterior probability of the called genotype, the call rate reduces to 94.9% with a higher concordance rate of 99.6%. We also reversed the two independent data sets in their training and testing roles, achieving a concordance rate up to 99.8%. Conclusion The strength of this APEX chemistry-based platform is its unique redundancy having multiple probes for a single SNP. Our

  6. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography after coronary bypass surgery - an alternative to coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, H.K.; Roeren, T.; Schlosser, V.; Urbani, B.

    1985-01-01

    Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography after coronary bypass surgery - an alternative to coronary angiography. Intraarterial DSA is a suitable method for early postoperative control of coronary artery bypass grafts. Small quantities of contrast media with low iodine content are injected into the aortic root. Investigations can be carried out with a routine fluoroscopic and digital equipment; additional cine-technique and analogue memory disc are not necessary. At an image rate of 3/s the bypass anastomoses can be exactly visualized in 75%, whereas diagnostic information was not sufficient in only 4% of all cases. The use of modern F-5-catheters and the nonselective injection make this method a less invasive alternative to coronary angiography. It is paticularly useful in evaluation of short- and long-term results. (orig.) [de

  7. Antioxidant properties, phenolic composition and potentiometric sensor array evaluation of commercial and new blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Česonienė, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of juices of newly bred and known blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) genotypes and wild bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) were evaluated by ABTS(+) scavenging capacity (RSC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) assays. TPC varied in the range of 0.85-2.81 mg gallic acid equiv./mL, RSC, FRAP and ORAC values were 6.38-20.9, 3.07-17.8 and 4.21-45.68 μmol Trolox equiv./g, respectively. New blueberry genotypes and bog blueberry demonstrated stronger antioxidant properties and TAC than other studied genotypes. The content of quinic (203-3614 μg/mL), chlorogenic (20.0-346.8 μg/mL) acids and rutin (0.00-26.88 μg/mL) measured by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS varied depending on the genotype. Juices were evaluated by electronic tongue; PCA score plot showed that the method discriminates different genotypes although some juice samples were located very closely and overlapping. Significant differences were observed between L(∗), a(∗), b(∗) colour parameters of some genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual and Joint Associations of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Genotype and Plasma Homocysteine With Dyslipidemia in a Chinese Population With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Li, Kang; Venners, Scott A; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Jiang, Shanqun; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Xu, Xiping

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR) C677T genotype with dyslipidemia. A total of 231 patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension were enrolled from the Huoqiu and Yuexi communities in Anhui Province, China. Plasma tHcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan allelic discrimination technique. Compared with MTHFR 677 CC + CT genotype carriers, TT genotype carriers had higher odds of hypercholesterolemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.7 [1.4-5.2]; P = .004) and higher odds of abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 2.3 [1.1-4.8]; P = .030). The individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of log(tHcy) than those with the 677 CC + CT genotype (adjusted β [standard error]: .2 [0.03]; P dyslipidemia in Chinese patients with essential hypertension. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of tHcy and the MTHFR C677T mutation in the development of dyslipidemia in a larger sample.

  9. Effect of darapladib on major coronary events after an acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Braunwald, Eugene; White, Harvey D

    2014-01-01

    ]) at 868 sites in 36 countries. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to either once-daily darapladib (160 mg) or placebo on a background of guideline-recommended therapy. Patients were followed up for a median of 2.5 years between December 7, 2009, and December 6, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES......: The primary end point (major coronary events) was the composite of coronary heart disease (CHD) death, MI, or urgent coronary revascularization for myocardial ischemia. Kaplan-Meier event rates are reported at 3 years. RESULTS: During a median duration of 2.5 years, the primary end point occurred in 903...

  10. Coronary artery disease confined to secondary branches of the left coronary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Klein, B.L.; Segal, B.L.; Kimbiris, D.; Bemis, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among 3,000 patients studied by coronary arteriography during a 4-year period, 31 patients (1%) had coronary artery disease limited to a diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (15 patients), marginal branch of the left circumflex (10 patients), or to both branches (6 patients). Ten patients had 50-69% and twenty-one had greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing. The suitability for grafting was noted in 20 patients as judged by the caliber and distribution of the diseased branches. Collaterals were noted in seven patients. Disease was present in 28 men and 3 women (age range 38-70 years). At least one major coronary risk factor was present in 27 patients. Angina was noted in 27 patients; prior myocardial infarction was noted in 5 patients by history and in 4 by ECG. The left ventriculogram was normal in 22 patients and showed mild segmental asynergy in 9; ejection fraction was normal in all. Exercise ECGs were positive in 12 of 25 patients; exercise 201thallium scans were positive in 13. All patients responded to medical therapy. In conclusion, among the population of patients who undergo catheterization, coronary branch disease is rare. The clinical findings are indistinguishable from patients with major coronary disease. Prognosis remains benign and patients respond to medical therapy

  11. Safety and efficacy of angioplasty with intracoronary stenting in patients with unstable coronary syndromes. Comparison with stable coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. L. Correia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and efficacy of coronary angioplasty with stent implantation in unstable coronary syndromes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of in-hospital and late evolution of 74 patients with unstable coronary syndromes (unstable angina or infarction without elevation of the ST segment undergoing coronary angioplasty with stent placement. These 74 patients were compared with 31 patients with stable coronary syndromes (stable angina or stable silent ischemia undergoing the same procedure. RESULTS: No death and no need for revascularization of the culprit artery occurred in the in-hospital phase. The incidences of acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction were 1.4% and 3.2% (p=0.6 in the unstable and stable coronary syndrome groups, respectively. In the late follow-up (11.2±7.5 months, the incidences of these events combined were 5.7% in the unstable coronary syndrome group and 6.9% (p=0.8 in the stable coronary syndrome group. In the multivariate analysis, the only variable with a tendency to significance as an event predictor was diabetes mellitus (p=0.07; OR=5.2; 95% CI=0.9-29.9. CONCLUSION: The in-hospital and late evolutions of patients with unstable coronary syndrome undergoing angioplasty with intracoronary stent implantation are similar to those of the stable coronary syndrome group, suggesting that this procedure is safe and efficacious when performed in unstable coronary syndrome patients.

  12. Successful transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistula in a child with single coronary artery: a heavy load and a long road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasalkar, Manjunath; Thakkar, Bhavesh; Poptani, Vishal

    2013-07-01

    Single coronary artery is an uncommon variation of the coronary circulation. After transposition of great arteries, coronary artery fistulas are the most common associated cardiac anomalies in these patients. Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistula (CAF) involving single coronary artery is a challenging intervention. In the absence of contralateral coronary artery, a complex anatomy of the CAF and a large myocardial perfusion territory of the dominant circulation pose an additional risk during interventional procedure. We report our experience of a successful transcatheter closure of a coronary artery fistula in a patient with single coronary artery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Use of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography to Guide Management of Patients With Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle C.; Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Smith, Joel; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A.; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Timmis, Adam D.; Newby, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 4,146 patients were randomized to receive standard care or standard care plus coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the consequences of CCTA-assisted diagnosis on invasive coronary angiography, preventive treatments, and clinical outcomes. Methods In post hoc analyses, we assessed changes in invasive coronary angiography, preventive treatments, and clinical outcomes using national electronic health records. Results Despite similar overall rates (409 vs. 401; p = 0.451), invasive angiography was less likely to demonstrate normal coronary arteries (20 vs. 56; hazard ratios [HRs]: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23 to 0.68]; p coronary artery disease (283 vs. 230; HR: 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.55]; p = 0.005) in those allocated to CCTA. More preventive therapies (283 vs. 74; HR: 4.03 [95% CI: 3.12 to 5.20]; p coronary heart disease, CCTA leads to more appropriate use of invasive angiography and alterations in preventive therapies that were associated with a halving of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590) PMID:27081014

  14. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease The Coronary Arterial Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Joseph K

    2012-01-01

    Background: The coronary circulation in cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) includes the extramural coronary arteries, basal coronary blood flow, flow reserve, the coronary microcirculation, and coronary atherogenesis. Methods: Coronary arteriograms were analyzed in 59 adults with CCHD. Dilated extramural coronaries were examined histologically in six patients. Basal coronary blood flow was determined with N-13 positron emission tomography in 14 patients and in 10 controls. Hyperemic flow was induced by intravenous dipyridamole pharmacologic stress. Immunostaining against SM alpha-actin permitted microcirculatory morphometric analysis. Non-fasting total cholesterols were retrieved in 279 patients divided into four groups: Group A---143 cyanotic unoperated, Group B---47 rendered acyanotic by reparative surgery, Group C---41 acyanotic unoperated, Group D---48 acyanotic before and after operation. Results: Extramural coronary arteries were mildly or moderately dilated to ectatic in 49/59 angiograms. Histologic examination disclosed loss of medial smooth muscle, increased medial collagen, and duplication of internal elastic lamina. Basal coronary flow was appreciably increased. Hyperemic flow was comparable to controls. Remodeling of the microcirculation was based upon coronary arteriolar length, volume and surface densities. Coronary atherosclerosis was absent in both the arteriograms and the necropsy specimens. Conclusions: Extramural coronary arteries in CCHD dilate in response to endothelial vasodilator substances supplemented by mural attenuation caused by medial abnormalities. Basal coronary flow was appreciably increased, but hyperemic flow was normal. Remodeling of the microcirculation was responsible for preservation of flow reserve. The coronaries were atheroma-free because of the salutory effects of hypocholesterolemia, hypoxemia, upregulated nitric oxide, low platelet counts, and hyperbilirubinrmia. PMID:22845810

  15. Differential discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanov, V.I.; Mazurov, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    A principal flowsheet of a differential discriminator intended for operation in a spectrometric circuit with statistical time distribution of pulses is described. The differential discriminator includes four integrated discriminators and a channel of piled-up signal rejection. The presence of the rejection channel enables the discriminator to operate effectively at loads of 14x10 3 pulse/s. The temperature instability of the discrimination thresholds equals 250 μV/ 0 C. The discrimination level changes within 0.1-5 V, the level shift constitutes 0.5% for the filling ratio of 1:10. The rejection coefficient is not less than 90%. Alpha spectrum of the 228 Th source is presented to evaluate the discriminator operation with the rejector. The rejector provides 50 ns time resolution

  16. Coronary artery with aberrant origin malignant right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Demirkol, S.; Saglam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is a major cause of sudden death, especially in young patients. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present a young patient with chest pain who had malignant right coronary artery (RCA) with aberrant origin. Materials and methods: 24-year-old man who applied cardiology clinic for chest pain and palpitations especially after exercise, was referred to our clinic for coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate coronary artery anomalies. Results: In CT angiography; we detected aberrant RCA with origin of tubularly part of ascendant aorta with a malignant course between aorta and pulmonary artery. Left main coronary artery, left anterior descending and circumflex artery had normal origin and course. Conclusion: Coronary artery with malignant course may cause sudden death especially after exercise. Coronary CT angiography has an important role in diagnosis of congenital coronary artery anomalies, with high resolution multiplanner reformatted images

  17. Detection of Altered Risk Factors in Hospitalized Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avany Fernandes Pereira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary variables considered risk factors for coronary artery disease. METHODS: Using anthropometrics, dietary allowance, and blood biochemistry, we assessed 84 patients [54 males (mean age of 55± 8 years and 30 females (mean age of 57±7 years], who had severe ( > or = 70% coronary artery obstruction and nonsevere forms of coronary artery disease determined by cardiac catheterization. The severe form of the disease prevailed in 70% of the males and 64% of the females, and a high frequency of familial antecedents (92% ' 88% and history of acute myocardial infarction (80% ' 70% were observed. Smoking predominated among males (65% and diabetes mellitus among females (43%. RESULTS: Males and females had body mass index and body fat above the normal values. Females with nonsevere lesions had HDL > 35 mg/dL, and this constituted a discriminating intergroup indicator. Regardless of the severity of the disease, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia were found among females, and cholesterolemia > 200 mg/dL in both sexes, but only males had LDL fraction > 160 mg/dL and homocysteine > 11.7 mmol/L. The male dietary allowance was inadequate in nutrients for homocysteine metabolism and in nutrients with an antioxidant action, such as the vitamins B6, C, and folate. Individuals of both sexes had a higher lipid and cholesterol intake and an inadequate consumption of fiber. The diet was classified as high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate. CONCLUSION: The alterations found had no association with the severity of lesions, indicating the need for more effective nutritional intervention.

  18. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting for proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Derk Jan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes and discusses the results of a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial comparing percutaneous coronary angioplasty with stenting (stenting) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery (surgery) in patients with a high-grade stenosis

  19. Coronary CT in Acute Cardiac Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dedic (Admir)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCoronary CT angiography is a well-established diagnostic modality for stable angina pectoris. It provides an angiographic, non-invasive alternative for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, exceeding in the ability to exclude important coronary artery disease. Having the ability

  20. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  1. Multi-detector CT coronary angiographic findings of coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Seok; Park, Eun Ah; Lim, Ji Yeon; Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate multi-detector CT (MDCT) coronary angiographic findings of coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula (CPAF). We retrospectively reviewed images of patients with CPAF from the coronary CT angiography (CCTA) database obtained with a 64-channel MDCT between January 2008 and March 2011. We analyzed the CCTA findings for feeding arteries, fistula, association with peripulmonary arterial aneurysms, and the presence of communication between the CPAF and bronchial arteries. Fifty-five of the 15042 (0.37%) patients were diagnosed with CPAFs. The feeding artery was single (n = 18) or multiple (n = 37). The fistula had a single drainage site (n = 54) or multiple drainage sites (n = 1). The mean diameter of the fistulous opening was 2.7 ± 1.4 mm. A peripulmonary arterial aneurysm was present in 24 (44%) patients. Communication between CPAF and bronchial arteries was present in eight (14.5%) patients. MDCT coronary angiography can provide comprehensive morphologic details on CPAF and may help in presurgical or preinterventional planning.

