WorldWideScience

Sample records for genomics research world

  1. CAS Researchers Join Hands with World Peers for Sequenced Rice Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Adetailed analysis of the high-quality sequence of the rice genome was published in the August 11 issue of the journal Nature, marking the completion of a six-year international collaborative effort to unravel the genome of the world's most important food crop that feeds over half of the global population.

  2. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  3. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Director Organization Reports & Publications Español The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds ... Landscape Social Media Videos Image Gallery Fact Sheets Human Genome Project Clinical Studies Genomic Careers DNA Day Calendar ...

  4. DNAdigest and Repositive: Connecting the World of Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevskaya, Nadezda V; Whicher, Charlotte; Richardson, Timothy D; Smith, Craig; Grajciarova, Jana; Cardama, Xocas; Moreira, José; Alexa, Adrian; McMurray, Amanda A; Nielsen, Fiona G G

    2016-03-01

    There is no unified place where genomics researchers can search through all available raw genomic data in a way similar to OMIM for genes or Uniprot for proteins. With the recent increase in the amount of genomic data that is being produced and the ever-growing promises of precision medicine, this is becoming more and more of a problem. DNAdigest is a charity working to promote efficient sharing of human genomic data to improve the outcome of genomic research and diagnostics for the benefit of patients. Repositive, a social enterprise spin-out of DNAdigest, is building an online platform that indexes genomic data stored in repositories and thus enables researchers to search for and access a range of human genomic data sources through a single, easy-to-use interface, free of charge.

  5. DNAdigest and Repositive: Connecting the World of Genomic Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda V Kovalevskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no unified place where genomics researchers can search through all available raw genomic data in a way similar to OMIM for genes or Uniprot for proteins. With the recent increase in the amount of genomic data that is being produced and the ever-growing promises of precision medicine, this is becoming more and more of a problem. DNAdigest is a charity working to promote efficient sharing of human genomic data to improve the outcome of genomic research and diagnostics for the benefit of patients. Repositive, a social enterprise spin-out of DNAdigest, is building an online platform that indexes genomic data stored in repositories and thus enables researchers to search for and access a range of human genomic data sources through a single, easy-to-use interface, free of charge.

  6. Water research for the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2013-01-01

    Let’s start with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Report 2012. Remember the target? Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Thanks to China and India the world has met the drinking water target in 2010, b

  7. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  8. The scientific research potential of virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2007-07-27

    Online virtual worlds, electronic environments where people can work and interact in a somewhat realistic manner, have great potential as sites for research in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences, as well as in human-centered computer science. This article uses Second Life and World of Warcraft as two very different examples of current virtual worlds that foreshadow future developments, introducing a number of research methodologies that scientists are now exploring, including formal experimentation, observational ethnography, and quantitative analysis of economic markets or social networks.

  9. [Ethical issues in personal genome research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuto; Minari, Jusaku

    2013-03-01

    The rapid expansion of techniques for studying human genomics has remarkably changed research and practice. It is expected that more progress will be made in the field of medical and biological research owing to the technological advances. Genomics researchers collect human genetic material, including DNA and cells, from a large number of individuals and carry out "personal genome analysis"; as a result, new types of ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) have arisen, including issues such as informed consent procedures, data sharing, protection of genetic information, and return of research results. To address these issues, many large research projects have established specialist groups that are devoted to manage ELSI of their research. The guidelines for genomics research set by the government are also expected to be revised accordingly. In this paper, we present an overview of ELSI of personal genome research and discuss necessary measures to tackle these issues.

  10. Microbial Genomics Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-ping

    2004-01-01

    @@ Microorganisms, including phage/virus, were initial targets and tools for developing DNA sequencing technology. Microbial genomic study was started as a model system for the Human Genome Project (HGP) and it did successfully supported the HGP, particularly with respect to BAC contig construction and large-scale shotgun sequencing and assembly. Microbial genomics study has become the fastest developed genomics discipline along with HGP, taking the advantage of the organisms' highly diversified physiology, extremely long history of evolution, close relationship with human/environment,as well as relatively small genome sizes and simple systems for functional analysis.

  11. Microbial Genomics Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOGuo-ping

    2004-01-01

    Microorganisms, including phage/virus, were initial targets and tools for developing DNA sequencing technology. Microbial genomic study was started as a model system for the Human Genome Project (HGP) and it did successfully supported the HGP, particularly with respect to BAC contig construction and large-scale shotgun sequencing and assembly. Microbial genomics study has become the fastest developed genomics discipline along with HGP, taking the advantage of the organisms' highly diversified physiology, extremely long history of evolution, close relationship with human/environment,as well as relatively small genome sizes and simple systems for functional analysis.

  12. Implementing genomics and pharmacogenomics in the clinic: The National Human Genome Research Institute's genomic medicine portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A

    2016-10-01

    Increasing knowledge about the influence of genetic variation on human health and growing availability of reliable, cost-effective genetic testing have spurred the implementation of genomic medicine in the clinic. As defined by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), genomic medicine uses an individual's genetic information in his or her clinical care, and has begun to be applied effectively in areas such as cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics, and rare and undiagnosed diseases. In 2011 NHGRI published its strategic vision for the future of genomic research, including an ambitious research agenda to facilitate and promote the implementation of genomic medicine. To realize this agenda, NHGRI is consulting and facilitating collaborations with the external research community through a series of "Genomic Medicine Meetings," under the guidance and leadership of the National Advisory Council on Human Genome Research. These meetings have identified and begun to address significant obstacles to implementation, such as lack of evidence of efficacy, limited availability of genomics expertise and testing, lack of standards, and difficulties in integrating genomic results into electronic medical records. The six research and dissemination initiatives comprising NHGRI's genomic research portfolio are designed to speed the evaluation and incorporation, where appropriate, of genomic technologies and findings into routine clinical care. Actual adoption of successful approaches in clinical care will depend upon the willingness, interest, and energy of professional societies, practitioners, patients, and payers to promote their responsible use and share their experiences in doing so.

  13. Biological data sciences in genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    The last 20 years have been a remarkable era for biology and medicine. One of the most significant achievements has been the sequencing of the first human genomes, which has laid the foundation for profound insights into human genetics, the intricacies of regulation and development, and the forces of evolution. Incredibly, as we look into the future over the next 20 years, we see the very real potential for sequencing more than 1 billion genomes, bringing even deeper insight into human genetics as well as the genetics of millions of other species on the planet. Realizing this great potential for medicine and biology, though, will only be achieved through the integration and development of highly scalable computational and quantitative approaches that can keep pace with the rapid improvements to biotechnology. In this perspective, I aim to chart out these future technologies, anticipate the major themes of research, and call out the challenges ahead. One of the largest shifts will be in the training used to prepare the class of 2035 for their highly interdisciplinary world.

  14. Educational Technology Research in a VUCA World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.; Reeves, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    The status of educational technology research in a VUCA world is examined. The acronym, VUCA, stands for "Volatility" (rapidly changing contexts and conditions), "Uncertainty" (information missing that is critical to problem solving), "Complexity" (multiple factors difficult to categorize or control), and…

  15. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  16. Commercialization, patenting and genomics: researcher perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Cj; Caulfield, Timothy

    2009-02-19

    The impact of commercialization and patenting pressure on genomics research is still a topic of considerable debate in academic, policy and popular literature. We interviewed genomic researchers to see if their perspectives offered fresh insights. Regional Genome Canada centers provided us with relevant researcher contact information, and in-depth structured interviews were conducted. Researcher perspectives were sharply divided, with both support and concern for commercialization regimes surfacing in interviews. Data withholding and publication delays were commonly reported, but the aggressive enforcement of patents was not. There are parallels to the Stem Cell community in Canada in these respects. Genomic researchers, as individuals directly implicated in the field of controversy, have developed varied and often novel insights which should be incorporated into the ongoing debates surrounding commercialization and patenting. Many researchers continue to raise concerns, particularly in relation to data withholding, thus emphasizing the need for a continued exploration of the complex issues associated with commercialization and patenting.

  17. Ethical aspects of genome diversity research: genome research into cultural diversity or cultural diversity in genome research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Paul, Norbert W

    2009-03-01

    The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better understanding of the history of humankind. An important part of this genome diversity research consists in taking blood and tissue samples from indigenous populations. For various reasons, it has not been possible to execute this project in the planned scope and form to date. Nevertheless, genomic diversity research addresses complex issues which prove to be highly relevant from the perspective of research ethics, transcultural medical ethics, and cultural philosophy. In the article at hand, we discuss these ethical issues as illustrated by the HGDP. This investigation focuses on the confrontation of culturally diverse images of humans and their cosmologies within the framework of genome diversity research and the ethical questions it raises. We argue that in addition to complex questions pertaining to research ethics such as informed consent and autonomy of probands, genome diversity research also has a cultural-philosophical, meta-ethical, and phenomenological dimension which must be taken into account in ethical discourses. Acknowledging this fact, we attempt to show the limits of current guidelines used in international genome diversity studies, following this up by a formulation of theses designed to facilitate an appropriate inquiry and ethical evaluation of intercultural dimensions of genome research.

  18. Recent Developments of Genomic Research in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching Chan; Xinpeng Qi; Man-Wah Li; Fuk-Ling Wong; Hon-Ming Lam

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is an important cash crop with unique and important traits such as the high seed protein and oil contents,and the ability to perform symbiotic nitrogen fixation.A reference genome of cultivated soybeans was established in 2010,followed by whole-genome re-sequencing of wild and cultivated soybean accessions.These efforts revealed unique features of the soybean genome and helped to understand its evolution.Mapping of variations between wild and cultivated soybean genomes were performed.These genomic variations may be related to the process of domestication and human selection.Wild soybean germplasms exhibited high genomic diversity and hence may be an important source of novel genes/alleles.Accumulation of genomic data will help to refine genetic maps and expedite the identification of functional genes.In this review,we summarize the major findings from the whole-genome sequencing projects and discuss the possible impacts on soybean researches and breeding programs.Some emerging areas such as transcriptomic and epigenomic studies will be introduced.In addition,we also tabulated some useful bioinformatics tools that will help the mining of the soybean genomic data.

  19. Ethnobotany genomics research: Status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franky Varah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to analyze the world publication of ethnobotany genomics by using "DNA barcoding" and "DNA barcoding plants" as keywords. Some of the parameters used for the analysis include the publication output, countries′ performance, the institutions involved, subject areas, authors, and journals distribution. The Scopus International Database is used for this purpose. An evaluating indicator, citations and h-index are applied to characterize the ethnobotany genomic publication output. It is interesting to note that over the past decade, there has been a notable growth in publication output. Moreover, there has been a significant increase in the participation from a number of countries as well as institutions, subject categories, journals, authors, and collaborations. The increasing significance of ethnobotany genomics was analyzed by ranking countries, institutions, subject categories, journals, authors and collaborations in terms the total number of publication, their citations and h-index.

  20. The Commercialization of Genomic Research in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Harmsen, Eef; Pastinen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    The commercialization of academic research has been promoted by North American policy makers for over 30 years as a means of increasing university financing and to ensure that promising research would eventually find its way to the marketplace. The following issues paper constitutes a reflection on the impact of the Canadian commercialization framework on academic research in the field of genomics. It was written following two workshops and two independent studies organized by academic groups in Quebec (Centre of Genomics and Policy) and Alberta (Health Law Institute). The full sets of recommendations are available upon request to the authors. PMID:22043221

  1. Researchers making sense of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Williams, Dmitri; Ho, Caroline

    Virtual worlds, from gaming worlds to social worlds, have gained increasing attention by academics, public organizations and private entrepreneurs.  Much has been said about what virtual worlds are and what they mean to people and society.  However, this panel is interested in how we come to know...

  2. Research and services provision on the world research market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wiśniowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to create new knowledge for the development of the economy. The source of new knowledge are research: basic, applied and industrial, which complement each other to form one whole. Each of these research has other sources of financing and other purposes. Due to the large influx of foreign technology to Poland industrial research is not growing as we would expect. To balance this deficiency the Research Institutes may provide services on the world market. It would be advisable to seek the provision of services on the global research market so that it could became a Polish smart specialization. This specialization would include the sale of intellect, which should never run out of customers.

  3. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizeng Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR or “Genoplasmics” is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  4. Tracing the peopling of the world through genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Akey, Joshua M; Jakobsson, Mattias; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Tishkoff, Sarah; Willerslev, Eske

    2017-01-18

    Advances in the sequencing and the analysis of the genomes of both modern and ancient peoples have facilitated a number of breakthroughs in our understanding of human evolutionary history. These include the discovery of interbreeding between anatomically modern humans and extinct hominins; the development of an increasingly detailed description of the complex dispersal of modern humans out of Africa and their population expansion worldwide; and the characterization of many of the genetic adaptions of humans to local environmental conditions. Our interpretation of the evolutionary history and adaptation of humans is being transformed by analyses of these new genomic data.

  5. Ethical Considerations for Educational Research in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, C.; Savage, T.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of features in virtual worlds provides an opportunity to implement and research unique learning experiences. With increasing interest and activity from the educational research community, exploring virtual worlds for teaching and learning, there is a need to identify and understand the ethical implications of conducting research in…

  6. Revisiting Respect for Persons in Genomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra J. H. Mathews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks and benefits of research using large databases of personal information are evolving in an era of ubiquitous, internet-based data exchange. In addition, information technology has facilitated a shift in the relationship between individuals and their personal data, enabling increased individual control over how (and how much personal data are used in research, and by whom. This shift in control has created new opportunities to engage members of the public as partners in the research enterprise on more equal and transparent terms. Here, we consider how some of the technological advances driving and paralleling developments in genomics can also be used to supplement the practice of informed consent with other strategies to ensure that the research process as a whole honors the notion of respect for persons upon which human research subjects protections are premised. Further, we suggest that technological advances can help the research enterprise achieve a more thoroughgoing respect for persons than was possible when current policies governing human subject research were developed. Questions remain about the best way to revise policy to accommodate these changes.

  7. Adapting to a changing world: RAG genomics and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Camargo Maristela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The origin of the recombination-activating genes (RAGs is considered to be a foundation hallmark for adaptive immunity, characterised by the presence of antigen receptor genes that provide the ability to recognise and respond to specific peptide antigens. In vertebrates, a diverse repertoire of antigen-specific receptors, T cell receptors and immunoglobulins is generated by V(DJ recombination performed by the RAG-1 and RAG-2 protein complex. RAG homologues were identified in many jawed vertebrates. Despite their crucial importance, no homologues have been found in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates. This paper focuses on the RAG homologues in humans and other vertebrates for which the genome is completely sequenced, and also discuses the main contribution of the use of RAG homologues in phylogenetics and vertebrate evolution. Since mutations in both genes cause a spectrum of severe combined immunodeficiencies, including the Omenn syndrome (OS, these topics are discussed in detail. Finally, the relevance to genomic diversity and implications to immunomics are addressed. The search for homologues could enlighten us about the evolutionary processes that shaped the adaptive immune system. Understanding the diversity of the adaptive immune system is crucially important for the design and development of new therapies to modulate the immune responses in humans and/or animal models.

  8. 76 FR 58023 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  9. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group, Genome Research Review... Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,...

  10. 77 FR 28888 - National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, ] Rockville,...

  11. Ethnographical Research in 3rd World Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on Etnografphic Research as a means for generating knowledge about the issues related to education - school learning and bringing up. The example is taken from a research project carried out in Nepal by students recruited from the Ministery of Education. The point...... is that their ethnographic practice generates knowledge about paradoxes, complexities and dilemmas in their own cultural and social context that is often ignored in (Western-driven) educational policy, research and innovation. Thus ethnographic research is functioning also as a tool in educational change and innovation....

  12. The genomic proliferation of transposable elements in colonizing populations: Schistosoma mansoni in the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; DeWoody, J Andrew; Minchella, Dennis J

    2015-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genes with an inherent ability to move within and among genomes. Theory predicts that TEs proliferate extensively during physiological stress due to the breakdown of TE repression systems. We tested this hypothesis in Schistosoma mansoni, a widespread trematode parasite that causes the human disease schistosomiasis. According to phylogenetic analysis, S. mansoni invaded the new world during the last 500 years. We hypothesized that new world strains of S. mansoni would have more copies of TEs than old world strains due to the physiological stress associated with invasion of the new world. We quantified the copy number of six TEs (Saci-1, Saci-2 and Saci-3, Perere-1, Merlin-sm1, and SmTRC1) in the genome and the transcriptome of old world and new world strains of S. mansoni, using qPCR relative quantification. As predicted, the genomes of new world parasites contain significantly more copies of class I and class II TEs in both laboratory and field strains. However, such differences are not observed in the transcriptome suggesting that either TE silencing mechanisms have reactivated to control the expression of these elements or the presence of inactive truncated copies of TEs.

  13. Managing Research in a Risk World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Chief Medical Officer (OCHMO) owns all human health and performance risks managed by the Human System Risk Board (HSRB). While the HSRB manages the risks, the Human Research Program (HRP) manages the research portion of the overall risk mitigation strategy for these risks. The HSRB manages risks according to a process that identifies and analyzes risks, plans risk mitigation and tracks and reviews the implementation of these strategies according to its decisions pertaining to the OCHMO risk posture. HRP manages risk research work using an architecture that describes evidence-based risks, gaps in our knowledge about characterizing or mitigating the risk, and the tasks needed to produce deliverables to fill the gaps and reduce the risk. A planning schedule reflecting expected research milestones is developed, and as deliverables and new evidence are generated, research progress is tracked via the Path to Risk Reduction (PRR) that reflects a risk's research plan for a design reference mission. HRP's risk research process closely interfaces with the HSRB risk management process. As research progresses, new deliverables and evidence are used by the HSRB in conjunction with other operational and non-research evidence to inform decisions pertaining to the likelihood and consequence of the risk and risk posture. Those decisions in turn guide forward work for research as it contributes to overall risk mitigation strategies. As HRP tracks its research work, it aligns its priorities by assessing the effectiveness of its contributions and maintaining specific core competencies that would be invaluable for future work for exploration missions.

  14. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  15. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  16. Promoting synergistic research and education in genomics and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jack Y; Yang, Mary Qu; Zhu, Mengxia Michelle; Arabnia, Hamid R; Deng, Youping

    2008-01-01

    scientific achievements by bridging these two very important disciplines into an interactive and attractive forum. Keeping this objective in mind, Biocomp 2007 aims to promote interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary education and research. 25 high quality peer-reviewed papers were selected from 400+ submissions for this supplementary issue of BMC Genomics. Those papers contributed to a wide-range of important research fields including gene expression data analysis and applications, high-throughput genome mapping, sequence analysis, gene regulation, protein structure prediction, disease prediction by machine learning techniques, systems biology, database and biological software development. We always encourage participants submitting proposals for genomics sessions, special interest research sessions, workshops and tutorials to Professor Hamid R. Arabnia (hra@cs.uga.edu) in order to ensure that Biocomp continuously plays the leadership role in promoting inter/multidisciplinary research and education in the fields. Biocomp received top conference ranking with a high score of 0.95/1.00. Biocomp is academically co-sponsored by the International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine and the Research Laboratories and Centers of Harvard University--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Indiana University--Purdue University, Georgia Tech--Emory University, UIUC, UCLA, Columbia University, University of Texas at Austin and University of Iowa etc. Biocomp--Worldcomp brings leading scientists together across the nation and all over the world and aims to promote synergistic components such as keynote lectures, special interest sessions, workshops and tutorials in response to the advances of cutting-edge research.

  17. Healthcare, molecular tools and applied genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M

    2000-11-01

    Biotechnology 2000 offered a rare opportunity for scientists from academia and industry to present and discuss data in fields as diverse as environmental biotechnology and applied genome research. The healthcare section of the meeting encompassed a number of gene therapy delivery systems that are successfully treating genetic disorders. Beta-thalassemia is being corrected in mice by continous erythropoeitin delivery from engineered muscles cells, and from naked DNA electrotransfer into muscles, as described by Dr JM Heard (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). Dr Reszka (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin, Berlin, Germany), meanwhile, described a treatment for liver metastasis in the form of a drug carrier emolization system, DCES (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin), composed of surface modified liposomes and a substance for chemo-occlusion, which drastically reduces the blood supply to the tumor and promotes apoptosis, necrosis and antiangiogenesis. In the molecular tools section, Willem Stemmer (Maxygen Inc, Redwood City, CA, USA) gave an insight into the importance that techniques, such as molecular breeding (DNA shuffling), have in the evolution of molecules with improved function, over a range of fields including pharmaceuticals, vaccines, agriculture and chemicals. Technologies, such as ribosome display, which can incorporate the evolution and the specific enrichment of proteins/peptides in cycles of selection, could play an enormous role in the production of novel therapeutics and diagnostics in future years, as explained by Andreas Plückthun (Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland). Applied genome research offered technologies, such as the 'in vitro expression cloning', described by Dr Zwick (Promega Corp, Madison, WI, USA), are providing a functional analysis for the overwhelming flow of data emerging from high-throughput sequencing of genomes and from high-density gene expression microarrays (DNA chips). The

  18. The innovation journey of genomics and asthma research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitsch, L.; Stemerding, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the transformative potential of medical genomics for common disease research. We analysed 13 review articles in asthma research in the period 1999 to 2008. Our aim was to understand how genomics has emerged in this research field, and the attendant changes. Motivated by Lippman

  19. The innovation journey of genomics and asthma research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitsch, L.; Stemerding, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the transformative potential of medical genomics for common disease research. We analysed 13 review articles in asthma research in the period 1999 to 2008. Our aim was to understand how genomics has emerged in this research field, and the attendant changes. Motivated by Lippman

  20. 77 FR 61770 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genomic Medicine RFAs..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: October 4, 2012. David...

  1. Illuminated Medieval Newspaper: Cross Curricular Research for World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum approach to world history using a "medieval" newspaper as a primary student project. Presents technical requirements, a newspaper outline, and recommendations for research and writing. Includes recommendations for student evaluation and teacher resources. (CFR)

  2. Prospects for Genomic Research in Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Krutovsky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are keystone species of boreal forests. Their whole genome sequencing, assembly and annotation will allow us to understand the evolution of the complex ancient giant conifer genomes that are 4 times larger in larch and 7–9 times larger in pines than the human genome. Genomic studies will allow also to obtain important whole genome sequence data and develop highly polymorphic and informative genetic markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that can be efficiently used in timber origin identification, for genetic variation monitoring, to study local and climate change adaptation and in tree improvement and conservation programs.

  3. Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Danielle M

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both research sponsors and host communities benefit from the resulting agreements. I show that defenders of the claim that exploitation ought to be permitted rely on a mischaracterization of certain forms of interference as unjustly paternalistic and two dubious empirical assumptions about the results of regulation. The view I put forward is that by evaluating a system of constraints on international research agreements, rather than individual transaction-level interference, we can better assess the alternatives to permitting exploitative research agreements.

  4. Practical applications of structural genomics technologies for mutagen research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam; Segelke, Brent W

    2011-06-17

    Here we present a perspective on a range of practical uses of structural genomics for mutagen research. Structural genomics is an overloaded term and requires some definition to bound the discussion; we give a brief description of public and private structural genomics endeavors, along with some of their objectives, their activities, their capabilities, and their limitations. We discuss how structural genomics might impact mutagen research in three different scenarios: at a structural genomics center, at a lab with modest resources that also conducts structural biology research, and at a lab that is conducting mutagen research without in-house experimental structural biology. Applications span functional annotation of single genes or SNP, to constructing gene networks and pathways, to an integrated systems biology approach. Structural genomics centers can take advantage of systems biology models to target high value targets for structure determination and in turn extend systems models to better understand systems biology diseases or phenomenon. Individual investigator run structural biology laboratories can collaborate with structural genomics centers, but can also take advantage of technical advances and tools developed by structural genomics centers and can employ a structural genomics approach to advancing biological understanding. Individual investigator-run non-structural biology laboratories can also collaborate with structural genomics centers, possibly influencing targeting decisions, but can also use structure based annotation tools enabled by the growing coverage of protein fold space provided by structural genomics. Better functional annotation can inform pathway and systems biology models.

  5. Plant database resources at The Institute for Genomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Quackenbush, John; Buell, C Robin; Town, Chris D

    2007-01-01

    With the completion of the genome sequences of the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, and the continuing sequencing efforts of other economically important crop plants, an unprecedented amount of genome sequence data is now available for large-scale genomics studies and analyses, such as the identification and discovery of novel genes, comparative genomics, and functional genomics. Efficient utilization of these large data sets is critically dependent on the ease of access and organization of the data. The plant databases at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) have been set up to maintain various data types including genomic sequence, annotation and analyses, expressed transcript assemblies and analyses, and gene expression profiles from microarray studies. We present here an overview of the TIGR database resources for plant genomics and describe methods to access the data.

  6. Solidarity and justice as guiding principles in genomic research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, R.H.M.V.; Gordijn, B.; Pijnenburg, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In genomic research the ideal standard of free, informed, prior and explicit consent is sometimes difficult to apply. This has raised concern that important genomic research will be restricted. Different consent procedures have therefore been proposed. This paper explicitly examines the question how

  7. Extending Design Science Research Methodology for a Multicultural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Carl; Tuunanen, Tuure; Myers, Michael D.

    Design science research (DSR) is a relatively new approach in information systems research. A fundamental tenet of DSR is that understanding comes from creating information technology artifacts. However, with an increasingly connected and globalized world, designing IT artifacts for a multicultural world is a challenge. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to propose extending the DSR methodology by integrating critical ethnography to the evaluation phase. Critical ethnography provides a way for IS researchers using DSR to better understand culture, and may help to ensure that IT artifacts are designed for a variety of cultural contexts.

  8. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  9. Germline genome-editing research and its socioethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modifying eggs, sperm, and zygotes ('germline' modification) can impact on the entire body of the resulting individual and on subsequent generations. With the advent of genome-editing technology, human germline gene modification is no longer theoretical. Owing to increasing concerns about human germline gene modification, a voluntary moratorium on human genome-editing research and/or the clinical application of human germline genome editing has recently been called for. However, whether such research should be suspended or encouraged warrants careful consideration. The present article reviews recent research on mammalian germline genome editing, discusses the importance of public dialogue on the socioethical implications of human germline genome-editing research, and considers the relevant guidelines and legislation in different countries.

  10. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2014-11-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functional studies beyond genomes are required. Thanks to the developments of current -omics techniques, it is possible to produce large amounts of fungal functional data in a high-throughput fashion (e.g. transcriptome, proteome, etc.). The increasing ease of creating -omics data has also created a major challenge for downstream data handling and analysis. Numerous databases, tools and software have been created to meet this challenge. Facing such a richness of techniques and information, hereby we provide a brief roadmap on current wet-lab and bioinformatics approaches to study functional genomics in fungi.

  11. Applications of Genome-based Science in Shaping Citrus Industries of the World (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting, 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmitter Jr, Fred [University of Florida

    2012-03-21

    Fred Gmitter from the University of Florida on "Applications of Genome-based Science in Shaping the Future of the World's Citrus Industries" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  12. Partnering for functional genomics research conference: Abstracts of poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This reports contains abstracts of poster presentations presented at the Functional Genomics Research Conference held April 16--17, 1998 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention is focused on the following areas: mouse mutagenesis and genomics; phenotype screening; gene expression analysis; DNA analysis technology development; bioinformatics; comparative analyses of mouse, human, and yeast sequences; and pilot projects to evaluate methodologies.

  13. Genomic approaches to research in pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuder Rubin M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomics, or the study of genes and their function, is a burgeoning field with many new technologies. In the present review, we explore the application of genomic approaches to the study of pulmonary hypertension (PH. Candidate genes, important to the pathobiology of the disease, have been investigated. Rodent models enable the manipulation of selected genes, either by transgenesis or targeted disruption. Mutational analysis of genes in the transforming growth factor-β family have proven pivotal in both familial and sporadic forms of primary PH. Finally, microarray gene expression analysis is a robust molecular tool to aid in delineating the pathobiology of this disease.

  14. 75 FR 10488 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHGRI MAP Review... Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; LRP 2010 Teleconference. Date: April 7,...

  15. 78 FR 20933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Room 3055, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville,...

  16. 76 FR 35223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Sequencing Centers...D, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  17. 77 FR 60706 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Special Emphasis... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of...

  18. 75 FR 52538 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Date: November 19-20..., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  19. 75 FR 8374 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Revolutionary..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076,...

  20. 78 FR 68856 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  1. 78 FR 14806 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel: Clinically Relevant... grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 4th Floor Conference Room,...

  2. Toward the commoditization of translational genomic research: Design and implementation features of the Galaxy genomic workbench.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although there is now plenty of genomic data and no shortage of analysis methods for translational genomic research, many biologists do not have efficient and transparent access to the computational resources they need. No single data resource or analysis application is ever likely to efficiently address all aspects of any individual researcher’s needs, so most researchers are forced to manually integrate data and outputs from multiple resources. The inevitable heterogeneity of data formats a...

  3. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new

  4. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new

  5. Human genome program report. Part 2, 1996 research abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  6. Human Genome Program Report. Part 2, 1996 Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  7. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  8. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  9. Using WorldWide Telescope in Observing, Research and Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Douglas A.; Fay, J.

    2014-01-01

    WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is free software that enables researchers to interactively explore observational data using a user-friendly interface. Reference, all-sky datasets and pointed observations are available as layers along with the ability to easily overlay additional FITS images and catalog data. Connections to the Astrophysics Data System (ADS) are included which enable visual investigation using WWT to drive document searches in ADS. WWT can be used to capture and share visual exploration with colleagues during observational planning and analysis. Finally, researchers can use WorldWide Telescope to create videos for professional, education and outreach presentations. I will conclude with an example of how I have used WWT in a research project. Specifically, I will discuss how WorldWide Telescope helped our group to prepare for radio observations and following them, in the analysis of multi-wavelength data taken in the inner parsec of the Galaxy. A concluding video will show how WWT brought together disparate datasets in a unified interactive visualization environment.

  10. Cancer genomics object model: an object model for multiple functional genomics data for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Lee, Hye Won; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Ju Han

    2007-01-01

    The development of functional genomics including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics allow us to monitor a large number of key cellular pathways simultaneously. Several technology-specific data models have been introduced for the representation of functional genomics experimental data, including the MicroArray Gene Expression-Object Model (MAGE-OM), the Proteomics Experiment Data Repository (PEDRo), and the Tissue MicroArray-Object Model (TMA-OM). Despite the increasing number of cancer studies using multiple functional genomics technologies, there is still no integrated data model for multiple functional genomics experimental and clinical data. We propose an object-oriented data model for cancer genomics research, Cancer Genomics Object Model (CaGe-OM). We reference four data models: Functional Genomic-Object Model, MAGE-OM, TMAOM and PEDRo. The clinical and histopathological information models are created by analyzing cancer management workflow and referencing the College of American Pathology Cancer Protocols and National Cancer Institute Common Data Elements. The CaGe-OM provides a comprehensive data model for integrated storage and analysis of clinical and multiple functional genomics data.

  11. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genomic Resource...: Rudy O. Pozzatti, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human...

  12. Sensing and Virtual Worlds - A Survey of Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Worlds (VWs) have been used effectively in live and constructive military training. An area that remains fertile ground for exploration and a new vision involves integrating various traditional and now non-traditional sensors into virtual worlds. In this paper, we will assert that the benefits of this integration are several. First, we maintain that virtual worlds offer improved sensor deployment planning through improved visualization and stimulation of the model, using geo-specific terrain and structure. Secondly, we assert that VWs enhance the mission rehearsal process, and that using a mix of live avatars, non-player characters, and live sensor feeds (e.g. real time meteorology) can help visualization of the area of operations. Finally, tactical operations are improved via better collaboration and integration of real world sensing capabilities, and in most situations, 30 VWs improve the state of the art over current "dots on a map" 20 geospatial visualization. However, several capability gaps preclude a fuller realization of this vision. In this paper, we identify many of these gaps and suggest research directions

  13. 75 FR 52537 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  14. 75 FR 2148 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group, Genome Research Review... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  15. 78 FR 24223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd floor Conf. Room 3146, 5635 Fishers...

  16. 76 FR 3643 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January...

  17. World scientific collaboration in coronary heart disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Shao, Hongfang; He, Peifeng; Duan, Zhiguang

    2013-08-10

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) will continue to exert a heavy burden for countries all over the world. Scientific collaboration has become the only choice for progress in biomedicine. Unfortunately, there is a scarcity of scientific publications about scientific collaboration in CHD research. This study examines collaboration behaviors across multiple collaboration types in the CHD research. 294,756 records about CHD were retrieved from Web of Science. Methods such as co-authorship, social network analysis, connected component, cliques, and betweenness centrality were used in this study. Collaborations have increased at the author, institution and country/region levels in CHD research over the past three decades. 3000 most collaborative authors, 572 most collaborative institutions and 52 countries/regions are extracted from their corresponding collaboration network. 766 cliques are found in the most collaborative authors. 308 cliques are found in the most collaborative institutions. Western countries/regions represent the core of the world's collaboration. The United States ranks first in terms of number of multi-national publications, while Hungary leads in the ranking measured by their proportion of collaborative output. The rate of economic development in the countries/regions also affects the multi-national collaboration behavior. Collaborations among countries/regions need to be encouraged in the CHD research. The visualization of overlapping cliques in the most collaborative authors and institutions are considered "skeleton" of the collaboration network. Eastern countries/regions should strengthen cooperation with western countries/regions in the CHD research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  19. Genome editing in pluripotent stem cells: research and therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleidi, Michela, E-mail: michela.deleidi@dzne.de [German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Tübingen within the Helmholtz Association, Tübingen (Germany); Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen (Germany); Yu, Cong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) and genome editing technologies has opened up new avenues for the investigation of human biology in health and disease as well as the development of therapeutic applications. Gene editing approaches with programmable nucleases have been successfully established in hPSCs and applied to study gene function, develop novel animal models and perform genetic and chemical screens. Several studies now show the successful editing of disease-linked alleles in somatic and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as well as in animal models. Importantly, initial clinical trials have shown the safety of programmable nucleases for ex vivo somatic gene therapy. In this context, the unlimited proliferation potential and the pluripotent properties of iPSCs may offer advantages for gene targeting approaches. However, many technical and safety issues still need to be addressed before genome-edited iPSCs are translated into the clinical setting. Here, we provide an overview of the available genome editing systems and discuss opportunities and perspectives for their application in basic research and clinical practice, with a particular focus on hPSC based research and gene therapy approaches. Finally, we discuss recent research on human germline genome editing and its social and ethical implications. - Highlights: • Programmable nucleases have proven efficient and specific for genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). • Genome edited hPSCs can be employed to study gene function in health and disease as well as drug and chemical screens. • Genome edited hPSCs hold great promise for ex vivo gene therapy approaches. • Technical and safety issues should be first addressed to advance the clinical use of gene-edited hPSCs.

  20. Genomics of Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    PATERSON, ANDREW H

    2008-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a subject of plant genomics research based on its importance as one of the world's leading cereal crops, a biofuels crop of high and growing importance, a progenitor of one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a botanical model for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. A rich history of genome analysis, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the genome of a leading inbred, provides a foundation for invigorating progress toward relatin...

  1. Genomics and Public Health Research: Can the State Allow Access to Genomic Databases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stanton Jean

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because many diseases are multifactorial disorders,the scientific progress in genomics and genetics should be taken into consideration in public health research. In this context, genomic databases will constitute an important source of information. Consequently, it is important to identify and characterize the State's role and authority on matters related to public health,in order to verify whether it has access to such databases while engaging in public health genomic research. We first consider the evolution of the concept of public health, as well as its core functions, using a comparative approach (e.g. WHO, PAHO, CDC and the Canadian province of Quebec. Following an analysis of relevant Quebec legislation, the precautionary principle is examined as a possible avenue to justify State access to and use of genomic databases for research purposes. Finally, we consider the Influenza pandemic plans developed by WHO, Canada, and Quebec,as examples of key tools framing public health decision-making process.We observed that State powers in public health, are not,in Quebec,well adapted to the expansion of genomics research.We propose that the scope of the concept of research in public health should be clear and include the following characteristics:a commitment to the health and well-being of the population and to their determinants; the inclusion of both applied research and basic research; and, an appropriate model of governance (authorization, follow-up,consent, etc..We also suggest that the strategic approach version of the precautionary principle could guide collective choices in these matters.

  2. Combining genomic and proteomic approaches for epigenetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yumiao; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that do not change the DNA sequence. In this review, current methods, both genomic and proteomic, associated with epigenetics research are discussed. Among them, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing and other ChIP-based techniques are powerful techniques for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone post-translational modifications or nucleosome positions. However, mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in functional biological studies and has proved to be an indispensable tool to characterize histone modifications, as well as DNA–protein and protein–protein interactions. With the development of genomic and proteomic approaches, combination of ChIP and mass spectrometry has the potential to expand our knowledge of epigenetics research to a higher level. PMID:23895656

  3. Follicular cell thyroid neoplasia: insights from genomics and The Cancer Genome Atlas research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The present review is focused on the recently published study on the genomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma performed by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network and its implications for the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The Cancer Genome Atlas study of papillary thyroid carcinoma comprehensively examined the cancer genome of nearly 500 primary tumors. Using a highly integrated bioinformatic analysis, papillary carcinoma was shown at the genomic level to consist of two highly distinct classes that reflected both tumor histology and underlying genotype. Tumors with true papillary architecture were dominated by BRAF(V600E) mutations and RET kinase fusions and were designated as BRAF(V600E)-like. Tumors with follicular architecture were conversely dominated by RAS mutations and were designated as RAS-like. Given the strong genotype:phenotype correlation known to be present in thyroid cancer, the separation of BRAF(V600E)-like and RAS-like tumors has profound implications for its classification, especially the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The recent genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma is challenging the established pathological classification of thyroid cancer with significance for the care of patients.

  4. Research progress of genome editing and derivative technologies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiwei, Shan; Caixia, Gao

    2015-10-01

    Genome editing technologies using engineered nucleases have been widely used in many model organisms. Genome editing with sequence-specific nuclease (SSN) creates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the genomic target sites that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways, which can be employed to achieve targeted genome modifications such as gene mutations, insertions, replacements or chromosome rearrangements. There are three major SSNs─zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. In contrast to ZFN and TALEN, which require substantial protein engineering to each DNA target, the CRISPR/Cas9 system requires only a change in the guide RNA. For this reason, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple, inexpensive and versatile tool for genome engineering. Furthermore, a modified version of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed to recruit heterologous domains that can regulate endogenous gene expression, such as activation, depression and epigenetic regulation. In this review, we summarize the development and applications of genome editing technologies for basic research and biotechnology, as well as highlight challenges and future directions, with particular emphasis on plants.

  5. Researchers, elites, and people in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, J

    1983-01-01

    The paper locates the problem of research ethics in a "value-free" science that has made researchers value-blind, insufficiently able to foresee possible negative consequences of what they do, but very able to design strategies to agree to structures that protect them. The intellectual style of a given research community enters as a key variable, and most intellectual styles are seen as ways of making scientific findings less threatening by focusing on data with little interpretation or speculation with little documentation. The famous Wilkes/Gleditsch case in Norway is cited as an example of research that offered both data (obtained from open sources) and interpretation, and was met with disapproval and sentence. The moral problem of value conflicts can best be understood by studying researchers in a social setting, together with elites and people. Only if researchers were on top and truth were the supreme value would the researchers' situation be unproblematic. But philosopher-kings, however omniscient and omnipotent, are rarely benevolent, and the very fact of concentrating so much on top leads to highly unacceptable societies, by demobilizing the rest, turning them into clients. Hence, researchers will live with their problems of being tempted into sins of commission--to pursue destructive knowledge--and sins of omission--not to pursue constructive knowledge, and not to pursue unpleasant truths, not because they want this, but because the structure leads them in that direction. Most researchers probably want security, academic freedom, and relevance, and the problem is this: Elites offer security and relevance, not academic freedom; universities offer security and academic freedom, not relevance; people may offer relevance, but neither security, nor freedom. In a rapidly changing world the interconnections and possibly destructive effects of research far away in space and time have become more evident, at the same time as formerly rich and dominating countries

  6. Implicit and explicit notions of valorization in genomics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, D.; Nahuis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Valorization of knowledge has been defined as a major challenge in the context of genomics as an emerging strategic research field. Valorization is a Dutch science-policy concept for what is elsewhere called science impact or the third mission of universities. This article describes the institutiona

  7. Research progress in genomics of environmental and industrial microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Microbes contribute to geochemical cycles in the ecosystem.They also play important roles in biodegradation and bioremediation of contaminated environments,and have great potential in energy conversion and regeneration.Up to date,at least 150 genomes of non-pathogenic microbes have been sequenced,of which,the majority are bacteria from various environments or of industrial uses.The emerging field ’metagenomics’ in combination with the high-throughput sequencing technology offers opportunities to discover new functions of microbes in the environment on a large scale,and has become the ’hot spot’ in the field of environmental microbiology.Seven genomes of bacteria from various extreme environments,including high temperature,high and low pressure,and extreme acidic regions,have been sequenced by researchers in China,leading to the discovery of metabolic pathways,genetic functions and new enzymes,which are related to the niches those bacteria occupy.These results were published in Nature,PNAS,Genome Research and other top international journals.In the meantime,several groups in China have started ’metagenomics’ programs.The outcomes of these researches are expected to generate a considerable number of novel findings,taking Chinese researchers to the frontier of genomics for environmental and industrial microorganisms.

  8. Implicit and explicit notions of valorization in genomics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, D.; Nahuis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Valorization of knowledge has been defined as a major challenge in the context of genomics as an emerging strategic research field. Valorization is a Dutch science-policy concept for what is elsewhere called science impact or the third mission of universities. This article describes the

  9. Research progress in genomics of environmental and industrial microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; LIU Bin; ZHOU ZheMin

    2009-01-01

    Microbes contribute to geochemical cycles in the ecosystem. They also play important roles in bio-degradation and bioremediation of contaminated environments, and have great potential in energy conversion and regeneration. Up to date, at least 150 genomes of non-pathogenic microbes have been sequenced, of which, the majority are bacteria from various environments or of industrial uses. The emerging field 'metagenomics' in combination with the high-throughput sequencing technology offers opportunities to discover new functions of microbes in the environment on a large scale, and has be-come the 'hot spot' in the field of environmental microbiology. Seven genomes of bacteria from various extreme environments, including high temperature, high and low pressure, and extreme acidic regions, have been sequenced by researchers in China, leading to the discovery of metabolic pathways, genetic functions and new enzymes, which are related to the niches those bacteria occupy. These results were published in Nature, PNAS, Genome Research and other top international journals. In the meantime, several groups in China have started 'metagenomics' programs. The outcomes of these researches are expected to generate a considerable number of novel findings, taking Chinese researchers to the fron-tier of genomics for environmental and industrial microorganisms.

  10. Implicit and explicit notions of valorization in genomics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, D.; Nahuis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Valorization of knowledge has been defined as a major challenge in the context of genomics as an emerging strategic research field. Valorization is a Dutch science-policy concept for what is elsewhere called science impact or the third mission of universities. This article describes the institutiona

  11. Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I.; Harkins, Kelly M.; Herbig, Alexander; Coscolla, Mireia; Weber, Nico; Comas, Iñaki; Forrest, Stephen A.; Bryant, Josephine M.; Harris, Simon R.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Campbell, Tessa J.; Majander, Kerrtu; Wilbur, Alicia K.; Guichon, Ricardo A.; Wolfe Steadman, Dawnie L.; Cook, Della Collins; Niemann, Stefan; Behr, Marcel A.; Zumarraga, Martin; Bastida, Ricardo; Huson, Daniel; Nieselt, Kay; Young, Douglas; Parkhill, Julian; Buikstra, Jane E.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Stone, Anne C.; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Americas are closely related to those from Europe, supporting the assumption that human tuberculosis was introduced post-contact1. This notion, however, is incompatible with archaeological evidence of pre-contact tuberculosis in the New World2. Comparative genomics of modern isolates suggests that M. tuberculosis attained its worldwide distribution following human dispersals out of Africa during the Pleistocene epoch3, although this has yet to be confirmed with ancient calibration points. Here we present three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons, revealing that a member of the M. tuberculosis complex caused human disease before contact. The ancient strains are distinct from known human-adapted forms and are most closely related to those adapted to seals and sea lions. Two independent dating approaches suggest a most recent common ancestor for the M. tuberculosis complex less than 6,000 years ago, which supports a Holocene dispersal of the disease. Our results implicate sea mammals as having played a role in transmitting the disease to humans across the ocean. PMID:25141181

  12. Parallel computing in genomic research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaña K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kary Ocaña,1 Daniel de Oliveira2 1National Laboratory of Scientific Computing, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, 2Institute of Computing, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil Abstract: Today's genomic experiments have to process the so-called "biological big data" that is now reaching the size of Terabytes and Petabytes. To process this huge amount of data, scientists may require weeks or months if they use their own workstations. Parallelism techniques and high-performance computing (HPC environments can be applied for reducing the total processing time and to ease the management, treatment, and analyses of this data. However, running bioinformatics experiments in HPC environments such as clouds, grids, clusters, and graphics processing unit requires the expertise from scientists to integrate computational, biological, and mathematical techniques and technologies. Several solutions have already been proposed to allow scientists for processing their genomic experiments using HPC capabilities and parallelism techniques. This article brings a systematic review of literature that surveys the most recently published research involving genomics and parallel computing. Our objective is to gather the main characteristics, benefits, and challenges that can be considered by scientists when running their genomic experiments to benefit from parallelism techniques and HPC capabilities. Keywords: high-performance computing, genomic research, cloud computing, grid computing, cluster computing, parallel computing

  13. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Alyssa; Muench, August; Pepe, Alberto; Udomprasert, Patricia; Wong, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth ...

  14. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-08-15

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.

  15. Genomic research for important pathogenic bacteria in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG RuiFu; GUO XiaoKui; YANG Jian; JIANG YongQiang; PANG Bo; CHEN Chen; YAO YuFeng; QIN JinHong; LI QingTian

    2009-01-01

    Rapid accumulation of bacterial genomic data offered an unprecedented opportunity to understand bacterial biology from a holistic view of point. We can thus closely look at the way in which a pathogen is evolved, and these data has been applied to molecular epidemiology and microbial forensics, and screening of novel diagnostic, vaccine and drug targets. The newly developed high-throughput low-cost sequencing technologies, such as 454, Solexa and SOLiD, will promote the acquisition and application of genomic data in new research areas that we dared not imagine previously, such as the metagenomics of human gastric-intestinal tract, for better and comprehensive understanding of human health and disease.

  16. The innovation journey of genomics and asthma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Lise; Stemerding, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    This article concerns the transformative potential of medical genomics for common disease research. We analysed 13 review articles in asthma research in the period 1999 to 2008. Our aim was to understand how genomics has emerged in this research field, and the attendant changes. Motivated by Lippman's geneticisation thesis, we use the concept of an 'innovation journey' to trace how expectations of improved understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment structure a dynamic co-evolutionary process through which a genome-based discourse emerges. We show how the asthma researchers involved continuously struggle to define their contribution to asthma research, as well as to clinical practice. Along the way, the researchers propose changes to both the definition and the aetiological model of asthma, thus highlighting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. It is, however, difficult to characterise this discourse as one of geneticisation. With increasing attention being given to epigenetics, metabolomics, proteomics and systems biology, the emerging picture suggests an important, but much less deterministic, role for genes.

  17. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  18. Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle Mansilla, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering

  19. Yeast as a touchstone in post-genomic research: strategies for integrative analysis in functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Juan I; Oliver, Stephen G

    2004-01-31

    The new complexity arising from the genome sequencing projects requires new comprehensive post-genomic strategies: advanced studies in regulatory mechanisms, application of new high-throughput technologies at a genome-wide scale, at the different levels of cellular complexity (genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome), efficient analysis of the results, and application of new bioinformatic methods in an integrative or systems biology perspective. This can be accomplished in studies with model organisms under controlled conditions. In this review a perspective of the favourable characteristics of yeast as a touchstone model in post-genomic research is presented. The state-of-the art, latest advances in the field and bottlenecks, new strategies, new regulatory mechanisms, applications (patents) and high-throughput technologies, most of them being developed and validated in yeast, are presented. The optimal characteristics of yeast as a well-defined system for comprehensive studies under controlled conditions makes it a perfect model to be used in integrative, "systems biology" studies to get new insights into the mechanisms of regulation (regulatory networks) responsible of specific phenotypes under particular environmental conditions, to be applied to more complex organisms (e.g. plants, human).

  20. The Whole Genome Assembly and Comparative Genomic Research of Thellungiella parvula (Extremophile Crucifer Mitochondrion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial (mt genome of an extremophile species Thellungiella parvula (T. parvula have been determined with the lengths of 255,773 bp. T. parvula mt genome is a circular sequence and contains 32 protein-coding genes, 19 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes with a 11.5% coding sequence. The base composition of 27.5% A, 27.5% T, 22.7% C, and 22.3% G in descending order shows a slight bias of 55% AT. Fifty-three repeats were identified in the mitochondrial genome of T. parvula, including 24 direct repeats, 28 tandem repeats (TRs, and one palindromic repeat. Furthermore, a total of 199 perfect microsatellites have been mined with a high A/T content (83.1% through simple sequence repeat (SSR analysis and they were distributed unevenly within this mitochondrial genome. We also analyzed other plant mitochondrial genomes’ evolution in general, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organelles genomes in plants. Comparing with other Brassicaceae species, T. parvula is related to Arabidopsis thaliana whose characters of low temperature resistance have been well documented. This study will provide important genetic tools for other Brassicaceae species research and improve yields of economically important plants.

  1. Mitochondrial genome interrogation for forensic casework and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Rhonda K; Sprouse, Marc; Phillips, Nicole; Alicea-Centeno, Alessandra; Shewale, Shantanu; Shore, Sabrina; Paul, Natasha

    2014-04-24

    This unit describes methods used in the analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for forensic and research applications. UNIT describes procedures specifically for forensic casework where the DNA from evidentiary material is often degraded or inhibited. In this unit, protocols are described for quantification of mtDNA before amplification; amplification of the entire control region from high-quality samples as well as procedures for interrogating the whole mitochondrial genome (mtGenome); quantification of mtDNA post-amplification; and, post-PCR cleanup and sequencing. The protocols for amplification were developed for high-throughput databasing applications for forensic DNA testing such as reference samples and population studies. However, these same protocols can be applied to biomedical research such as age-related disease and health disparities research.

  2. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  3. 78 FR 56905 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; H3AFRICA ELSI Research.... Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Suite 3055, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD...

  4. 75 FR 51828 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... for Human Genome Research. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance..., PhD, Director for Extramural Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: May 16-17, 2011. Open: May 16, 2011, 8:30...

  5. The Aspergillus Genome Database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the Aspergillus research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Martha B; Chibucos, Marcus C; Costanzo, Maria C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Inglis, Diane O; Lotia, Adil; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Wortman, Jennifer R; Sherlock, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the Aspergilli. AspGD combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of Aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple Aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring the data. All of these data are freely available at http://www.aspgd.org. We welcome feedback from users and the research community at aspergillus-curator@genome.stanford.edu.

  6. Genephony: a knowledge management tool for genome-wide research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Angelo; Riva, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the consequences of the rapid and widespread adoption of high-throughput experimental technologies is an exponential increase of the amount of data produced by genome-wide experiments. Researchers increasingly need to handle very large volumes of heterogeneous data, including both the data generated by their own experiments and the data retrieved from publicly available repositories of genomic knowledge. Integration, exploration, manipulation and interpretation of data and information therefore need to become as automated as possible, since their scale and breadth are, in general, beyond the limits of what individual researchers and the basic data management tools in normal use can handle. This paper describes Genephony, a tool we are developing to address these challenges. Results We describe how Genephony can be used to manage large datesets of genomic information, integrating them with existing knowledge repositories. We illustrate its functionalities with an example of a complex annotation task, in which a set of SNPs coming from a genotyping experiment is annotated with genes known to be associated to a phenotype of interest. We show how, thanks to the modular architecture of Genephony and its user-friendly interface, this task can be performed in a few simple steps. Conclusion Genephony is an online tool for the manipulation of large datasets of genomic information. It can be used as a browser for genomic data, as a high-throughput annotation tool, and as a knowledge discovery tool. It is designed to be easy to use, flexible and extensible. Its knowledge management engine provides fine-grained control over individual data elements, as well as efficient operations on large datasets. PMID:19728881

  7. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  8. Parallel computing in genomic research: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Kary; de Oliveira, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Today's genomic experiments have to process the so-called "biological big data" that is now reaching the size of Terabytes and Petabytes. To process this huge amount of data, scientists may require weeks or months if they use their own workstations. Parallelism techniques and high-performance computing (HPC) environments can be applied for reducing the total processing time and to ease the management, treatment, and analyses of this data. However, running bioinformatics experiments in HPC environments such as clouds, grids, clusters, and graphics processing unit requires the expertise from scientists to integrate computational, biological, and mathematical techniques and technologies. Several solutions have already been proposed to allow scientists for processing their genomic experiments using HPC capabilities and parallelism techniques. This article brings a systematic review of literature that surveys the most recently published research involving genomics and parallel computing. Our objective is to gather the main characteristics, benefits, and challenges that can be considered by scientists when running their genomic experiments to benefit from parallelism techniques and HPC capabilities.

  9. Genomic organization and expression of the HSP70 locus in New and Old World Leishmania species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgueira, C; Cañavate, C; Chicharro, C; Requena, J M

    2007-03-01

    Heat shock is believed to be a developmental inductor of differentiation in Leishmania. Furthermore, heat shock genes are extensively studied as gene models to decipher mechanisms of gene regulation in kinetoplastids. Here, we describe the organization and expression of the HSP70 loci in representative Leishmania species (L. infantum, L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis). With the exception of L. braziliensis, the organization of the HSP70 loci was found to be well conserved among the other Leishmania species. Two types of genes, HSP70-I and HSP70-II, were found to be present in these Leishmania species except for L. braziliensis that lacks HSP70-II gene. Polymorphisms in the HSP70 locus allow the differentiation of the Old and New World species within the subgenus Leishmania. A notable discrepancy between our data and those of the L. major genome database in relation to the gene copy number composing the L. major HSP70 locus was revealed. The temperature-dependent accumulation of the HSP70-I mRNAs is also conserved among the different Leishmania species with the exception of L. braziliensis. In spite of these differences, analysis of the HSP70 synthesis indicated that the HSP70 mRNAs are also preferentially translated during heat shock in L. braziliensis.

  10. Introduction: Researching online worlds: challenging media and communication studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Sandvik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital media and network communication technology have not changed this setup, but rather have opened the possibility for encountering and experiencing additional types of worlds and performing additional types of spatial practices. Being situated online and being globally networked with the possibility of both synchronous and asynchronous communication, digitally mediated worlds provide possible interactions between users which are radically more independent of time and place than the ones facilitated by older media. From this perspective, the concept of online worlds both challenges and broadens our understanding of how media shape the world and how the media technology creates new social structures.

  11. 78 FR 64222 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Committee, CEGS-- Initiative to Maximize Research Education in Genomics. Date: November 7-8, 2013. Time: 8..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National...

  12. 78 FR 55752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Sites for..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC...

  13. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research...

  14. 76 FR 35224 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  15. 76 FR 5390 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... privacy. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHGRI Sample Repository..., National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville, MD...

  16. 78 FR 61851 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Human Genome Research Institute, 4076 Conference Room, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  17. 77 FR 58402 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; R25 DAP Sept. 2012...: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 3rd Floor Conference Room, Rockville, MD...

  18. 75 FR 62548 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... . Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  19. 76 FR 22112 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Special Emphasis Panel... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April...

  20. 76 FR 19780 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane... Assistance Program No. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April...

  1. 75 FR 80509 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 16, 2010. Jennifer S....

  2. 77 FR 20646 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program...: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 3rd Floor Conference Room, Rockville, MD...

  3. 77 FR 59933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; ELSI CEERS RFA (SEP... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville,...

  4. 76 FR 66076 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 19, 2011. Jennifer S....

  5. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  6. 78 FR 77477 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  7. 76 FR 9031 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  8. 75 FR 13558 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research...

  9. 75 FR 2147 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 8-9, 2010....

  10. 77 FR 35991 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  11. 78 FR 31953 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SEP-UDN Coordinating... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor Conference Room, 3146, 5635...

  12. 75 FR 19984 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  13. 78 FR 11898 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  14. 78 FR 70063 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH...

  15. 75 FR 8373 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, GWAS Comparing Design... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  16. 75 FR 60467 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  17. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  18. 76 FR 50486 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  19. 77 FR 50140 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  20. 76 FR 17930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genetic... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville,...

  1. 77 FR 2304 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... given that the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) will host a series of meetings to enable... for Human Genome Research. Background materials on the proposed reorganization and...

  2. 77 FR 2735 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 13-14, 2012....

  3. 78 FR 9707 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; H3Africa (RM-006, RM... Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville, MD 20852, (301)...

  4. 77 FR 22332 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, H3Africa Biorepository... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 4076, Rockville, MD...

  5. 75 FR 56115 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; CEGS DAP. Date... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September...

  6. 75 FR 48977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  7. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  8. 77 FR 31863 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel DAP R25 Eppig.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  9. 77 FR 71604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Date: January 11, 2013..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076,...

  10. 75 FR 46951 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be...: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: September 13-14, 2010. Open: September 13,...

  11. 78 FR 107 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor Conference Room, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20851... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  12. 75 FR 32957 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Protein Resource RFA... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  13. 75 FR 44800 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The... Call). Contact Person: Mark S. Guyer, Director for Extramural Research, National Human Genome...

  14. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  15. 76 FR 22407 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program....172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 12, 2011. Jennifer...

  16. 76 FR 79199 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  17. 77 FR 6810 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; CIDR Contract Renewal... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville,...

  18. 75 FR 35821 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed..., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  19. Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post Genome-Wide Association Study world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieze, S. I.; Iacono, W. G.; McGue, M.

    2012-01-01

    , and expected payoffs. Using substance use and abuse as our driving example, we then turn to the importance of etiological psychological theory in guiding genetic, environmental, and developmental research, as well as the utility of refined phenotypic measures, such as endophenotypes, in the pursuit...... of etiological understanding and focused tests of genetic and environmental associations. Phenotypic measurement has received considerable attention in the history of psychology and is informed by psychometrics, whereas the environment remains relatively poorly measured and is often confounded with genetic...... variation, most of which remains to be leveraged in genetic association tests. Although the genetic data can be massive and burdensome (tens of millions of variants per person), we argue that improved understanding of genomic structure and function will provide investigators with new tools to test specific...

  20. Applying functional genomics research to the study of pig reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, D; Caetano, A R; Bertani, G R; Gladney, C D; Johnson, R K

    2001-01-01

    Functional genomics is an experimental approach that incorporates genome-wide or system-wide experimentation, expanding the scope of biological investigation from studying single genes to studying potentially all genes at once in a systematic manner. This technology is highly appealing because of its high throughput and relatively low cost. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression using microarrays is likely to be more biologically relevant than the conventional paradigm of reductionism, because it has the potential to uncover new biological connections between genes and biochemical pathways. However, functional genomics is still in its infancy, especially with regard to the study of pig reproduction. Currently, efforts are centred on developing the necessary resources to enable high throughput evaluation and comparison of gene expression. However, it is clear that in the near future functional genomics will be applied on a large scale to study the biology and physiology of reproduction in pigs, and to understand better the complex nature of genetic control over polygenic characteristics, such as ovulation rate and litter size. We can look forward to generating a significant amount of new data on differences in gene expression between genotypes, treatments, or at various temporal and spatial coordinates within a variety of reproductively relevant systems. Along with this capability will be the challenge of collating, analysing and interpreting datasets that are orders of magnitude more extensive and complex than those currently used. Furthermore, integration of functional genomics with traditional genetic approaches and with detailed analysis of the proteome and relevant whole animal phenotypes will be required to make full use of this powerful new experimental paradigm as a beneficial research tool.