  2. Pronounced Coronary Arteriosclerosis in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Karen V; Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens

    2018-01-01

    factors including smoking, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, gender, or hypercholesterolemia. Coronary artery calcium-score was associated with diastolic dysfunction, lateral e´ (p = 0.025), but not with other markers of cardiac dysfunction. During a median follow-up of 25 months 12 patients (21%) died......BACKGROUND: The relation between excessive alcohol consumption and coronary arteriosclerosis has remained controversial. The etiology of cirrhosis has been considered a substantial risk factor for development of arteriosclerotic lesions. The coronary artery calcium-score derived from coronary CT...... and women: 136 vs. 0 HU; p alcohol-related cirrhosis was significantly higher than in nonalcohol-related cirrhosis (362 vs. 46 HU, p 

  3. Gender differences in coronary plaque composition by coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Rivera, Juan J; Choi, Eue-Keun; Chang, Sung-A; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang-il; Agatston, Arthur; Blumenthal, Roger S; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2009-12-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography allows the differentiation of non-calcified (NCAP), calcified (CAP), and mixed coronary artery plaques (MCAP). Although males are thought to have a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis for a given age, there are currently few data regarding age-adjusted sex differences in plaque morphology and composition. We studied 1015 consecutive asymptomatic South Korean patients (49+/-10 years, 64% men) who underwent 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography during a routine health evaluation. Coronary plaque characteristics were analyzed on a per-segment basis according to the modified AHA classification. Plaques with more than 50% calcified tissue were classified as CAP, plaques with less than 50% calcified tissue were classified as MCAP, and plaques without calcium were classified as NCAP. Multiple regression analysis was used to describe the cross-sectional association between sex and plaque-type burden (>or=2 affected segments) after adjustment for age and other cardiovascular risk factors. There was a greater prevalence of coronary plaque among men (13 vs. 4%, PNCAP was similar across sex (2 vs. 1%, P = 0.28). After multivariable adjustment, men have six to seven times greater odds of having an increased burden of CAP and MCAP, whereas no sex difference was observed in the burden of NCAP. In this population of asymptomatic middle-aged Korean individuals, males had a significantly greater burden of MCAP and CAP. Future studies will determine whether these differences contribute to the accelerated cardiovascular risk observed in men.

  4. Coronary CT angiography: Diagnostic value and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-12-26

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease due to improved spatial and temporal resolution with high diagnostic value being reported when compared to invasive coronary angiography. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography has been significantly improved with the technological developments in multislice CT scanners from the early generation of 4-slice CT to the latest 320- slice CT scanners. Despite the promising diagnostic value, coronary CT angiography is still limited in some areas, such as inferior temporal resolution, motion-related artifacts and high false positive results due to severe calcification. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the technical developments of multislice CT and diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease based on different generations of multislice CT scanners. Prognostic value of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease is also discussed, while limitations and challenges of coronary CT angiography are highlighted.

  5. Coronary collaterals and risk for restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of the coronary collateral circulation (natural bypass network on survival is well established. However, data derived from smaller studies indicates that coronary collaterals may increase the risk for restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to explore the impact of the collateral circulation on the risk for restenosis. Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science databases (2001 to 15 July 2011. Random effects models were used to calculate summary risk ratios (RR for restenosis. The primary endpoint was angiographic restenosis > 50%. Results A total of 7 studies enrolling 1,425 subjects were integrated in this analysis. On average across studies, the presence of a good collateralization was predictive for restenosis (risk ratio (RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.80; P = 0.009. This risk ratio was consistent in the subgroup analyses where collateralization was assessed with intracoronary pressure measurements (RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.83; P = 0.038 versus visual assessment (RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.99; P = 0.049. For the subgroup of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD, the RR for restenosis with 'good collaterals' was 1.64 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.35 compared to 'poor collaterals' (P = 0.008. For patients with acute myocardial infarction, however, the RR for restenosis with 'good collateralization' was only 1.23 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.69; P = 0.212. Conclusions The risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is increased in patients with good coronary collateralization. Assessment of the coronary collateral circulation before PCI may be useful for risk stratification and for the choice of antiproliferative measures (drug-eluting stent instead bare-metal stent, cilostazol.

  6. Association between smoking habits and severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masaya; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Miyase, Yuiko; Suematsu, Yasunori; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Adachi, Sen; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-07-01

    Smoking promotes arteriosclerosis and is one of the most important coronary risk factors. However, few studies have investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). We enrolled 416 patients [165/251 = smoker (past and current)/non-smoker)]. They had all undergone CTA and either were clinically suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) or had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. We divided the patients into smoking and non-smoking groups, and evaluated the presence of CAD, the number of significantly stenosed coronary vessels (VD), and the Gensini score as assessed by CTA in the two groups. The incidence of CAD, VD, the Gensini score, and coronary calcification score in the smoking group were all significantly greater than those in the non-smoking group (CAD, p = 0.009; VD, p = 0.003; Gensini score, p = 0.007; coronary calcification score, p = 0.01). Pack-year was significantly associated with VD and the Gensini score, and was strongly associated with multi-vessel disease (2- and 3-VD) (p < 0.05), whereas the duration of cessation in past smokers was not associated with VD or the Gensini score. Pack-year, but not the duration of cessation, may be the most important factor that was associated with the severity of coronary stenosis in terms of VD and the Gensini score.

  7. Genotypic variations in the dynamics of metal concentrations in poplar leaves: A field study with a perspective on phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Mathieu; García de la Torre, Vanesa S.; Victor, Cindy; David, Laure C.; Chalot, Michel; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Poplar is commonly used for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. However, the high concentrations of trace elements present in leaves may return to soil upon leaf abscission. To investigate the mechanisms controlling leaf metal content, metal concentrations and expression levels of genes involved in metal transport were monitored at different developmental stages on leaves from different poplar genotypes growing on a contaminated field. Large differences in leaf metal concentrations were observed among genotypes. Whereas Mg was remobilized during senescence, Zn and Cd accumulation continued until leaf abscission in all genotypes. A positive correlation between Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) expression levels and Zn bio-concentration factors was observed. Principal component analyses of metal concentrations and gene expression levels clearly discriminated poplar genotypes. This study highlights a general absence of trace element remobilization from poplar leaves despite genotype specificities in the control of leaf metal homeostasis. - Highlights: • Poplar genotypes display large variations in leaf metal concentrations. • Trace elements are not remobilized during poplar leaf senescence. • Distinct transporter genes control metal homeostasis at different leaf stages. • Poplar genotypes use distinct mechanisms to control leaf metal homeostasis. • NRAMP1 metal transporter could contribute to Zn and Cd accumulation in poplar leaves. - In order to improve metal phytoextraction using poplars, this work provides new insights on the control of leaf metal concentrations through principal component and correlative analyses

  8. Association Between the P2RY12 Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Karazhanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Platelet activation and aggregation are key elements in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the two polymorphisms of platelet ADP receptor P2RY12 (haplotypes H2 and 34T are associated with increased platelet aggregation and atherothrombotic risk. It was shown that these polymorphisms promote reduced body response to antiplatelet therapy.Aim. We investigated the association of P2RY12 gene polymorphisms with aspirin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD.Methods. This case-control study included 100 cases with CAD (mean age 57.6 ± 2.8 years treated in the cardiology department of the city hospital Semey, Kazakhstan, 90 of whom suffered from myocardial infarction. The control group (n = 100 were healthy people without a history of CAD, matched on sex and age. Genotyping of polymorphisms H1/H2 in P2RY12 gene was performed by PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.19.0.Results. The distribution of H1/H2 genotypes P2RY12 was 42%, 34%, and 24%, respectively, in cases and 42%, 58%, and 0%, respectively, in controls. All allele frequencies were consistent with the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.0001 in cases and controls, respectively. Genotype H2 was associated with risk of CAD with aspirin resistance (co-dominant model: OR = 3.75, 95% CI 0.14 - 99.88, p = 0.05 and dominant model: OR = 2.78, 95% CI 0.11 - 70.93, p = 0.05. We found significant differences in the distribution of the mutant genotype H2 between CAD patients with aspirin resistance and healthy controls (χ2 = 30.3, p < 0.05.Conclusion. We found an association of H2 haplotype in P2RY12 gene with aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. However, in order to obtain definitive conclusions about the role of genetic variants with the development of aspirin resistance in patients with CAD, there is a need for further research with a larger sample size as well as the use of selective thromboxane

  9. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome...... in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among CFR, systolic and diastolic function, peripheral vascular function, and cardiopulmonary fitness in CAD patients. Methods and Results Forty patients with median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 49 (interquartile 46....... Conclusions Coronary flow reserve measured noninvasively predicts cardiopulmonary fitness independently of resting systolic and diastolic function in CAD patients, indicating that cardiac output during maximal exercise is dependent on the ability of the coronary circulation to adapt to the higher metabolic...

  10. Right coronary wall cmr in the older asymptomatic advance cohort: positive remodeling and associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Brian K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary wall cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a promising noninvasive approach to assess subclinical atherosclerosis, but data are limited in subjects over 60 years old, who are at increased risk. The purpose of the study was to evaluate coronary wall CMR in an asymptomatic older cohort. Results Cross-sectional images of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA were acquired using spiral black-blood coronary CMR (0.7 mm resolution in 223 older, community-based patients without a history of cardiovascular disease (age 60-72 years old, 38% female. Coronary measurements (total vessel area, lumen area, wall area, and wall thickness had small intra- and inter-observer variabilities (r = 0.93~0.99, all p Conclusions Right coronary wall CMR in asymptomatic older subjects showed increased coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes as well as coronary calcification. Coronary wall CMR may contribute to the noninvasive assessment of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in older, at-risk patient groups.

  11. Prognostic value of coronary atherosclerosis progression evaluated by coronary CT angiography in patients with stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hui; Gao, Yang; Hou, Zhihui; Lu, Bin; Schoepf, U.J.; Snyder, Alan N.; Duguay, Taylor M.; Wang, Ximing

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis burden by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to demonstrate its association with the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We retrospectively studied patients with stable angina who had undergone repeat CCTA due to recurrent or worsening symptoms. Lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden as well as coronary diameter stenosis were quantitatively analysed. The incidence of MACE during follow-up was determined. The final cohort consisted of 268 patients (mean age 52.9 ± 9.8 years, 71 % male) with a mean follow-up period of 4.6 ± 0.9 years. Patients with lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden (%) progression, as well as coronary diameter stenosis (%) progression had a significantly higher incidence of MACE than those without (all p < 0.05). The progression of lipid-rich plaque (HR = 1.601, p = 0.021), total plaque burden (HR = 2.979, p = 0.043) and coronary diameter stenosis (HR = 4.327, p <0.001) were independent predictors of MACE (all p < 0.05). Patients presenting with recurrent or worsening symptoms associated with coronary artery disease who have coronary atherosclerosis progression on CCTA are at an increased risk of future MACE. (orig.)

  12. Prognostic value of coronary atherosclerosis progression evaluated by coronary CT angiography in patients with stable angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Hui [Shandong University, Department of CT, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Radiology, Fuwai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Gao, Yang; Hou, Zhihui; Lu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Radiology, Fuwai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Schoepf, U.J.; Snyder, Alan N.; Duguay, Taylor M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Wang, Ximing [Shandong University, Department of CT, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis burden by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to demonstrate its association with the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We retrospectively studied patients with stable angina who had undergone repeat CCTA due to recurrent or worsening symptoms. Lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden as well as coronary diameter stenosis were quantitatively analysed. The incidence of MACE during follow-up was determined. The final cohort consisted of 268 patients (mean age 52.9 ± 9.8 years, 71 % male) with a mean follow-up period of 4.6 ± 0.9 years. Patients with lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden (%) progression, as well as coronary diameter stenosis (%) progression had a significantly higher incidence of MACE than those without (all p < 0.05). The progression of lipid-rich plaque (HR = 1.601, p = 0.021), total plaque burden (HR = 2.979, p = 0.043) and coronary diameter stenosis (HR = 4.327, p <0.001) were independent predictors of MACE (all p < 0.05). Patients presenting with recurrent or worsening symptoms associated with coronary artery disease who have coronary atherosclerosis progression on CCTA are at an increased risk of future MACE. (orig.)

  13. The Role of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in STEMI Patients with Normal Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beganu Elena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on patient symptoms, electrocardiogram (ECG changes, and cardiac enzymes, is not a challenge for cardiologists. The correlation between coronary anatomy and the ECG territories that present ischemic changes can help the clinician to estimate which coronary artery presents lesions upon performing a coronary angiogram. In certain situations, the diagnosis of myocardial infarction can be difficult due to the lack of correlations between the clinical and paraclinical examinations and the coronary angiogram. In some cases, patients with chest pain and ST-segment elevation on the ECG tracing present with a normal coronary angiography. In other cases, patients without important changes on the ECG can present critical lesions or even occlusions upon angiographic examination. The aim of this article is to highlight the role of noninvasive coronary magnetic resonance and multi-slice computed tomography in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and normal coronary angiography.