  1. Advancing the biobehavioral research of fatigue with genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Debra E; McCain, Nancy L; Pickler, Rita H; Munro, Cindy; Elswick, R K

    2011-09-01

    To examine phenotypic considerations in the study of fatigue and to explore significant issues affecting the extension of biobehavioral research of fatigue by the inclusion of genetic and genomic markers. THEORETICAL ORGANIZATION: Fatigue is a condition that has an adverse effect on quality of life that has been a focus of nursing inquiry. Yet, the study of fatigue has been stymied by the lack of phenotypic clarity. To expand the biobehavioral inquiry of fatigue, phenotypic clarity is needed. In addition, examining genomic factors associated with fatigue may help to elucidate the pathophysiology of fatigue and, in the future, lead to targeted interventions that address the molecular basis of fatigue. Given that nursing has been at the forefront of the study of fatigue, nurse scientists should consider enhancing phenotypic clarity by the development of a case-definition and use of a core measure of fatigue, one that can be augmented by condition- or population-specific measures as needed. Following the establishment of phenotypic clarity, the integration of genomics into biobehavioral research offers an opportunity for further clarity of phenotypes and for theoretical specification of the pathophysiology of conditions such as fatigue. The development of targeted interventions for fatigue depend on a more precise definition of fatigue and a better understanding of the biologic processes that contribute to its development and persistence. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. WEGENER: World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, Haluk; Zerbini, Susanna; Bastos, Luisa; Becker, Matthias; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Reilinger, Robert

    2013-04-01

    climate change (sea level, ice degradation). In addition, expanded applications of space geodesy to atmospheric studies will remain a major focus with emphasis on ionospheric and tropospheric monitoring to support forecasting extreme events. Towards these ends, we will encourage and foster interdisciplinary, integrated initiatives to develop a range of case studies for these critical problems. Geological studies are needed to extend geodetic deformation studies to geologic time scales, and new modeling approaches will facilitate full exploitation of expanding geodetic databases. In light of this new focus, the WEGENER acronym now represents, "World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research".

  3. Genomic research for important pathogenic bacteria in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Rapid accumulation of bacterial genomic data offered an unprecedented opportunity to understand bacterial biology from a holistic view of point.We can thus closely look at the way in which a pathogen is evolved,and these data has been applied to molecular epidemiology and microbial forensics,and screening of novel diagnostic,vaccine and drug targets.The newly developed high-throughput low-cost sequencing technologies,such as 454,Solexa and SOLiD,will promote the acquisition and application of genomic data in new research areas that we dared not imagine previously,such as the metagenomics of human gastric-intestinal tract,for better and comprehensive understanding of human health and disease.

  4. Where in the genome are we? A cautionary tale of database use in genomics research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kelly eVaughan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of high throughput data genomic technologies the volume of available data is now staggering. In addition databases that provide resources to annotate, translate and connect biological data have grown exponentially in content and use. The availability of such data emphasizes the importance of bioinformatics and computational biology in genomics research and has led to the development of thousands of tools to integrate and utilize these resources. When utilizing such resources, the principles of reproducible research are often overlooked. In this manuscript we provide selected case studies illustrating issues that may arise while working with genes and genetic polymorphisms. These case studies illustrate potential sources of error which can be introduced if the practices of reproducible research are not employed and non-concurrent databases are used. We also show examples of a lack of transparency when these databases are concerned when using popular bioinformatics tools. These examples highlight that resources are constantly evolving, and in order to provide reproducible results, research should be aware of and connected to the correct release of the data, particularly when implementing computational tools.

  5. Integrative genome-wide approaches in embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Jing

    2010-10-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocysts. They can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers and essentially any type of somatic cells. They therefore hold great potential in tissue regeneration therapy. The ethical issues associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells are resolved by the technical break-through of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from various types of somatic cells. However, how ES and iPS cells self-renew and maintain their pluripotency is still largely unknown in spite of the great progress that has been made in the last two decades. Integrative genome-wide approaches, such as the gene expression microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation based microarray (ChIP-chip) and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the mechanism of the pluripotency, reprogramming and DNA damage response of ES and iPS cells. This frontier article summarizes the fundamental biological questions about ES and iPS cells and reviews the recent advances in ES and iPS cell research using genome-wide technologies. To this end, we offer our perspectives on the future of genome-wide studies on stem cells.

  6. GDR (Genome Database for Rosaceae: integrated web resources for Rosaceae genomics and genetics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficklin Stephen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. Description The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. Conclusions The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.

  7. 76 FR 66731 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, DAP for CEGS-SEP. Date...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  8. 75 FR 8977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...-402-0838. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  9. 75 FR 67380 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...: Ken D. Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome... Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 26,...

  10. 76 FR 36930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, DAP R-25. Date: July...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  11. 76 FR 10909 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...-402-0838. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  12. 77 FR 74676 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute...@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome...

  13. 77 FR 12604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... >Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, CIDR Contract. Date...: National Human Genome Reseach Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 4076, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  14. 78 FR 21382 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome... Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research...

  15. Genomic Research and Wide Data Sharing: Views of Prospective Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Susan Brown; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Bares, Julie M.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Larson, Eric B.; Burke, Wylie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Sharing study data within the research community generates tension between two important goods: promoting scientific goals and protecting the privacy interests of study participants. The present study was designed to explore the perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of research participants and possible future participants regarding genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and repository-based research. Methods Focus group sessions with (1) current research participants, (2) surrogate decision-makers, and (3) three age-defined cohorts (18–34 years, 35–50, >50). Results Participants expressed a variety of opinions about the acceptability of wide sharing of genetic and phenotypic information for research purposes through large, publicly accessible data repositories. Most believed that making de-identified study data available to the research community is a social good that should be pursued. Privacy and confidentiality concerns were common, though they would not necessarily preclude participation. Many participants voiced reservations about sharing data with for-profit organizations. Conclusions Trust is central in participants’ views regarding GWAS data sharing. Further research is needed to develop governance models that enact the values of stewardship. PMID:20535021

  16. GRAbB : Selective Assembly of Genomic Regions, a New Niche for Genomic Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brankovics, Balázs; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne D; van der Lee, Theo A J; Waalwijk, Cees; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-01-01

    GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting) is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often negle

  17. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Luca

    2014-06-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  18. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Comai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  19. 6th World Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure 2nd Interdisciplinary Tourism Research Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabia Trentin; Carlos Alberto Lidizia Soares; Bianca Tempone

    2012-01-01

    In the period of 24 to 29 April, were realized the events 6th World Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure 2nd Interdisciplinary Tourism Research Conference, organized by the Anatolia...

  20. Small Business Research in a World of Skewed Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Preliminary evidence of a trade-off between commercialization and basic research. Research Policy , 32(4), 605–619. Arrow, K. (1962). Economic welfare and the...Technology transfer and public policy: A review of research and theory. Research Policy , 29, 627–655. Branscomb, L. M. (2002). Between invention and...Reenen, J. V. (2000). How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence. Research Policy , 29, 449–469. Hammermesh, D. (1999). The

  1. Ethnobotany genomics - discovery and innovation in a new era of exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragupathy Subramanyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present here the first use of DNA barcoding in a new approach to ethnobotany we coined "ethnobotany genomics". This new approach is founded on the concept of 'assemblage' of biodiversity knowledge, which includes a coming together of different ways of knowing and valorizing species variation in a novel approach seeking to add value to both traditional knowledge (TK and scientific knowledge (SK. We employed contemporary genomic technology, DNA barcoding, as an important tool for identifying cryptic species, which were already recognized ethnotaxa using the TK classification systems of local cultures in the Velliangiri Hills of India. This research is based on several case studies in our lab, which define an approach to that is poised to evolve quickly with the advent of new ideas and technology. Our results show that DNA barcoding validated several new cryptic plant species to science that were previously recognized by TK classifications of the Irulas and Malasars, and were lumped using SK classification. The contribution of the local aboriginal knowledge concerning plant diversity and utility in India is considerable; our study presents new ethnomedicine to science. Ethnobotany genomics can also be used to determine the distribution of rare species and their ecological requirements, including traditional ecological knowledge so that conservation strategies can be implemented. This is aligned with the Convention on Biological Diversity that was signed by over 150 nations, and thus the world's complex array of human-natural-technological relationships has effectively been re-organized.

  2. Researcher Interview: Tom Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Hudson, M.D., President and Scientific Director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, describes the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), which brings together cancer genomic data and research from across the world.

  3. International research to monitor sustainable forest spatial patterns: proceedings of the 2005 IUFRO World Congress symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Christine Estreguil

    2007-01-01

    Presentations from the symposium "International Research to Monitor Sustainable Forest Spatial Patterns," which was organized as part of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) World Congress in August 2005, are summarized in this report. The overall theme of the World Congress was "Forests in the Balance: Linking Tradition and...

  4. National Genome Research Initiative: A New Paradigm For Teaching Research To Undergraduates In South America

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: From 2007 to 2011, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) recruited professors across the US to test a new paradigm in undergraduate education: the National Genome Research Initiative (NGRI). Undergraduates were taught to isolate bacteriophages, characterize their findings, and report to the scientific community.Objective: The educational goal of the NGRI program was to expose science undergraduates to an authentic research experience to increase graduation rates. The scient...

  5. CERN celebrates 50 years of world-leading research

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the 29th September 1954 representatives of the 12 founding Mmebers States of CERN (including UK) ratified the Organisation's convention, paving the way for the establishment of one of the world's leading fundamental physics reserach institutions. (Special issue with differents articles: Bid for beta beams at CERN; CERN's golden jubilee; Climbing the energy scale; The next 20 years; Working at CERN; CERN and industry; What's in it for British business?) (13½ pages)

  6. Telling the whole story in a 10,000-genome world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiko Robert G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing has revolutionized our view of the relationships among genomes, particularly in revealing the confounding effects of lateral genetic transfer (LGT. Phylogenomic techniques have been used to construct purported trees of microbial life. Although such trees are easily interpreted and allow the use of a subset of genomes as "proxies" for the full set, LGT and other phenomena impact the positioning of different groups in genome trees, confounding and potentially invalidating attempts to construct a phylogeny-based taxonomy of microorganisms. Network and graph approaches can reveal complex sets of relationships, but applying these techniques to large data sets is a significant challenge. Notwithstanding the question of what exactly it might represent, generating and interpreting a Tree or Network of All Genomes will only be feasible if current algorithms can be improved upon. Results Complex relationships among even the most-similar genomes demonstrate that proxy-based approaches to simplifying large sets of genomes are not alone sufficient to solve the analysis problem. A phylogenomic analysis of 1173 sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes generated phylogenetic trees for 159,905 distinct homologous gene sets. The relationships inferred from this set can be heavily dependent on the inclusion of other taxa: for example, phyla such as Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes are recovered as cohesive groups or split depending on the presence of other specific lineages. Furthermore, named groups such as Acidithiobacillus, Coprothermobacter and Brachyspira show a multitude of affiliations that are more consistent with their ecology than with small subunit ribosomal DNA-based taxonomy. Network and graph representations can illustrate the multitude of conflicting affinities, but all methods impose constraints on the input data and create challenges of construction and interpretation. Conclusions These complex

  7. Promoting responsible research conduct in a developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-22

    Jun 22, 2013 ... ARTICLE. June 2013, Vol. 6, No. 1 SAJBL 21 ... research, irregularities involving research on human participants continue to emerge. ... from 51 countries, it contains 4 principles and 14 responsibilities and has been formally ...

  8. Comparative genome research between maize and rice using genomic in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the genomic DNAs of maize and rice as probes respectively,the homology of maize and rice genomes was assessed by genomic in situ hybridization. When rice genomic DNAs were hybridized to maize, all chromosomes displayed many multiple discrete regions, while each rice chromosome delineated a single consecutive chromosomal region after they were hybridized with maize genomic DNAs. The results indicate that the genomes of maize and rice share high homology, and confirm the proposal that maize and rice are diverged from a common ancestor.

  9. [The application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Ma, Ning; Hui, Yang; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease) genome editing technology has become more and more popular in gene editing because of its simple design and easy operation. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, researchers can perform site-directed genome modification at the base level. Moreover, it has been widely used in genome editing in multiple species and related cancer research. In this review, we summarize the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cancer research based on the latest research progresses as well as our understanding of cancer research and genome editing techniques.

  10. [Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable.

  11. diArk – a resource for eukaryotic genome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmar Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completed eukaryotic genome sequences and cDNA projects has increased exponentially in the past few years although most of them have not been published yet. In addition, many microarray analyses yielded thousands of sequenced EST and cDNA clones. For the researcher interested in single gene analyses (from a phylogenetic, a structural biology or other perspective it is therefore important to have up-to-date knowledge about the various resources providing primary data. Description The database is built around 3 central tables: species, sequencing projects and publications. The species table contains commonly and alternatively used scientific names, common names and the complete taxonomic information. For projects the sequence type and links to species project web-sites and species homepages are stored. All publications are linked to projects. The web-interface provides comprehensive search modules with detailed options and three different views of the selected data. We have especially focused on developing an elaborate taxonomic tree search tool that allows the user to instantaneously identify e.g. the closest relative to the organism of interest. Conclusion We have developed a database, called diArk, to store, organize, and present the most relevant information about completed genome projects and EST/cDNA data from eukaryotes. Currently, diArk provides information about 415 eukaryotes, 823 sequencing projects, and 248 publications.

  12. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/

  13. CRISPR-Cas9: from Genome Editing to Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Sun, Heng; Miao, Kai; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process triggered by innate and acquired mutations, which cause the functional abnormality and determine the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Gene editing is a widely used engineering tool for generating mutations that enhance tumorigenesis. The recent developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system renews the genome editing approach into a more convenient and efficient way. By rapidly introducing genetic modifications in cell lines, organs and animals, CRISPR-Cas9 system extends the gene editing into whole genome screening, both in loss-of-function and gain-of-function manners. Meanwhile, the system accelerates the establishment of animal cancer models, promoting in vivo studies for cancer research. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 system is modified into diverse innovative tools for observing the dynamic bioprocesses in cancer studies, such as image tracing for targeted DNA, regulation of transcription activation or repression. Here, we view recent technical advances in the application of CRISPR-Cas9 system in cancer genetics, large-scale cancer driver gene hunting, animal cancer modeling and functional studies.

  14. Ethical considerations of research policy for personal genome analysis: the approach of the Genome Science Project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minari, Jusaku; Shirai, Tetsuya; Kato, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    As evidenced by high-throughput sequencers, genomic technologies have recently undergone radical advances. These technologies enable comprehensive sequencing of personal genomes considerably more efficiently and less expensively than heretofore. These developments present a challenge to the conventional framework of biomedical ethics; under these changing circumstances, each research project has to develop a pragmatic research policy. Based on the experience with a new large-scale project-the Genome Science Project-this article presents a novel approach to conducting a specific policy for personal genome research in the Japanese context. In creating an original informed-consent form template for the project, we present a two-tiered process: making the draft of the template following an analysis of national and international policies; refining the draft template in conjunction with genome project researchers for practical application. Through practical use of the template, we have gained valuable experience in addressing challenges in the ethical review process, such as the importance of sharing details of the latest developments in genomics with members of research ethics committees. We discuss certain limitations of the conventional concept of informed consent and its governance system and suggest the potential of an alternative process using information technology.

  15. 77 FR 8268 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed...:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome...). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome...

  16. Spaces of genomics : exploring the innovation journey of genomics in research on common disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitsch, L.

    2013-01-01

    Genomics was introduced with big promises and expectations of its future contribution to our society. Medical genomics was introduced as that which would lay the foundation for a revolution in our management of common diseases. Genomics would lead the way towards a future of personalised medicine.

  17. Cold blood and clinical research during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanigan, W C; King, S C

    1996-07-01

    Therapeutic transfusion was not a common procedure at the turn of the century. Although its safety was enhanced by the discovery of blood groups and preinfusion testing in the decade prior to World War I, techniques and indications remained cumbersome and clinically naive. By 1916, a stable Western Front, an efficient line of transport, and the operative requirements of a large number of wounded demonstrated the futility of pharmacotherapy or saline infusion for traumatic shock. In the same year, Rous and Turner at the Rockefeller Institute developed a preservative solution for whole blood. Rous' student, Dr. O.H. Robertson, arrived in France with Base Hospital 5 in June 1917 during a period of growing recognition by military surgeons that transfused blood was an effective therapy, although a practical delivery system was not available. Over the next 8 months, Robertson clinically tested a transfusion technique using preserved blood in glass jars carried to the front in specially designed cases. The method was accepted immediately, and by the Armistice transfusion was used frequently on the front line or during the perioperative period. The accessibility of preserved blood with an efficient transfusion system reinforced the introduction of "resuscitation teams" attached to Casualty Clearing Hospitals for the specialized management of traumatic shock. Robertson's success at technical innovation during World War I associated with a large clinical population resulted in the development of the indications and procedures for modern transfusion therapy.

  18. Economic Research on the Arab world and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the Development of contemporary research on Middle Eastern and North African economies in Germany. It includes the most important institutions and central research topics and approaches, underlining that this field is, in fact, multidisciplinary. The article also...

  19. Identifying Research Priorities for School Improvement in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robyn; Fernandez-Hermosilla, Magdalena; Anderson, Stephen; Mundy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a research agenda setting project conducted for an international non-governmental organization which aims to help create a regionally relevant, high-quality knowledge base on key education issues of policy and practice. Specifically, we illustrate how our team adapted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHRNI)…

  20. Youth Participatory Action Research in World Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, Melissa Cochrane

    2016-01-01

    Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…

  1. Research in the real world: Social context and its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adeline G; Levine, Murray

    2014-03-01

    Although scientists are supposedly concerned only with the pursuit of scientific truth, it was recognized early on that they have personal and professional agendas and are subject to human fallibilities. Openness allowing the scientific community to oversee each member's work depends a great deal upon publication of scientific work. Research reports are cultural artifacts shaped by social forces. In most instances of theoretically oriented work, the roles making up the social context, the researchers, funding agencies, journal editors, publishers, critics, and consumers of research all tend to be scientists sharing common interests and assumptions. There are many actors in addition to scientists in the social context of evaluative research. The actors-sometimes called stakeholders-include people whose lives may change, politicians, government agencies, private foundations, businesspersons, taxpayers, the mass media, and advocates. These actors have varied interests in the research enterprise, are embedded in varied reference groups, and bring different assumptions and values to the task. Their interactions shape the research product at every step. In this genre of research, the contexts are diverse. To illustrate the generality of the influence of social context, the authors draw on three diverse examples spanning a century: the Love Canal industrial disaster of the late 1970s, the ultimately failed attempt in the early 1900s to transplant the Gary, Indiana, progressive school system to New York City (NYC); and some recent studies of charter school students' academic performance.

  2. [The place of functional genomics in oncological research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Bálint L; Nagy, László

    2013-03-01

    The 1000 genomes project changed the way how we see the human genome. The rapid development of the deep sequencing technologies is raising several practical questions, and the way how we answer these questions will affect deeply the future of the oncological reseach in Hungary. In our manuscript we give a short overview of the results of the 1000 genomes project and we present the place of the functional genomic investigations between other genomic tools. Based on the recent development in the field we summarize the challenges that have to be addressed in the next couple of years.

  3. Mixed methods research - the best of both worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Hubert; Moore, Ann P; Hall, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    There has been a bias towards quantitative research approaches within manual therapy, which may have resulted in a narrow understanding of manual therapy practice. The aim of this Masterclass is to make a contribution to the expansion of methodologies used in manual therapy enquiry by discussing mixed methods research (MMR), a methodology which utilises both qualitative and quantitative methods within a single study in order to provide more comprehensive insights. To review rationales for MMR, as well as some of the common design options and potential difficulties. The paper also discusses theoretical frameworks that have been used to underpin qualitative and quantitative research, and ongoing debates about the possibility of combining them. Complexities associated with health and manual therapy cannot always be investigated satisfactorily by using a single research method. Some issues require a more comprehensive understanding, which may be provided by combining the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods in a mixed methods study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peace Research in the Arab World : An Inventory 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Aranki Nassar, Adéle

    2012-01-01

    This study locates the universities in the Arab countries that teach or house a research milieu dealing with peace and conflict research. It also identifies the level of teaching and presents information on course descriptions.  There are more than 450 universities with different approaches, for instance, in political science and multidisciplinary programs such as diplomacy, international relations, strategic studies, law and related fields in humanities. In total, 73 universities and institu...

  5. Getting It Together: Gerontological Research and the Real World,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    intradisciplinary format and language. o Research documents do not present how-to information, operational advice. S• vi o Research documents are so...influence is counterproductive. Media barriers to dissemination and utilization include technical intradisciplinary language and format of presentations and...in teams or with consultants outside the linking institution to accomplish a specific linkage task. The preceding discussion provides an account of the

  6. Invisible colleges in the adult education research world

    OpenAIRE

    Staffan Larsson

    2010-01-01

    Invisible colleges - researchers’ networks of communicating academic work - are power-generating actors shaping research fields. A key question concerns the relation between local research communities and their dependence on global actors. A key arena is articles and citations in academic journals. An actor-network-inspired empirical investigation of the geographical origin of articles and references in the journal “Studies in the Education of Adults” and a check of references to journals in ...

  7. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype Influenza A viruses in new world waterfowl and experimental infectivity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Ramey

    Full Text Available Recent repeated isolation of H14 hemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses (IAVs in the New World waterfowl provides evidence to suggest that host and/or geographic ranges for viruses of this subtype may be expanding. In this study, we used genomic analyses to gain inference on the origin and evolution of H14 viruses in New World waterfowl and conducted an experimental challenge study in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos to evaluate pathogenicity, viral replication, and transmissibility of a representative viral strain in a natural host species. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype IAVs isolated from New World waterfowl, including three isolates sequenced specifically for this study, revealed high nucleotide identity among individual gene segments (e.g. ≥95% shared identity among H14 HA gene segments. In contrast, lower shared identity was observed among internal gene segments. Furthermore, multiple neuraminidase subtypes were observed for H14 IAVs isolated in the New World. Gene segments of H14 viruses isolated after 2010 shared ancestral genetic lineages with IAVs isolated from wild birds throughout North America. Thus, genomic characterization provided evidence for viral evolution in New World waterfowl through genetic drift and genetic shift since purported introduction from Eurasia. In the challenge study, no clinical disease or lesions were observed among mallards experimentally inoculated with A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13-1028/2013(H14N5 or exposed via contact with infected birds. Titers of viral shedding for mallards challenged with the H14N5 IAV were highest at two days post-inoculation (DPI; however shedding was detected up to nine DPI using cloacal swabs. The distribution of viral antigen among mallards infected with H14N5 IAV was largely restricted to enterocytes lining the villi in the lower intestinal tract and in the epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius. Characterization of the infectivity of A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13

  8. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  9. Exporting 'failure': why research from rich countries may not benefit the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Zaman, M Justin

    2010-02-01

    The '10/90 gap' was first highlighted by the Global Forum for Health Research. It refers to the finding that 90% of worldwide medical research expenditure is targeted at problems affecting only 10% of the world's population. Applying research results from the rich world to the problems of the poor may be a tempting, potentially easy and convenient solution for this gap. This paper had the objective of presenting arguments that such an approach runs the risk of exporting failure. Health interventions that are shown to be effective in the specific context of a Western industrialized setting will not necessarily work in the developing world.

  10. Doing participatory action research in a racist world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Colleen

    2006-08-01

    This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.

  11. Genome-wide association studies for Agronomical Traits in a world wide Spring Barley Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasam, R.K.; Sharma, R.; Malosetti, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Haseneyer, G.; Kilian, B.; Graner, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) provide a promising tool for the detection and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying complex agronomic traits. In this study we explored the genetic basis of variation for the traits heading dat

  12. Research on Social Work Practice in Egypt and the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at introducing the research on social work practice in Egypt and the Arab World as a thematic topic. It has started with the essence of the current Arab World and its definition. Social work practice and models of social work intervention in this specific region have been described in terms of its specific and topographic nature.…

  13. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  14. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  15. Real-world research and its importance in respiratory medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Price (David); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); N. Roche (Nicolas); D. Freeman (Daryl); A. Chisholm (Alison)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractClinical practice requires a complex interplay between experience and training, research, guidelines and judgement, and must not only draw on data from traditional or classical randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), but also from pragmatically designed studies that better reflect real-lif

  16. First Graders Research Stuffed Animals and Learn about Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells how her students researched every aspect of their own beloved stuffed animals, which led to an interview with a labor leader. When students learned that children in other countries played a role in manufacturing their stuffed animals, sometimes in unhealthy conditions, they decided to take action as citizens. As…

  17. How Teens Do Research in the Digital World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Kristen; Rainie, Lee; Heaps, Alan; Buchanan, Judy; Friedrich, Linda; Jacklin, Amanda; Chen, Clara; Zickuhr, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Advanced Placement (AP) and National Writing Project (NWP) teachers say that the internet and digital search tools have had a "mostly positive" impact on their students' research habits, but 87% say these technologies are creating an "easily distracted generation with short attention spans" and 64% say today's digital…

  18. 6th World Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure 2nd Interdisciplinary Tourism Research Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Trentin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the period of 24 to 29 April, were realized the events 6th World Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure 2nd Interdisciplinary Tourism Research Conference, organized by the Anatolia – An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, in Fethiye, Turkey. This text is a brief relate of the events and his contributions for the tourism.

  19. Research on population and employment under the world employment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    In 1972 the ILO launched a comprehensive research project to: 1) for mulate a series of economic-demographic simulation models dealing with the direct and indirect effects of population on employment, output, and income distribution, and vice versa; 2) fund empirical studies dealing with important elements in the relationship between population and employment growth and focusing on policy issues. The project has 2 special features, the feedback between the empirical research and the model activity and the joint participation of the ILO with national research organizations in different regions. A large number of economic-demographic models have been developed in recent years. However, most of them take demographic variables as exogenous and analyze consequences in a neoclassical framework or they seek to analyze demographic responses to economic and social changes which are treated as exogenous variables. Interaction among different sets of variables is closer to reality, not uni-directional causation. Effective demand is as important as the increase in resource inputs. The situation in de veloping economies is further complicated by the coexistence of modern and traditional sectors which show many fundamental differences. Detail ed descriptions of several models under development are given. Studies being conducted include: labor force analysis, with special emphasis on developing countries; the socioeconomic determinants of fertility; studies on population, consumption patterns, and savings; an analysis of the extent to which the labor market signals through wage adjustments the rapid growth of population and labor force and the resulting excess supply of labor in relation to modern sector jobs; capital accumulation and employment in a labor-surplus situation; and the effects of population pressure on land tenure, agricultural productivity, and employment. It is hoped this research will suggest possible optimal mixes of demographic, economic, and social policies

  20. Harnessing the Toxocara Genome to Underpin Toxocariasis Research and New Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Robin B; Korhonen, Pasi K; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Young, Neil D

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worms, such as flatworms (platyhelminths) and roundworms (nematodes), cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally. The ascaridoid nematode Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of socioeconomic significance worldwide. In humans, this worm causes toxocariasis (disease) mainly in underprivileged communities in both the developed and developing worlds. While reasonably well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, little is understood about the molecular biology of T. canis, its relationship with its hosts and the disease that it causes. However, a recent report of the draft genome and transcriptomes of T. canis should underpin many fundamental and applied research areas in the future. The present article gives a background on Toxocara and toxocariasis, a brief account of diagnostic approaches for specific identification and genetic analysis, and gives a perspective on the impact that the genome of T. canis and advanced molecular technologies could have on our understanding of the parasite and the diseases that it causes as well as the design of new and improved approaches for the diagnosis, treatment and control of toxocariasis.

  1. 77 FR 67385 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  2. 78 FR 66752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 01:00 p.m. to October 15, 2013, 02:30 p.m., National...

  3. 76 FR 3917 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, TRND--RFP... Person: Rudy O. Pozzatti, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human...

  4. 76 FR 65738 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  5. 77 FR 55853 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, September 10, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to September 11, 2012, 5 p.m., National Institutes...

  6. 77 FR 5035 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel Sequencing Technology..., Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 402-0838, nakamurk@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Human...

  7. 76 FR 63932 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, ENCODE Technology RFA...- 4280, mckenneyk@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172,...

  8. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human...

  9. 75 FR 53703 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... review and funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human...

  10. 76 FR 29772 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; ELSI-SEP. Date: June...: Rudy O. Pozzatti, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human...

  11. 77 FR 27471 - National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, May 21, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to May 22, 2012, 5:00 p.m., National Institutes of Health,...

  12. 75 FR 26762 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research... No: 2010-11051] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National...

  13. 76 FR 71581 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  14. 78 FR 65342 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research...

  15. Using Microbial Genome Annotation as a Foundation for Collaborative Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kelynne E.; Richardson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    We used the Integrated Microbial Genomes Annotation Collaboration Toolkit as a framework to incorporate microbial genomics research into a microbiology and biochemistry course in a way that promoted student learning of bioinformatics and research skills and emphasized teamwork and collaboration as evidenced through multiple assessment mechanisms.…

  16. Translational genomics in cancer research:converting proifles into personalized cancer medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lalit Patel; Brittany Parker; Da Yang; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer genomics is a rapidly growing discipline in which the genetic molecular basis of malignancy is studied at the scale of whole genomes. While the discipline has been successful with respect to identifying specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors involved in oncogenesis, it is also challenging our approach to managing patients suffering from this deadly disease. Speciifcally cancer genomics is driving clinical oncology to take a more molecular approach to diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment selection. We review here recent work undertaken in cancer genomics with an emphasis on translation of genomic ifndings. Finally, we discuss scientiifc challenges and research opportunities emerging from ifndings derived through analysis of tumors with high-depth sequencing.

  17. Invisible colleges in the adult education research world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Larsson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Invisible colleges - researchers’ networks of communicating academic work - are power-generating actors shaping research fields. A key question concerns the relation between local research communities and their dependence on global actors. A key arena is articles and citations in academic journals. An actor-network-inspired empirical investigation of the geographical origin of articles and references in the journal “Studies in the Education of Adults” and a check of references to journals in “Adult Education Quarterly” was made. The origin of articles and study objects in the International journal of Lifelong education was also analysed. Some conclusions can be drawn from the material. One is the heavy impact of “real” geographical location, i.e. the origins of texts and references are located in very specific areas on the map, i.e. in spite of the possibilities of cyberspace and global mobility. Another conclusion is the unilateral relation between an Anglo-American centre and a periphery in the distribution systems of texts. Adult education is faced with a contradictory situation between culturing invisible colleges in adult education and getting resources in the emerging economy of publications and citations through membership in other invisible colleges.

  18. What can Aspergillus flavus genome offer for mycotoxin research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomic study of filamentous fungi has made significant advances in recent years, and the genomes of several species in the genus Aspergillus have been sequenced, including Aspergillus flavus. This ubiquitous mold is present as a saprobe in a wide range of agricultural and natural habits, and c...

  19. Building a data sharing model for global genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseim, Patricia; Dove, Edward S; Baggaley, Carman; Meslin, Eric M; Cate, Fred H; Kaye, Jane; Harris, Jennifer R; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2014-08-11

    Data sharing models designed to facilitate global business provide insights for improving transborder genomic data sharing. We argue that a flexible, externally endorsed, multilateral arrangement, combined with an objective third-party assurance mechanism, can effectively balance privacy with the need to share genomic data globally.

  20. Genomics applications in food preservation and safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Spek, H. van der; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.

    2005-01-01

    Genomes are being sequenced at an ever-increasing pace. Also genomes of many of the microorganisms of concern to food safety are now known. The next step is of course how to exploit this information in an effective way. This article briefly introduces the issues in the food processing industry as fa

  1. Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgaard, G.H.; Bailey, G.S.; Williams, D.; Buhler, D.R.; Kaattari, S.L.; Ristow, S.S.; Hansen, J.D.; Winton, J.R.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Nagler, J.J.; Walsh, P.J.; Vijayan, M.M.; Devlin, R.H.; Hardy, R.W.; Overturf, K.E.; Young, W.P.; Robison, B.D.; Rexroad, C.; Palti, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social media research: A scientometric assessment of world publications output during 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines world publications output on social media research (46354 published during 2001–2014. The publications data, sourced from Scopus database, averaged annual 14.61% growth. The paper profiles top 25 most productive organizations that accounted for 12.46% world share, and top 25 most productive authors that accounted for 2.34% world share on indicators such as average productivity, citations per paper, h-index, and share of international collaborative publications during 2001–2014. The distribution of world output by country of publication is highly skewed. The top 15 most productive countries account for bulk of the world output (82.40%. The USA has emerged as the world leader both in its world share and citations impact of social media research output. Blogs, among social media sites, accounted for the largest publication share 27.45%, followed by Facebook (16.75%, Twitter (15.86%, Wikipedia (10.58%, YouTube (7.24%, Flickr (3.94%, MySpace (1.73%, LinkedIn (1.21%, etc., during 2001–2014. Computer science accounted for the highest publications share (55.22% of world publications output on social media, followed by social sciences (26.55%, engineering (13.52%, medicine (10.14%, business, management and accounting (8.72%, arts and humanities (5.95%, psychology (3.68%, etc., during 2001–2014. The top 30 most productive journals, which reported social media research during 2001–2014, accounted for 6.46% world share. A total of 266 were discovered as highly cited papers in social media research (0.57% world share, each was cited 100 or more times since publication till February 2015. Together these highly cited papers accounted 57462 citations, with an average of 216 citations per paper.

  3. MaPSeq, A Service-Oriented Architecture for Genomics Research within an Academic Biomedical Research Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Reilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomics research presents technical, computational, and analytical challenges that are well recognized. Less recognized are the complex sociological, psychological, cultural, and political challenges that arise when genomics research takes place within a large, decentralized academic institution. In this paper, we describe a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA—MaPSeq—that was conceptualized and designed to meet the diverse and evolving computational workflow needs of genomics researchers at our large, hospital-affiliated, academic research institution. We present the institutional challenges that motivated the design of MaPSeq before describing the architecture and functionality of MaPSeq. We then discuss SOA solutions and conclude that approaches such as MaPSeq enable efficient and effective computational workflow execution for genomics research and for any type of academic biomedical research that requires complex, computationally-intense workflows.

  4. Research progress of plant population genomics based on high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunsheng, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Population genomics, a new paradigm for population genetics, combine the concepts and techniques of genomics with the theoretical system of population genetics and improve our understanding of microevolution through identification of site-specific effect and genome-wide effects using genome-wide polymorphic sites genotypeing. With the appearance and improvement of the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, the numbers of plant species with complete genome sequences increased rapidly and large scale resequencing has also been carried out in recent years. Parallel sequencing has also been done in some plant species without complete genome sequences. These studies have greatly promoted the development of population genomics and deepened our understanding of the genetic diversity, level of linking disequilibium, selection effect, demographical history and molecular mechanism of complex traits of relevant plant population at a genomic level. In this review, I briely introduced the concept and research methods of population genomics and summarized the research progress of plant population genomics based on high-throughput sequencing. I also discussed the prospect as well as existing problems of plant population genomics in order to provide references for related studies.

  5. Standing Classrooms: Research and Lessons Learned from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica; Salmon, Jo; Benden, Mark; Clemes, Stacey A; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Barber, Sally E; Aminian, Saeideh; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2016-07-01

    Children spend between 50 and 70 % of their time sitting while at school. Independent of physical activity levels, prolonged sitting is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. While there is mixed evidence of health associations among children and adolescents, public health guidelines in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada now recommend young people should break up long periods of sitting as frequently as possible. A potentially effective approach for reducing and breaking up sitting throughout the day is changing the classroom environment. This paper presents an overview of a relatively new area of research designed to reduce youth sitting time while at school by changing the classroom environment (n = 13 studies). Environmental changes included placement of height-adjustable or stand-biased standing desks/workstations with stools, chairs, exercise balls, bean bags or mats in the classroom. These 13 published studies suggest that irrespective of the approach, youth sitting time was reduced by between ~44 and 60 min/day and standing time was increased by between 18 and 55 min/day during classroom time at school. Other benefits include increased energy expenditure and the potential for improved management of students' behaviour in the classroom. However, few large trials have been conducted, and there remains little evidence regarding the impact on children's learning and academic achievement. Nevertheless, with an increasing demand placed on schools and teachers regarding students' learning outcomes, strategies that integrate moving throughout the school day and that potentially enhance the learning experience and future health outcomes for young people warrant further exploration.

  6. Construction of a shared system-based real-world clinical research system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huikun; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Fan; Xie, Dan; Li, Hui; Huang, Jingjing; Guo, Mingxing

    2014-09-01

    Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine established research outpatient clinics to contribute to the major disease-entity research conducted by the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Research Base and to the construction of the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment and Clinical Research Information Sharing System. With a view of developing a "real-world traditional Chinese medicine clinical research paradigm," these clinics explored the mode of constructing research outpatient clinics from the aspects of clinical research, health management, and characteristics diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Research study on analysis/use technologies of genome information; Genome joho kaidoku riyo gijutsu no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For wide use of genome information in the industrial field, the required R and D was surveyed from the standpoints of biology and information science. To clarify the present state and issues of the international research on genome analysis, the genome map as well as sequence and function information are first surveyed. The current analysis/use technologies of genome information are analyzed, and the following are summarized: prediction and identification of gene regions in genome sequences, techniques for searching and selecting useful genes, and techniques for predicting the expression of gene functions and the gene-product structure and functions. It is recommended that R and D and data collection/interpretation necessary to clarify inter-gene interactions and information networks should be promoted by integrating Japanese advanced know-how and technologies. As examples of the impact of the research results on industry and society, the present state and future expected effect are summarized for medicines, diagnosis/analysis instruments, chemicals, foods, agriculture, fishery, animal husbandry, electronics, environment and information. 278 refs., 42 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. A brief history of genome research and bioinformatics in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of in silico genomics has progressed slowly in France for a number of political reasons. Two administrative organizations, the Groupement de Recherche sur les Génomes (GREG) and the Groupement de Recherche 1029 (GDR 1029) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) have been established. These organizations have created the dynamics that hopefully will place France (which coordinated consortia that completed several of the first large microbial genomes) among the developed nations that support Large-Scale Biology.

  9. Sharing the Knowledge: Sharing Aggregate Genomic Findings with Research Participants in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2015-12-01

    Returning research results to participants is recognised as an obligation that researchers should always try to fulfil. But can we ascribe the same obligation to researchers who conduct genomics research producing only aggregated findings? And what about genomics research conducted in developing countries? This paper considers Beskow's et al. argument that aggregated findings should also be returned to research participants. This recommendation is examined in the context of genomics research conducted in developing countries. The risks and benefits of attempting such an exercise are identified, and suggestions on ways to avoid some of the challenges are proposed. I argue that disseminating the findings of genomic research to participating communities should be seen as sharing knowledge rather than returning results. Calling the dissemination of aggregate, population level information returning results can be confusing and misleading as participants might expect to receive individual level information. Talking about sharing knowledge is a more appropriate way of expressing and communicating the outcome of population genomic research. Considering the knowledge produced by genomics research a worthwhile output that should be shared with the participants and approaching the exercise as a 'sharing of knowledge', could help mitigate the risks of unrealistic expectations and misunderstanding of findings, whilst promoting trusting and long lasting relationships with the participating communities.

  10. Bibliometric analysis of energy research at the world level and benchmarking of CANMET energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, E.; Cote, G.

    2009-02-15

    CANMET, part of Natural Resources Canada, is a Canadian organization specializing in energy research, working on the development of renewable energy technologies and processes. Science Metrix conducted a study for Natural Resources Canada in 2009, resulting in the preparation of a report. In this document, Science-Metrix analyzes the involvement in energy research in different countries and at the world level and compares the scientific contribution of CANMET to that of other organizations around the world specialized in the same field. The study is based on the contents of papers prepared by CANMET researchers published between 1996 and 2007 and on the definitions of several bibliometric indicators. 1 tab., 15 figs.

  11. Securing World-Class Research in UK Universities: Exploring the Impact of Block Grant Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The UK research base is world class. It is second only to the USA on leading scientific indicators and crucially, during the current economic climate, ranks first on publication productivity and citations in relation to research and development public spend. Commonly known as quality-related (QR) funding because it is allocated selectively on the…

  12. Design based action research in the world of robot technology and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    Why is design based action research method important in the world of robot technology and learning? The article explores how action research and interaction-driven design can be used in development of educational robot technological tools. The actual case is the development of “Fraction Battle” w...

  13. Building the World-Class Research Universities: A Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how China has strived to develop its world-class research universities and what are distinguishing characteristics of China's efforts to form these universities for the last decades. This study begins with a review of literature and research questions. It then touches on the background and rationale of…

  14. Design based action research in the world of robot technology and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    Why is design based action research method important in the world of robot technology and learning? The article explores how action research and interaction-driven design can be used in development of educational robot technological tools. The actual case is the development of “Fraction Battle” w...

  15. From World War to Woods Hole: The Use of Wartime Research Models for Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the curriculum reform movement of the 1950s as an experiment in applying innovative research and development techniques perfected by scientists during World War II, tracing the development of newer methods of scientific analysis and examining how they were imported from military research to the field of education by a select group of…

  16. [World level of competitiveness of national researches in the field of clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubov, V I; Kuznetsov, S L; Kurakova, N G; Tsvetkova, L A; Aref'ev, P G

    2012-01-01

    There is proposed formalization of concepts ,world research levelb and "leading scientific technological directions" of global science used in program documents which define main trends of reformation of Russian science. Use of bibliographic index as an example of "normalized citation in related area" for analyzing various subject areas for Russian clinic medicine it was shown that there is a different correlation of some areas of some national subject areas to their world levels. It was noted that it's necessary to develop national methodology of Russian science audit considering its national aspect which is a real problem while application world-acclaimed methods.

  17. Tick Genome Assembled: New Opportunities for Research on Tick-Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Sattelle, David B.; Hill, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    As tick-borne diseases are on the rise, an international effort resulted in the sequence and assembly of the first genome of a tick vector. This result promotes research on comparative, functional and evolutionary genomics and the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions to improve human, animal and ecosystem health on a global scale. PMID:27695689

  18. Genetic testing and genomic analysis: a debate on ethical, social and legal issues in the Arab world with a focus on Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanti, Hatem; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Gallouzi, Imed Eddine; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-11-14

    In 2013 both Saudi Arabia and Qatar launched genome projects with the aim of providing information for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and, ultimately to realize personalized medicine by sequencing hundred thousands samples. These population based genome activities raise a series of relevant ethical, legal and social issues general, related to the specific population structure as well as to the Islamic perspective on genomic analysis and genetic testing. To contribute to the debate, the Authors after reviewing the existing literature and taking advantage of their professional experience in the field and in the geographic area, discuss and provide their opinions. In particular, the Authors focus on the impact of consanguinity on population structure and disease frequency in the Arab world, on genetic testing and genomic analysis (i.e. technical aspects, impact, etc.) and on their regulations. A comparison between the Islamic perspective and the ethical, social and legal issues raised in other population contexts is also carried. In conclusion, this opinion article with an up-to-date contribution to the discussion on the relevance and impact of genomic analysis and genetic testing in the Arab world, might help in producing specific national guidelines on genetic testing and genomic analysis and help accelerate the implementation and roll out of genome projects in Muslim countries and more specifically in Qatar, and other countries of the Gulf.

  19. Genomic research in Zambia: confronting the ethics, policy and regulatory frontiers in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Moraes, Albertina Ngomah; Chongwe, Gershom; Munthali, James

    2015-10-29

    Genomic research has the potential to increase knowledge in health sciences, but the process has to ensure the safety, integrity and well-being of research participants. A legal framework for the conduct of health research in Zambia is available. However, the ethical, policy and regulatory framework to operationalise genomic research requires a paradigm shift. This paper outlines the current legal and policy framework as well as the ethics environment, and suggests recommendations for Zambia to fully benefit from the opportunity that genomic research presents. This will entail creating national research interest, improving knowledge levels, and building community trust among researchers, policymakers, donors, regulators and, most importantly, patients and research participants. A real balancing act of the risk and benefits will need to be objectively undertaken.

  20. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  1. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry in genomics research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannis Ragoussis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of this millennium has seen dramatic advances in genomic research. Milestones such as the complete sequencing of the human genome and of many other species were achieved and complemented by the systematic discovery of variation at the single nucleotide (SNP and whole segment (copy number polymorphism level. Currently most genomics research efforts are concentrated on the production of whole genome functional annotations, as well as on mapping the epigenome by identifying the methylation status of CpGs, mainly in CpG islands, in different tissues. These recent advances have a major impact on the way genetic research is conducted and have accelerated the discovery of genetic factors contributing to disease. Technology was the critical driving force behind genomics projects: both the combination of Sanger sequencing with high-throughput capillary electrophoresis and the rapid advances in microarray technologies were keys to success. MALDI-TOF MS-based genome analysis represents a relative newcomer in this field. Can it establish itself as a long-term contributor to genetics research, or is it only suitable for niche areas and for laboratories with a passion for mass spectrometry? In this review, we will highlight the potential of MALDI-TOF MS-based tools for resequencing and for epigenetics research applications, as well as for classical complex genetic studies, allele quantification, and quantitative gene expression analysis. We will also identify the current limitations of this approach and attempt to place it in the context of other genome analysis technologies.

  3. Health Research in the Developing World: A Gastroenterological View from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Richard Hamilton

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ill health is a serious impediment to progress in most poor countries, yet health is not a high priority on foreign aid agendas. Health research, which provides the essential base for sustainable progressive health programs, is barely visible in developing countries. For example, in Bangladesh, one finds unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates among infants and children, health programs that are struggling and a rudimentary health research establishment; for the huge foreign donor community in that country, health programs and research do not appear to warrant major investments. Diarrheal diseases are at the top of the list of killers in many poor nations including Bangladesh. Recent advances in our understanding of diarrhea suggest that while prevention may not be possible soon, improved active treatment can evolve from an aggressive research effort centred in a developing country and linked to appropriate international partners. Global agencies such as the World Health Organization have demonstrated a declining interest in health research, as reflected in the policies of their Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme. Major donors to the developing world, the Canadian International Development Agency for example, have had a relatively minor involvement in health and little commitment to health research. University links with the west, private enterprises and specially targeted programs are involved in developing world health research but they have not been able to foster and leave behind sustainable, high quality research programs. The problem should be attacked directly by supporting focused, relevant health research centres in regions of the world where the burden of disease continues to impede progress and where the environment is conducive to high quality research that is well integrated with care delivery programs. An instructive model of this approach is the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  4. Health research in the developing world: a gastroenterological view from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Ill health is a serious impediment to progress in most poor countries, yet health is not a high priority on foreign aid agendas. Health research, which provides the essential base for sustainable progressive health programs, is barely visible in developing countries. For example, in Bangladesh, one finds unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates among infants and children, health programs that are struggling and a rudimentary health research establishment; for the huge foreign donor community in that country, health programs and research do not appear to warrant major investments. Diarrheal diseases are at the top of the list of killers in many poor nations including Bangladesh. Recent advances in our understanding of diarrhea suggest that when prevention may not be possible soon, improved active treatment can evolve from an aggressive research effort centered in a developing country and linked to appropriate international partners. Global agencies such as the World Health Organization have demonstrated a declining interest in health research, as reflected in the policies of their Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme. Major donors to the developing world, the Canadian International Development Agency for example, have had a relatively minor involvement in health and little commitment to health research. University links with the west, private enterprises and specially targeted programs are involved in developing world health research but they have not been able to foster and leave behind sustainable, high quality research programs. The problem should be attacked directly by supporting focused, relevant health research centres in regions of the world where the burden of disease continues to impede progress and where the environment is conducive to high quality research that is well integrated with care delivery programs. An instructive model of this approach is the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  5. Genome-wide association studies for agronomical traits in a world wide spring barley collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasam Raj K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS based on linkage disequilibrium (LD provide a promising tool for the detection and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying complex agronomic traits. In this study we explored the genetic basis of variation for the traits heading date, plant height, thousand grain weight, starch content and crude protein content in a diverse collection of 224 spring barleys of worldwide origin. The whole panel was genotyped with a customized oligonucleotide pool assay containing 1536 SNPs using Illumina's GoldenGate technology resulting in 957 successful SNPs covering all chromosomes. The morphological trait "row type" (two-rowed spike vs. six-rowed spike was used to confirm the high level of selectivity and sensitivity of the approach. This study describes the detection of QTL for the above mentioned agronomic traits by GWAS. Results Population structure in the panel was investigated by various methods and six subgroups that are mainly based on their spike morphology and region of origin. We explored the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD among the whole panel for all seven barley chromosomes. Average LD was observed to decay below a critical level (r2-value 0.2 within a map distance of 5-10 cM. Phenotypic variation within the panel was reasonably large for all the traits. The heritabilities calculated for each trait over multi-environment experiments ranged between 0.90-0.95. Different statistical models were tested to control spurious LD caused by population structure and to calculate the P-value of marker-trait associations. Using a mixed linear model with kinship for controlling spurious LD effects, we found a total of 171 significant marker trait associations, which delineate into 107 QTL regions. Across all traits these can be grouped into 57 novel QTL and 50 QTL that are congruent with previously mapped QTL positions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the described

  6. Selaginella genome analysis – entering the ‘homoplasy heaven’ of the MADS world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eGramzow

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKCC and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I; vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKCC; and male gametophytes (MIKC*, but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKCC, and 3 MIKC*. Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKCC genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKCC genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKCC genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular

  7. An Evolving Triadic World: A Theoretical Framework for Global Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton A. Gunaratne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A macro theory that recognizes the world’s three competing center-clusters and their respective hinterlands o?ers a realistic framework for global communication research. This study has used recent data on world trade, computers, Internet hosts, and high-tech exports to map the triadization of the world in the Information Age. The original dependency theory and world-system theory perspectives emphasized the hierarchical linking of national societies to the capitalist world-economy in a center-periphery structure. The proposed global-triadization formulation looks at the center-periphery structure in terms of a capitalist world-economy dominated by three competing center economic clusters, each of which has a dependent hinterland comprising peripheral economic clusters. These clusters may not necessarily be geographically contiguous. Strong-weak relationships may exist within each center-cluster, as well as within each periphery-cluster, with one center-cluster occupying a hegemonic role. The rudimentary Information-Society Power Index, constructed for this study, can guide the researcher to test an abundance of hypotheses on the pattern of global communication and information ?ow with particular attention to source, message, channel, and receiver.

  8. USING GENOMICS TO EXAMINE MULTIPLE EXPOSURE VARIABLES IN BIOINDICATORS RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics technologies provide a powerful tool for rapid assessment of differentially expressed genes in laboratory and field animals exposed to toxicants, and a means by which to link the earliest indicators of exposure to diverse effects in organisms and populations. However, a...

  9. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research.

  10. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  11. Modern Genome Editing Technologies in Huntington's Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malankhanova, Tuyana B; Malakhova, Anastasia A; Medvedev, Sergey P; Zakian, Suren M

    2017-01-01

    The development of new revolutionary technologies for directed gene editing has made it possible to thoroughly model and study NgAgo human diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Gene editing tools like ZFN, TALEN, CRISPR-based systems, NgAgo and SGN can introduce different modifications. In gene sequences and regulate gene expression in different types of cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These tools can be successfully used for Huntington's disease (HD) modeling, for example, to generate isogenic cell lines bearing different numbers of CAG repeats or to correct the mutation causing the disease. This review presents common genome editing technologies and summarizes the progress made in using them in HD and other hereditary diseases. Furthermore, we will discuss prospects and limitations of genome editing in understanding HD pathology.

  12. Towards a Research Agenda for Social Work Practice in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Anstadt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration. A review of current research regarding SL has examined the influence of real world social influences in online interactions and what the effects on users may be. This suggests the importance of developing an understanding of the relationship between users’ real life and their Second Life, and how the two are related. Some research has begun to reveal the effectiveness of telecommunication and computer simulation with certain clients in the fields of mental health and social work, yet there is a lack of sufficient research done within the context of virtual worlds. The implications for social work intervention in virtual reality could solve persistent concerns with transportation, distance, access to services and education, however questions about the relevance of social work practice in SL and the potential for implementation must be answered.

  13. Researching Real-World Web Use with Roxy: Collecting Observational Web Data with Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Menchen-Trevino (Ericka); C. Karr (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOutside of a laboratory environment, it has been difficult for researchers to collect both behavioral and self-reported Web use data from the same participants. To address this challenge, we created Roxy, which is software that collects real-world Web-use data with participants' informed

  14. The political economy of research and innovation in organic photovoltaics (OPV) in different world regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Kemp, R.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we examine the status, prospects and organization of OPV research, innovation and governance in three major world regions: Northern America, Western Europe and East Asia through our constructed evolutionary cognitive-institutional framework of reference. Method: We gathered d

  15. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  16. Researching Real-World Web Use with Roxy: Collecting Observational Web Data with Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Menchen-Trevino (Ericka); C. Karr (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOutside of a laboratory environment, it has been difficult for researchers to collect both behavioral and self-reported Web use data from the same participants. To address this challenge, we created Roxy, which is software that collects real-world Web-use data with participants' informed

  17. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  18. The political economy of research and innovation in organic photovoltaics (OPV) in different world regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Kemp, R.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we examine the status, prospects and organization of OPV research, innovation and governance in three major world regions: Northern America, Western Europe and East Asia through our constructed evolutionary cognitive-institutional framework of reference. Method: We gathered

  19. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  20. Stakeholders in psychiatry and their attitudes toward receiving pertinent and incident findings in genomic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundby, Anna; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Solvsten

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly more psychiatric research studies use whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Consequently, researchers face difficult questions, such as which genomic findings to return to research participants and how. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes among...... for incidental findings. Persons with mental disorders and relatives were generally more positive about receiving any kind of findings than clinical geneticists and psychiatrists. Compared with blood donors, persons with mental disorders reported to be more positive about receiving raw genomic data...... and information that is not of serious health importance. Psychiatrists and clinical geneticists were less positive about receiving genomic findings compared with blood donors. The attitudes toward receiving findings were very positive. Stakeholders were willing to refrain from receiving incidental information...

  1. GRAbB: Selective Assembly of Genomic Regions, a New Niche for Genomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovics, Balázs; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne D; van der Lee, Theo A J; Waalwijk, Cees; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-06-01

    GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting) is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often neglected or poorly assembled, although they contain interesting information from phylogenetic or epidemiologic perspectives, but also single copy regions can be assembled. The program is capable of targeting multiple regions within a single run. Furthermore, GRAbB can be used to extract specific loci from NGS data, based on homology, like sequences that are used for barcoding. To make the assembly specific, a known part of the region, such as the sequence of a PCR amplicon or a homologous sequence from a related species must be specified. By assembling only the region of interest, the assembly process is computationally much less demanding and may lead to assemblies of better quality. In this study the different applications and functionalities of the program are demonstrated such as: exhaustive assembly (rDNA region and mitochondrial genome), extracting homologous regions or genes (IGS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1a), as well as extracting multiple regions within a single run. The program is also compared with MITObim, which is meant for the exhaustive assembly of a single target based on a similar query sequence. GRAbB is shown to be more efficient than MITObim in terms of speed, memory and disk usage. The other functionalities (handling multiple targets simultaneously and extracting homologous regions) of the new program are not matched by other programs. The program is available with explanatory documentation at https://github.com/b-brankovics/grabb. GRAbB has been tested on Ubuntu (12.04 and 14.04), Fedora (23), CentOS (7.1.1503) and Mac OS X (10.7). Furthermore, GRAbB is available as a docker repository: brankovics/grabb (https://hub.docker.com/r/brankovics/grabb/).

  2. GRAbB: Selective Assembly of Genomic Regions, a New Niche for Genomic Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Brankovics

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often neglected or poorly assembled, although they contain interesting information from phylogenetic or epidemiologic perspectives, but also single copy regions can be assembled. The program is capable of targeting multiple regions within a single run. Furthermore, GRAbB can be used to extract specific loci from NGS data, based on homology, like sequences that are used for barcoding. To make the assembly specific, a known part of the region, such as the sequence of a PCR amplicon or a homologous sequence from a related species must be specified. By assembling only the region of interest, the assembly process is computationally much less demanding and may lead to assemblies of better quality. In this study the different applications and functionalities of the program are demonstrated such as: exhaustive assembly (rDNA region and mitochondrial genome, extracting homologous regions or genes (IGS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1a, as well as extracting multiple regions within a single run. The program is also compared with MITObim, which is meant for the exhaustive assembly of a single target based on a similar query sequence. GRAbB is shown to be more efficient than MITObim in terms of speed, memory and disk usage. The other functionalities (handling multiple targets simultaneously and extracting homologous regions of the new program are not matched by other programs. The program is available with explanatory documentation at https://github.com/b-brankovics/grabb. GRAbB has been tested on Ubuntu (12.04 and 14.04, Fedora (23, CentOS (7.1.1503 and Mac OS X (10.7. Furthermore, GRAbB is available as a docker repository: brankovics/grabb (https://hub.docker.com/r/brankovics/grabb/.

  3. Recent Perspectives on Genome, Transmission, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Therapeutic Strategies, Vaccine Developments, and Challenges of Zika Virus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Shankar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential threats to public health microbiology in 21st century is the increased mortality rate caused by Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The severity of ZIKV infection urged World Health Organization (WHO to declare this virus as a global concern. The limited knowledge on the structure, virulent factors, and replication mechanism of the virus posed as hindrance for vaccine development. Several vector and non-vector-borne mode of transmission are observed for spreading the disease. The similarities of the virus with other flaviviruses such as dengue and West Nile virus are worrisome; hence, there is high scope to undertake ZIKV research that probably provide insight for novel therapeutic intervention. Thus, this review focuses on the recent aspect of ZIKV research which includes the outbreak, genome structure, multiplication and propagation of the virus, current animal models, clinical manifestations, available treatment options (probable vaccines and therapeutics, and the recent advancements in computational drug discovery pipelines, challenges and limitation to undertake ZIKV research. The review suggests that the infection due to ZIKV became one of the universal concerns and an interdisciplinary environment of in vitro cellular assays, genomics, proteomics, and computational biology approaches probably contribute insights for screening of novel molecular targets for drug design. The review tried to provide cutting edge knowledge in ZIKV research with future insights required for the development of novel therapeutic remedies to curtail ZIKV infection.

  4. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Andrew J.; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A.; Cannon, Richard O.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H.; Holland, Steven M.; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D.; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%–3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  5. It's more than stamp collecting: how genome sequencing can unify biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The availability of reference genome sequences, especially the human reference, has revolutionized the study of biology. However, while the genomes of some species have been fully sequenced, a wide range of biological problems still cannot be effectively studied for lack of genome sequence information. Here, I identify neglected areas of biology and describe how both targeted species sequencing and more broad taxonomic surveys of the tree of life can address important biological questions. I enumerate the significant benefits that would accrue from sequencing a broader range of taxa, as well as discuss the technical advances in sequencing and assembly methods that would allow for wide-ranging application of whole-genome analysis. Finally, I suggest that in addition to 'big science' survey initiatives to sequence the tree of life, a modified infrastructure-funding paradigm would better support reference genome sequence generation for research communities most in need. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. It’s More Than Stamp Collecting: How Genome Sequencing Can Unify Biological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The availability of reference genome sequences, especially the human reference, has revolutionized the study of biology. However, whilst the genomes of some species have been fully sequenced, a wide range of biological problems still cannot be effectively studied for lack of genome sequence information. Here, I identify neglected areas of biology and describe how both targeted species sequencing and more broad taxonomic surveys of the tree of life can address important biological questions. I enumerate the significant benefits that would accrue from sequencing a broader range of taxa, as well as discuss the technical advances in sequencing and assembly methods that would allow for wide-ranging application of whole-genome analysis. Finally, I suggest that in addition to “Big Science” survey initiatives to sequence the tree of life, a modified infrastructure-funding paradigm would better support reference genome sequence generation for research communities most in need. PMID:26003218

  7. Ethical Gifts?: An Analysis of Soap-for-data Transactions in Malawian Survey Research Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Crystal

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, thousands of Malawians received soap from an American research project as a gift for survey participation. Soap was deemed an ethical, non-coercive gift by researchers and ethics boards, but took on meanings that expressed recipients' grievances and aspirations. Research participants reframed soap and research benefits as "rights" they are entitled to, wages for "work," and a symbol of exploitation. Enlisting the perspectives of Malawi's ethics board, demographers, Malawian fieldworkers, and research participants, I describe how soap is spoken about and operates in research worlds. I suggest that neither a prescriptive nor a situated frame for ethics-with their investments in standardization and attention to context, respectively-provides answers about how to compensate Malawian research participants. The conclusion gestures toward a reparative framework for thinking ethics that is responsive not just to project-based parameters but also to the histories and political economy in which projects (and ethics) are situated. © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  8. Forensic medicine: a forgotten world of opportunities and challenges for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Santos, Agostinho; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Forensic medicine deals with a wide variety of cases. To accomplish the main objectives, this professional field needs to adopt and apply findings from other sciences, namely, different medical specialties and other forensic sciences. The opposite is not yet entirely true due to the fact that forensic medicine deals with cases that are very far away from other medical and scientific interests. It is obvious that this forgotten world of forensic medicine … is also a new world of opportunities and challenges to research in all scientific areas.

  9. Going beyond The three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, C

    2007-12-01

    International research on the social determinants of health has increasingly started to integrate a welfare state regimes perspective. Although this is to be welcomed, to date there has been an over-reliance on Esping-Andersen's The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology (1990). This is despite the fact that it has been subjected to extensive criticism and that there are in fact a number of competing welfare state typologies within the comparative social policy literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide public health researchers with an up-to-date overview of the welfare state regime literature so that it can be reflected more accurately in future research. It outlines The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology, and it presents the criticisms it received and an overview of alternative welfare state typologies. It concludes by suggesting new avenues of study in public health that could be explored by drawing upon this broader welfare state regimes literature.