  14. Using msa-2b as a molecular marker for genotyping Mexican isolates of Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Alma D; Perez, Jocelin; Mosqueda, Juan J; Alvarez, Antonio; Camacho, Minerva; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Rojas, Carmen; Figueroa, Julio V

    2009-12-01

    Variable merozoite surface antigens of Babesia bovis are exposed glycoproteins having a role in erythrocyte invasion. Members of this gene family include msa-1 and msa-2 (msa-2c, msa-2a(1), msa-2a(2) and msa-2b). To determine the sequence variation among B. bovis Mexican isolates using msa-2b as a genetic marker, PCR amplicons corresponding to msa-2b were cloned and plasmids carrying the corresponding inserts were purified and sequenced. Comparative analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed distinct degrees of variability and identity among the coding gene sequences obtained from 16 geographically different Mexican B. bovis isolates and a reference strain. Clustal-W multiple alignments of the MSA-2b deduced amino acid sequences performed with the 17 B. bovis Mexican isolates, revealed the identification of three genotypes with a distinct set each of amino acid residues present at the variable region: Genotype I represented by the MO7 strain (in vitro culture-derived from the Mexico isolate) as well as RAD, Chiapas-1, Tabasco and Veracruz-3 isolates; Genotype II, represented by the Jalisco, Mexico and Veracruz-2 isolates; and Genotype III comprising the sequences from most of the isolates studied, Tamaulipas-1, Chiapas-2, Guerrero-1, Nayarit, Quintana Roo, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas-2, Yucatan and Guerrero-2. Moreover, these three genotypes could be discriminated against each other by using a PCR-RFLP approach. The results suggest that occurrence of indels within the variable region of msa-2b sequences can be useful markers for identifying a particular genotype present in field populations of B. bovis isolated from infected cattle in Mexico.

  15. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalia Boubaker

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1-G10 and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3, E. equinus (G4, E. ortleppi (G5, and E. canadensis (G6-G10. The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR allowing three levels of discrimination: (i Echinococcus genus, (ii E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20 and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13. The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (<40%. Thus, except for copro analysis, the mPCR described here has a high potential for a worldwide application in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies on the Echinococcus genus.

  16. Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Coronary Stenosis in Asymptomatic North Indian Population: A Post-mortem Coronary Angiography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Yogender Singh; Mandal, Shatrugan Prasad; Kumar, Senthil; Setia, Puneet

    2015-09-01

    A preliminary study of coronaries using post-mortem angiography was undertaken to see the prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis in non-cardiac unnatural deaths. This study was conducted in a tertiary care centre located in Chandigarh. A total of 128 medico-legal cases were studied comprising 88 males and 40 females. Post-mortem examinations of these MLC cases were conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh. All hearts were visually screened by post-mortem coronary angiography first and then grossly examined using serial transverse incision technique in positive screening cases to find the degree of narrowing. Of the study group, 34% males and 20% females showed evidence of narrowing on angiography. Of the males showing coronary stenosis, 83% had single vessel disease and 13% had double vessel disease, while only one individual had triple vessel disease. In cases of female, all the cases of coronary stenosis were single vessel disease. Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was the most common vessel involved, followed by right coronary artery (RCA) & Left circumflex artery (LCX) and in cases of double vessel disease, LAD in combination with LCX was responsible for 75% of the cases. Remarkably 23.6% of study population in the age group of less than 40 years showed appreciable narrowing in at least one of the coronaries. In general, the prevalence of CAD is on the rise, particularly in younger population owing to the changes in their lifestyle and food habits. This preliminary study revealed evidence of narrowing of at least one coronary in 34% male and 20% female population and 23.6% subjects were less than 40 years old. Further detailed studies are needed especially in younger age group and to support the need for preventive cardiology in the early years of life.

  17. Percutaneous brachial artery catheterization for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions (pci): an encouraging experience of 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Z.U.; Maken, G.R.; Saif, M.; Khattak, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the practicability and safety of the percutaneous transbrachial approach (TBA) for diagnostic coronary angiography and therapeutic percutaneous coronary interventions. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology- National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD) from March 2009 to May 2011. Patients and Methods: We collected data of 100 consecutive patients who underwent coronary catheterization by the percutaneous transbrachial approach. Transbrachial catheterization was performed only if the radial access failed or radial pulse was feeble. Study endpoints included successful brachial artery catheterization, vascular and neurological complications at access site and procedure success rate. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years (range 33-79 yrs) and 65(65%) were males and 35 (35%) were females. The right brachial artery was used in all of the cases. Procedural success was achieved in 100% of the patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 70 patients and percutaneous coronary interventions were done in 30 cases. Out of these 30 cases, PCI to left coronary arteries (LAD and LCX) were performed in 19 patients while 11 patients had PCI to right coronary artery (RCA). No case of vascular complications such as major access site bleeding, vascular perforation, brachial artery occlusion causing forearm ischemia, compartment syndrome, vascular spasm or failure to catheterize coronary arteries requiring alternate vascular access were observed. Conclusion: Brachial artery is a safe and easily accessible approach for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions. (author)

  18. Common genotypes of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of common genotypes of hepatitis-B virus (HBV). Subjects and Methods: HBV genotypes were determined in 112 HBV DNA positive sera by a simple and precise molecular genotyping system base on PCR using type-specific primers for the determination of genotypes of HBV A through H. Results: Four genotypes (A,B,C and D) out of total eight reported genotypes so far were identified. Genotypes A, B and C were predominant. HBV genotype C was the most predominant in this collection, appearing in 46 samples (41.7%). However, the genotypes of a total of 5 (4.46%) samples could not be determined with the present genotyping system. Mixed genotypes were seen in 8(7.14% HBV) isolates. Five of these were infected with genotypes A/D whereas two were with genotypes C/D. One patient was infected with 4 genotypes (A/B/C/D). Genotype A (68%) was predominant in Sindh genotype C was most predominant in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (68.96) whereas genotype C and B were dominant in Punjab (39.65% and 25.86% respectively). Conclusion: All the four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A,B,C and D) were isolated. Genotype C is the predominant Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab and N.W.F.P. whereas genotype A is predominant in Sindh. (author)

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Have Sex with Women Using Multilocus VNTR Analysis-ompA Typing in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Qin

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in China. Although C. trachomatis genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing, currently available methods have limited resolutions. This study used a high-resolution genotyping method, namely, multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis with ompA sequencing (MLVA-ompA, to investigate the local epidemiology of C. trachomatis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Guangzhou, China.Rectal specimens from MSM and urethral specimens from MSW were collected between January 2013 and July 2014 at the Guangdong Provincial Center STD clinic. The specimens were sent to the laboratory for analyses. All specimens that were tested positive for C. trachomatis by the commercial nucleic acid amplification tests were genotyped by MLVA-ompA.Fifty-one rectal specimens from MSM and 96 urethral specimens from MSW were identified with C. trachomatis. One hundred and forty-four of the 147 specimens were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Rectal specimens from MSM were divided into four ompA genotypes and urethral specimens from MSW into nine genotypes. No mixed infections were found among all specimens. The most frequent genotypes were D, G, J, E and F. All specimens were further divided into 46 types after ompA genotyping was combined with MLVA. Genotypes D-8.7.1 and G-3.4a.3 were the most frequent among MSM, whereas genotypes D-3.4a.4, E-8.5.1, F-8.5.1, and J-3.4a.2 were the most frequent subtypes among MSW. The discriminatory index D was 0.90 for MLVA, 0.85 for ompA, and 0.95 for MLVA-ompA.The most prevalent MLVA-ompA genotypes were significantly different between MSM and MSW from Guangzhou, China. Moreover, MLVA-ompA represented a more favorable degree of discrimination than ompA and could be a reliable complement for ompA for the routine

  20. The Physics of Coronary Blood Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zamir, M

    2005-01-01

    Coronary blood flow is blood flow to the heart for its own metabolic needs. In the most common form of heart disease there is a disruption in this flow because of obstructive disease in the vessels that carry the flow. The subject of coronary blood flow is therefore associated mostly with the pathophysiology of this disease, rarely with dynamics or physics. Yet, the system responsible for coronary blood flow, namely the "coronary circulation," is a highly sophisticated dynamical system in which the dynamics and physics of the flow are as important as the integrity of the conducting vessels. While an obstruction in the conducting vessels is a fairly obvious and clearly visible cause of disruption in coronary blood flow, any discord in the complex dynamics of the system can cause an equally grave, though less conspicuous, disruption in the flow. This book is devoted specifically to the dynamics and physics of coronary blood flow. While relevance to the clinical and pathophysiological issues is clearly maintaine...

  1. Coronary artery to left ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vivek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary cameral fistulas are an uncommon entity, the etiology of which may be congenital or traumatic. They involve abnormal termination of a coronary artery, usually the right coronary, into a cardiac chamber, usually the right ventricle. Case Presentation We describe a case of female patient with severe aortic stenosis and interventricular septal hypertrophy that underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with concomitant septal myectomy. On subsequent follow-up an abnormal flow traversing the septum into the left ventricle was identified and Doppler interrogation demonstrated a continuous flow, with a predominantly diastolic component, consistent with coronary arterial flow. Conclusion The literature on coronary cameral fistulas is reviewed and the etiology of the diagnostic findings discussed. In our patient, a coronary artery to left ventricle fistula was the most likely explanation secondary to trauma to the septal perforator artery during myectomy. Since the patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis no intervention was recommended and has done well on follow-up.

  2. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curillova, Zelmira [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); VA Boston Healthcare System, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, West Roxbury, MA (United States); Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress {sup 82}Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p{<=}0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p{<=}0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8{+-}0.5 vs 1.7{+-}0.5 vs 1.5{+-}0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curillova, Zelmira; Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges; Dorbala, Sharmila; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Di Carli, Marcelo F.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress 82 Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p≤0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p≤0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8±0.5 vs 1.7±0.5 vs 1.5±0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  4. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  5. Prognostic assessment of stable coronary artery disease as determined by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüche Nielsen, Lene; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To examine the 3.5 year prognosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in real-world clinical practice, overall and within subgroups of patients according to age, sex, and comorbidity. Methods and results: This cohort study......, and comorbidity. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease determined by CCTA in real-world practice predicts the 3.5 year composite risk of late revascularization, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death across different groups of age, sex, or comorbidity burden....... included 16,949 patients (median age 57 years; 57% women) with new-onset symptoms suggestive of CAD, who underwent CCTA between January 2008 and December 2012. The endpoint was a composite of late coronary revascularization procedure >90 days after CCTA, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death...

  6. Acute occlusion of the coronary artery after transluminal balloon coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Matchin, Yu.G.; Lyakishev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The research was aimed at elucidation of the relationship of the clinical and angiographic factors, on the one hand, and development of acute occlusion following transluminal balloon coronary angioplasty TBCA, on the other. TBCA was carried out in 162 patients. Eight (4.9 %) patients developed acute occlusion of the coronary artery, which was complicated by acute myocardial infarction in 50 % cases. 35 refs.; 4 tabs

  7. Topographic association of angioscopic yellow plaques with coronary atherosclerotic plaque: assessment with quantitative colorimetry in human coronary artery autopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Lisauskas, Jennifer B; Kawamura, Akio; Waxman, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Yellow plaques seen during coronary angioscopy are thought to be the surrogates for superficial intimal lipids in coronary plaque. Given diffuse and heterogeneous nature of atherosclerosis, yellow plaques in coronaries may be seen as several yellow spots on diffuse coronary plaque. We examined the topographic association of yellow plaques with coronary plaque. In 40 non-severely stenotic ex-vivo coronary segments (average length: 52.2 +/- 3.1 mm), yellow plaques were examined by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry. The segments were cut perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel at 2 mm intervals, and 1045 slides with 5 microm thick tissue for whole segments were prepared. To construct the plaque surface, each tissue slice was considered to be representative of the adjacent 2 mm. The circumference of the lumen and the lumen border of plaque were measured in each slide, and the plaque surface region was constructed. Coronary plaque was in 37 (93%) of 40 segments, and consisted of a single mass [39.9 +/- 3.9 (0-100) mm, 311.3 +/- 47.4 (0.0-1336.2) mm2]. In 30 (75%) segments, multiple (2-9) yellow plaques were detected on a mass of coronary plaque. The number of yellow plaques correlated positively with coronary plaque surface area (r = 0.77, P colorimetry, some of them are associated with lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps, may be used to assess the extent of coronary plaque. Further research using angioscopy could be of value to study the association of high-risk coronaries with acute coronary syndromes.