  10. The World Health Organization child growth standards: expected implications for clinical and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, J; Willie, D; Younger, N

    2009-02-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) released two sets of child growth standards (World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards. Methods and development. Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2006; World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and Development. Head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2007) to replace the National Center for Health Statistics references (Hamill et al., National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No 165, 1977) as an international tool for growth and nutritional assessment. This paper explores the scope of implications for future anthropometric research, highlighting foreseeable effects on the choice of research questions, choice of nutritional indices, training of measurers, and issues of internal and external validity of research results. The conclusion drawn is that the introduction of the WHO child growth standards is expected to have wide implications for growth and nutrition research. The full scope of this effect will gradually become clear while researchers, similar to health care workers, make the transition to using the new standards, re-evaluate results of past approaches, and explore the uses and functional validity of the standards, including those for indices that were not previously available.

  11. MIPS PlantsDB: a database framework for comparative plant genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Martis, Mihaela M; Roessner, Stephan K; Pfeifer, Matthias; Bader, Kai C; Sharma, Sapna; Gundlach, Heidrun; Spannagl, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of plant genome (sequence) data enables powerful comparative analyses and integrative approaches and also requires structured and comprehensive information resources. Databases are needed for both model and crop plant organisms and both intuitive search/browse views and comparative genomics tools should communicate the data to researchers and help them interpret it. MIPS PlantsDB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/genomes.jsp) was initially described in NAR in 2007 [Spannagl,M., Noubibou,O., Haase,D., Yang,L., Gundlach,H., Hindemitt, T., Klee,K., Haberer,G., Schoof,H. and Mayer,K.F. (2007) MIPSPlantsDB-plant database resource for integrative and comparative plant genome research. Nucleic Acids Res., 35, D834-D840] and was set up from the start to provide data and information resources for individual plant species as well as a framework for integrative and comparative plant genome research. PlantsDB comprises database instances for tomato, Medicago, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Sorghum, maize, rice, barley and wheat. Building up on that, state-of-the-art comparative genomics tools such as CrowsNest are integrated to visualize and investigate syntenic relationships between monocot genomes. Results from novel genome analysis strategies targeting the complex and repetitive genomes of triticeae species (wheat and barley) are provided and cross-linked with model species. The MIPS Repeat Element Database (mips-REdat) and Catalog (mips-REcat) as well as tight connections to other databases, e.g. via web services, are further important components of PlantsDB.

  12. Estimates of Arab world research productivity associated with groundwater: a bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    The sustainable management of groundwater resources is a pressing necessity for most countries. As most of the Arab world is facing severe water scarcity, threats of depletion of non-renewable groundwater, and problems of pollution and salt-water intrusions into groundwater aquifers, much effort should be devoted to eliminate these dangers in advance. This work was devoted to bring up insights into Arab world research activities in groundwater, which is a crucial task to identify their status and can help in shaping up and improving future research activities. A bibliometric analysis has been conducted to track these activities. The study identified 1417 documents which represent 3.3% of global research productivity. Egypt was the most productive country (313; 22.1%), followed by Saudi Arabia (254; 17.9%). Total citations were 9720 with an average of 6.9. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39, and the highest one was 22 for Egypt. The most common subject category was Environmental Science, and the most productive journal was Arabian Journal of Geosciences (99; 7.0%). In international research collaboration, France was the most collaborated country with Arab world (125; 8.8%), followed by the United States (113; 8.0%). The most productive institution was King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia (66; 4.7%). The outcomes shows remarkable improvements in groundwater research activities originated from the Arab world. Even though, constructive efforts should be pursued vigorously to bridge the gaps in groundwater-based research. Moreover, promotion of better evaluation tools to assess the risks arising from the mismanagement of groundwater resources is required urgently.

  13. Estimates of Arab world research productivity associated with groundwater: a bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The sustainable management of groundwater resources is a pressing necessity for most countries. As most of the Arab world is facing severe water scarcity, threats of depletion of non-renewable groundwater, and problems of pollution and salt-water intrusions into groundwater aquifers, much effort should be devoted to eliminate these dangers in advance. This work was devoted to bring up insights into Arab world research activities in groundwater, which is a crucial task to identify their status and can help in shaping up and improving future research activities. A bibliometric analysis has been conducted to track these activities. The study identified 1417 documents which represent 3.3% of global research productivity. Egypt was the most productive country (313; 22.1%), followed by Saudi Arabia (254; 17.9%). Total citations were 9720 with an average of 6.9. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39, and the highest one was 22 for Egypt. The most common subject category was Environmental Science, and the most productive journal was Arabian Journal of Geosciences (99; 7.0%). In international research collaboration, France was the most collaborated country with Arab world (125; 8.8%), followed by the United States (113; 8.0%). The most productive institution was King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia (66; 4.7%). The outcomes shows remarkable improvements in groundwater research activities originated from the Arab world. Even though, constructive efforts should be pursued vigorously to bridge the gaps in groundwater-based research. Moreover, promotion of better evaluation tools to assess the risks arising from the mismanagement of groundwater resources is required urgently.

  14. Benefits of structural genomics for drug discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Kirillova, Olga; Minor, Wladek

    2009-11-01

    While three dimensional structures have long been used to search for new drug targets, only a fraction of new drugs coming to the market has been developed with the use of a structure-based drug discovery approach. However, the recent years have brought not only an avalanche of new macromolecular structures, but also significant advances in the protein structure determination methodology only now making their way into structure-based drug discovery. In this paper, we review recent developments resulting from the Structural Genomics (SG) programs, focusing on the methods and results most likely to improve our understanding of the molecular foundation of human diseases. SG programs have been around for almost a decade, and in that time, have contributed a significant part of the structural coverage of both the genomes of pathogens causing infectious diseases and structurally uncharacterized biological processes in general. Perhaps most importantly, SG programs have developed new methodology at all steps of the structure determination process, not only to determine new structures highly efficiently, but also to screen protein/ligand interactions. We describe the methodologies, experience and technologies developed by SG, which range from improvements to cloning protocols to improved procedures for crystallographic structure solution that may be applied in "traditional" structural biology laboratories particularly those performing drug discovery. We also discuss the conditions that must be met to convert the present high-throughput structure determination pipeline into a high-output structure-based drug discovery system.

  15. Benefits of Structural Genomics for Drug Discovery Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, M.; Chruszcz, M; Zimmerman, M; Kirillova, O; Minor, W

    2009-01-01

    While three dimensional structures have long been used to search for new drug targets, only a fraction of new drugs coming to the market has been developed with the use of a structure-based drug discovery approach. However, the recent years have brought not only an avalanche of new macromolecular structures, but also significant advances in the protein structure determination methodology only now making their way into structure-based drug discovery. In this paper, we review recent developments resulting from the Structural Genomics (SG) programs, focusing on the methods and results most likely to improve our understanding of the molecular foundation of human diseases. SG programs have been around for almost a decade, and in that time, have contributed a significant part of the structural coverage of both the genomes of pathogens causing infectious diseases and structurally uncharacterized biological processes in general. Perhaps most importantly, SG programs have developed new methodology at all steps of the structure determination process, not only to determine new structures highly efficiently, but also to screen protein/ligand interactions. We describe the methodologies, experience and technologies developed by SG, which range from improvements to cloning protocols to improved procedures for crystallographic structure solution that may be applied in 'traditional' structural biology laboratories particularly those performing drug discovery. We also discuss the conditions that must be met to convert the present high-throughput structure determination pipeline into a high-output structure-based drug discovery system.

  16. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-09-27

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients in light of research findings affecting research and clinical practices. The group was deliberately multidisciplinary to ensure that a diversity of views was represented. This report outlines the main ethical issues, areas of best practice and principles underlying ethical clinically based genomic research discussed during the meeting. The main point emerging from the discussion is that ethical principles, rather than being formulaic, should guide researchers/clinicians to identify who the main stakeholders are to consult with for a specific project and to incorporate their voices/views strategically throughout the lifecycle of each project. We believe that the mix of principles and practical guidelines outlined in this report can contribute to current debates on how to conduct ethical clinically based genomic research.

  17. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients in light of research findings affecting research and clinical practices. The group was deliberately multidisciplinary to ensure that a diversity of views was represented. This report outlines the main ethical issues, areas of best practice and principles underlying ethical clinically based genomic research discussed during the meeting. The main point emerging from the discussion is that ethical principles, rather than being formulaic, should guide researchers/clinicians to identify who the main stakeholders are to consult with for a specific project and to incorporate their voices/views strategically throughout the lifecycle of each project. We believe that the mix of principles and practical guidelines outlined in this report can contribute to current debates on how to conduct ethical clinically based genomic research. PMID:27677925

  18. Application of Graph Theory to the elaboration of personal genomic data for genealogical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Palleschi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this communication a representation of the links between DNA-relatives based on Graph Theory is applied to the analysis of personal genomic data to obtain genealogical information. The method is tested on both simulated and real data and its applicability to the field of genealogical research is discussed. We envisage the proposed approach as a valid tool for a streamlined application to the publicly available data generated by many online personal genomic companies. In this way, anonymized matrices of pairwise genome sharing counts can help to improve the retrieval of genetic relationships between customers who provide explicit consent to the treatment of their data.

  19. A computer-based education intervention to enhance surrogates' informed consent for genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ann K; Freeman, Bradley D; Fish, Anne F; Bachman, Jean A; Richardson, Lloyd I

    2015-03-01

    Many research studies conducted today in critical care have a genomics component. Patients' surrogates asked to authorize participation in genomics research for a loved one in the intensive care unit may not be prepared to make informed decisions about a patient's participation in the research. To examine the effectiveness of a new, computer-based education module on surrogates' understanding of the process of informed consent for genomics research. A pilot study was conducted with visitors in the waiting rooms of 2 intensive care units in a Midwestern tertiary care medical center. Visitors were randomly assigned to the experimental (education module plus a sample genomics consent form; n = 65) or the control (sample genomics consent form only; n = 69) group. Participants later completed a test on informed genomics consent. Understanding the process of informed consent was greater (P = .001) in the experimental group than in the control group. Specifically, compared with the control group, the experimental group had a greater understanding of 8 of 13 elements of informed consent: intended benefits of research (P = .02), definition of surrogate consenter (P= .001), withdrawal from the study (P = .001), explanation of risk (P = .002), purpose of the institutional review board (P = .001), definition of substituted judgment (P = .03), compensation for harm (P = .001), and alternative treatments (P = .004). Computer-based education modules may be an important addition to conventional approaches for obtaining informed consent in the intensive care unit. Preparing patients' family members who may consider serving as surrogate consenters is critical to facilitating genomics research in critical care. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Using the World Wide Web to Connect Research and Professional Practice: Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Moody

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.

  1. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  2. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  3. KMZ File Bulk Loading WorldWind Research and Implementation%KMZ文件批量加载WorldWind的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋洋

    2014-01-01

    WorldWind is the U.S. space agency (NASA) produced a three-dimensional geographic information system software. WorldWind without their own 3 d model file format, just provide a. Point x file loading interface. Because of the limitation of format is required when the 3 d model implanted WorldWind through commercial plugin to convert the format first, then to load, so that to scientific research to a lot of inconvenience, 3 d model and easy to lose in the process of transformation of materi-al, layer, and other important information. Based on load demand, this paper analyzes KMZ file internal structure, improve the load in the WorldWind class code, created the KML file loading port WorldWind programs. Finally, through further research, this paper realizes the KMZ model bulk loading WorldWind, and based on the three-dimensional model for subsequent ray trac-ing study to lay a solid foundation.%WorldWind是美国航天宇航局(NASA)研发的一款三维地理信息系统软件。由于WorldWind每次只能加载单个KMZ模型文件,加载效率过低,所以给基于WorldWind三维模型加载的科学研究来带来了很大的不便。基于worldwind对KMZ文件批量加载的需求,该文通过分析KMZ文件内部结构,改进了WorldWind中用于KMZ文件加载的相关代码,最终实现了KMZ文件在worldwind中的批量加载,为基于worldwind的后续研究提供了便利。

  4. Whole genome data for omics-based research on the self-fertilizing fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-08-30

    Genome resources have advantages for understanding diverse areas such as biological patterns and functioning of organisms. Omics platforms are useful approaches for the study of organs and organisms. These approaches can be powerful screening tools for whole genome, proteome, and metabolome profiling, and can be used to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external stimuli. This methodology has been applied successfully in freshwater model fish such as the zebrafish Danio rerio and the Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes in research areas such as basic physiology, developmental biology, genetics, and environmental biology. However, information is still scarce about model fish that inhabit brackish water or seawater. To develop the self-fertilizing killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus as a potential model species with unique characteristics and research merits, we obtained genomic information about K. marmoratus. We address ways to use these data for genome-based molecular mechanistic studies. We review the current state of genome information on K. marmoratus to initiate omics approaches. We evaluate the potential applications of integrated omics platforms for future studies in environmental science, developmental biology, and biomedical research. We conclude that information about the K. marmoratus genome will provide a better understanding of the molecular functions of genes, proteins, and metabolites that are involved in the biological functions of this species. Omics platforms, particularly combined technologies that make effective use of bioinformatics, will provide powerful tools for hypothesis-driven investigations and discovery-driven discussions on diverse aspects of this species and on fish and vertebrates in general.

  5. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  6. Scientific computation of big data in real-world clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozheng; Zuo, Xuewen; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    The advent of the big data era creates both opportunities and challenges for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study describes the origin, concept, connotation, and value of studies regarding the scientific computation of TCM. It also discusses the integration of science, technology, and medicine under the guidance of the paradigm of real-world, clinical scientific research. TCM clinical diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge were traditionally limited to literature and sensation levels; however, primary methods are used to convert them into statistics, such as the methods of feature subset optimizing, multi-label learning, and complex networks based on complexity, intelligence, data, and computing sciences. Furthermore, these methods are applied in the modeling and analysis of the various complex relationships in individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in decision-making related to such diagnosis and treatment. Thus, these methods strongly support the real-world clinical research paradigm of TCM.

  7. Attitudes of developing world physicians to where medical research is performed and reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongpatanakul Supornchai

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influence of the site of research or publication on the impact of the research findings on clinical practice, particularly in developing countries. The International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN is dedicated to improving the quality of health research in the Developing World through institutional capacity building for evidence based medicine, and provided the opportunity to examine the likely impact of research location and journal location on physicians' practice in a number of the participating countries. Methods Physicians from secondary and tertiary hospitals in six cities located in China, Thailand, India, Egypt and Kenya were enrolled in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The primary outcome measures were scores on a Likert scale reflecting stated likelihood of changing clinical practice depending on the source of the research or its publication. Results Overall, local research and publications were most likely to effect change in clinical practice, followed by North American, European and regional research/publications respectively, although there were significant variations between countries. The impact of local and regional research would be greater if the perceived research quality improved in those settings. Conclusion Conducting high quality local research is likely to be an effective way of getting research findings into practice in developing countries.

  8. Public–Private Partnerships in Cloud-Computing Services in the Context of Genomic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Moreno, Palmira; Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2017-01-01

    Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have been increasingly used to spur and facilitate innovation in a number of fields. In healthcare, the purpose of using a PPP is commonly to develop and/or provide vaccines and drugs against communicable diseases, mainly in developing or underdeveloped countries. With the advancement of technology and of the area of genomics, these partnerships also focus on large-scale genomic research projects that aim to advance the understanding of diseases that have a genetic component and to develop personalized treatments. This new focus has created new forms of PPPs that involve information technology companies, which provide computing infrastructure and services to store, analyze, and share the massive amounts of data genomic-related projects produce. In this article, we explore models of PPPs proposed to handle, protect, and share the genomic data collected and to further develop genomic-based medical products. We also identify the reasons that make these models suitable and the challenges they have yet to overcome. To achieve this, we describe the details and complexities of MSSNG, International Cancer Genome Consortium, and 100,000 Genomes Project, the three PPPs that focus on large-scale genomic research to better understand the genetic components of autism, cancer, rare diseases, and infectious diseases with the intention to find appropriate treatments. Organized as PPP and employing cloud-computing services, the three projects have advanced quickly and are likely to be important sources of research and development for future personalized medicine. However, there still are unresolved matters relating to conflicts of interest, commercialization, and data control. Learning from the challenges encountered by past PPPs allowed us to establish that developing guidelines to adequately manage personal health information stored in clouds and ensuring the protection of data integrity and privacy would be critical steps in the development

  9. Public-Private Partnerships in Cloud-Computing Services in the Context of Genomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Moreno, Palmira; Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2017-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been increasingly used to spur and facilitate innovation in a number of fields. In healthcare, the purpose of using a PPP is commonly to develop and/or provide vaccines and drugs against communicable diseases, mainly in developing or underdeveloped countries. With the advancement of technology and of the area of genomics, these partnerships also focus on large-scale genomic research projects that aim to advance the understanding of diseases that have a genetic component and to develop personalized treatments. This new focus has created new forms of PPPs that involve information technology companies, which provide computing infrastructure and services to store, analyze, and share the massive amounts of data genomic-related projects produce. In this article, we explore models of PPPs proposed to handle, protect, and share the genomic data collected and to further develop genomic-based medical products. We also identify the reasons that make these models suitable and the challenges they have yet to overcome. To achieve this, we describe the details and complexities of MSSNG, International Cancer Genome Consortium, and 100,000 Genomes Project, the three PPPs that focus on large-scale genomic research to better understand the genetic components of autism, cancer, rare diseases, and infectious diseases with the intention to find appropriate treatments. Organized as PPP and employing cloud-computing services, the three projects have advanced quickly and are likely to be important sources of research and development for future personalized medicine. However, there still are unresolved matters relating to conflicts of interest, commercialization, and data control. Learning from the challenges encountered by past PPPs allowed us to establish that developing guidelines to adequately manage personal health information stored in clouds and ensuring the protection of data integrity and privacy would be critical steps in the development of

  10. A broadly implementable research course in phage discovery and genomics for first-year undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Tuajuanda C; Burnett, Sandra H; Carson, Susan; Caruso, Steven M; Clase, Kari; DeJong, Randall J; Dennehy, John J; Denver, Dee R; Dunbar, David; Elgin, Sarah C R; Findley, Ann M; Gissendanner, Chris R; Golebiewska, Urszula P; Guild, Nancy; Hartzog, Grant A; Grillo, Wendy H; Hollowell, Gail P; Hughes, Lee E; Johnson, Allison; King, Rodney A; Lewis, Lynn O; Li, Wei; Rosenzweig, Frank; Rubin, Michael R; Saha, Margaret S; Sandoz, James; Shaffer, Christopher D; Taylor, Barbara; Temple, Louise; Vazquez, Edwin; Ware, Vassie C; Barker, Lucia P; Bradley, Kevin W; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Pope, Welkin H; Russell, Daniel A; Cresawn, Steven G; Lopatto, David; Bailey, Cheryl P; Hatfull, Graham F

    2014-02-04

    Engaging large numbers of undergraduates in authentic scientific discovery is desirable but difficult to achieve. We have developed a general model in which faculty and teaching assistants from diverse academic institutions are trained to teach a research course for first-year undergraduate students focused on bacteriophage discovery and genomics. The course is situated within a broader scientific context aimed at understanding viral diversity, such that faculty and students are collaborators with established researchers in the field. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) course has been widely implemented and has been taken by over 4,800 students at 73 institutions. We show here that this alliance-sourced model not only substantially advances the field of phage genomics but also stimulates students' interest in science, positively influences academic achievement, and enhances persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Broad application of this model by integrating other research areas with large numbers of early-career undergraduate students has the potential to be transformative in science education and research training. Engagement of undergraduate students in scientific research at early stages in their careers presents an opportunity to excite students about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines and promote continued interests in these areas. Many excellent course-based undergraduate research experiences have been developed, but scaling these to a broader impact with larger numbers of students is challenging. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Science Education Alliance Phage Hunting Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) program takes advantage of the huge size and diversity of the bacteriophage population to engage students in discovery of new viruses, genome

  11. Research Orientation of Tusi Study within the Context of World Heritage Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    On November 1st, 2011, a meet-ing related to the World Heritage application of the Yongshun Old Tusi Town was held in Hunan prov-ince . This indicated that the Hunan provincial leadership team of the Old Tusi Town World Herit-age Application Office opened the door for the first time regard a World Heritage application related to the institution of tusi ( a native official in imperial China ) heritage.Because it is just a beginning , there is need for more discussion on this tusi herit-age site’ s World Heritage application .This arti-cle tries to give some reflections on the present sit-uation of World Heritage application work in Chi-na, the requirements for research on the tusi his-torical site within the context of the World Heritage application , and the deficiencies in the study of tu-si heritage.Furthermore, it discusses the research orientation of tusi study within the context of“World Heritage application” so that the tusi re-search can connect with the related studies in the rest of the world . Applying for World Heritage is a relatively new phenomenon .It was proposed after the estab-lishment of the World Heritage Committee .The application activity began in the countries in North and South America, Africa and Europe, and then, gradually expanded to the countries in Asia , etc. Although China ’ s World Heritage applications started late , the speed of inscription on the World Heritage list was dramatically fast .China now has already become the country with the second largest number of World Heritage sites .During the in-scription process for the list of World Heritage sites, China has accumulated very rich experi-ence , and has established a good foundation for making the tusi heritage ’ s inscription on the world list strategically . When the local government unified their will to make an application for the tusi heritage site for World Heritage , the next task was to make an ap-plication for the heritage site to be included on the Tentative

  12. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  13. Participants' recall and understanding of genomic research and large-scale data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jill Oliver; Slashinski, Melody J; Wang, Tao; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; McGuire, Amy L

    2013-10-01

    As genomic researchers are urged to openly share generated sequence data with other researchers, it is important to examine the utility of informed consent documents and processes, particularly as these relate to participants' engagement with and recall of the information presented to them, their objective or subjective understanding of the key elements of genomic research (e.g., data sharing), as well as how these factors influence or mediate the decisions they make. We conducted a randomized trial of three experimental informed consent documents (ICDs) with participants (n = 229) being recruited to genomic research studies; each document afforded varying control over breadth of release of genetic information. Recall and understanding, their impact on data sharing decisions, and comfort in decision making were assessed in a follow-up structured interview. Over 25% did not remember signing an ICD to participate in a genomic study, and the majority (54%) could not correctly identify with whom they had agreed to share their genomic data. However, participants felt that they understood enough to make an informed decision, and lack of recall did not impact final data sharing decisions or satisfaction with participation. These findings raise questions about the types of information participants need in order to provide valid informed consent, and whether subjective understanding and comfort with decision making are sufficient to satisfy the ethical principle of respect for persons.

  14. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  15. Research Techniques Made Simple: Bioinformatics for Genome-Scale Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Amy C; Watson, David S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Warren, Richard B; Huber, Wolfgang; Barnes, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    High-throughput biology presents unique opportunities and challenges for dermatological research. Drawing on a small handful of exemplary studies, we review some of the major lessons of these new technologies. We caution against several common errors and introduce helpful statistical concepts that may be unfamiliar to researchers without experience in bioinformatics. We recommend specific software tools that can aid dermatologists at varying levels of computational literacy, including platforms with command line and graphical user interfaces. The future of dermatology lies in integrative research, in which clinicians, laboratory scientists, and data analysts come together to plan, execute, and publish their work in open forums that promote critical discussion and reproducibility. In this article, we offer guidelines that we hope will steer researchers toward best practices for this new and dynamic era of data intensive dermatology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stem cell research on other worlds, or why embryos do not have a right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, R

    2006-03-01

    Anxieties about the creation and destruction of human embryos for the purpose of scientific research on embryonic stem cells have given a new urgency to the question of whether embryos have moral rights. This article uses a thought experiment involving two possible worlds, somewhat removed from our own in the space of possibilities, to shed light on whether early embryos have such rights as a right not to be destroyed or discarded (a "right to life"). It is argued that early embryos do not have meaningful interests or any moral rights. Accordingly, claims about the moral rights of embryos do not justify restrictions on stem cell research.

  17. National Genome Research Initiative: A New Paradigm For Teaching Research To Undergraduates In South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From 2007 to 2011, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI recruited professors across the US to test a new paradigm in undergraduate education: the National Genome Research Initiative (NGRI. Undergraduates were taught to isolate bacteriophages, characterize their findings, and report to the scientific community.Objective: The educational goal of the NGRI program was to expose science undergraduates to an authentic research experience to increase graduation rates. The scientific goal was to isolate mycobacteriophages to be used as therapeutic agents against disease-causing mycobacteria.Materials and Methods: In a one-semester lab course undergraduates are taught to find, grow, and purify bacteriophages. In the second semester, students use bioinformatic software to annotate sequences of their bacteriophages.Results: Ahead of data on student graduation rates, the NGRI program has generated expanded productivity for US undergraduates. Over a four year period, thousands of participants were taught to collect bacteriophages, annotate sequences, and present their findings. Those undergraduates will have isolated 2300+ phages, annotated 250+ sequences, presented hundreds of posters at conferences across the US, and are co-authors on papers published by labs participating in the NGRI program.Discussion: Many professors in the US academic community are convinced that the NGRI program will have lasting impact on the US educational system. Several professors have banded together to form the Phage Galaxy Consortium to continue HHMI’s goal of implementation of the NGRI program at all US colleges.Conclusions: HHMI’s paradigm is ready for distribution to Central and South America.

  18. The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration of Research into Laboratory Classes at a Diverse Group of Undergraduate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bhalla, Satish; Chandrasekaran, Chitra; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Dorer, Douglas R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeff L.; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Hauser, Charles; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kaehler, Marian; Kokan, Nighat; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; McNeil, Gerard; Moss, Robert; Myka, Jennifer L.; Nagengast, Alexis; Morris, Robert; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Parrish, Susan; Reed, Kelynne; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Saville, Ken; Schroeder, Stephanie; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher; Smith, Mary; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Stamm, Joyce; Thompson, Jeff S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wilson, Barbara A.; Youngblom, Jim; Leung, Wilson; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics is not only essential for students to understand biology but also provides unprecedented opportunities for undergraduate research. The goal of the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), a collaboration between a growing number of colleges and universities around the country and the Department of Biology and Genome Center of Washington…

  19. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  20. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  1. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  2. US News and World Report cancer hospital rankings: do they reflect measures of research productivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Prasad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Prior research has faulted the US News and World Report hospital specialty rankings for excessive reliance on reputation, a subjective measure of a hospital's performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether and to what extent reputation correlates with objective measures of research productivity among cancer hospitals. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: Automated search of NIH Reporter, BioEntrez, BioMedline and Clinicaltrials.gov databases. PARTICIPANTS: The 50 highest ranked cancer hospitals in 2013's US News and World Report Rankings. EXPOSURE: We ascertained the number of NCI funded grants, and the cumulative funds received by each cancer center. Additionally, we identified the number of phase I, phase II, and phase III studies published and indexed in MEDLINE, and registered at clinicaltrials.gov. All counts were over the preceding 5 years. For published articles, we summed the impact factor of the journals in which they appeared. Trials were attributed to centers on the basis of the affiliation of the lead author or study principal investigator. MAIN OUTCOME: Correlation coefficients from simple and multiple linear regressions for measures of research productivity and a center's reputation. RESULTS: All measures of research productivity demonstrated robust correlation with reputation (mean r-squared  = 0.65, median r-squared = 0.68, minimum r-squared = .41, maximum r-squared = 0.80. A multivariable model showed that 93% of the variation in reputation is explained by objective measures. CONCLUSION: Contrary to prior criticism, the majority of reputation, used in US News and World Rankings, can be explained by objective measures of research productivity among cancer hospitals.

  3. Neurogenomics: An opportunity to integrate neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Karikari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern genomic approaches have made enormous contributions to improving our understanding of the function, development and evolution of the nervous system, and the diversity within and between species. However, most of these research advances have been recorded in countries with advanced scientific resources and funding support systems. On the contrary, little is known about, for example, the possible interplay between different genes, non-coding elements and environmental factors in modulating neurological diseases among populations in low-income countries, including many African countries. The unique ancestry of African populations suggests that improved inclusion of these populations in neuroscience-related genomic studies would significantly help to identify novel factors that might shape the future of neuroscience research and neurological healthcare. This perspective is strongly supported by the recent identification that diseased individuals and their kindred from specific sub-Saharan African populations lack common neurological disease-associated genetic mutations. This indicates that there may be population-specific causes of neurological diseases, necessitating further investigations into the contribution of additional, presently-unknown genomic factors. Here, we discuss how the development of neurogenomics research in Africa would help to elucidate disease-related genomic variants, and also provide a good basis to develop more effective therapies. Furthermore, neurogenomics would harness African scientists' expertise in neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics to extend our understanding of the neural basis of behaviour, development and evolution.

  4. Practical, ethical and regulatory considerations for the evolving medical and research genomics landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholson J. Lyon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in sequencing technology are making possible the application of large-scale genomic analyses to individualized care, both in wellness and disease. However, a number of obstacles remain before genomic sequencing can become a routine part of clinical practice. One of the more significant and underappreciated is the lack of consensus regarding the proper environment and regulatory structure under which clinical genome sequencing and interpretation should be performed. The continued reliance on pure research vs. pure clinical models leads to problems for both research participants and patients in an era in which the lines between research and clinical practice are becoming increasingly blurred. Here, we discuss some of the ethical, regulatory and practical considerations that are emerging in the field of genomic medicine. We also propose that many of the cost and safety issues we are facing can be mitigated through expanded reliance on existing clinical regulatory frameworks and the implementation of distributive work-sharing strategies designed to leverage the strengths of our genomics centers and clinical interpretive teams.

  5. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS World University Ranking (2004-2009 by Times Higher Education (THE-QS emphasizes on peer review with high weighting in evaluation. This paper compares the 2009 ranking results from the three ranking systems. Differences exist in the top 20 universities in three ranking systems except the Harvard University, which scored top one in all of the three rankings. Comparisons also revealed that the THE-QS favored UK universities. Further, obvious differences can be observed between THE-QS and the other two rankings when ranking results of some European countries (Germany, UK, Netherlands, & Switzerland and Chinese speaking regions were compared.