  8. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  9. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-05-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation by multislice computed tomography of atherosclerotic coronary artery plaques in non-culprit, remote coronary arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimasa, Taeko; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao; Sato, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) frequently have vulnerable plaques in the remote coronary arteries, suggesting that ACS is part of the pan-coronary process. In the present study the computed tomography (CT) plaque density in non-culprit atherosclerotic coronary artery lesions was evaluated by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in patients with ACS and non-ACS. MSCT was performed in 21 patients with ACS and 53 patients with non-ACS: 16 of the 21 ACS patients (76%) and 30 of the non-ACS 53 patients (57%) had non-calcified plaques in the non-culprit coronary arteries (p=0.18). CT-low-density plaques (CT density <68 Hounsfield units (HU)) were more frequent in the ACS group (13/16 patients, 81%) than in the non-ACS group (13/30 patients, 43%, p=0.03). In addition, the CT density of the non-culprit lesion was significantly lower in patients with ACS than in those with non-ACS (44.1±22.9 and 77.3±33.7 HU, respectively). Patients with ACS more frequently had CT-low-density plaques in the non-culprit, remote arteries than those with non-ACS, which suggests that ACS treatment should focus not only on stabilizing the culprit lesion but also on systemic stabilization of non-culprit lesions. (author)

  11. Coronary Artery Calcium Distribution and Interscan Measurement Variability in End-Stage Renal and Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Z.; Laskowska, K.; Marzec, M.; Lasek, W.; Sinjab, T.A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease patients and end-stage renal disease patients have been documented to have an increased amount of coronary artery calcifications (CAC). Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of CAC and its influence on interscan variability of measurement in end-stage renal disease and coronary heart disease patients, proven to have calcifications. Material and Methods: 69 patients having CAC, including 34 with coronary heart disease and 35 with end-stage renal disease, were scanned twice with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Amount of CAC was determined as the number of calcified lesions (CN), total calcium score (CS), calcium volume (CV), and calcium mass (CM). Distribution of CAC was evaluated on a per-patient basis as the median CS and CM of a single lesion. Density of the calcifications was calculated as the patient's CM divided by CV. Results: The overall median CS was 457.2, and the median CM was 75.6 mg. There were no significant differences in the number of calcified lesions, CS, or CM between the two groups. Both CS and CM of a single lesion, as well as the mean calcium density were lower in renal disease patients (P<0.05) than in coronary heart disease subjects. The relative interscan variability of coronary calcium measurement was higher in the renal disease group (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between the calcium concentration and the relative interscan variability. Conclusion: The results indicate that the coronary calcium distribution influences the measurement interscan reproducibility, and the distribution may differ between end-stage renal disease patients and coronary heart disease patients, reflecting the dissimilar nature of coronary calcifications in those groups

  12. Coronary Artery Calcium Distribution and Interscan Measurement Variability in End-Stage Renal and Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Z.; Laskowska, K.; Marzec, M.; Lasek, W. (Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland)); Sinjab, T.A.; Wlodarczyk, Z. (Dept. of Transplantology, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Coronary heart disease patients and end-stage renal disease patients have been documented to have an increased amount of coronary artery calcifications (CAC). Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of CAC and its influence on interscan variability of measurement in end-stage renal disease and coronary heart disease patients, proven to have calcifications. Material and Methods: 69 patients having CAC, including 34 with coronary heart disease and 35 with end-stage renal disease, were scanned twice with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Amount of CAC was determined as the number of calcified lesions (CN), total calcium score (CS), calcium volume (CV), and calcium mass (CM). Distribution of CAC was evaluated on a per-patient basis as the median CS and CM of a single lesion. Density of the calcifications was calculated as the patient's CM divided by CV. Results: The overall median CS was 457.2, and the median CM was 75.6 mg. There were no significant differences in the number of calcified lesions, CS, or CM between the two groups. Both CS and CM of a single lesion, as well as the mean calcium density were lower in renal disease patients (P<0.05) than in coronary heart disease subjects. The relative interscan variability of coronary calcium measurement was higher in the renal disease group (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between the calcium concentration and the relative interscan variability. Conclusion: The results indicate that the coronary calcium distribution influences the measurement interscan reproducibility, and the distribution may differ between end-stage renal disease patients and coronary heart disease patients, reflecting the dissimilar nature of coronary calcifications in those groups.

  13. 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism, homocysteine concentration and the extent of premature coronary artery disease in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senemar, Sara; Saffari, Babak; Sharifkazemi, Mohammad Bagher; Bahari, Marzieh; Jooyan, Najmeh; Dehaghani, Elham Davoudi; Yavarian, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Elevated level of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Furthermore, numerous studies have documented the influences of a common polymorphism (C677T) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) on homocysteine levels. However the relationship between this mutation and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has remained as a controversial issue. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene, plasma total Hcy levels and the number of affected vessels as a criterion for the extent of CAD. MTHFR genotypes and plasma homocysteine (HCY) concentrations were examined in 231 patients and 300 healthy subjects who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of Hcy levels whereas logistic regression model was built to determine the association of Hcy quartiles with the risk of CAD adjusted for risk factors. The prevalence of MTHFR genotypes was similar between CAD patients and non-CAD individuals while the geometric mean of Hcy values was significantly higher in patient group (14.13 ± 4.11 μmol/l) than in control group (10.19 ± 3.52 μmol/l) (P < 0.001). Moreover, unlike the MTHFR polymorphism, Hcy concentration increased with increasing number of stenosed vessels and the CAD risk increased about 2 folds in the top two Hcy quartiles (≥ 17.03 and 13.20-17.02 μmol/l) compared with the lowest quartile (≤ 9.92 μmol/l) after controlling for conventional risk factors (P<0.001 for both). Our data suggest that hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is significantly associated to CAD risk increase as well as to the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Functional assessment of sequential coronary artery fistula and coronary artery stenosis with fractional flow reserve and stress adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Leong Yew

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one coronary artery to another coronary artery or cardiac chambers. The coronary artery fistula may cause significant shunting of blood and cause “pseudo-stenosis” or “steal phenomenon”. This will also accentuate pre-existing mild-moderate de novo coronary lesions with resultant greater pressure gradient difference across the lesions. Thus, fractional flow reserve can be a useful tool to guide intervention decision on the coronary artery fistula. There are very few published reports regarding the use of FFR to assess coronary artery fistula. In fact, there is no outcome data regarding the deferment of coronary artery fistula intervention when the FFR is not physiologically significant. This case highlighted the use of FFR to evaluate the functional significance of coronary fistula in the setting of ischemia evaluation and it was proven to be safe to defer intervention with good 3 year clinical outcome. Stress adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging correlated with the FFR result.

  15. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required.

  16. Coronary blood flow and coronary stenosis correlations in ischemic heart patients; Interventsionalni protseduri pod obrazen kontrol v usloviyata na dobolnichnata pomosht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manukov, I [Plovdiv, (Bulgaria)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of the methodology for the C-TIMI frame count by Gibson for easy and fast determination of the coronary blood flow during a selective coronary angiography. 75 patient have been studied with one-branch affection of the coronary arteries. The criteria for exclusion are: myocardial hypertrophy, valve lesions, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia. Depending of the characteristics of the coronary stenotic changes, the patients have been divided into two groups: 1) Patients with 'ordinary' stenosis of the coronary artery and 2) Patients with 'complex' stenosis. The severity of the stenotic changes in percents is the same for the two groups - 78%{+-}13% vs 81{+-}12%, respectively. In the first group a pronounced correlation is observed between the severity of the coronary stenosis and the slowing of the coronary blood flow. The 'threshold' stenotic level is 89%. In the second group the lowest value of the coronary stenosis is 73% (p>0.01 vs group 1). No correlation is observed between the severity of the coronary stenosis and the slowing of the coronary blood flow. A conclusion is made that the Gibson method for the assessment of the blood flow is convenient for the daily practice not only for the assessment of the significance of the coronary changes, but also for fast analysis of the achieved reconstruction of the coronary arteries after angioplasty. Additional studies of the significance of the different signs of 'complexity' of the coronary stenosis for the slowing of the blood flow are necessary.

  17. Usefulness of the admission electrocardiogram to predict long-term outcomes after non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (from the FRISC II, ICTUS, and RITA-3 [FIR] Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Peter; Holmvang, Lene; Tijssen, Jan G P; Lagerqvist, Bo; Clayton, Tim C; Pocock, Stuart J; Windhausen, Fons; Hirsch, Alexander; Fox, Keith A A; Wallentin, Lars; de Winter, Robbert J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic value of qualitative and quantitative admission electrocardiographic (ECG) analysis regarding long-term outcomes after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). From the Fragmin and Fast Revascularization During Instability in Coronary Artery Disease (FRISC II), Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes (ICTUS), and Randomized Intervention Trial of Unstable Angina 3 (RITA-3) patient-pooled database, 5,420 patients with NSTE-ACS with qualitative ECG data, of whom 2,901 had quantitative data, were included in this analysis. The main outcome was 5-year cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated with Cox regression models, and adjustments were made for established outcome predictors. The additional discriminative value was assessed with the category-less net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement indexes. In the 5,420 patients, the presence of ST-segment depression (≥1 mm; adjusted HR 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25 to 1.63) and left bundle branch block (adjusted HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.28) were independently associated with long-term cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Risk increases were short and long term. On quantitative ECG analysis, cumulative ST-segment depression (≥5 mm; adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.70), the presence of left bundle branch block (adjusted HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.40) or ≥6 leads with inverse T waves (adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.55) was independently associated with long-term outcomes. No interaction was observed with treatment strategy. No improvements in net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were observed after the addition of quantitative characteristics to a model including qualitative characteristics. In conclusion, in the FRISC II, ICTUS, and RITA-3 NSTE-ACS patient-pooled data set

  18. Multiplex Detection and Genotyping of Point Mutations Involved in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Using a Hairpin Microarray-Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Baaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed a highly specific method for detecting SNPs with a microarray-based system using stem-loop probes. In this paper we demonstrate that coupling a multiplexing procedure with our microarray method is possible for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of four point mutations, in three different genes, involved in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. DNA from healthy individuals and patients was amplified, labeled with Cy3 by multiplex PCR; and hybridized to microarrays. Spot signal intensities were 18 to 74 times greater for perfect matches than for mismatched target sequences differing by a single nucleotide (discrimination ratio for “homozygous” DNA from healthy individuals. “Heterozygous” mutant DNA samples gave signal intensity ratios close to 1 at the positions of the mutations as expected. Genotyping by this method was therefore reliable. This system now combines the principle of highly specific genotyping based on stem-loop structure probes with the advantages of multiplex analysis.

  19. MR measurement of coronary arterial blood flow velocity. Evaluation of age, stenosis and drugs as factors affecting coronary blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoka, Yoshiaki; Harada, Masafumi; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yukinaka, Michiko; Nomura, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Coronary arterial blood flow velocity was measured using MRI. Two types of phase contrast methods were used for the measurements, one of which exhibited good resolving power whereas the other provided more distinct images acquired while the subject patients held their breath. Before measuring coronary arterial blood flow velocity, accuracy of the two phase contrast methods was evaluated using a phantom. The results obtained with both methods largely agreed with the values obtained using the phantom. Using both methods, the patterns of coronary arterial blood flow over one cardiac cycle were essentially identical. A peak was noted in late systole or in early diastole in the right coronary artery, whereas in the left coronary artery, a peak was noted somewhat later in diastole. In healthy volunteers, no significant difference in the maximal flow velocity in the coronary arteries was found from one age group to another. Among patients with coronary arterial stenosis, coronary arterial blood flow velocity central to the area of stenosis was lower than that observed in the healthy volunteers. Coronary arterial blood flow velocity was observed to decrease after administration of isosorbide dinitrate and increased following administration of nifedipine. (author)

  20. Prognostic factors of male patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Peng; Zhang Gaofeng; Wu Xusheng; Qiao Qi; Yu Liqun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the prognostic risk factors of male patients with coronary heart disease in stent placement era. Methods: One hundred and four patients were enrolled in this study (aged 64.9 ± 9.6 years) including 61 diagnosed as acute myocardial infarction, and 43 as unstable angina with followed up 11.9 ± 8.7 months. All factors including demographic factors, non-interventional work-up, associated clinical complications and results of coronary artery angiography reached a model of Logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on MACE (major adverse cardiac events), as quantitative factors, diseased proximal middle left anterior descending artery was a significant independent variable (P<0.05), and its coefficient was 22.00. Conclusions: Diseased proximal middle left anterior descending coronary artery is the prognostic factor of MACE in male patients with acute coronary syndrome. (authors)

  1. Association of ACE and FACTOR VII gene variability with the risk of coronary heart disease in north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, R C; Maithil, Nishi; Thakur, Hitender; Sharma, Yashpaul; Talwar, K K

    2010-08-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key factor in the production of angiotensin II and in the degradation of bradykinin. Chronic exposure to high levels of circulating and tissue ACE predispose to vascular wall thickening and atherosclerosis. Factor VII (FACTOR VII) is the first enzyme in the extrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation system and plays a key role in hemostasis; it also contributes to the occurrence of thrombotic events. In this study, we have examined the association of ACE and FACTOR VII gene in coronary heart disease patients (n = 300) and their age-matched controls (n = 300). Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP method. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of I/D genotypes of ACE between cases and controls. In case of FACTOR VII R353Q polymorphism, there was not much difference in the distribution of alleles. AA genotype had protective effect for CHD (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.83, P = 0.001). In case of FACTOR VII VNTR, there was difference in the distribution of alleles, H6 (73.5) and H7 (25.5) in cases, and H6 (70.5) and H7 (30.5) in controls. H6H7 and H7H7 genotypes had a protective effect for CHD with OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.18-0.41, P FACTOR VII R353Q and H6H7 and H7H7 genotypes of FACTOR VII VNTR showed protective effect for CHD.

  2. Acute coronary syndrome caused by coronary vasospasms associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome: effects of betamethasone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuji; Nishiyama, Osamu; Sakai, Toshiaki; Niiyama, Masanobu; Itoh, Tomonori; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with a history of aspirin-induced asthma was admitted with severe chest pain. Emergency coronary angiography revealed coronary artery spasms. The administration of vasodilators did not suppress the anginal symptoms, and the differential white blood cell count continued to show eosinophilia. The patient's symptoms of aspirin-induced asthma, eosinophilia and other allergic states led to the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). After starting betamethasone therapy, the eosinophilia and cardiac symptoms rapidly disappeared. Although coronary vasospasms related to CSS are rare, the present case suggests that a differential white blood cell count should be obtained in patients with refractory coronary vasospasms.