  7. Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert C; Goddard, Katrina A B; Jarvik, Gail P; Amendola, Laura M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Berg, Jonathan S; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biswas, Sawona; Blout, Carrie L; Bowling, Kevin M; Brothers, Kyle B; Burke, Wylie; Caga-Anan, Charlisse F; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Chung, Wendy K; Clayton, Ellen W; Cooper, Gregory M; East, Kelly; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Garraway, Levi A; Garrett, Jeremy R; Gray, Stacy W; Henderson, Gail E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Holm, Ingrid A; Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Hutter, Carolyn M; Janne, Pasi A; Joffe, Steven; Kaufman, David; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Krantz, Ian D; Manolio, Teri A; McCullough, Laurence; McEwen, Jean; McGuire, Amy; Muzny, Donna; Myers, Richard M; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ou, Jeffrey; Parsons, Donald W; Petersen, Gloria M; Plon, Sharon E; Rehm, Heidi L; Roberts, J Scott; Robinson, Dan; Salama, Joseph S; Scollon, Sarah; Sharp, Richard R; Shirts, Brian; Spinner, Nancy B; Tabor, Holly K; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Veenstra, David L; Wagle, Nikhil; Weck, Karen; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wolf, Susan M; Wynn, Julia; Yu, Joon-Ho

    2016-06-02

    Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine.

  8. The System Dynamics of Forest Cover in the Developing World: Researcher Versus Community Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase forest cover in the developing world will only succeed if the root causes of deforestation are addressed. Researchers designing reforestation initiatives tend to emphasize macro-level drivers of deforestation, about which they have extensive data and knowledge. On the other hand, local people have contextually based knowledge of forest cover dynamics in their region—about which external researchers may be largely ignorant. This type of perception gap between researchers and community members has led to many failed or insufficiently implemented projects. An emerging tool—group model-building with system dynamics—shows promise in its ability to integrate different perspectives on a complex problem such as forest cover loss. In this study, I use system dynamics modeling methodology to compare causal loop diagrams of forest cover dynamics on Negros Island, Philippines generated by researchers working for the World Wildlife Fund with causal loop diagrams generated by community members in upland Negros. The diagrams were significantly different, with very few variables in common, but both illuminate critical aspects of the deforestation problem on the island. I conclude that reforestation initiatives in the Philippines would benefit from incorporating all relevant information into a single, coherent model.

  9. Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell research in the islamic world: positions and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Ertin, Hakan

    2010-06-01

    Rapid technological developments in human embryonic stem cell research are holding promises of future new medical treatment for a range of currently incurable chronic diseases. At the same time, stem cell research using human embryos raises radically new, previously unimaginable ethical issues posing a dramatic challenge to humankind. By analysing the discourses on these ethical issues we can show that the cultural values and religious convictions of all stakeholders involved play a decisive role in formulating ethical positions. In the Islamic world, too, stem cell research using human embryos provokes new discussions about the moral status of the embryo according to Islamic ethical norms. In our paper we describe the theological and philosophical criteria used in this debate and discuss some ethical positions vis-à-vis embryonic stem cell research formulated in the Islamic world, including official regulations existing in some Muslim countries. While most of the existing literature in this field is primarily descriptive, the present paper endeavours to examine not only the arguments and their historical conditions as such; in addition, we will for the first time provide a critical reflection on the methodology underlying commonly held positions. In our view, this reflection is of paramount importance in establishing a straightforward constructive dialogue between different cultures and academic disciplines.

  10. The World-Wide Web: An Interface between Research and Teaching in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Aiton

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of ‘global hypermedia’ and ‘universal document readership’ realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and arch ives th at have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images. digital videos. animation etc.. The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  11. Involving students in real-world research: a pilot study for teaching public health and research skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that medical students consider population health issues less important than other domains in the health sciences and attitudes to this field may become more negative as training progresses. A need to improve research skills among medical students has also been suggested. Therefore we piloted an integrative teaching exercise that combined teaching of research skills and public health, with real-world research. Methods Third year medical students at the University of Otago (Dunedin, New Zealand filled in a questionnaire on their housing conditions and health. The students were given the results of the survey to discuss in a subsequent class. Student response to this teaching exercise was assessed using a Course Evaluation Questionnaire. Results Of the 210 students in the class, 136 completed the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (65%. A majority of those who responded (77% greatly supported or supported the use of the survey and seminar discussion for future third year classes. Most (70% thought that the session had made them more aware and concerned about societal problems, and 72% felt that they now had an improved understanding of the environmental determinants of health. Students liked the relevance and interaction of the session, but thought it could be improved by the inclusion of small group discussion. The findings of the students' housing and health were considered by the tutors to be of sufficient value to submit to a scientific journal and are now contributing to community action to improve student housing in the city. Conclusion In this pilot study it was feasible to integrate medical student teaching with real-world research. A large majority of the students responded favourably to the teaching exercise and this was generally successful in raising the profile of public health and research. This approach to integrated teaching/research should be considered further in health sciences training and

  12. Traditional Chinese medicine ZHENG and Omics convergence: a systems approach to post-genomics medicine in a global world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a comprehensive system of medical practice that has been used to diagnose, treat, and prevent illnesses for more than 3000 years. ZHENG (also known as "syndrome") differentiation remains the essence of TCM. In China, TCM shares equal status, and integrated with Western medicine in the healthcare system to treat many types of diseases. Yet, compared to biomolecular science and Western medicine, the ZHENG/TCM approach to diagnostics might appear unobjective, but offers at the same time long-standing clinical and phenotypic-rich insights. With the current globalization of life sciences and the arrival of "Big Data" research and development, these two silos of medical lore are rapidly coalescing. The applications of multi-omics strategies to TCM have begun to provide novel insights into the essence and molecular basis of TCM ZHENG. We searched the Chinese electronic databases and PubMed for published articles related to "Omics" and "TCM ZHENG" and observed a dramatic increase in studies over the past few years. In this article, we provide a timely synthesis of the lessons learned, and the emerging applications of omics science in TCM ZHENG research. We suggest that the global health scholarship and the field of "developing world Omics" can usefully draw from TCM, and vice versa.

  13. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  14. Ethical issues in genomic research on the African continent: experiences and challenges to ethics review committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Michèle; de Vries, Jantina; Soodyall, Himla; Norris, Shane A; Sankoh, Osman

    2014-01-01

    This is a report on a workshop titled 'Ethics for genomic research across five African countries: Guidelines, experiences and challenges', University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 and 11 December 2012. The workshop was hosted by the Wits-INDEPTH partnership, AWI-Gen, as part of the H3Africa Consortium.

  15. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedsid...

  16. Informed Consent in Genome-Scale Research: What Do Prospective Participants Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Susan Brown; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Bares, Julie M.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Larson, Eric B.; Burke, Wylie

    2012-01-01

    Background To promote effective genome-scale research, genomic and clinical data for large population samples must be collected, stored, and shared. Methods We conducted focus groups with 45 members of a Seattle-based integrated healthcare delivery system to learn about their views and expectations for informed consent in genome-scale studies. Results Participants viewed information about study purpose, aims, and how and by whom study data could be used to be at least as important as information about risks and possible harms. They generally supported a tiered consent approach for specific issues, including research purpose, data sharing, and access to individual research results. Participants expressed a continuum of opinions with respect to the acceptability of broad consent, ranging from completely acceptable to completely unacceptable. Older participants were more likely to view the consent process in relational – rather than contractual – terms, compared with younger participants. The majority of participants endorsed seeking study subjects’ permission regarding material changes in study purpose and data sharing. Conclusions Although this study sample was limited in terms of racial and socioeconomic diversity, our results suggest a strong positive interest in genomic research on the part of at least some prospective participants and indicate a need for increased public engagement, as well as strategies for ongoing communication with study participants. PMID:23493836

  17. Genome-wide association studies in economics and entrepreneurship research: Promises and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); A.R. Thurik (Roy); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe recently developed genome-wide association study (GWAS) design enables the identification of genes specifically associated with economic outcomes such as occupational and other choices. This is a promising new approach for economics research which we aim to apply to the choice for en

  18. Genome-wide association studies in economics and entrepreneurship research: promises and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); A.R. Thurik (Roy); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe recently developed genome-wide association study (GWAS) design enables the identification of genes specifically associated with economic outcomes such as occupational and other choices. This is a promising new approach for economics research which we aim to apply to the choice for en

  19. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  20. Developing Changes in Our Reading of the World: A Pedagogical Proposal from Participative Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Trovato-Apollaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted with the group Women of Theater from Alajuelita. The research intended to answer the question of how to develop changes in our reading of the world. The goal of our study was the co-researchers’ raising awareness process leading them, from themselves, and by means of the abovementioned group, to read, interpret and reconstruct the environment in order to yield transformations in their lives and community. Through reflection, the process was investigated on the basis of the pedagogical practices of Augusto Boal´s Theater of Oppressed (Boal, 1980, as they were applied at the theater workshop together with the group of Women of Theather, at the library of the Educative Center Los Pinos in Alajuelita. The main elements of the implemented methodology respond to the Participative Action Research (PAR, where the dialectical participative relationship and the collective discussion make it possible the creation of learning. We used audio recordings as data collection tools, which were later systematized for their analysis. The paradigmatic position assumed was inspired by an approach related to the concept of complexity. This concept proposes a holistic view of reality, life, and, so, of pedagogy. According to such a view, we all are one, and the multiplicity is interconnected with each one of its parts, in continuous entropy. Under this approach, where the world is a system of systems interconnected among themselves, the main finding was to perceive pedagogy as an instrument for humanization, a magical object capable of valuing diversity and transforming our thoughts, life styles and values, and, in consequence, our reading of the world. We considered that such an important finding might help to develop changes in human beings and might inspire us to assume an ecological perspective towards relationships. Such a perspective might give rise to deep transformations in our social, political and

  1. The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute: reflections on an ongoing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jean E; Boyer, Joy T; Sun, Kathie Y; Rothenberg, Karen H; Lockhart, Nicole C; Guyer, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute has supported empirical and conceptual research to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomics. As a component of the agency that funds much of the underlying science, the program has always been an experiment. The ever-expanding number of issues the program addresses and the relatively low level of commitment on the part of other funding agencies to support such research make setting priorities especially challenging. Program-supported studies have had a significant impact on the conduct of genomics research, the implementation of genomic medicine, and broader public policies. The program's influence is likely to grow as ELSI research, genomics research, and policy development activities become increasingly integrated. Achieving the benefits of increased integration while preserving the autonomy, objectivity, and intellectual independence of ELSI investigators presents ongoing challenges and new opportunities.

  2. Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research-Clinical Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a "layered" approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation.

  3. Functional genomics in translational cancer research: focus on breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulug, Isik G; Gur-Dedeoglu, Bala

    2008-01-01

    Conventional molecular and genetic methods for studying cancer are limited to the analysis of one locus at a time. A cluster of genes that are regulated together can be identified by DNA microarray, and the functional relationships can uncover new aspects of cancer biology. Breast cancer can be used to provide a model to demonstrate the current approaches to the molecular analysis of cancer. Meta-analysis is an important tool for the identification and validation of differentially expressed genes to increase power in clinical and biological studies across different sets of data. Recently, meta-analysis approaches have been applied to large collections of microarray datasets to investigate molecular commonalities of multiple cancer types not only to find the common molecular pathways in tumour development but also to compare the individual datasets to other cancer datasets to identify new sets of genes. Several investigators agree that microarray results should be validated. One commonly used method is quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the expression profiles of the target genes obtained through microarray experiments. qRT-PCR is attractive for clinical use, since it can be automated and performed on fresh or archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The outcome of these analyses might accelerate the application of basic research findings into daily clinical practice through translational research and may have an impact on foreseeing the clinical outcome, predicting tumour response to specific therapy, identification of new prognostic biomarkers, discovering targets for the development of novel therapies and providing further insights into tumour biology.

  4. SORGHUM BIOMASS/FEEDSTOCK GENOMICS RESEARCH FOR BIOENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, William L. [Texas A& M Agrilife Research; Mullet, John E.; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Steven; Ware, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) annotate genes, pathways and regulatory networks identified in the sorghum genome sequence that are important for biomass generation, and (2) identify, map and clarify the function of trait loci that modulate accumulation and quality of biomass in sorghum. Approach: Objective 1: Genes encoding proteins involved in biochemical pathways important for biomass generation and plant composition related to biofuel production (i.e., starch, lignin, sugar, cellulose and hemicellulose) were identified and projected onto biochemical pathways using the database MetaCyc (SorgCyc). The pathway projections provide a baseline of information on sorghum genes involved in biochemical pathways thus aiding our downstream analysis of QTL and traits. In addition, the information on sorghum biochemical pathways in Gramene can be readily compared to information on other cereals and other organisms via Gramene’s comparative mapping tools. This information helped identify gaps in the current knowledge of sorghum biochemistry and identified pathways and genes that may be useful to deploy in sorghum for biomass/bioenergy generation. Objective 2: Grain, biomass, and carbohydrate yields were measured in germplasm and a population consisting of 175 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (F5:6) from the cross of BTx623 (a high yielding early flowering grain sorghum) × Rio (a high biomass sweet sorghum). Plant growth parameters were analyzed to obtain a baseline for downstream meta-analysis including plant height, flowering time and tillering, traits that likely modulate carbohydrate partitioning in various tissues and total biomass. Traits that affect grain yield, biomass (i.e. the tissue harvest index and distribution of grain, stem, and leaf weight), the composition of structural and non-structural carbohydrates, and the overall energy gain of the plant were evaluated. A genetic map of this population was created and QTL analysis will

  5. A Teacher Research Experience: Immersion Into the World of Practicing Ocean Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Professional development standards for science teachers encourage opportunities for intellectual professional growth, including participation in scientific research (NRC, 1996). Strategies to encourage the professional growth of teachers of mathematics and science include partnerships with scientists and immersion into the world of scientists and mathematicians (Loucks-Horsley, Love, Stiles, Mundry, & Hewson, 2003). A teacher research experience (TRE) can often offer a sustained relationship with scientists over a prolonged period of time. Research experiences are not a new method of professional development (Dubner, 2000; Fraser-Abder & Leonhardt, 1996; Melear, 1999; Raphael et al., 1999). Scientists serve as role models and "coaches" for teachers a practice which has been shown to dramatically increase the transfer of knowledge, skill and application to the classroom (Joyce & Showers, 2002). This study investigated if and how secondary teachers' beliefs about science, scientific research and science teaching changed as a result of participation in a TRE. Six secondary science teachers participated in a 12 day research cruise. Teachers worked with scientists, the ships' crew and other teachers conducting research and designing lessons for use in the classroom. Surveys were administered pre and post TRE to teachers and their students. Additionally, teachers were interviewed before, during and after the research experience, and following classroom observations before and after the research cruise. Teacher journals and emails, completed during the research cruise, were also analyzed. Results of the study highlight the use of authentic research experiences to retain and renew science teachers, the impact of the teachers' experience on students, and the successes and challenges of implementing a TRE during the academic year.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission and goals.

  7. Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Analysis and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Branum, Rebecca; Koenig, Barbara A; Petersen, Gloria M; Berry, Susan A; Beskow, Laura M; Daly, Mary B; Fernandez, Conrad V; Green, Robert C; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Lindor, Noralane M; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rothstein, Mark A; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research results and incidental findings with health implications for a research participant are of potential interest not only to the participant, but also to the participant's family. Yet investigators lack guidance on return of results to relatives, including after the participant's death. In this paper, a national working group offers consensus analysis and recommendations, including an ethical framework to guide investigators in managing this challenging issue, before and after the participant's death.

  8. Building capacity for human genetics and genomics research in Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Allana; Warner, Wayne A.; Llanos, Adana A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in human genetics and genomic sciences and the corresponding explosion of biomedical technologies have deepened current understanding of human health and revolutionized medicine. In developed nations, this has led to marked improvements in disease risk stratification and diagnosis. These advances have also led to targeted intervention strategies aimed at promoting disease prevention, prolonging disease onset, and mitigating symptoms, as in the well-known case of breast cancer and the BRCA1 gene. In contrast, in the developing nation of Trinidad and Tobago, this scientific revolution has not translated into the development and application of effective genomics-based interventions for improving public health. While the reasons for this are multifactorial, the underlying basis may be rooted in the lack of pertinence of internationally driven genomics research to the local public health needs in the country, as well as a lack of relevance of internationally conducted genetics research to the genetic and environmental contexts of the population. Indeed, if Trinidad and Tobago is able to harness substantial public health benefit from genetics/genomics research, then there is a dire need, in the near future, to build local capacity for the conduct and translation of such research. Specifically, it is essential to establish a national human genetics/genomics research agenda in order to build sustainable human capacity through education and knowledge transfer and to generate public policies that will provide the basis for the creation of a mutually beneficial framework (including partnerships with more developed nations) that is informed by public health needs and contextual realities of the nation. PMID:26837529

  9. Presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a world wide survey. The World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Huntington's Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    World wide data on presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease using closely linked DNA markers show that 1479 persons at risk received completed test results up to the end of 1991. Testing has been carried out in 19 countries, with at least 88 centres involved, and numbers have levelled off after a peak in 1990. Only 5% of those at risk have been tested in six countries with the longest established programmes. Continued monitoring of international data will be of value in assessing the s...

  10. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  11. Genome-wide screening for highly discriminative SNPs for personal identification and their assessment in world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liming; Wang, Yi; Yang, Shuping; Xia, Mingying; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Jiucun; Lu, Daru; Pan, Xingwei; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Pei; Yu, Ge; Zhao, Ziqin; Ping, Yuan; Zhou, Huaigu; Zhao, Xueying; Sun, Hui; Liu, Bing; Jia, Dongtao; Li, Chengtao; Hu, Rile; Lu, Hongzhou; Liu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Wenqing; Mi, Qin; Xue, Fuzhong; Su, Yongdong; Jin, Li; Li, Shilin

    2017-05-01

    The applications of DNA profiling aim to identify perpetrators, missing family members and disaster victims in forensic investigations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based forensic applications are emerging rapidly with a potential to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) based panels which are now being used widely, and there is a need for a well-designed SNP panel to meet such challenge for this transition. Here we present a panel of 175 SNP markers (referred to as Fudan ID Panel or FID), selected from ∼3.6 million SNPs, for the application of personal identification. We optimized and validated FID panel using 729 Chinese individuals using a next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. We showed that the SNPs in the panel possess very high heterozygosity as well as low within- and among-continent differentiations, enabling FID panel exhibit discrimination power in both regional and worldwide populations, with the average match probabilities ranging from 4.77×10(-71) to 1.06×10(-64) across 54 world populations. With the advent of biomedical research, the SNPs connecting physical anthropological, physiological, behavioral and phenotypic traits will be eventually added to the forensic panels that will revolutionize criminal investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges and prospects for biomarker research: a current perspective from the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shabarni; Venkatesh, Apoorva; Ray, Sandipan; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2014-05-01

    Majority of deaths due to communicable and non-communicable diseases occur in the low and middle-income nations (LMNs), mainly due to the lack of early diagnoses and timely treatments. In such a scenario, biomarkers serve as an indispensible resource that can be used as indicators of biological processes, specific disease conditions or response to therapeutic interventions. Evaluation, diagnosis and management of diseases in developing world by following/extrapolating the findings obtained on the basis of the research work involving only the populations from the developed countries, could often be highly misleading due to existence of diverse patterns of diseases in developing countries compared to the developed world. Biomarker candidates identified from high-throughput integrated omics technologies have promising potential; however, their actual clinical applications are found to be limited, primarily due to the challenges of disease heterogeneity and pre-analytical variability associated with the biomarker discovery pipeline. Additionally, in the developing world, economic crunches, lack of awareness and education, paucity of biorepositories, enormous diversities in socio-epidemiological background, ethnicity, lifestyle, diet, exposure to various environmental risk factors and infectious agents, and ethical and social issues also cumulatively hinder biomarker discovery ventures. Establishment of standard operating procedures, comprehensive data repositories and exchange of scientific findings are crucial for reducing the variability and fragmentation of data. This review highlights the challenges associated with the discovery, validation and translational phases of biomarker research in LMNs with some of their amenable solutions and future prospects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research and protection of natural resources of the Southern Russia during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Eremeeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is provided the historical analysis of the main directions in the research and protection of natural resources of the Southern Russia in the conditions of the First World War. It is based on the materials from the funds of central and regional archives, periodical publications, and little-known scientific and scientific-popular works of 1914-1917. Author deals with the old, ongoing projects as well as the new ones which were the response to the challenges of war. The activities of state and public structures in “mobilization” of science are elucidated. The close connection of many research initiatives and development of recreational area in the South of Russia is shown.

  14. Digging in to Link Analysis Researches in Iran and all around the World: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nooshinfard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.

  15. Twittering About Research: A Case Study of the World's First Twitter Poster Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randviir, Edward P; Illingworth, Samuel M; Baker, Matthew J; Cude, Matthew; Banks, Craig E

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Society of Chemistry held, to our knowledge, the world's first Twitter conference at 9am on February 5 (th), 2015. The conference was a Twitter-only conference, allowing researchers to upload academic posters as tweets, replacing a physical meeting. This paper reports the details of the event and discusses the outcomes, such as the potential for the use of social media to enhance scientific communication at conferences. In particular, the present work argues that social media outlets such as Twitter broaden audiences, speed up communication, and force clearer and more concise descriptions of a researcher's work. The benefits of poster presentations are also discussed in terms of potential knowledge exchange and networking. This paper serves as a proof-of-concept approach for improving both the public opinion of the poster, and the enhancement of the poster through an innovative online format that some may feel more comfortable with, compared to face-to-face communication.

  16. "Voices of the people": linguistic research among Germany's prisoners of war during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  18. The Sydney 2000 World Weather Research Programme Forecast Demonstration Project: Overview and Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, T.; Joe, P.; Wilson, J.; Collier, C.; Golding, B.; Burgess, D.; May, P.; Pierce, C.; Bally, J.; Crook, A.; Seed, A.; Sills, D.; Berry, L.; Potts, R.; Bell, I.; Fox, N.; Ebert, E.; Eilts, M.;  O'Loughlin, K.;  Webb, R.;  Carbone, R.;  Browning, K.;  Roberts, R.;  Mueller, C.

    2003-08-01

    The first World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP), with a focus on nowcasting, was conducted in Sydney, Australia, from 4 September to 21 November 2000 during a period associated with the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Through international collaboration, nine nowcasting systems from the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia were deployed at the Sydney Office of the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) to demonstrate the capability of modern forecast systems and to quantify the associated benefits in the delivery of a real-time nowcast service. On-going verification and impact studies supported by international committees assisted by the WWRP formed an integral part of this project. A description is given of the project, including component systems, the weather, and initial outcomes. Initial results show that the nowcasting systems tested were transferable and able to provide valuable information enhancing BOM nowcasts. The project provided for unprecedented interchange of concepts and ideas between forecasters, researchers, and end users in an operational framework where they all faced common issues relevant to real time nowcast decision making. A training workshop sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) was also held in conjunction with the project so that other member nations could benefit from the FDP.

  19. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  20. Vitiligo: A quantitative analysis of the world research output during 2001-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluates vitiligo research carried out in different countries of the world during 2001-2012 using bibliometric indicators. Data of the present study has been obtained from Scopus (http://www.scopus database using the keywords "Alopecia universalis" "onychodystrophy" "Schrander-Stumpel Theunissen Hulsmans syndrome", "Spastic paraplegia", "Pigmentation Disorders", "Hypopigmentation" during the period of study. The study examined the type of documents, country-wise contribution, subject-wise distribution, most productive institutions, most productive authors, highly productive journals and highly cited papers in vitiligo research. A total of 4091 papers were published during 2001-2012 at the annual growth rate of (20.24%. USA is the most productive country which shared (19.41% of the world publications. India holds 2 nd rank with 388 (9.48% papers. Overall, 50 or more citations have been witnessed to 207 papers. Germany, France, Spain and Japan activity index has been come down during the period of 2007-2012. However, majority of leading institutions are located in developed countries such as USA, UK, France and Germany. Nevertheless, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh has been identified the most productive institution in vitiligo research. Besides this, Karin Uta Schallreuter from University of Bradford is found the most productive author who has contributed 45 articles. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology′ is identified the most productive journal. In the last two decades considerable progress has been made to cope this affliction, nevertheless scientist are not able to develop a vaccine. It is expected that in near future a vaccine will be available in the market to counter the disease.

  1. Africa: continent of genome contrasts with implications for biomedical research and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Michèle

    2012-08-31

    The genomic architecture of African populations is poorly understood and there is considerable variation between ethno-linguistic groups. Genome-wide approaches have been extensively applied to search for genetic associations to complex traits in Europeans, but rarely in Africans. This is largely attributed to lower levels of funding, poor infrastructure and public health systems, and to the small pool of trained scientists. High levels of genetic variation and underlying population structure in Africans present significant challenges, but lower levels of linkage disequilibrium provide an opportunity for more effective localisation of causal variants. High throughput technologies, including dense genotyping arrays, genome sequencing and epigenome studies, together with plummeting costs, are making research more affordable, even for African scientists. Understanding the interactions between genome structure and environmental influences is essential to interpreting their contributions to the increase in infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases, exacerbated by adverse environments and lifestyle choices. The unique genome dynamics in African populations have an important role to play in understanding human health and susceptibility to disease.

  2. Formal Models of Commonsense Geographic Worlds: Report on the Specialist Meeting of Research Initiative 21 (97-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, David M. (David Michael), 1947-; Egenhofer, Max J.; Hornsby, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the outcome of the Specialist Meeting of the NCGIA Research Initiative 21 on "Formal Models of Commonsense Geographic Worlds". The meeting was held in San Marcos, TX on October 30- November 3, 1996. Research Initiative 21 is concerned with the development of formal models of commonsense geographic worlds. Discussions at the Specialist Meeting focused on the commonsense or naive geographic reasoning that people perform and whose outcome makes intuitive sense to m...

  3. Attitudes of medical students towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Mike Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to describe students' attitudes towards human genome research and towards genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients. The background of this investigation provided the increasing relevance ob human genetics research for clinical practice.Methods: A total of 167 medical students (54% female, aged 24 +/- 2 years from the second phase of their studies were surveyed in obligatory courses at the University of Leipzig, using a standardized questionnaire. Topics of the survey were attitudes towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as well as general values and socio-demographic data of the students.Results: The students consider human genome research as relevant and evaluate it positively, mainly based on expectations of medical uses. Genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as an application of human genetics is also evaluated as important. The students attribute high relevance to clinical procedures for identification of genetic backgrounds for cancer (family history, information about genetic diagnostic. Nevertheless, deficits in their medical education are highlighted und reflected upon: the increased integration of human genetic content into medical curricula is demanded.Discussion: In accordance with the newly formulated „Approbationsordnung für Ärzte", the results suggest that current human genetic development should be more emphasized in medical education. This could be realized by an enlarged ratio of human genetic courses within curricula and by the transformation of these courses from facultative into obligatory.

  4. Clinical genomics, big data, and electronic medical records: reconciling patient rights with research when privacy and science collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, Henry T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Widespread use of medical records for research, without consent, attracts little scrutiny compared to biospecimen research, where concerns about genomic privacy prompted recent federal proposals to mandate consent. This paper explores an important consequence of the proliferation of electronic health records (EHRs) in this permissive atmosphere: with the advent of clinical gene sequencing, EHR-based secondary research poses genetic privacy risks akin to those of biospecimen research, yet regulators still permit researchers to call gene sequence data ‘de-identified’, removing such data from the protection of the federal Privacy Rule and federal human subjects regulations. Medical centers and other providers seeking to offer genomic ‘personalized medicine’ now confront the problem of governing the secondary use of clinical genomic data as privacy risks escalate. We argue that regulators should no longer permit HIPAA-covered entities to treat dense genomic data as de-identified health information. Even with this step, the Privacy Rule would still permit disclosure of clinical genomic data for research, without consent, under a data use agreement, so we also urge that providers give patients specific notice before disclosing clinical genomic data for research, permitting (where possible) some degree of choice and control. To aid providers who offer clinical gene sequencing, we suggest both general approaches and specific actions to reconcile patients’ rights and interests with genomic research. PMID:28852559

  5. Terminal-repeat retrotransposons with GAG domain in plant genomes: a new testimony on the complex world of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Cristian; Gayraud, Thomas; de Souza, Rogerio Fernandes; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Akaffou, Sélastique; Laforga Vanzela, Andre Luis; Kochko, Alexandre de; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-07

    A novel structure of nonautonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons called terminal repeat with GAG domain (TR-GAG) has been described in plants, both in monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous and basal angiosperm genomes. TR-GAGs are relatively short elements in length (element into the virus-like particle. GAG precursors show similarities with both Copia and Gypsy GAG proteins, suggesting evolutionary relationships of TR-GAG elements with both families. Despite the lack of the enzymatic machinery required for their mobility, strong evidences suggest that TR-GAGs are still active. TR-GAGs represent ubiquitous nonautonomous structures that could be involved in the molecular diversities of plant genomes.

  6. World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map version 2 (WDMAM v.2) - released for research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI-Dyment, Y.; Lesur, V.; Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Thebault, E.; Catalan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is an international initiative carried out under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). A first version of the map has been published and distributed eight years ago (WDMAM v1; Korhonen et al., 2007). We have produced a candidate which has been accepted as the second version of this map (WDMAM v2) at the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy in Prag, in June 2015. On land, we adopted an alternative approach avoiding any unnecessary processing on existing aeromagnetic compilations. When available, we used the original aeromagnetic data. As a result the final compilation remains an acceptable representation of the national and international data grids. Over oceanic areas the marine data have been extended. In areas of insufficient data coverage, a model has been computed based on a modified digital grid of the oceanic lithosphere age, considering plate motions in the determination of magnetization vector directions. This model has been further adjusted to the available data, resulting in a better representation of the anomalies. The final grid will be periodically upgraded. Version 2.0 has been released and is available at wdmam.org to support both research and education projects. Colleagues willing to contribute data for future releases (and become a co-author of the map) should contact any of the authors or Jerome Dyment (chair of the WDMAM Task Force) at jdy@ipgp.fr .

  7. Zagreb during World War I: Historic newspapers as source for social history research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Jurić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reconstruct the social image of Zagreb during World War I by focusing on the influence of war circumstances on urban life, the living conditions and the position of children as the most vulnerable group of inhabitants, by using primarily newspapers as historical sources. In order to achieve as complete an image as possible, various publications were used (‘Narodne novine’, ‘Jutarnji list’, ‘Obzor’, ‘Novine’, ‘Hrvatska’, ‘Ilustrovani list’, ‘Katolički list’ and ‘Narodna zaštita’ which proved to be an inexhaustible source of information and contemporary observations on the above-mentioned issues. The paper tells about the general sense of insecurity in the city during wartime, the usual war motives (the wounded in the streets, life under war regulations, forced charity events and the consequences of the war situation (shortage of living supplies and poverty, begging and vagrancy, neglected children and war orphans. The paper has proven that historic newspapers are a first-class historical source. The essential scientific contribution of the paper is the reconstruction of part of Zagreb social history during World War I, highlighting that this part of Croatian history has still been poorly and incompletely researched.