  3. Transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek-Kosmider, A.; Kasprzak, J.; Kosmider, M.; Krzeminska-Pakula, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of TEE for evaluation of morphology and flow in coronary arteries. TEE (2D, spectral and color Doppler imaging) and coronary angiography were performed in 75 patients - 41 with valvular heart disease and 34 with ischemic heart disease. Proximal coronary artery stenosis was detected by coronarography in 11 pts (9-left main coronary artery, 2-right coronary artery). TEE visualization of proximal coronary arteries was possible in all pts. Echocardiographic features of artery stenosis were: the narrowing of the vessel in 2D image (9 pts), high flow velocity spectral Doppler (4 pts, mean 135 cm/s vs 55 cm/s in normal arteries) and mosaic, turbulent flow in color Doppler (10 pts). Sensitivity and specificity of TEE for coronary artery stenosis detection was respectively 81%/98% for 2D imaging and 90%/100% for color Doppler. TEE is a new, noninvasive and safe method for the evaluation of proximal coronary arteries. Detection of LMCA stenosis prior to atheterization may enhance the safety of coronary angiography. (author)

  4. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.B.; Ridley, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death.

  5. Clinical Perspectives of Genetic Analyses on Dyslipidemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    We have learned that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is the cause of atherosclerosis from various aspects, including a single case with familial hypercholesterolemia, other cases with different types of Mendelian dyslipidemias, large-scale randomized controlled trials using LDL cholesterol lowering therapies, and Mendelian randomization studies using common as well as rare variants associated with LDL cholesterol levels. There is no doubt that determinations of genotypes in lipid-associated genes have contributed not only to the genetic diagnosis for Mendelian dyslipidemias but also to the discoveries of novel therapeutic targets. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that such genetic information could provide useful clues for the risk prediction as well as risk stratification in general and in particular population. We provide the current understanding of genetic analyses relating to plasma lipids and coronary artery disease. PMID:28250266

  6. Efficacy of Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography in Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flávio Costa Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Guidelines recommend that in suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD, a clinical (non-invasive evaluation should be performed before coronary angiography.Objective:We assessed the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography in suspected stable CAD.Methods:We prospectively selected consecutive patients without known CAD, referred to a high-volume tertiary center. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, symptoms and non-invasive test results were correlated to the presence of obstructive CAD. We estimated the CAD probability based on available clinical data and the incremental diagnostic value of previous non-invasive tests.Results:A total of 830 patients were included; median age was 61 years, 49.3% were males, 81% had hypertension and 35.5% were diabetics. Non-invasive tests were performed in 64.8% of the patients. At coronary angiography, 23.8% of the patients had obstructive CAD. The independent predictors for obstructive CAD were: male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.95; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 2.70 - 5.77, age (OR for 5 years increment, 1.15; CI 95%, 1.06 - 1.26, diabetes (OR, 2.01; CI 95%, 1.40 - 2.90, dyslipidemia (OR, 2.02; CI 95%, 1.32 - 3.07, typical angina (OR, 2.92; CI 95%, 1.77 - 4.83 and previous non-invasive test (OR 1.54; CI 95% 1.05 - 2.27.Conclusions:In this study, less than a quarter of the patients referred for coronary angiography with suspected CAD had the diagnosis confirmed. A better clinical and non-invasive assessment is necessary, to improve the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography.

  7. Pyroprinting: a rapid and flexible genotypic fingerprinting method for typing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W; VanderKelen, Jennifer; Montana, Aldrin; Dekhtyar, Alexander; Neal, Emily; Goodman, Anya; Kitts, Christopher L

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial strain typing is commonly employed in studies involving epidemiology, population ecology, and microbial source tracking to identify sources of fecal contamination. Methods for differentiating strains generally use either a collection of phenotypic traits or rely on some interrogation of the bacterial genotype. This report introduces pyroprinting, a novel genotypic strain typing method that is rapid, inexpensive, and discriminating compared to the most sensitive methods already in use. Pyroprinting relies on the simultaneous pyrosequencing of polymorphic multicopy loci, such as the intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA operons in bacterial genomes. Data generated by sequencing combinations of variable templates are reproducible and intrinsically digitized. The theory and development of pyroprinting in Escherichia coli, including the selection of similarity thresholds to define matches between isolates, are presented. The pyroprint-based strain differentiation limits and phylogenetic relevance compared to other typing methods are also explored. Pyroprinting is unique in its simplicity and, paradoxically, in its intrinsic complexity. This new approach serves as an excellent alternative to more cumbersome or less phylogenetically relevant strain typing methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coronary ostium occlusion by coronary cusp displacement in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Ebata, Ryota; Funabashi, Nobusada; Matsumiya, Goro; Saito, Yuko Kazato; Takechi, Fumie; Yonemori, Yoko; Nakatani, Yukio; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Williams syndrome is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome resulting from a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, and is characterized by distinctive facial features and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). This syndrome rarely presents unpredictable cardiac death, and yet, as illustrated in the present case, it is still not possible to predict it, even on close monitoring. We herein describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese girl with Williams syndrome, who had sudden cardiac collapse due to cardiac infarction after pharyngitis. Cardiac failure followed a critical course that did not respond to catecholamine support or heart rest with extracardiac mechanical support. Although marked coronary stenosis was not present, the left coronary cusp abnormally adhered to the aortic wall, which may synergistically cause coronary ostium occlusion with SVAS. Altered hemodynamic state, even that caused by the common cold, may lead to critical myocardial events in Williams syndrome with SVAS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, homocysteine and coronary artery disease: the A1298C polymorphism does matter. Inferences from a case study (Madeira, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana I; Mendonça, Isabel; Guerra, Graça; Brión, Maria; Reis, Roberto P; Carracedo, Angel; Brehm, António

    2008-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, an independent risk factor and a strong predictor of mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), can result from nutritional deficiencies or genetic errors, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. The contribution of these polymorphisms in the development of CAD remains controversial. We analysed the impact of MTHFR C677T and A1298C on fasting homocysteine and CAD in 298 CAD patients proved by angiography and 510 control subjects from the Island of Madeira (Portugal). After adjustment for other risk factors, plasma homocysteine remained independently correlated with CAD. Serum homocysteine was significantly higher in individuals with 677TT and 1298AA genotypes. There was no difference in the distribution of MTHFR677 genotypes between cases and controls but a significant increase in 1298AA prevalence was found in CAD patients. In spite of the clear effect of C677T mutation on elevated homocysteine levels we only found an association between 1298AA genotype and CAD in this population. The simultaneous presence of 677CT and 1298AA genotypes provides a significant risk of developing the disease, while the 1298AC genotype, combined with 677CC, shows a significant trend towards a decrease in CAD occurrence. The data shows an independent association between elevated levels of homocysteine and CAD. Both MTHFR polymorphisms are associated with increased fasting homocysteine (677TT and 1298AA genotypes), but only the 1298AA variant shows an increased prevalence in CAD group. Odds ratio seem to indicate that individuals with the MTHFR 1298AA genotype and the 677CT/1298AA compound genotype had a 1.6-fold increased risk for developing CAD suggesting a possible association of MTHFR polymorphisms with the risk of CAD in Madeira population.

  10. Correlation between serum Hcy content and coronary atherosclerosis severity in patients with H-type hypertension and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the correlation between serum Hcy content and coronary atherosclerosis severity in patients with H-type hypertension and coronary heart disease. Methods: 48 patients with H-type hypertension and coronary heart disease were selected as observation group, and 57 patients with normal hypertension and coronary heart disease were selected as control group. Echocardiography was used to determine coronary lesion parameters, enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy and coronary heart disease-related indexes, and the correlation between Hcy levels and coronary heart disease was further analyzed. Results: Serum Hcy level of observation group was higher than that of control group (P<0.05, absolute GLPSS value and E/A value under echocardiography were less than those of control group while E-DT and E/e value were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum adiponectin (APN level was lower than that of control group while P-selectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, oxidized high-density lipoprotein (OX-HDL, MMP-2, MMP-9, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 and Resistin levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; Hcy was negatively correlated with absolute GLPSS value, E/A value and APN level, and was positively correlated with E-DT value, E/e value as well as P-selectin, ADMA, OX-HDL, MMP-2, MMP-9, Lp- PLA2 and Resistin levels (P<0.05. Conclusions: There is direct correlation between serum Hcy levels and the severity of coronary heart disease in patients with H-type hypertension and coronary heart disease, it can be a reliable way to early screen for coronary heart disease and evaluate the illness, and it is also a new target of coronary heart disease intervention.

  11. Coronary Angiography Findings and Its Determinants in Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Descriptive Analysis from Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasiya, M; Satheesh, S; Selvaraj, R; Jayaraman, B; Pillai, A A

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to study the angiographic profile in patients presented as acute coronary syndrome and its relation with risk factors and comparison between genders. This prospective observational study was performed on total 352 patients of acute coronary syndrome were analyzed for various risk factors, angiographic pattern in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, South India from January 2015 to July 2016. Mean age of presentation was 52.62±11.63 years. Male were 271(77.0%) and female were 81(23.0%). Majority of patients were STEMI (67.6%) followed by UA (24.4%) and NSTEMI (8%). Smoker was 117(33.3%) patients. Hypertensive were 124(35.2%) of patients and 149(42.3%) were diabetics. Family history of CAD was positive in 45(12.8%). On angiographic evaluation left main reference diameter was lower in females (4.02±0.72) than males (4.07±0.82). LAD was most commonly involved followed by RCA and LCX among all three group of acute coronary syndrome. Left main was least involved (8.3%). In STEMI SVD (40.3%) was most common presentation, after that DVD was seen in 22.3%, TVD in 10.5%, non-obstructive coronary was seen in 16% of patients and normal coronary was seen in 11% of patients. In UA 28%, 22.8%, 13.2%, 15.8%, 20.2% was seen in SVD, DVD, TVD, non-obstructive and normal coronary respectively. Long length coronary lesions (>20mm) were seen in majority in all type of acute coronary syndrome. Coronary lesion length was not associated with presentation acute coronary syndrome and genders. Male were most commonly presented as acute coronary syndrome. STEMI was most common presentation. Diabetic was most prevalent risk factor. SVD was most common angiographic pattern and LAD was most common involved arteries.

  12. Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Fistula Connected to the Right Bronchial Artery Associated with Bronchiectasis: Multidetector CT and Coronary Angiography Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Coronary to bronchial artery fistula is a rare vascular anomaly secondary to enlargement of pre-existing vascular anastomosis between the coronary and bronchial arteries. This occurs when there is a constant disturbance of the pressure equilibrium involving either coronary or broncho-pulmonary disorder. Localized bronchiectasis is the most common related condition in patients with a coronary to bronchial artery fistula. Herein, we report on a case of a large left circumflex coronary artery to right bronchial artery fistula associated with bronchiectasis.

  13. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  14. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  15. Interesting images: Multiple coronary artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon M; Viswanath, Omar; Armas, Alfredo; Santana, Orlando; Rosen, Gerald P

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old male who presented with stable angina and dyspnea on exertion. His initial workup yielded a positive treadmill stress test for reversible apical ischemia, and transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated impaired systolic function. Cardiac catheterization was then performed, revealing severe atherosclerotic disease including multiple coronary artery aneurysms. As a result, the patient was advised to and subsequently underwent a coronary artery bypass graft. This case highlights the presence of multiple coronary artery aneurysms and the ability to appreciate these pathologic findings on multiple imaging modalities, including coronary angiogram, transesophageal echocardiography, and direct visualization through the surgical field.

  16. Coronary artery dissection following chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Agarwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest trauma has a high rate of mortality. Coronary dissection causing myocardial infarction (MI following blunt chest trauma is rare. We describe the case of an anterior MI following blunt chest trauma. A 39-year-old male was received in our hospital following a motorcycle accident. The patient was asymptomatic before the accident. The patient underwent craniotomy for evacuation of hematoma. He developed severe chest pain and an electrocardiogram (ECG revealed anterior ST segment elevation following surgery. Acute coronary event was medically managed; subsequently, coronary angiogram was performed that showed dissection in the left anterior coronary artery, which was stented.

  17. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsetos, Manny C.; Toce, Dale T.

    2003-01-01

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively

  18. Coronary plaque morphology on multi-modality imagining and periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI may be complicated by periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI as manifested by elevated cardiac biomarkers such as creatine kinase (CK-MB or troponin T. The occurrence of PMI has been shown to be associated with worse short- and long-term clinical outcome. However, recent studies suggest that PMI defined by biomarker levels alone is a marker of atherosclerosis burden and procedural complexity but in most cases does not have independent prognostic significance. Diagnostic multi-modality imaging such as intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, coronary angioscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, multidetector computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to closely investigate the atherosclerotic lesion in order to detect morphological markers of unstable and vulnerable plaques in the patients undergoing PCI. With the improvement of technical aspects of multimodality coronary imaging, clinical practice and research are increasingly shifting toward defining the clinical implication of plaque morphology and patients outcomes. There were numerous published data regarding the relationship between pre-PCI lesion subsets on multi-modality imaging and post-PCI biomarker levels. In this review, we discuss the relationship between coronary plaque morphology estimated by invasive or noninvasive coronary imaging and the occurrence of PMI. Furthermore, this review underlies that the value of the multimodality coronary imaging approach will become the gold standard for invasive or noninvasive prediction of PMI in clinical practice.

  19. Three-dimensional coronary MR angiography with continuous administration of Gd-DTPA. Delineation and detection of coronary artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional coronary MR angiography (3D coronary MRA) with Gd-DTPA administration was performed in 19 patients to evaluate the vascular delineation and diagnostic capability for stenotic lesions. A 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with a navigator echo respiratory gating technique was used with a superconducting 1.5 tesla MR system (Vision, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany). Administration of the conventional T 1 contrast agent with extra-cellular distribution produced a significant increase in the SNR and CNR of the proximal coronary arterial images. Visual score of both the source images and the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images assessed by three radiologists was superior to those on control images (without contrast enhancement). The MRA findings of stenotic lesions of the coronary artery were compared with the results of the conventional coronary angiographic study. Overall sensitivity and specificity for the detection of stenosis were almost the same as those of control images. In conclusion, 3D coronary MRA with Gd-DTPA administration improved coronary artery delineation. However, further technical improvements are required to enhance the value of the technique in detecting stenoses. (author)

  20. Multislice CT imaging of anomalous coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Heshui; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Hoffmann, Martin H.K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of 16 multislice computed tomography (MSCT) to identify the origin of anomalous coronary arteries and to confirm their anatomic course in relation to the great vessels. Accuracy of coronary artery disease (CAD) detection was a secondary aim and was tested with conventional angiograms (CA) serving as standard of reference. Two hundred and forty-two consecutive patients referred for noninvasive coronary CT imaging were reviewed for the study. Sixteen patients (6.6%) with anomalous coronary arteries were detected and included as the study group. MSCT and CA images were analyzed in a blinded fashion for accuracy of anomalous artery origin and path detection. Results were compared in a secondary consensus evaluation. Accuracy ratios to detect CAD with MSCT in all vessels were calculated. Coronary anomalies for all 16 patients were correctly displayed on MSCT. CA alone achieved correct identification of the abnormality in only 53% (P=0.016). Sensitivity and specificity of MSCT to detect significantly stenosed vessels was 90 and 92%. 16-MSCT is accurate to delineate abnormally branching coronary arteries and allows sufficiently accurate detection of obstructive coronary artery disease in distal branches. It should therefore be considered as a prime non-invasive imaging tool for suspected coronary anomalies. (orig.)

  1. [THE INFLUENCE OF MONO- AND MULTIVASCULAR LESIONS OF CORONARY ARTERIES ON THE COURSE OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypalo, A; Kravchun, P; Kadykova, O

    2017-03-01

    The article assesses the influence of mono- and multivascular lesions of coronary arteries on the course of coronary heart disease at patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey of 75 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 was arranged. Depending on the number of vascular lesions of the coronary arteries, according to the data of coronary arteries computer tomography, all patients were divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup included 27 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with monovascular lesions of coronary arteries. To the second subgroup were included 48 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries. During the analysis of carbohydrate metabolism in cases of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 the HOMA index increase by 25.40% and insulin level increase by 17.05% were revealed at patients with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries in comparison with patients with monovascular lesions of coronary arteries, respectively. The combination of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries was associated with an increase of sortilin level (233,47±47,85 ng/l). A significant increase in triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol of very low density influences greatly on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis with lesions of greater number of coronary arteries at patients surveyed. At patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries the left ventricle myocardial re-modeling occurred through the increase of left ventricle's size and cavity.

  2. A comparison of directional atherectomy with coronary angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Topol (Eric); F. Leya; C.A. Pinkerton; P.L. Whitlow (Patrick); B. Hofling; C.A. Simonton; R.R. Masden; P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.B. Leon (Martin); D.O. Williams (David); S.B. King 3rd (Spencer); B. Daniel; D.B. Mark (Daniel); J.M. Isner; D.R. Holmes Jr (David); S.G. Ellis (Stephen); K.L. Lee (Kerry); G.P. Keeler; L.G. Berdan (Lisa); T. Hinohara; R.M. Califf (Robert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Directional coronary atherectomy is a new technique of coronary revascularization by which atherosclerotic plaque is excised and retrieved from target lesions. With respect to the rate of restenosis and clinical outcomes, it is not known how this procedure compares with

  3. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  4. Correlating blood levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine to hOGG1 genotypes and the incidence of ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We measured the serum levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and investigated whether these levels correlate with incidence of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, and whether these levels correlate with underlying oxidative stress in patients with ICM. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of the Ser/Cys polymorphism in the human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1 gene. We analyzed the samples from 246 ICM cases (the ICM group and another 246 age- and sex-matched volunteers with normal coronary artery function (the control group. Levels of 8-OHdG in participants' blood samples were 6.7 ± 1.7 and 3.0 ± 0.8 in the ICM and control groups, respectively (p < 0.05. Although there were no differences in allele frequency (p = 0.140, significant differences were present in the genotype distributions (p = 0.002. The Cys/Cys genotype correlated strongly with the risk of developing ICM (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–3.3. Treating the Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys genotypes as members of the same group increased the predicted ICM risk for patients carrying the Cys/Cys genotype (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–2.9. The serum level of 8-OHdG in the ICM group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05 and significantly increased in those carrying the Cys/Cys genotype (8.7 ± 1.7 for the Cys/Cys group, and 4.5 ± 0.8 for the Ser/Ser+Ser/Cys group; p < 0.05. Patients carrying the Cys/Cys genotype had a significantly increased risk of developing ICM. Serum levels of 8-OHdG were significantly increased in patients with ICM.

  5. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VI. Detection of coronary artery disease in human beings with intravenous N-13 ammonia and positron computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Wisenberg, G.; Phelps, M.E.; Gould, K.L.; Henze, E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Gomes, A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of detecting mild coronary stenoses with positron computed tomography and nitrogen (N-13) ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation was previously demonstrated in chronically instrumented dogs. The feasibility of using this technique in human beings and its sensitivity in determining the degree and extent of coronary artery disease were examined in 13 young normal healthy volunteers and 32 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and its distribution in the left ventricular myocardium recorded at rest and during dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia. In the 13 volunteers, N-13 activity was homogeneous at rest and during hyperemia, whereas 31 of the 32 patients had regional defects on the hyperemic images not present during rest. All six patients with double, all 10 with triple and 15 of 16 patients with single vessel disease (97 percent) were correctly identified with the technique. Two vessel involvement was correctly identified in five of the six patients with double vessel disease and three vessel disease in six of 10 patients. Of all 58 coronary stenoses, 52 (90 percent) were correctly identified. In a subgroup of 11 patients, the technique was compared with exercise thallium-201 planar images, which were abnormal in 10 (91 percent) whereas N-13 images were abnormal in all 11. Of the 19 stenosed coronary arteries in this subgroup, 11 (58 percent) were correctly identified with thallium-201 and 17 (89 percent) with tomography (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that cross-sectional imaging of the myocardial distribution of N-13 ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation is a highly sensitive and accurate means for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses in human beings and for estimating the extent of coronary artery disease

  6. Association of changes in health-related quality of life in coronary heart disease with coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollag Arnfinn

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the association between the sociodemographic characteristics of a patient with the change in health-related quality of life (HRQOL following invasive coronary procedures, and the results remain inconclusive. The objective of the present study was to measure the temporal changes in HRQOL of patients with coronary heart disease, and assess how these changes are associated with invasive coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods This was a prospective study of 254 patients with angina pectoris and 90 patients with acute coronary syndrome. HRQOL was assessed with the multi-item scales and summary components of the SF-36, both 6 weeks and 2 years after baseline hospitalization in 1998. Paired t-tests and multiple regression analyses were used to assess temporal changes in HRQOL and to identify the associated factors. Results Physical components of HRQOL had improved most during the 2 years following invasive coronary procedures. Our findings indicated that patients with angina pectoris who were younger, male, and more educated were most likely to increase their HRQOL following invasive coronary procedures. When adjusting for baseline HRQOL scores, invasive coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics did not explain temporal changes in patients with acute coronary syndrome, possibly due to higher comorbidity. Conclusion Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into account when comparing and interpreting changes in HRQOL scores in patients with and without invasive coronary procedures.

  7. Statistical coronary motion models for 2D + t/3D registration of X-ray coronary angiography and CTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baka, N.; Metz, C. T.; Schultz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate alignment of intra-operative X-ray coronary angiography (XA) and pre-operative cardiac CT angiography (CTA) may improve procedural success rates of minimally invasive coronary interventions for patients with chronic total occlusions. It was previously shown that incorporating patient...... specific coronary motion extracted from 4D CTA increases the robustness of the alignment. However, pre-operative CTA is often acquired with gating at end-diastole, in which case patient specific motion is not available. For such cases, we investigate the possibility of using population based coronary...

  8. Drug therapy or coronary angioplasty for the treatment of coronary artery disease : New insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoroso, G; Van Boven, AJ; Crijns, HJGM

    Background In the last decade percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has become a very popular strategy For the treatment of coronary artery disease, although its efficacy in reducing ischemic events and the subsequent need for revascularization has yet to be proved. Methods We reviewed the

  9. The relationship between coronary stenosis severity and compression type coronary artery movement in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim H; Chawantanpipat, Chirapan; Gattorna, Tim; Chantadansuwan, Thamarath; Kirby, Adrienne; Madden, Ann; Keech, Anthony; Ng, Martin K C

    2010-04-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is thought to occur at sites of minor coronary stenosis. Recent data challenge this and also propose a role for coronary artery movement (CAM) in plaque instability. We examined the relationship between coronary stenosis severity, CAM pattern, and infarct-related lesions (IRLs) in acute myocardial infarction. We investigated 203 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after successful fibrinolysis. Quantitative coronary angiography, CAM pattern, and extent score (atheroma burden) analysis was performed for each coronary artery segment. The IRL stenosis was at least moderate (>50%) and severe (>70%) in 78% and 31% of patients, respectively. Culprit arteries were associated with higher atheroma extent scores (25.2 vs 21.6, P 70% vs Compression CAM was also strongly associated with culprit segments (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.5, P compression CAM and stenosis severity were strongly correlated, with the likelihood of a coronary segment having compression CAM progressively increasing with worsening stenosis (OR 56.4, 95% CI 37.9-83.8, P 70% vs relationship between stenosis severity and IRLs. Our study also raises the hypothesis that compression CAM may accelerate atherosclerosis and predispose to plaque vulnerability. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between VEGF polymorphisms (936c/t, -460t/c and -634g/c) with haplotypes and coronary heart disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xia; Liu, Lili; Niu, Jiamin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Zengtang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. 144 CHD patients and 150 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Three SNPs (936C/T, -460T/C and -634G/C) of VEGF were chose and then were genotyped with Sequenom time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the association of genotypes and haplotypes and CHD susceptibility. The frequencies of -460T/C CC genotype (13.6%) was found higher in the case group than that of control group (6.7%), which indicated that CC genotype was a risk factor for CHD (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.10-5.68). Correspondently, the C allele appeared to increase the risk of CHD (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.07-2.22). For -634G/C polymorphism, the risk of the CC genotype carrier for CHD increased 2.24 fold compared to the wild genotype. Moreover, -634G/CC allele was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.15-2.36). In addition, +936C/T CT genotype and C allele appeared to be a genetic-susceptibility factors for CHD (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.44-4.10; OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.26-3.02). The haplotype analysis showed that T-C-T, C-C-C and C-G-C haplotypes all could increase the risk for CHD (OR: 2.43, 2.77 and 2.33). we concluded VEGF polymorphisms were associated with CHD susceptibility. Moreover, the haplotypes of T-C-T, C-C-C and C-G-C all could increase the risk for CHD.

  11. Long-term survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome without obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Hedvig Bille; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to study survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS) with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: We included 4793 consecutive patients with STE-ACS triaged for acute coronary angiography at a larg...... than patients with obstructive CAD. Causes of death were less often cardiovascular. This suggests that STE-ACS patients without obstructive CAD warrant medical attention and close follow-up.......Aims: We aimed to study survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS) with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: We included 4793 consecutive patients with STE-ACS triaged for acute coronary angiography at a large...

  12. Differential incremental value of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and cardiac calcium to predict angiographic coronary artery disease across Framingham risk score strata in the APRES multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Rigo, Fausto; Facchetti, Rita; Carerj, Scipione; Giannattasio, Cristina; Moreo, Antonella; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Grolla, Elisabetta; Faden, Giacomo; Cesana, Francesca; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2016-09-01

    According to recent data, more accurate selection of patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is needed. From the Active PREvention Study multicentre prospective study, we further analyse whether carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaques (cPL), and echocardiographic cardiac calcium score (eCS) have incremental discriminatory and reclassification predictive value for CAD over clinical risk score in subjects undergoing coronary angiography, specifically depending on their low, intermediate, or high class of clinical risk. In eight centres, 445 subjects without history of prior CAD but with chest pain of recent onset and/or a positive/inconclusive stress test for ischaemia prospectively underwent clinically indicated elective coronary angiography after cardiac and carotid ultrasound assessments with measurements of cIMT, cPL, and eCS. The study population was divided into subjects at low (10%), intermediate (10-20%), and high (>20%) Framingham risk score (FRS). Ultrasound parameters were tested for their incremental value to predict CAD over FRS, in each pre-test risk category. No significant difference could be appreciated between the discrimination value of FRS and Diagnostic Imaging for Coronary Artery Disease score for the presence of CAD. eCS or cPL demonstrated significant incremental prediction over FRS, consistently in the three FRS categories (P risk subjects, in whom cPL was apparently not incremental over FRS, and eCS was only of borderline significance for better discrimination. Ultrasound eCS and cPL assessments were significant predictors of angiographic CAD in patients without prior CAD but with signs or symptoms suspect for CAD, independently and incrementally to FRS, across all pre-test risk probability strata, although in high-risk subjects, only eCS maintained an incremental value. The use of cIMT was not significantly incrementally useful in any FRS risk category. Published on behalf of the

  13. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...... factors for developing depression early and later after an acute coronary syndrome and (2) whether prior depression modified these associations. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study, which includes 87,118 patients with a first time diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome during the period...... 2001-2009 in Denmark. Cox regression models were used to analyse hazard ratios (HRs) for depression. RESULTS: 1.5 and 9.5 % develop early (≤30 days) and later (31 days-2 years) depression after the acute coronary syndrome. Among all patients with depression, 69.2 % had first onset depression, while 30...