  8. UNESCO Thematic Initiative ``Astronomy and World Heritage'': studies and research on technological heritage connected with space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Anna

    The Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) provides a unique opportunity to preserve exceptional properties world-wide and to raise awareness about the Outstanding Universal Value of these properties. The mission of UNESCO regarding World Heritage consists of assisting the States Parties to this Convention to safeguard properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, to support activities led by States Parties in the preservation of World Heritage, and to encourage international cooperation in heritage conservation. Considering that sites related to science and technology are among the most under-represented on the World Heritage List and recognizing the absence of an integrated thematic approach for such sites, the World Heritage Committee launched the Thematic Initiative “Astronomy and World Heritage”. Developed in close collaboration between the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), and implemented by the National Focal Points world-wide, the Thematic Initiative on Astronomy and World Heritage aims to establish a link between Science and Culture towards the recognition of scientific values of sites linked to astronomy. It provides an opportunity not only to identify the properties but also to keep their memory alive and preserve them from progressive deterioration. The implementation of this initiative has revealed numerous issues that need to be addressed, and in particular in the domain of technological heritage connected with space exploration. For this reason, the World Heritage Committee during its 36th session (Saint Petersburg, 2012) encouraged cooperation between the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, specialized agencies and relevant interdisciplinary scientific initiatives towards the elaboration of a Global Thematic Study on Heritage of Science and Technology, including studies and research on technological

  9. The development of chromosome microdissection and microcloning technique and its applications in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruo-Nan; Hu, Zan-Min

    2007-03-01

    The technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning has been developed for more than 20 years. As a bridge between cytogenetics and molecular genetics, it leads to a number of applications: chromosome painting probe isolation, genetic linkage map and physical map construction, and expressed sequence tags generation. During those 20 years, this technique has not only been benefited from other technological advances but also cross-fertilized with other techniques. Today, it becomes a practicality with extensive uses. The purpose of this article is to review the development of this technique and its application in the field of genomic research. Moreover, a new method of generating ESTs of specific chromosomes developed by our lab is introduced. By using this method, the technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning would be more valuable in the advancement of genomic research.

  10. Construction of BIBAC and BAC libraries from a variety of organisms for advanced genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Scheuring, Chantel F; Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Cang; Dong, Jennifer J; Li, Yaning

    2012-02-16

    Large-insert BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) and BIBAC (binary BAC) libraries are essential for modern genomics research for all organisms. We helped pioneer the BAC and BIBAC technologies, and by using them we have constructed hundreds of BAC and BIBAC libraries for different species of plants, animals, marine animals, insects, algae and microbes. These libraries have been used globally for different aspects of genomics research. Here we describe the procedure with the latest improvements that we have made and used for construction of BIBAC libraries. The procedure includes the preparation of BIBAC vectors, the preparation of clonable fragments of the desired size from the source DNA, the construction and transformation of BIBACs and, finally, the characterization and assembly of BIBAC libraries. We also specify the modifications necessary for construction of BAC libraries using the protocol. The entire protocol takes ∼7 d.

  11. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  12. INAUGURATION OF THE WORLD ASSOCIATION FOR SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION RESEARCH (WASER)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-yin Wang; D.E.Walling

    2004-01-01

    @@ The World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research, the name of which has been abbreviated to WASER, was inaugurated on 19 Oct. 2004 during the 9th International Symposium on River Sedimentation in Yichang, China. Dr. Des Walling, the President of the new Association, addressed the inauguration ceremony. In his brief inaugural address, Dr. Walling stresses the role of WASER in facilitating and promoting corporation and collaboration between scientists in river sedimentation and civil engineers, hydraulic engineers, soil scientists, geomorphologists, geochemists, agricultural engineers, soil conservation specialists, watershed managers, social scientists and environmental managers. He looked back nearly 25 years to March 1980 and to the 1st International Symposium on River Sedimentation held in Beijing, which can be seen as having sown the seed for WASER.

  13. The World Cancer Research Fund report 2007: A challenge for the meat processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Daniël; Honikel, Karl; De Smet, Stefaan

    2008-12-01

    One of the 10 universal guidelines for healthy nutrition in a report of the World Cancer Research Fund released at the end of 2007 is to "limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meat", as a result of the "convincing evidence" for an association with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. In the present paper, the scientific evidence for the association between processed meats intake and colorectal cancer development is explored and the most probable hypothesis on the mechanism underlying this relationship formulated. It seems that the present state of knowledge is not well understood but relates to a combination of haem iron, oxidative stress, formation of N-nitroso compounds and related residues in the digestive tract as the causal factors. Although criticisms of the inaccurate definition of processed meats and the insufficient accounting for the large variability in composition of meat products have been expressed, it is clear that the report urges proper action by the meat and nutrition research community and the meat industry. Research items that in our view should be addressed are discussed. They include: (1) evaluating the health risks associated with processed meats intake within the context of the supply of beneficial nutrients and other nutrition associated health risks; (2) definition of the role of nitrites and nitrates in meat processing; (3) investigating the role of red and processed meats on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the digestive tract; and (4) developing improved processed meats using new ingredients.

  14. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    . Archaeology through Space: Experience in Indian Subcontinent. The creation of a GIS Archaeological Site Location Catalogue in Yucatan: A Tool to preserve its Cultural Heritage. Mapping the Ancient Anasazi Roads of Southeast Utah. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Identification of Conservation and Heritage sites in Urban Planning. Mapping Angkor: For a new appraisal of the Angkor region. Angkor and radar imaging: seeing a vast pre-industrial low-density, dispersed urban complex. Technical and methodological aspects of archaeological CRM integrating high resolution satellite imagery. The contribution of satellite imagery to archaeological survey: an example from western Syria. The use of satellite images, digital elevation models and ground truth for the monitoring of land degradation in the "Cinque Terre" National park. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Protection and Conservation of World Heritage Site on the coast - Case Study of Tamil Nadu Coast, India. Multispectral high resolution satellite imagery in combination with "traditional" remote sensing and ground survey methods to the study of archaeological landscapes. The case study of Tuscany. Use of Remotely-Sensed Imagery in Cultural Landscape. Characterisation at Fort Hood, Texas. Heritage Learning and Data Collection: Biodiversity & Heritage Conservation through Collaborative Monitoring & Research. A collaborative project by UNESCO's WHC (World Heritage Center) & The GLOBE Program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment). Practical Remote Sensing Activities in an Interdisciplinary Master-Level Space Course.

  15. The first whole genome and transcriptome of the cinereous vulture reveals adaptation in the gastric and immune defense systems and possible convergent evolution between the Old and New World vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Oksung; Jin, Seondeok; Cho, Yun Sung; Lim, Jeongheui; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Jun, JeHoon; Lee, HyeJin; Chon, Alvin; Ko, Junsu; Edwards, Jeremy; Weber, Jessica A; Han, Kyudong; O'Brien, Stephen J; Manica, Andrea; Bhak, Jong; Paek, Woon Kee

    2015-10-21

    The cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus, is the largest bird of prey and plays a key role in the ecosystem by removing carcasses, thus preventing the spread of diseases. Its feeding habits force it to cope with constant exposure to pathogens, making this species an interesting target for discovering functionally selected genetic variants. Furthermore, the presence of two independently evolved vulture groups, Old World and New World vultures, provides a natural experiment in which to investigate convergent evolution due to obligate scavenging. We sequenced the genome of a cinereous vulture, and mapped it to the bald eagle reference genome, a close relative with a divergence time of 18 million years. By comparing the cinereous vulture to other avian genomes, we find positively selected genetic variations in this species associated with respiration, likely linked to their ability of immune defense responses and gastric acid secretion, consistent with their ability to digest carcasses. Comparisons between the Old World and New World vulture groups suggest convergent gene evolution. We assemble the cinereous vulture blood transcriptome from a second individual, and annotate genes. Finally, we infer the demographic history of the cinereous vulture which shows marked fluctuations in effective population size during the late Pleistocene. We present the first genome and transcriptome analyses of the cinereous vulture compared to other avian genomes and transcriptomes, revealing genetic signatures of dietary and environmental adaptations accompanied by possible convergent evolution between the Old World and New World vultures.

  16. Reflections and perspectives of African-American community leaders regarding genetics and genomics research: sentiment and wisdom of Sankofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2013-07-01

    Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities.

  17. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedside....... Here we describe the essence of a long-term initiative undertaken by The Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research and currently underway for cancer biomarker discovery using fresh tissue biopsies and bio-fluids. The Centre is a virtual hub that brings together scientists working...

  18. Widening participation would be key in enhancing bioinformatics and genomics research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Karikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics and genome science (BGS are gradually gaining roots in Africa, contributing to studies that are leading to improved understanding of health, disease, agriculture and food security. While a few African countries have established foundations for research and training in these areas, BGS appear to be limited to only a few institutions in specific African countries. However, improving the disciplines in Africa will require pragmatic efforts to expand training and research partnerships to scientists in yet-unreached institutions. Here, we discuss the need to expand BGS programmes in Africa, and propose mechanisms to do so.

  19. Pedagogy, Didactics and the Co-Regulation of Learning: A Perspective from the French-Language World of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since pedagogy is a key term in the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) principles, it is of interest to examine the evolution of the concept of pedagogy in the French-language world of education, as well as the emergence of a new field of research called "didactics". Work on situated cognition provides a framework for defining…

  20. Pedagogy, Didactics and the Co-Regulation of Learning: A Perspective from the French-Language World of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since pedagogy is a key term in the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) principles, it is of interest to examine the evolution of the concept of pedagogy in the French-language world of education, as well as the emergence of a new field of research called "didactics". Work on situated cognition provides a framework for…

  1. Accomplishments and Compromises in Prediction Research for World Records and Best Performances in Track and Field and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanlong; Paul, Stanley; Fu, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    The conductors of this study reviewed prediction research and studied the accomplishments and compromises in predicting world records and best performances in track and field and swimming. The results of the study showed that prediction research only promises to describe the historical trends in track and field and swimming performances, to study…

  2. Pedagogy, Didactics and the Co-Regulation of Learning: A Perspective from the French-Language World of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since pedagogy is a key term in the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) principles, it is of interest to examine the evolution of the concept of pedagogy in the French-language world of education, as well as the emergence of a new field of research called "didactics". Work on situated cognition provides a framework for…

  3. A quantitative analysis of the mass media coverage of genomics medicine in China: a call for science journalism in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feifei; Chen, Yan; Ge, Siqi; Yu, Xinwei; Shao, Shuang; Black, Michael; Wang, Youxin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Manshu; Wang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Science journalism is a previously neglected but rapidly growing area of scholarship in postgenomics medicine and socio-technical studies of knowledge-based innovations. Science journalism can help evaluate the quantity and quality of information flux between traditional scientific expert communities and the broader public, for example, in personalized medicine education. Newspapers can play a crucial role in science and health communication, and more importantly, in framing public engagement. However, research on the role of newspaper coverage of genomics-related articles has not been readily available in resource-limited settings. As genomics is rapidly expanding worldwide, this gap in newspaper reportage in China is therefore an important issue. In order to bridge this gap, we investigated the coverage of genomics medicine in eight major Chinese national newspapers, using the China Core Newspapers Full-text Database (CCND) and articles in scientific journals in PubMed from 2000 to 2011. Coverage of genomics medicine in these eight official government Chinese newspapers has remained low, with only 12 articles published per newspaper per year between 2000 and 2011. Between 2000 and 2011, over a 40-fold difference was observed in the number of genomics medicine-related articles in PubMed, as compared to that in newspapers. The numbers of genomics-related articles among the eight major newspapers from 2000 to 2011 were significantly different (p=0.001). Commentary/mini reviews and articles about gene therapy for specific diseases were most frequently published in 2006 and 2011. In parallel, we observed that "cancer gene therapy," "new susceptibility gene locus," and "gene technology revolution" were the top three thematic strands addressed in the newspapers, even though their volume remained low. This study reports on the under-representation of newspaper coverage of genomics medicine in China, despite the vast growth of scientific articles in journals in this

  4. On the evolution of the standard genetic code: vestiges of critical scale invariance from the RNA world in current prokaryote genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V José

    Full Text Available Herein two genetic codes from which the primeval RNA code could have originated the standard genetic code (SGC are derived. One of them, called extended RNA code type I, consists of all codons of the type RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine plus codons obtained by considering the RNA code but in the second (NYR type and third (YRN type reading frames. The extended RNA code type II, comprises all codons of the type RNY plus codons that arise from transversions of the RNA code in the first (YNY type and third (RNR nucleotide bases. In order to test if putative nucleotide sequences in the RNA World and in both extended RNA codes, share the same scaling and statistical properties to those encountered in current prokaryotes, we used the genomes of four Eubacteria and three Archaeas. For each prokaryote, we obtained their respective genomes obeying the RNA code or the extended RNA codes types I and II. In each case, we estimated the scaling properties of triplet sequences via a renormalization group approach, and we calculated the frequency distributions of distances for each codon. Remarkably, the scaling properties of the distance series of some codons from the RNA code and most codons from both extended RNA codes turned out to be identical or very close to the scaling properties of codons of the SGC. To test for the robustness of these results, we show, via computer simulation experiments, that random mutations of current genomes, at the rates of 10(-10 per site per year during three billions of years, were not enough for destroying the observed patterns. Therefore, we conclude that most current prokaryotes may still contain relics of the primeval RNA World and that both extended RNA codes may well represent two plausible evolutionary paths between the RNA code and the current SGC.

  5. Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposons with GAG Domain in Plant Genomes: A New Testimony on the Complex World of Transposable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Cristian; Gayraud, Thomas; de Souza, Rogerio Fernandes; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Akaffou, Sélastique; Laforga Vanzela, Andre Luis; de Kochko, Alexandre; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    A novel structure of nonautonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons called terminal repeat with GAG domain (TR-GAG) has been described in plants, both in monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous and basal angiosperm genomes. TR-GAGs are relatively short elements in length (<4 kb) showing the typical features of LTR-retrotransposons. However, they carry only one open reading frame coding for the GAG precursor protein involved for instance in transposition, the assembly, and the packaging of the element into the virus-like particle. GAG precursors show similarities with both Copia and Gypsy GAG proteins, suggesting evolutionary relationships of TR-GAG elements with both families. Despite the lack of the enzymatic machinery required for their mobility, strong evidences suggest that TR-GAGs are still active. TR-GAGs represent ubiquitous nonautonomous structures that could be involved in the molecular diversities of plant genomes. PMID:25573958

  6. [Recommendations for cancer prevention of World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF): situational analysis for Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    The main diet-related cancers include colorectal, lung, breast in (postmenopausal) women, stomach, esophagus, prostate and pancreas. After tobacco, obesity is the leading cause of cancer; it accounts for one third of all cancers. Cancer is associated with high total body fat, abdominal fat and weight gain in adult life. These are all potentially modifiable risk factors. Consumption of a "healthy diet" and living an "active life" can significantly reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) for the prevention of cancer in 2007. We compared the recommendations of Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective", with the national situation in Chile, analyzing the national report on the prevalence of risk factors. Our main finding was that the pattern of consumption and lifestyles differ markedly from the WCRF recommendations: we observed an over consumption of sugary drinks and high intake of processed foods high in sodium and total fat and low consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits high in antioxidants and fiber that protect from cancer. Chile has an increased cancer prevalence which is associated with poor quality diets, rising mean body mass index and a sedentary behavior. We recommend the strengthening programs to promote healthy diets and active living, in order to reduce cancer risk.

  7. Carl Djerassi and the World Health Organisation Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benagiano G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many hormonal contraceptives appropriate for use in Developing countries are not of interest to major Western, international pharmaceutical companies. For this reason, in the mid-seventies the World Health Organisation, in response to great demand for improved long-acting injectable hormonal contraceptives, particularly in Africa and Asia, sponsored a chemical synthesis programme of long-acting progestational and androgenic steroids with Carl Djerassi as one of its main leaders. Almost 300 esters of norethisterone, levonorgestrel and testosterone were prepared by this programme in university-based research laboratories situated mainly in developing countries and then screened by the US National Institutes of Health in animal models. This paper describes the overall strategy of this research and development activity and the philosophy that served as an engine for a unique non-profit collaborative work. Among progestins three compounds, levonorgestrel-butanoate, cyclopropylcarboxylate and cyclobutyl-carboxylate, proved to be particularly long-acting when administered as microcrystalline suspensions, although – for financial reasons – only one, levonorgestrel-butanoate is being further developed.

  8. ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

    2009-07-23

    The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

  9. The genome in three dimensions: a new frontier in human brain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Whittle, Catheryne; Krueger, Winfried; Mirnics, Karoly; Hurd, Yasmin; Rasmussen, Theodore; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-06-15

    Less than 1.5% of the human genome encodes protein. However, vast portions of the human genome are subject to transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and many noncoding regulatory DNA elements are thought to regulate the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes. For example, chromosomal "loopings" are pivotal for the orderly process of gene expression, by enabling distal regulatory enhancer or silencer elements to directly interact with proximal promoter and transcription start sites, potentially bypassing hundreds of kilobases of interspersed sequence on the linear genome. To date, however, epigenetic studies in the human brain are mostly limited to the exploration of DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of the nucleosome core histones. In contrast, very little is known about the regulation of supranucleosomal structures. Here, we show that chromosome conformation capture, a widely used approach to study higher-order chromatin, is applicable to tissue collected postmortem, thereby informing about genome organization in the human brain. We introduce chromosome conformation capture protocols for brain and compare higher-order chromatin structures at the chromosome 6p22.2-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility locus, and additional neurodevelopmental risk genes, (DPP10, MCPH1) in adult prefrontal cortex and various cell culture systems, including neurons derived from reprogrammed skin cells. We predict that the exploration of three-dimensional genome architectures and function will open up new frontiers in human brain research and psychiatric genetics and provide novel insights into the epigenetic risk architectures of regulatory noncoding DNA. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic resources for a model in adaptation and speciation research: characterization of the Poecilia mexicana transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Joanna L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidating the genomic basis of adaptation and speciation is a major challenge in natural systems with large quantities of environmental and phenotypic data, mostly because of the scarcity of genomic resources for non-model organisms. The Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae is a small livebearing fish that has been extensively studied for evolutionary ecology research, particularly because this species has repeatedly colonized extreme environments in the form of caves and toxic hydrogen sulfide containing springs. In such extreme environments, populations show strong patterns of adaptive trait divergence and the emergence of reproductive isolation. Here, we used RNA-sequencing to assemble and annotate the first transcriptome of P. mexicana to facilitate ecological genomics studies in the future and aid the identification of genes underlying adaptation and speciation in the system. Description We provide the first annotated reference transcriptome of P. mexicana. Our transcriptome shows high congruence with other published fish transcriptomes, including that of the guppy, medaka, zebrafish, and stickleback. Transcriptome annotation uncovered the presence of candidate genes relevant in the study of adaptation to extreme environments. We describe general and oxidative stress response genes as well as genes involved in pathways induced by hypoxia or involved in sulfide metabolism. To facilitate future comparative analyses, we also conducted quantitative comparisons between P. mexicana from different river drainages. 106,524 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in our dataset, including potential markers that are putatively fixed across drainages. Furthermore, specimens from different drainages exhibited some consistent differences in gene regulation. Conclusions Our study provides a valuable genomic resource to study the molecular underpinnings of adaptation to extreme environments in replicated sulfide

  11. Exploitation of genomics in fungicide research: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Hans J; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2013-02-01

    Every year, fungicide use to control plant disease caused by pathogenic fungi increases. The global fungicide market is now worth more than £5.3 billion, second only to the herbicide market in importance. In the UK, over 5500 tonnes of fungicide were applied to crops in 2010 (The Food and Environment Research Agency, Pesticide Usage Statistics), with 95.5% of the wheat-growing area receiving three fungicide sprays. Although dependence on fungicides to produce food securely, reliably and cheaply may be moderated in the future by further developments in crop biotechnology, modern crop protection will continue to require a diversity of solutions, including effective and safe chemical control. Therefore, investment in exploiting the increasingly available genome sequences of the most devastating fungal and oomycete phytopathogenic species should bring an array of new opportunities for chemical intervention. To date, the impact of whole genome research on the development, introduction and stewardship of fungicides has been limited, but ongoing improvements in computational analysis, molecular biology, chemical genetics, genome sequencing and transcriptomics will facilitate the development and registration of the future suite of crop protection chemicals.

  12. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  13. Looking to the Future: Incorporating Genomic Information into Disparities Research to Reduce Measurement Error and Selection Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Alexandra E; Crown, William H

    2012-01-01

    Objective To extend recent conceptual and methodological advances in disparities research to include the incorporation of genomic information in analyses of racial/ethnic disparities in health care and health outcomes. Data Sources Published literature on human genetic variation, the role of genetics in disease and response to treatment, and methodological developments in disparities research. Study Design We present a conceptual framework for incorporating genomic information into the Institute of Medicine definition of racial/ethnic disparities in health care, identify key concepts used in disparities research that can be informed by genomics research, and illustrate the incorporation of genomic information into current methods using the example of HER-2 mutations guiding care for breast cancer. Principal Findings Genomic information has not yet been incorporated into disparities research, though it has direct relevance to concepts of race/ethnicity, health status, appropriate care, and socioeconomic status. The HER-2 example demonstrates how available genetic information can be incorporated into current disparities methods to reduce selection bias and measurement error. Advances in health information infrastructure may soon make standardized genetic information more available to health services researchers. Conclusion Genomic information can refine measurement of racial/ethnic disparities in health care and health outcomes and should be included wherever possible in disparities research. PMID:22515190

  14. Global research trends of World Health Organization's top eight emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-02-08

    On December 8(th), 2015, World Health Organization published a priority list of eight pathogens expected to cause severe outbreaks in the near future. To better understand global research trends and characteristics of publications on these emerging pathogens, we carried out this bibliometric study hoping to contribute to global awareness and preparedness toward this topic. Scopus database was searched for the following pathogens/infectious diseases: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Rift valley, Crimean-Congo, Nipah, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Respiratory Acute Syndrome (SARS). Retrieved articles were analyzed to obtain standard bibliometric indicators. A total of 8619 journal articles were retrieved. Authors from 154 different countries contributed to publishing these articles. Two peaks of publications, an early one for SARS and a late one for Ebola, were observed. Retrieved articles received a total of 221,606 citations with a mean ± standard deviation of 25.7 ± 65.4 citations per article and an h-index of 173. International collaboration was as high as 86.9%. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the highest share (344; 5.0%) followed by the University of Hong Kong with 305 (4.5%). The top leading journal was Journal of Virology with 572 (6.6%) articles while Feldmann, Heinz R. was the most productive researcher with 197 (2.3%) articles. China ranked first on SARS, Turkey ranked first on Crimean-Congo fever, while the United States of America ranked first on the remaining six diseases. Of retrieved articles, 472 (5.5%) were on vaccine - related research with Ebola vaccine being most studied. Number of publications on studied pathogens showed sudden dramatic rise in the past two decades representing severe global outbreaks. Contribution of a large number of different countries and the relatively high h-index are indicative of how international collaboration can create common health agenda among distant different countries.

  15. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: Current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...

  16. OncDRS: An integrative clinical and genomic data platform for enabling translational research and precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orechia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We live in the genomic era of medicine, where a patient's genomic/molecular data is becoming increasingly important for disease diagnosis, identification of targeted therapy, and risk assessment for adverse reactions. However, decoding the genomic test results and integrating it with clinical data for retrospective studies and cohort identification for prospective clinical trials is still a challenging task. In order to overcome these barriers, we developed an overarching enterprise informatics framework for translational research and personalized medicine called Synergistic Patient and Research Knowledge Systems (SPARKS and a suite of tools called Oncology Data Retrieval Systems (OncDRS. OncDRS enables seamless data integration, secure and self-navigated query and extraction of clinical and genomic data from heterogeneous sources. Within a year of release, the system has facilitated more than 1500 research queries and has delivered data for more than 50 research studies.

  17. A professional development scheme for non-native speaking teachers of English from the Arab world: an action research study

    OpenAIRE

    Rabi, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    Following an action research framework, my research investigates professional development for English Language teachers in the Arab World, who are non-native\\ud speakers of English themselves.\\ud \\ud The thesis has five chapters: Literature Review, Critical Contexts, Methodology of the Study, Data Analysis and Presentation, and finally the Discussion and Findings of the\\ud research. The Literature Review covers works relevant to the area of the study in relation to existing teacher practices,...

  18. metabolicMine: an integrated genomics, genetics and proteomics data warehouse for common metabolic disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Mike; Smith, Richard N; Lyne, Rachel; Aleksic, Jelena; Hu, Fengyuan; Kalderimis, Alex; Stepan, Radek; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Common metabolic and endocrine diseases such as diabetes affect millions of people worldwide and have a major health impact, frequently leading to complications and mortality. In a search for better prevention and treatment, there is ongoing research into the underlying molecular and genetic bases of these complex human diseases, as well as into the links with risk factors such as obesity. Although an increasing number of relevant genomic and proteomic data sets have become available, the quantity and diversity of the data make their efficient exploitation challenging. Here, we present metabolicMine, a data warehouse with a specific focus on the genomics, genetics and proteomics of common metabolic diseases. Developed in collaboration with leading UK metabolic disease groups, metabolicMine integrates data sets from a range of experiments and model organisms alongside tools for exploring them. The current version brings together information covering genes, proteins, orthologues, interactions, gene expression, pathways, ontologies, diseases, genome-wide association studies and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although the emphasis is on human data, key data sets from mouse and rat are included. These are complemented by interoperation with the RatMine rat genomics database, with a corresponding mouse version under development by the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) group. The web interface contains a number of features including keyword search, a library of Search Forms, the QueryBuilder and list analysis tools. This provides researchers with many different ways to analyse, view and flexibly export data. Programming interfaces and automatic code generation in several languages are supported, and many of the features of the web interface are available through web services. The combination of diverse data sets integrated with analysis tools and a powerful query system makes metabolicMine a valuable research resource. The web interface makes it accessible to first

  19. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. © 2016 UICC.

  20. ALK evaluation in the world of multiplex testing: Network Genomic Medicine (NGM): the Cologne model for implementing personalised oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, C; Kostenko, A; Merkelbach-Bruse, S; Wolf, J; Büttner, R

    2016-09-01

    Comprehensive molecular genotyping of lung cancers has become a key requirement for guiding therapeutic decisions. As a paradigm model of implementing next-generation comprehensive diagnostics, Network Genomic Medicine (NGM) has established central diagnostic and clinical trial platforms for centralised testing and decentralised personalised treatment in clinical practice. Here, we describe the structures of the NGM network and give a summary of technologies to identify patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas. As unifying test platforms will become increasingly important for delivering reliable, quick and affordable tests, the NGM diagnostic platform is currently implementing a comprehensive hybrid capture-based parallel sequencing pan-cancer assay.

  1. Open-Access Cancer Genomics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The completion of the Human Genome Project sparked a revolution in high-throughput genomics applied towards deciphering genetically complex diseases, like cancer. Now, almost 10 years later, we have a mountain of genomics data on many different cancer type

  2. The New World of Human Genetics: A dialogue between Practitioners & the General Public on Ethical, Legal & Social Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Amy

    2014-12-08

    The history and reasons for launching the Human Genome project and the current uses of genetic human material; Identifying and discussing the major issues stemming directly from genetic research and therapy-including genetic discrimination, medical/ person privacy, allocation of government resources and individual finances, and the effect on the way in which we perceive the value of human life; Discussing the sometimes hidden ethical, social and legislative implications of genetic research and therapy such as informed consent, screening and preservation of genetic materials, efficacy of medical procedures, the role of the government, and equal access to medical coverage.

  3. 核聚变研究50年%FUSION RESEARCH IN THE WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱励俭

    2001-01-01

    The present status and future prospect of fusion research and thepredicted energy demand in the world have been reviewed.A proposal on development of fusion-fission hybrid reactors,including outlined schedule and predicted achievements,has been presented based on the discussion on the strategy and chance of development of fusion energy forward to the future and the advantages of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.%分析了国内外核聚变研究成果现状和发展的趋势,对国民经济发展过程中的能源需求作了预测,对中国的聚变能源战略和历史机遇(经济、技术体系、地位)作了讨论,介绍了聚变-裂变混合堆并提出了发展聚变-裂变混合堆的总体设想、研究内容和预期目标。

  4. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  5. Animal models in genomic research: Techniques, applications, and roles for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osier, Nicole D; Pham, Lan; Savarese, Amanda; Sayles, Kendra; Alexander, Sheila A

    2016-11-01

    Animal research has been conducted by scientists for over two millennia resulting in a better understanding of human anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as well as testing of novel therapies. In the molecular genomic era, pre-clinical models represent a key tool for understanding the genomic underpinnings of health and disease and are relevant to precision medicine initiatives. Nurses contribute to improved health by collecting and translating evidence from clinically relevant pre-clinical models. Using animal models, nurses can ask questions that would not be feasible or ethical to address in humans, and establish the safety and efficacy of interventions before translating them to clinical trials. Two advantages of using pre-clinical models are reduced variability between test subjects and the opportunity for precisely controlled experimental exposures. Standardized care controls the effects of diet and environment, while the availability of inbred strains significantly reduces the confounding effects of genetic differences. Outside the laboratory, nurses can contribute to the approval and oversight of animal studies, as well as translation to clinical trials and, ultimately, patient care. This review is intended as a primer on the use of animal models to advance nursing science; specifically, the paper discusses the utility of preclinical models for studying the pathophysiologic and genomic contributors to health and disease, testing interventions, and evaluating effects of environmental exposures. Considerations specifically geared to nurse researchers are also introduced, including discussion of how to choose an appropriate model and controls, potential confounders, as well as legal and ethical concerns. Finally, roles for nurse clinicians in pre-clinical research are also highlighted.