  14. Coronary anomalies: what the radiologist should know*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies comprise a diverse group of malformations, some of them asymptomatic with a benign course, and the others related to symptoms as chest pain and sudden death. Such anomalies may be classified as follows: 1) anomalies of origination and course; 2) anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy; 3) anomalies of coronary termination. The origin and the proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries are the main prognostic factors, and interarterial course or a coronary artery is considered to be malignant due its association with increased risk of sudden death. Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the reference method for such an assessment as it detects not only anomalies in origination of these arteries, but also its course in relation to other mediastinal structures, which plays a relevant role in the definition of the therapeutic management. Finally, it is essential for radiologists to recognize and characterize such anomalies. PMID:26379322

  15. Association between diabetes and different components of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as measured by coronary multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Schlett, Christopher L; Rogers, Ian S; Truong, Quynh A; Toepker, Michael; Donnelly, Patrick; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in the presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as detected by coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. We compared coronary atherosclerotic plaques (any plaque, calcified [CAP], non-calcified [NCAP, and mixed plaque [MCAP

  16. Multicolor-based discrimination of 21 short tandem repeats and amelogenin using four fluorescent universal primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Masaru; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Hoshina, Chisato; Omura, Tomohiro; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Shiono, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shimizu, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective genotyping method using high-quality DNA for human identification. A total of 21 short tandem repeats (STRs) and amelogenin were selected, and fluorescent fragments at 22 loci were simultaneously amplified in a single-tube reaction using locus-specific primers with 24-base universal tails and four fluorescent universal primers. Several nucleotide substitutions in universal tails and fluorescent universal primers enabled the detection of specific fluorescent fragments from the 22 loci. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) produced intense FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labeled fragments ranging from 90 to 400 bp, and these fragments were discriminated using standard capillary electrophoretic analysis. The selected 22 loci were also analyzed using two commercial kits (the AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit and the PowerPlex ESX 17 System), and results for two loci (D19S433 and D16S539) were discordant between these kits due to mutations at the primer binding sites. All genotypes from the 100 samples were determined using 2.5 ng of DNA by our method, and the expected alleles were completely recovered. Multiplex 22-locus genotyping using four fluorescent universal primers effectively reduces the costs to less than 20% of genotyping using commercial kits, and our method would be useful to detect silent alleles from commercial kit analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Systolic Compression of Epicardial Coronary and Intramural Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiddin, Saidi A.; Fananapazir, Lameh

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that systolic compression of epicardial coronary arteries is an important cause of myocardial ischemia and sudden death in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We examined the associations between sudden death, systolic coronary compression of intra- and epicardial arteries, myocardial perfusion abnormalities, and severity of hypertrophy in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We reviewed the angiograms from 57 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for the presence of coronary and septal artery compression; coronary compression was present in 23 (40%). The left anterior descending artery was most often affected, and multiple sites were found in 4 children. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities were more frequently present in children with coronary compression than in those without (94% vs 47%, P = 0.002). Coronary compression was also associated with more severe septal hypertrophy and greater left ventricular outflow gradient. Septal branch compression was present in 65% of the children and was significantly associated with coronary compression, severity of septal hypertrophy, and outflow obstruction. Multivariate analysis showed that septal thickness and septal branch compression, but not coronary compression, were independent predictors of perfusion abnormalities. Coronary compression was not associated with symptom severity, ventricular tachycardia, or a worse prognosis. We conclude that compression of coronary arteries and their septal branches is common in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is related to the magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that coronary compression does not make an important contribution to myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; however, left ventricular hypertrophy and compression of intramural arteries may contribute significantly. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:290–8) PMID:12484613

  18. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-01-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment. (orig.) [de

  19. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-11-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment.

  20. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  1. COVERED STENTS IN IATROGENIC CORONARY ARTERY FISTULA; A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Poormoghaddas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or major cardiac vessels, mostly congenital but some of them are acquired as a consequence of coronary artery perforation.    CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of cavity spilling coronary artery perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention 7 years ago. Because of continuing symptoms and risk of developing heart failure and pulmonary hypertension we were ought to treat this iatrogenically formed coronary artery fistula. We used stent graft implantation to treat it with acceptable results.    CONCLUSION: Beside their application as a rescue for acute coronary artery perforations, stent grafts can be used with acceptable results in iatrogenically acquired coronary artery coronary artery fistula      Keywords: Coronary artery perforation, Coronary artery fistula, Stent graft.

  2. Woven Coronary Artery Disease Successfully Managed with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A New Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Alsancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Woven coronary artery is relatively rare and can be complicated in both acute and chronic phases. A few case reports have been published until now. Herein we report a case with right woven coronary artery managed with drug-eluted stent implantation without complication.

  3. Estimation of coronary flow reserve by sestamibi imaging in patients with mild hypertension and normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storto, G.; Gallicchio, R.; Maddalena, F.; Pellegrino, T.; Petretta, M.; Fiumara, G.; Cuocolo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hypertension may exhibit abnormal vasodilator capacity during pharmacological vasodilatation. We assessed coronary flow reserve (CFR) by sestamibi imaging in hypertensive patients with normal coronary vessels. Twenty-five patients with untreated mild essential hypertension and normal coronary vessels and 10 control subjects underwent dipyridamole-rest Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was estimated by measuring first transit counts in pulmonary artery and myocardial counts from tomograhic images. CFR was expressed as the ratio of stress to rest MBF. Coronary vascular resistances (CVR) were computed as the ratio between mean arterial pressure and MBF. Estimated MBF at rest was not different in patients and controls (1.11±0.59 vs. 1.14±0.28 counts/pixel/s; P=0.87). Conversely, stress MBF was lower in patients than in controls (1.55±0.47 vs. 2.68±0.53 counts/pixel/s; P<0.001). Thus, CFR was reduced in patients compared to controls (1.61±0.58 vs. 2.43±0.62; P<0.001). Rest and stress CVR values were higher in patients (P<0.001), while stress-induced changes in CVR were not different (P=0.08) between patients (-51%) and controls (-62%). In the overall study population, a significant relation between CFR and stress-induced changes in CVR was observed (r=-0.86; P<0.001). Sestamibi imaging may detect impaired coronary vascular function in response to dipyridamole in patients with untreated mild essential hypertension and normal coronary arteries. A mild increase in arterial blood pressure does not affect baseline MBF, but impairs coronary reserve due to the amplified resting coronary resistances.

  4. Quantitative thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography during maximal pharmacologic coronary vasodilation with adenosine for assessing coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S.; Mahmarian, J.J.; Boyce, T.M.; Verani, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic value of maximal pharmacologic coronary vasodilation with intravenously administered adenosine in conjunction with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of coronary artery disease was investigated in 101 consecutive patients who had concomitant coronary arteriography. Tomographic images were assessed visually and from computer-quantified polar maps of the thallium-201 distribution. Significant coronary artery disease, defined as greater than 50% luminal diameter stenosis, was present in 70 patients. The sensitivity for detecting patients with coronary artery disease using quantitative analysis was 87% in the total group, 82% in patients without myocardial infarction and 96% in those with prior myocardial infarction; the specificity was 90%. The sensitivity for diagnosing coronary artery disease in patients without infarction with single-, double-and triple-vessel disease was 76%, 86% and 90%, respectively. All individual stenoses were identified in 68% of patients with double-vessel disease and in 65% of those with triple-vessel disease. The extent of the perfusion defects, as quantified by polar maps, was directly related to the extent of coronary artery disease. In conclusion, quantitative thallium-201 SPECT during adenosine infusion has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing the presence of coronary artery disease, localizing the anatomic site of coronary stenosis and identifying the majority of affected vascular regions in patients with multivessel involvement

  5. Assessment of coronary artery disease and calcified coronary plaque burden by computed tomography in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Seitun, Sara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Nieman, Koen; Weustink, Annick C.; Mollet, Nico R. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Guaricci, Andrea Igoren [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Foggia, Department of Cardiology, Foggia (Italy); Tedeschi, Carlo [Ospedale San Gennaro, Department of Cardiology, Naples (Italy); Berti, Elena; Grilli, Roberto [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Healthcare and Social Agency, Bologna (Italy); Messalli, Giancarlo [SDN Foundation, IRCCS, Naples (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    To compare the coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with and without type-2 diabetes using CT Coronary Angiography (CTCA). 147 diabetic (mean age: 65 {+-} 10 years; male: 89) and 979 nondiabetic patients (mean age: 61 {+-} 13 years; male: 567) without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CTCA. The per-patient number of diseased coronary segments was determined and each diseased segment was classified as showing obstructive lesion (luminal narrowing >50%) or not. Coronary calcium scoring (CCS) was assessed too. Diabetics showed a higher number of diseased segments (4.1 {+-} 4.2 vs. 2.1 {+-} 3.0; p < 0.0001); a higher rate of CCS > 400 (p < 0.001), obstructive CAD (37% vs. 18% of patients; p < 0.0001), and fewer normal coronary arteries (20% vs. 42%; p < 0.0001), as compared to nondiabetics. The percentage of patients with obstructive CAD paralleled increasing CCS in both groups. Diabetics with CCS {<=} 10 had a higher prevalence of coronary plaque (39.6% vs. 24.5%, p = 0.003) and obstructive CAD (12.5% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.01). Among patients with CCS {<=} 10 all diabetics with obstructive CAD had a zero CCS and one patient was asymptomatic. Diabetes was associated with higher coronary plaque burden. The present study demonstrates that the absence of coronary calcification does not exclude obstructive CAD especially in diabetics. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy and Coronary Angiography Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Elboga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the most frequent causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Coronary angiography is the gold standard for the anatomical diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis. Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy (MPS is a non-invasive imaging modality used for the diagnosis of CAD. In this study, we aimed to compare the findings of MPS and coronary angiogram. Material and Method: Eighty-one patients (37 males, 44 females; mean age 55 ± 10.95 years with angina and detected perfusion defects on MPS were included in this study. All of the patients underwent coronary angiogram. A narrowing %u2265 50% was considered pathological on the coronary angiography. Results: Findings of the coronary angiogram and MPS were compared and found consistent in 51 (63% patients. A coronary narrowing < 50% was detected by coronary angiogram in 4 (5% of the remaining patients. Coronary angiogram was found to be normal in the remaining 26 patients (32% and these patients were evaluated as cardiac syndrome X (CSX known as microvascular angina (MA. Discussion: The findings showed that MPS is superior to coronary angiogram in the early diagnosis of myocardial perfusion disorders at the microvascular level. Therefore, we concluded that MPS should be the primary diagnostic tool to begin treatment before an anatomically large narrowing occurs in the coronaries.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of premature coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ameen Mosa; Jehangeer, Hekmat Izzat; Shaikhow, Sabri Khalif

    2015-11-18

    Premature coronary artery disease (PCAD) seems to increase, particularly in developing countries. Given the lack of such studies in the country, this study examines the prevalence, associated cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary angiographic profile of the disease in Iraq. Data was collected from a total of 445 adult patients undergoing coronary angiography at Duhok Heart Center, Kurdistan in a period between March and September 2014. Patients were divided into PCAD (male 70 % compared to lesser obstruction. Premature coronary artery disease is alarming  in the country. Cardiovascular risk factors are clustered among them. But the angiographic profile and therapeutic options of PCAD are close to those reported from previous studies.

  8. Coronary CT angiography in clinical triage of patients at high risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Hove, Jens D; Kristensen, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test if cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can be used in the triage of patients at high risk of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: The diagnostic value of 64-detector CCTA was evaluated in 400 patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction using...... invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method. The relation between the severity of disease by CCTA and a combined endpoint of death, re-hospitalization due to new myocardial infarction, or symptom-driven coronary revascularization was assessed. RESULTS: CCTA detects significant (>50...... in patients with high likelihood of coronary artery disease and could, in theory, be used to triage high risk patients. As many obstacles remain, including logistical and safety issues, our study does not support the use of CCTA as an additional diagnostic test before ICA in an all-comer NSTEMI population....

  9. Early and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome versus stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshihiro; Tabata, Minoru; Morita, Satoshi; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the early and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris. From September 2004 to September 2011, 382 patients with acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina pectoris and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) and 851 patients with stable angina pectoris underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at our institute. The early and long-term outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. Patients with acute coronary syndrome were older, were more likely to be women, had a smaller body surface area, and were more likely to have left main coronary artery disease. In both groups, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts were used in approximately 89% of the patients, and off-pump techniques in approximately 97% of the patients. The acute coronary syndrome group had a greater operative death rate (2.6% vs 0.1%) and a greater incidence of low output syndrome (3.1% vs 1.2%) and hemodialysis requirement (2.9% vs 1.1%). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that age, acute coronary syndrome, lower ejection fraction, and higher creatinine level before surgery were independent predictors of operative death. However, among the hospital survivors, no differences were seen in freedom from all death (85.4% ± 2.5% vs 87.7% ± 2.0%), cardiac death (97.4% ± 0.9% vs 96.5% ± 0.9%), or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (78.0% ± 2.9% vs 78.1% ± 2.3%) at 7 years between the patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris. Although acute coronary syndrome is an independent predictor of early mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the long-term outcomes after surgery were similar between patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris who survived the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  10. The relationship between fasting blood glucose variability and coronary artery collateral formation in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Chokshi, Binna; Fernandez, Marlena; Kazemi, Vahid; Lamaa, Nader

    2017-09-01

    Coronary collaterals are an alternative source of blood supply to ischemic myocardium. Well-developed coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) limit the size of acute myocardial infarction and improves survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between glycemic variability and coronary collateral formation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD. Consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting procedures were studied. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between coronary artery collateral formation graded by Rentrope classification and glycemic variability, measured by coefficient variation of fasting blood glucose. In our study, we retrospectively enrolled 300 patients, of whom 239 were diabetic (age: 70.1±11.9, 56% men) and 61 were nondiabetic (age: 71.5±11.5, 72% men). Diabetic patients were further stratified as follows: those with poor coronary collateral artery development (n=171, age: 69.7±12.4, 55% men) and those with good coronary collateral artery development (n=68, age 71.1±10.8, 59% men) according to the Rentrope classification. Our findings did not show association between glycemic variability and coronary collateral vessels development after controlling for potential confounders (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-11.03; P=0.22). The culprit lesion (≥75% stenosis) in the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery was more frequent in the good collateral group compared with the poor collateral group (66 vs. 50%, P=0.02; 63 vs. 45%, P=0.01 respectively). Glycemic variability is not associated with coronary collateral artery formation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD.

  11. Plant genotype, microbial recruitment and nutritional security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jai S; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Harikesh B; Sarma, Birinchi K

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural food products with high nutritional value should always be preferred over food products with low nutritional value. Efforts are being made to increase nutritional value of food by incorporating dietary supplements to the food products. The same is more desirous if the nutritional value of food is increased under natural environmental conditions especially in agricultural farms. Fragmented researches have demonstrated possibilities in achieving the same. The rhizosphere is vital in this regard for not only health and nutritional status of plants but also for the microorganisms colonizing the rhizosphere. Remarkably robust composition of plant microbiome with respect to other soil environments clearly suggests the role of a plant host in discriminating its colonizers (Zancarini et al., 2012). A large number of biotic and abiotic factors are believed to manipulate the microbial communities in the rhizosphere. However, plant genotype has proven to be the key in giving the final shape of the rhizosphere microbiome (Berendsen et al., 2012; Marques et al., 2014).

  12. CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography. The view of the referring physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Martin H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Universitaetsspital Bern (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Diagnostische, Interventionelle und Paediatrische Radiologie; Zimmermann, E.; Hamm, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dewey, M.

    2014-12-15

    Assessment of experience gained by local referring physicians with the procedure of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in the everyday clinical routine. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to 179 physicians, who together had referred a total of 1986 patients for CCTA. They were asked about their experience to date with CCTA, the indications for coronary imaging, and their practice in referring patients for noninvasive CCTA or invasive catheter angiography. 53 questionnaires (30%) were assessable, corresponding to more than 72% of the patients referred. Of the referring physicians who responded, 94% saw a concrete advantage of CCTA in the treatment of patients, whereby 87% were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the reporting. For excluding coronary heart disease (CHD) where there was a low pre-test probability of disease, the physicians considered CCTA to be superior to conventional coronary diagnosis (4.2 on a scale of 1-5) and vice versa for acute coronary syndrome (1.6 of 5). The main reasons for unsuitability of CCTA for CT diagnosis were claustrophobia and the absence of a sinus rhythm. The level of exposure to radiation in CCTA was estimated correctly by only 42% of the referring physicians. 90% of the physicians reported that their patients evaluated their coronary CT overall as 'positive' or 'neutral', while 87% of the physicians whose patients had undergone both procedures reported that the patients had experienced CCTA as the less disagreeable of the two. CCTA is accepted by the referring physicians as an alternative imaging procedure for the exclusion of CHD and received a predominantly positive assessment from both the referring physicians and the patients.

  13. Advanced 2-dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis for prediction of fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Pregowski, Jerzy; Kruk, Mariusz; Kepka, Cezary; Staruch, Adam D; Witkowski, Adam

    2014-07-01

    The widespread clinical application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has resulted in increased referral patterns of patients with intermediate coronary stenoses to invasive coronary angiography. We evaluated the application of advanced quantitative coronary angiography (A-QCA) for predicting fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary lesions detected on CCTA. Fifty-six patients with 66 single intermediate coronary lesions (≥ 50% to 80% stenosis) on CCTA prospectively underwent coronary angiography and FFR. A-QCA including calculation of the Poiseuille-based index defined as the ratio of lesion length to the fourth power of the minimal lumen diameter (MLD) was performed. Significant stenosis was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80. The mean FFR was 0.86 ± 0.09, and 18 lesions (27%) were functionally significant. FFR correlated with lesion length (R=-0.303, P=0.013), MLD (R=0.527, P44%, and >69%, respectively (maximum negative predictive value of 94% for MLA, maximum positive predictive value of 58% for diameter stenosis). The Poiseuille-based index was the most accurate (C statistic 0.86, sensitivity 100%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 56%, and negative predictive value 100%) predictor of FFR ≤ 0.80, but showed the lowest interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.37). A-QCA might be used to rule out significant ischemia in intermediate stenoses detected by CCTA. The diagnostic application of the Poiseuille-based angiographic index is precluded by its high interobserver variability.

  14. Coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Takao; Hiranaka, Yukio; Takeda, Tohru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Invasive coronary angiography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Recently, the application of synchrotron radiation in coronary angiography has been investigated in the world, with the aim of developing the noninvasive technique for visualizing the heart. In this article, backgrounds and present situation of coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation are reviewed. Firstly, visual imaging techniques of the cardiovascular system are discussed in terms of angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Conventional temporal, energy, and hybrid subtraction modes used in DSA are referred to. Secondly, the application of synchrotron radiation is presented, focusing on the property of synchrotron radiation and K-edge subtraction angiography. Two kinds of synchrotron radiation beam methods are outlined. Interpretation of image data and various subtraction procedures remain unestablished. There is much to be done before coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation comes into a clinical practice. (N.K.)

  15. Acute Coronary Syndromes: From The Laboratory Markers To The Coronary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazzuoli Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of "interesting" risk markers have been proposed as providing prognostic information in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Elevation in plasma inflammatory and necrosis biomarkers have been related to future cardiovascular events in individuals with or without prior myocardial infarction. Recently BNP and pro-BNP are entered in clinical practice to recognize patients at major risk, providing incremental information respect to the traditional markers. Together with these laboratory indexes, a few of promising laboratory markers once easily available, could become useful in identification of patients at high risk. Several studies evaluated many markers of platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction and vascular thrombosis, but it is not yet clear whether each of the proposed markers may provide incremental predictive information. We describe, following the most studies reported in literature, the laboratory markers with potential clinical and prognostic power that could early help physicians in the identifi cation of patients with impaired coronary disease and more narrowed coronary arteries.

  16. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  17. Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary angioplasty has been replacing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG because of the relative advantage in terms of recovery time and noninvasiveness of the procedure. Compared to other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries, Korea has experienced a rapid increase in coronary angioplasty volumes. Methods: We analyzed changes in procedure volumes of CABG and of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI from three sources: the OECD Health Data, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS surgery statistics, and the National Health Insurance claims data. Results: We found the ratio of procedure volume of PCI to that of CABG per 100,000 population was 19.12 in 2014, which was more than triple the OECD average of 5.92 for the same year. According to data from NHIS statistics, this ratio was an increase from 11.4 to 19.3 between 2006 and 2013. Conclusion: We found that Korea has a higher ratio of total procedure volumes of PCI with respect to CABG and also a more rapid increase of volumes of PCI than other countries. Prospective studies are required to determine whether this increase in absolute volumes of PCI is a natural response to a real medical need or representative of medical overuse.

  18. Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1997-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Coronary angiography makes it possible to visualize coronary artery stenosis and can be used for angioplasty and stent implantation; however, it does not allow the assessment of changes in myocardial microcirculation. The severity of an angiographically evaluated coronary stenosis does not always correspond to the extent of myocardial ischemia. Nonivasive techniques are needed to reexamine our reliance on coronary angiography and to explore the clinical value fo the physiological assessment of coronary artery stenoses. Such noninvasive techniques might become important tools in the future following an overal evaluation of coronary morphology, myocardial function and perfusion ascertained by all available methods. (orig.) [de

  19. Lumen and calcium characteristics within calcified coronary lesions. Comparison of computed tomography coronary angiography versus intravascular ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Dariusz; Kruk, Mariusz; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kaczmarska, Edyta; Kryczka, Karolina; Pracoń, Radosław; Skwarek, Mirosław; Dzielińska, Zofia; Petryka, Joanna; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Norwa-Otto, Bożena; Opolski, Maksymilian; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is a diagnostic method used for exclusion of coronary artery disease. However, lower accuracy of CTCA in assessment of calcified lesions is a significant factor impeding applicability of CTCA for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis. Aim To provide insight into lumen and calcium characteristics assessed with CTCA, we compared these parameters to the reference of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Material and methods Two hundred and...

  20. Arterial bending angle and wall morphology correlate with slow coronary flow: Determination with multidetector CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Guendogdu, Fuat; Doganay, Selim; Duran, Cihan; Kalkan, M. Emin; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Kucuk, Osman; Karakaya, Afak; Kucuk, Ahmet; Akguen, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess angulations and vessel wall morphology that could lead to bending head loss in the RCA and LMCA arteries of patients with slow coronary flow (SCF) evaluated by MDCT coronary angiography. Methods: The study involved 51 patients (45 males, mean age: 59.6 years) who were diagnosed with SCF by coronary angiography. Diagnosis of SCF was based on thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count. Fifty-one patients with absence of slow flow were selected as the control group. The angulations of the main coronary arteries with the aorta were measured from the axial images obtained through MDCT coronary angiography, and the findings were recorded. In addition, the coronary artery walls of these patients were evaluated. For statistical analysis, SPSS for Windows 10.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used. For comparisons of the angles, either independent samples t test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used where appropriate. Results: The results of the study indicated that 38 patients had SCF in the LAD. Comparisons of patients with SCF with the controls revealed that in the patients with SCF, the mean angle of the LMCA with the aorta (40.9 ± 20.5 o ) was statistically significantly smaller than the mean angle of the LMCA with the aorta in the control cases (71.8 ± 11 o ). In 12 patients, slow flow was detected in the RCA. Those with slow flow in the RCA had significantly smaller angles (mean: 33.2 ± 20.4 o ) than the other cases (mean: 78.9 ± 10.7 o ). Conclusion: A small angle of origin of the main coronary arteries from the aorta, measured on MDCT examinations is correlated with slow blood flow in those vessels, as calculated by the TIMI frame count in catheter coronary angiography.

  1. Perceived social support following percutaneous coronary intervention is a crucial factor in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Outi; Kankkunen, Päivi; Miettinen, Heikki; Lamidi, Marja-Leena; Saaranen, Terhi

    2017-05-01

    To describe perceived social support among patients with coronary heart disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. A low level of social support is considered a risk factor for coronary heart disease in healthy individuals and reduces the likelihood that people diagnosed with coronary heart disease will have a good prognosis. A descriptive cross-sectional study. A survey of 416 patients was conducted in 2013. A self-report instrument, Social Support of People with Coronary Heart Disease, was used. The instrument comprises three dimensions of social support: informational, emotional, functional supports and 16 background variables. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, mean sum variables and multivariate logistic regression. Perceived informational support was primarily high, but respondents' risk factors were not at the target level. The weakest items of informational support were advice on physical activity, continuum of care and rehabilitation. Regarding the items of emotional support, support from other cardiac patients was the weakest. The weakest item of functional support was respondents' sense of the healthcare professionals' care of patients coping with their disease. Background variables associated with perceived social support were gender, marital status, level of formal education, profession, physical activity, duration of coronary heart disease and previous myocardial infarction. Healthcare professionals should pay extra attention to women, single patients, physically inactive patients, those demonstrating a lower level of education, those with a longer duration of CHD, and respondents without previous acute myocardial infarction. Continuum of care and counselling are important to ensure especially among them. This study provides evidence that healthcare professionals should be more aware of the individual needs for social support among patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention

  2. Arterial bending angle and wall morphology correlate with slow coronary flow: Determination with multidetector CT coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit, E-mail: akkanrad@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Guendogdu, Fuat [Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Doganay, Selim [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey); Duran, Cihan [Department of Radiology, Bilim University, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Kalkan, M. Emin [Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Sagsoz, M. Erdem [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Kucuk, Osman [Department of Electronic Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Karakaya, Afak [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Kucuk, Ahmet [Department of Mathematics, Science Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Akguen, Metin [Department of Chest, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess angulations and vessel wall morphology that could lead to bending head loss in the RCA and LMCA arteries of patients with slow coronary flow (SCF) evaluated by MDCT coronary angiography. Methods: The study involved 51 patients (45 males, mean age: 59.6 years) who were diagnosed with SCF by coronary angiography. Diagnosis of SCF was based on thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count. Fifty-one patients with absence of slow flow were selected as the control group. The angulations of the main coronary arteries with the aorta were measured from the axial images obtained through MDCT coronary angiography, and the findings were recorded. In addition, the coronary artery