  6. The 19 genomes of Drosophila: a BAC library resource for genus-wide and genome-scale comparative evolutionary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiang; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Luo, Meizhong; He, Ruifeng; Lin, Jinke; Lee, So-Jeong; Sisneros, Nicholas; Watts, Tom; Kudrna, David A; Golser, Wolfgang; Ashley, Elizabeth; Collura, Kristi; Braidotti, Michele; Yu, Yeisoo; Matzkin, Luciano M; McAllister, Bryant F; Markow, Therese Ann; Wing, Rod A

    2011-04-01

    The genus Drosophila has been the subject of intense comparative phylogenomics characterization to provide insights into genome evolution under diverse biological and ecological contexts and to functionally annotate the Drosophila melanogaster genome, a model system for animal and insect genetics. Recent sequencing of 11 additional Drosophila species from various divergence points of the genus is a first step in this direction. However, to fully reap the benefits of this resource, the Drosophila community is faced with two critical needs: i.e., the expansion of genomic resources from a much broader range of phylogenetic diversity and the development of additional resources to aid in finishing the existing draft genomes. To address these needs, we report the first synthesis of a comprehensive set of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resources for 19 Drosophila species from all three subgenera. Ten libraries were derived from the exact source used to generate 10 of the 12 draft genomes, while the rest were generated from a strategically selected set of species on the basis of salient ecological and life history features and their phylogenetic positions. The majority of the new species have at least one sequenced reference genome for immediate comparative benefit. This 19-BAC library set was rigorously characterized and shown to have large insert sizes (125-168 kb), low nonrecombinant clone content (0.3-5.3%), and deep coverage (9.1-42.9×). Further, we demonstrated the utility of this BAC resource for generating physical maps of targeted loci, refining draft sequence assemblies and identifying potential genomic rearrangements across the phylogeny.

  7. SHELTERING FROM AVALANCHES OF BIOLOGICAL DATA: A NEW RESEARCH DIMENSION IN THE POST-GENOMICS ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Niccolai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research in the Post-genomic Era is characterized by huge amounts of data which cannot be manually analyzed soon after their collection, but only stored in data banks for further investigations. Thus, many data banks have been created to keep some order for results obtained from high throughput techniques applied to genomics or to other “omics” studies. Some order is also needed to browse fruitfully biological data among all the available databanks. National Center for Biotechnology Information of USA offers to researchers a powerful interface to achieve this effort, but in a way that is not suitable for the public perception. A Google Earth kind of software would help to sail safely within this data ocean to specific pieces of information, as required both by researchers and by just curious people. Bioinformatics, a new interdisciplinary field that develops and improves on methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data, is emerging as a powerful tool to derive novel perspective of biological processes. In our laboratory, for instance, scanning the Protein Data Bank to analyze amino acids distribution inside protein structures, new scenarios appeared which can account for long distance protein-protein interactions.

  8. Research Update: The materials genome initiative: Data sharing and the impact of collaborative ab initio databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anubhav; Persson, Kristin A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-05-01

    Materials innovations enable new technological capabilities and drive major societal advancements but have historically required long and costly development cycles. The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) aims to greatly reduce this time and cost. In this paper, we focus on data reuse in the MGI and, in particular, discuss the impact of three different computational databases based on density functional theory methods to the research community. We also discuss and provide recommendations on technical aspects of data reuse, outline remaining fundamental challenges, and present an outlook on the future of MGI's vision of data sharing.

  9. BIG DATA TECHNOLOGY ACCELERATE GENOMICS PRECISION MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO LI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During genomics life science research, the data volume of whole genomics and life science algorithm is going bigger and bigger, which is calculated as TB, PB or EB etc. The key problem will be how to store and analyze the data with optimized way. This paper demonstrates how Intel Big Data Technology and Architecture help to facilitate and accelerate the genomics life science research in data store and utilization. Intel defines high performance GenomicsDB for variant call data query and Lustre filesystem with Hierarchal Storage Management for genomics data store. Based on these great technology, Intel defines genomics knowledge share and exchange architecture, which is landed and validated in BGI China and Shanghai Children Hospital with very positive feedback. And these big data technology can definitely be scaled to much more genomics life science partners in the world

  10. Situated Learning in Virtual Simulations: Researching the Authentic Dimension in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses a case study of postgraduate students undertaking accident investigation and risk assessment exercises in an online virtual world as part of their course curriculum. These exercises were constructed to overcome the ethical and practical barriers inherent in real-world exercises. In particular this paper focusses…

  11. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Elizabeth R; Rothenberg, Karen H; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)-findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research-and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher's failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors-including customary practice and guidance documents-that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher's duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach

  12. Role of WEGENER (World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research) in monitoring natural hazards (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, H.; Zerbini, S.; Bastos, M. L.; Becker, M. H.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    anthropogenic climate change (sea level, ice degradation). In addition, expanded applications of space geodesy to atmospheric studies will remain a major focus with emphasis on ionospheric and tropospheric monitoring to support forecasting extreme events. Towards these ends, we will encourage and foster interdisciplinary, integrated initiatives to develop a range of case studies for these critical problems. Geological studies are needed to extend geodetic deformation studies to geologic time scales, and new modeling approaches will facilitate full exploitation of expanding geodetic databases. In light of this new focus, the WEGENER acronym now represents, 'World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research.

  13. A Virtual Research Infrastructure for Genome and Lisa Research in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander Beck-Ratzka; T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn VWCISC we propose a unique working and collaboration environment for international scientific communities. Science is increasingly collaborative at an international level, which enables projects to build teams of specialists best suited to the goals of the research effort, but which a

  14. A Virtual Research Infrastructure for Genome and Lisa Research in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander Beck-Ratzka; T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn VWCISC we propose a unique working and collaboration environment for international scientific communities. Science is increasingly collaborative at an international level, which enables projects to build teams of specialists best suited to the goals of the research effort, but which

  15. Situation in Europe and the World: A Code of Conduct for Responsible European Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiay, Philippe

    The code of conduct for responsible research in nanoscience and nanotechnology adopted and proposed to the Member States of the European Union by the European Commission on 7 February 2008 is the only one of its kind in the world. It results from an approach that is unusual enough to deserve deeper analysis.

  16. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of real world data comparative effectiveness research of systemic therapies in lung oncology: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bas J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824585; Janssen, Vivi E.M.T.; Schramel, Franz M.; van de Garde, Ewoudt M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841528

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing interest in comparative effectiveness research (CER) based on data from routine clinical practice also extends towards lung oncology. Although CER studies using real world data (RWD) have the potential to assist clinical decision-making, concerns about the quality and validi

  18. Battelle's Battle for Science; the World's Largest Private Research Organization Has Survived Lawsuits and Federal Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Follows the history of Battelle Memorial Institute, the largest private research organization in the world, highlighting the institute's beginnings, Xerox Corporation connections, lawsuits, information systems (including new Videotex applications for BASIS), Battelle's data management system, and new applications for memory cards. (EJS)

  19. The function genomics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Genomics is a biology term appeared ten years ago, used to describe the researches of genomic mapping, sequencing, and structure analysis, etc. Genomics, the first journal for publishing papers on genomics research was born in 1986. In the past decade, the concept of genomics has been widely accepted by scientists who are engaging in biology research. Meanwhile, the research scope of genomics has been extended continuously, from simple gene mapping and sequencing to function genomics study. To reflect the change, genomics is divided into two parts now, the structure genomics and the function genomics.

  20. The impact of the Melbourne Model : Why did the world-class research university expand its graduate coursework degrees programs?

    OpenAIRE

    中世古, 貴彦; 木村, 拓也; 丸野, 俊一

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study to examine how a research university can become more “world-class” without expansion of Ph.D. programs and with curriculum reform pursuing late specialization. The balance between undergraduate level and graduate level is one of the most important issues for higher education institutions, especially for highly-specialized research universities. In 2008 the University of Melbourne undertook an education reform called “the Melbourne Model.” The reform introduced the g...

  1. Structuring research methods and data with the research object model: genomics workflows as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettne, Kristina M; Dharuri, Harish; Zhao, Jun; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Belhajjame, Khalid; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Mina, Eleni; Thompson, Mark; Cruickshank, Don; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Garrido, Julian; de Roure, David; Corcho, Oscar; Klyne, Graham; van Schouwen, Reinout; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Bechhofer, Sean; Goble, Carole; Roos, Marco

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for biomedical research lies in the computer-assisted integrative study of large and increasingly complex combinations of data in order to understand molecular mechanisms. The preservation of the materials and methods of such computational experiments with clear annotations is essential for understanding an experiment, and this is increasingly recognized in the bioinformatics community. Our assumption is that offering means of digital, structured aggregation and annotation of the objects of an experiment will provide necessary meta-data for a scientist to understand and recreate the results of an experiment. To support this we explored a model for the semantic description of a workflow-centric Research Object (RO), where an RO is defined as a resource that aggregates other resources, e.g., datasets, software, spreadsheets, text, etc. We applied this model to a case study where we analysed human metabolite variation by workflows. We present the application of the workflow-centric RO model for our bioinformatics case study. Three workflows were produced following recently defined Best Practices for workflow design. By modelling the experiment as an RO, we were able to automatically query the experiment and answer questions such as "which particular data was input to a particular workflow to test a particular hypothesis?", and "which particular conclusions were drawn from a particular workflow?". Applying a workflow-centric RO model to aggregate and annotate the resources used in a bioinformatics experiment, allowed us to retrieve the conclusions of the experiment in the context of the driving hypothesis, the executed workflows and their input data. The RO model is an extendable reference model that can be used by other systems as well. The Research Object is available at http://www.myexperiment.org/packs/428 The Wf4Ever Research Object Model is available at http://wf4ever.github.io/ro.

  2. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The following goals were addressed in the workshop: review and analysis of available data on carbon in organic soils from the past century to the present; assessment of the probable flux of carbon to and from organic soils in the near future; identification of major data inadequacies which preclude reliable analysis of the principal processes influencing carbon flux in organic soils; and proposal of research initiatives which could improve understanding of organic deposits in relation to the carbon cycle within a time frame of two to four years. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.

  3. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  4. Research of Causal Relations between Components of Foreign Trade and Economic Performance of the Region, Country and World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Sergey M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Causal relations between components of the region foreign trade turnover and indicators, which characterize the economic situation of the region, country and the world, have been studied. 3 groups of indicators, which can have an impact on the region export-import activity, were formed by the degree of the covered influence level: the level of region, country and world. All the selected indicators were tested for causality by Granger test. As a result of the study it has been found that the export of Sumy region is directly affected by the volume of industrial production, inflation rate in Ukraine and the world price for wheat. The export of services is affected by the volume of extended credits, income of the population per person, the world prices for corn and wheat. Causality has also been determined between the import of goods in Sumy region and indicators of extended credits, turnover of retail trade and wholesale trade of enterprises. As regards the import of services, the influence was recorded from the side of the official exchange rate of hryvnia to the US dollar and the price index of industrial producers. The prospect of further research in this direction is expansion of the set of indicators characterizing the economic activity of the region, country and the world. The further research can contribute to building up the export-import potential of the region.

  5. A strategic stakeholder approach for addressing further analysis requests in whole genome sequencing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornock, Bradley Steven O

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can be a cost-effective and efficient means of diagnosis for some children, but it also raises a number of ethical concerns. One such concern is how researchers derive and communicate results from WGS, including future requests for further analysis of stored sequences. The purpose of this paper is to think about what is at stake, and for whom, in any solution that is developed to deal with such requests. To accomplish this task, this paper will utilize stakeholder theory, a common method used in business ethics. Several scenarios that connect stakeholder concerns and WGS will also posited and analyzed. This paper concludes by developing criteria composed of a series of questions that researchers can answer in order to more effectively address requests for further analysis of stored sequences.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W; Lenstra, Johannes A; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  8. HIV/AIDS research conducted in the developing world and sponsored by the developed world: reporting of research ethics committee review in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lisa Judy; Rifai-Bashjawish, Hoda; Kleinert, Kelly; Saltman, Alexandra; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Klitzman, Robert

    2011-09-01

    We explored how often journal articles reporting HIV research sponsored by a developed country, but conducted in a developing country, mention research ethics committee (REC) approval from both countries, and what factors are involved. Of all such 2007 articles on Medline conducted in one of four developing countries (N = 154), only 52% mentioned such dual approval. Mention of dual vs. single approval was more likely among articles with ≥ 50% sponsor country authors, and the United States as the sponsor country. Also, dual approval was more likely among articles that mentioned informed consent and funding, had ≥ 50% sponsor country authors, were biomedical (vs. psychosocial), and appeared in journals adopting International Committee Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines. Dual approval was thus obtained in only half of the articles and was associated with ethical and logistic issues, indicating the need for clearer and more universally accepted guidelines.

  9. Genomics research of the single cell microbes%单细胞微生物基因组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆光涛; 何勇强; 唐纪良

    2001-01-01

    It is a review paper which introdues the single cell microbes’ complete genome sequencing,the sequence annotation and the main contents of th e further research on genomics.%本文介绍了单细胞微生物基因组测序,全基因组序列的注释,以及基因组进一步研究的主要内容。

  10. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  11. Overview and research agenda arising from the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappuni, A R; Shiboski, C

    2016-04-01

    The Research Agenda generated by the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS (WW7) is delivered in this paper. Panels of international experts presided over nine workshops that constituted the conference held in November 2014 in Hyderabad, India. The main goal of the Workshop was to bring together clinician and scientists interested in the subject to debate with world-wide perspectives current issues related to the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS. The workshops were structured around three themes; basic science, clinical/translational science and social science and were attended by 135 participants from 31 countries. The research questions debated at the workshops are presented in nine consensus papers published in this issue and are summarised in this paper along with an outline of the identified research needs in the field.

  12. A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.M.; Borm, T.J.A.; Jesse, T.; Brugmans, B.W.; Tang, X.; Bryan, G.J.; Bakker, J.; Eck, van H.J.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so

  13. Emerging technologies for amino acid nutrition research in the post-genome era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Wang, Fenglai

    2009-05-01

    Amino acids (AA) are not only the building blocks of proteins but are also key regulators of metabolic pathways in cells. However, the mechanisms responsible for the effects of AA are largely unknown. With the completion of human and other mammalian genome projects, revolutionary technologies in life sciences characterized by high throughput, high efficiency, and rapid computation are now available for AA nutrition research. These advanced tools include genetics (the genomic variety), epigenetics (stable and heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that occurs without changes in DNA sequence), transcriptomics (alternative mRNA splicing, microRNAs, and gene transcription), proteomics (protein expression and interactions), metabolomics (metabolite profiles in cells and tissues), and bioinformatics (analysis of metabolic pathways using systems biology approach). These robust, powerful methods can be employed for the analysis of DNA, RNA, protein, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, whose expression and concentration are affected by the interaction between genes and dietary AA. With the omics and other advanced methodologies, we expect that the molecular actions of AA on target tissues can be defined and that optimal dietary recommendations for these nutrients can be devised for individual humans (personalized nutrition) and animals (targeted feeding) in response to changes in physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Library preparation methodology can influence genomic and functional predictions in human microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marcus B; Highlander, Sarah K; Anderson, Ericka L; Li, Weizhong; Dayrit, Mark; Klitgord, Niels; Fabani, Martin M; Seguritan, Victor; Green, Jessica; Pride, David T; Yooseph, Shibu; Biggs, William; Nelson, Karen E; Venter, J Craig

    2015-11-10

    Observations from human microbiome studies are often conflicting or inconclusive. Many factors likely contribute to these issues including small cohort sizes, sample collection, and handling and processing differences. The field of microbiome research is moving from 16S rDNA gene sequencing to a more comprehensive genomic and functional representation through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of complete communities. Here we performed quantitative and qualitative analyses comparing WGS metagenomic data from human stool specimens using the Illumina Nextera XT and Illumina TruSeq DNA PCR-free kits, and the KAPA Biosystems Hyper Prep PCR and PCR-free systems. Significant differences in taxonomy are observed among the four different next-generation sequencing library preparations using a DNA mock community and a cell control of known concentration. We also revealed biases in error profiles, duplication rates, and loss of reads representing organisms that have a high %G+C content that can significantly impact results. As with all methods, the use of benchmarking controls has revealed critical differences among methods that impact sequencing results and later would impact study interpretation. We recommend that the community adopt PCR-free-based approaches to reduce PCR bias that affects calculations of abundance and to improve assemblies for accurate taxonomic assignment. Furthermore, the inclusion of a known-input cell spike-in control provides accurate quantitation of organisms in clinical samples.

  15. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  16. Innovation in a warming world. Research tackling Europe's grand challenge of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usanov, A.; Gehem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is arguably the largest environmental challenge facing humankind. Though the impact will be gradual and difficult to predict, we slowly start to understand how this process will affect our planet. The study "Innovation in a Warming World" spells out these effects, specifically for Eur

  17. Research contribution of different world regions in the top 50 biomedical journals (1995-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Rosmarakis, Evangelos S; Paraschakis, Konstantinos; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated all articles published by different world regions in the top 50 biomedical journals in the database of the Journal Citation Reports-Institute for Scientific Information for the period between 1995 and 2002. The world was divided into 9 regions [United States of America (the U.S.), Western Europe, Japan, Canada, Asia, Oceania, Latin America, and the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, and Africa] based on a combination of geographic, economic and scientific criteria. The number of articles published by each region, the mean impact factor, and the product of the above two parameters were our main indicators. The above numbers were also adjusted for population size, gross national income per capita of each region, and other factors. Articles published from the U.S. made up about two-thirds of all scientific papers published in the top 50 biomedical journals between 1995 and 2002. Western Europe contributed approximately a quarter of the published papers while the remaining one-tenth of articles came from the rest of the world. Canada, however, ranked second when number of articles was adjusted for population size. The U.S. is by far the highest-ranking country/region in publications in the top 50 biomedical journals even after adjusting for population size, gross national product, and other factors. Canada and Western Europe share the second place while the rest of the world is far behind.

  18. A Research on Teaching Model of World Campus in Pennsylvania State University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Meng-jie (School of Educational Information Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China) Abstract: This paper reviews the history of World Campus of Pennsyvania State University, and analyzes its teaching model in respect of learning guidance, course materials and learning evaluation etc. In the end, this paper summarizes some insights to our modem distance education.

  19. Working with Missing Data in Higher Education Research: A Primer and Real-World Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bradley E.; McIntosh, Kadian; Reason, Robert D.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all quantitative analyses in higher education draw from incomplete datasets-a common problem with no universal solution. In the first part of this paper, we explain why missing data matter and outline the advantages and disadvantages of six common methods for handling missing data. Next, we analyze real-world data from 5,905 students across…

  20. Changing eating habits on the home front: Lost lessons from World War II research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights r

  1. Action Research: Factors Influencing Recognition of Geographical Locations on a World Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Sandra F.

    This study was conducted to help teachers decide what factors govern high school students' knowledge of geography. Information was gathered about the students' background, including: gender, exposure to a course of study in world history, overall grade point average, travel experience outside the United States, and habits of reading newspapers and…

  2. 2008 Co2 Assimilation in Plants: Genome to Biome Gordon Research Conference - August 17-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Maroney

    2009-08-12

    Formerly entitled 'CO2 Fixation and Metabolism in Green Plants', this long-standing Gordon Research Conference has been held on a triennial basis since 1976. In 1990 the participants decided to alternate between sites in the U.S. and outside the U.S. The 2005 conference was held in Europe at the Centre Paul Langevin in Aussois, France, so the 2008 conference returns to a U.S. site - the University of New England in Biddeford, Maine. The 2008 conference covers basic plant research related to photosynthesis and the subsequent regulation and engineering of carbon assimilation. Approaches that range from post-genomic technologies and systems biology, through to fundamental biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology are integrated within ecological and agronomic contexts. As such, the meeting provides the rare opportunity of a single venue for discussing all aspects of the 'carbon-side' of photosynthesis - from genome to biome. The 2008 conference will include an emphasis on the central role of carbon assimilation by plants for developing new sources of bioenergy and for achieving a carbon-neutral planet. A special characteristic of this conference is its 'intimacy' with approximately 110 conferees, ranging from beginning graduate students and postdoctoral associates to leading senior plant scientists, engaged in open and forward-thinking discussions in an informal, friendly setting. With extended time devoted to discussion, and the encouragement to challenge dogma, it is unlike other meetings in the U.S. or abroad. Another novel feature of the conference is a session devoted to the latest 'hot off the press' findings by both established and early career scientists, picked from the abstracts. Together with an expanded poster discussion in the evening sessions, this session provides an opportunity for early career scientists to present interesting new data and to 'test drive' hypotheses in a collegial atmosphere.

  3. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers' perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers' legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients' control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale.

  4. Sustainable agriculture for a dynamic world: Forage-Crop-Livestock systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory is focused on development and delivery of improved technologies, strategies, and planning tools for integrated crop-forage-livestock systems under variable climate, energy, and market conditions. The GRL research p...

  5. Ocean acidification research in the 'post-genomic' era: Roadmaps from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler G; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Pespeni, Melissa H; Chan, Francis; Menge, Bruce A; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Russell, Ann D; Palumbi, Stephen R; Sanford, Eric; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2015-07-01

    Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology are removing obstacles that historically prevented use of genomics within ocean change biology. As one of the first marine calcifiers to have its genome sequenced, purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) have been the subject of early research exploring genomic responses to ocean acidification, work that points to future experiments and illustrates the value of expanding genomic resources to other marine organisms in this new 'post-genomic' era. This review presents case studies of S. purpuratus demonstrating the ability of genomic experiments to address major knowledge gaps within ocean acidification. Ocean acidification research has focused largely on species vulnerability, and studies exploring mechanistic bases of tolerance toward low pH seawater are comparatively few. Transcriptomic responses to high pCO₂ seawater in a population of urchins already encountering low pH conditions have cast light on traits required for success in future oceans. Secondly, there is relatively little information on whether marine organisms possess the capacity to adapt to oceans progressively decreasing in pH. Genomics offers powerful methods to investigate evolutionary responses to ocean acidification and recent work in S. purpuratus has identified genes under selection in acidified seawater. Finally, relatively few ocean acidification experiments investigate how shifts in seawater pH combine with other environmental factors to influence organism performance. In S. purpuratus, transcriptomics has provided insight into physiological responses of urchins exposed simultaneously to warmer and more acidic seawater. Collectively, these data support that similar breakthroughs will occur as genomic resources are developed for other marine species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomedical informatics: development of a comprehensive data warehouse for clinical and genomic breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Brzeski, Henry; Hutchins, Joe; Ramaraj, Mohan; Qu, Long; Xiong, Richard; Kalathil, Surendran; Kato, Rand; Tenkillaya, Santhosh; Carney, Jerry; Redd, Rosann; Arkalgudvenkata, Sheshkumar; Shahzad, Kashif; Scott, Richard; Cheng, Hui; Meadow, Stephen; McMichael, John; Sheu, Shwu-Lin; Rosendale, David; Kvecher, Leonid; Ahern, Stephen; Yang, Song; Zhang, Yonghong; Jordan, Rick; Somiari, Stella B; Hooke, Jeffrey; Shriver, Craig D; Somiari, Richard I; Liebman, Michael N

    2004-10-01

    The Windber Research Institute is an integrated high-throughput research center employing clinical, genomic and proteomic platforms to produce terabyte levels of data. We use biomedical informatics technologies to integrate all of these operations. This report includes information on a multi-year, multi-phase hybrid data warehouse project currently under development in the Institute. The purpose of the warehouse is to host the terabyte-level of internal experimentally generated data as well as data from public sources. We have previously reported on the phase I development, which integrated limited internal data sources and selected public databases. Currently, we are completing phase II development, which integrates our internal automated data sources and develops visualization tools to query across these data types. This paper summarizes our clinical and experimental operations, the data warehouse development, and the challenges we have faced. In phase III we plan to federate additional manual internal and public data sources and then to develop and adapt more data analysis and mining tools. We expect that the final implementation of the data warehouse will greatly facilitate biomedical informatics research.

  7. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  8. Assisting scientists to make their research results world wide freely available: an experience begun in the 90s

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the ERCIM 'Digital Library Initiative' was to promote the development of digital library technology in Europe. Towards the end of 1997, ERCIM decided to set its own digital library up to provide open access to grey literature: the ERCIM Technical Reference Digital Library (ETRDL). The aim of ETRDL was to assist ERCIM scientists to make their research results world wide immediately available, and provide them with appropriate on-line facilities in order to access the technical docum...

  9. Computing patient data in the cloud: practical and legal considerations for genetics and genomics research in Europe and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Gábor, Fruzsina; Lueck, Rupert; Yakneen, Sergei; Korbel, Jan O

    2017-06-20

    Biomedical research is becoming increasingly large-scale and international. Cloud computing enables the comprehensive integration of genomic and clinical data, and the global sharing and collaborative processing of these data within a flexibly scalable infrastructure. Clouds offer novel research opportunities in genomics, as they facilitate cohort studies to be carried out at unprecedented scale, and they enable computer processing with superior pace and throughput, allowing researchers to address questions that could not be addressed by studies using limited cohorts. A well-developed example of such research is the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes project, which involves the analysis of petabyte-scale genomic datasets from research centers in different locations or countries and different jurisdictions. Aside from the tremendous opportunities, there are also concerns regarding the utilization of clouds; these concerns pertain to perceived limitations in data security and protection, and the need for due consideration of the rights of patient donors and research participants. Furthermore, the increased outsourcing of information technology impedes the ability of researchers to act within the realm of existing local regulations owing to fundamental differences in the understanding of the right to data protection in various legal systems. In this Opinion article, we address the current opportunities and limitations of cloud computing and highlight the responsible use of federated and hybrid clouds that are set up between public and private partners as an adequate solution for genetics and genomics research in Europe, and under certain conditions between Europe and international partners. This approach could represent a sensible middle ground between fragmented individual solutions and a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  10. Carving the world for language: how neuroscientific research can enrich the study of first and second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nathan R; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience all have rich histories in language research. Crosstalk among these disciplines, as realized in studies of phonology, is pivotal for understanding a fundamental challenge for first and second language learners (SLLs): learning verbs. Linguistic and behavioral research with monolinguals suggests that infants attend to foundational event components (e.g., path, manner). Language then heightens or dampens attention to these components as children map word to world in language-specific ways. Cross-linguistic differences in semantic organization also reveal sources of struggles for SLLs. We discuss how better integrating neuroscience into this literature can unlock additional mysteries of verb learning.

  11. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem analysis and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1980-02-01

    In May 1979, The Institute of Ecology held a workshop to determine the role of organic soils in the global carbon cycle and to ascertain their past, present and future significance in world carbon flux. Wetlands ecologists and soil scientists who participated in the workshop examined such topics as Soils as Sources of Atmospheric CO/sub 2/, Organic Soils, Primary Production and Growth of Wetlands Ecosystems, and Management of Peatlands. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and Gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/.

  12. A civil super-Manhattan project in nuclear research for a safer and prosperous world

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    2015-01-01

    Humankind is confronted with a "nuclear stewardship curse", facing the prospect of needing to manage nuclear products over long time scales in the face of the short-time scales of human polities. I propose a super Manhattan-type effort to rejuvenate the nuclear energy industry to overcome the current dead-end in which it finds itself, and by force, humankind has trapped itself in. A 1% GDP investment over a decade in the main nuclear countries could boost economic growth with a focus on the real world, epitomised by nuclear physics/chemistry/engineering/economics with well defined targets. By investing vigorously to obtain scientific and technological breakthroughs, we can create the spring of a world economic rebound based on new ways of exploiting nuclear energy, both more safely and more durably.

  13. The state of the art of paleoparasitological research in the old world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitology in the Old World has mainly concerned the study of latrine sediments and coprolites collected from mummified bodies or archaeological strata, mostly preserved by natural conditions. Human parasites recovered include cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. The well preserved conditions of helminth eggs allowed paleoepidemiological approaches taking into account the number of eggs found by archaeological stratum. Tentatively, sanitation conditions were assessed for each archaeological period.

  14. Space Weather Around the World: Using Educational Technology to Engage Teachers and Students in Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E.; Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Space Weather Around the World Program uses NASA satellite data and education technology to provide a framework for students and teachers to study the effects of solar storms on the Earth and then report their results at their own school and to others around the world. Teachers and students are trained to create Space Weather Action Centers by building their own equipment to take data or using real satellite and/or ground-based data available through the internet to study and track the effects of solar storms. They can then predict "space weather" for our planet and what the effects might be on aurora, Earth-orbiting satellites, humans in space, etc. The results are presented via proven education technology techniques including weather broadcasts using green screen technology, podcasts, webcasts and distance learning events. Any one of these techniques can capture the attention of the audience, engage them in the science and spark an interest that will encourage continued participation. Space Weather Around the World uses all of these techniques to engage millions. We will share the techniques that can be applied to any subject area and will increase participation and interest in that content. The Space Weather program provides students and teachers with unique and compelling teaching and learning experiences that will help to improve science literacy, spark an interest in careers in Science, Technology, Engineeering, and Mathematics (STEM), and engage children and adults in shaping and sharing the experience of discovery and exploration.

  15. The World through Glass: Developing Novel Methods with Wearable Computing for Urban Videographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Mark; Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Google Glass was deployed in an Urban Studies field course to gather videographic data for team-based student research projects. We evaluate the potential for wearable computing technology such as Glass, in combination with other mobile computing devices, to enhance reflexive research skills, and videography in particular, during field research.…

  16. Welcome to Our World: Bridging Youth Development Research in Nonprofit and Academic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Conn, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This commentary discusses the emergence of youth development research and evaluation in the nonprofit arena over the past 10 to 15 years. Included in this discussion is the establishment of the context for youth development research in nonprofits, a brief description of key examples of research from three youth nonprofits that illustrate the…

  17. Welcome to Our World: Bridging Youth Development Research in Nonprofit and Academic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Conn, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This commentary discusses the emergence of youth development research and evaluation in the nonprofit arena over the past 10 to 15 years. Included in this discussion is the establishment of the context for youth development research in nonprofits, a brief description of key examples of research from three youth nonprofits that illustrate the…

  18. The World through Glass: Developing Novel Methods with Wearable Computing for Urban Videographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Mark; Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Google Glass was deployed in an Urban Studies field course to gather videographic data for team-based student research projects. We evaluate the potential for wearable computing technology such as Glass, in combination with other mobile computing devices, to enhance reflexive research skills, and videography in particular, during field research.…

  19. Commentary: Leapfrogging as a Principle for Research on Children and Youth in Majority World Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This commentary was written while the author was visiting the 30th International Congress of Psychology in Cape Town, South Africa. Looking at the program, he could see that psychological research on non-Western populations and internationally comparative research seems to be much "en vogue"! However, much of the research he has seen…

  20. A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falagas Matthew E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. Methods Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the "Parasitology" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2003. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology we developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing: (1 the total number of publications, (2 the mean impact factor of all papers, and (3 the product of the above two parameters, (4 the research productivity in relation to gross domestic product of each region, and (5 the research productivity in relation to gross national income per capita and population of each region. Results Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 18,110 out of 18,377 articles (98.6% of all articles from the included journals. Western Europe exceeds all world regions in research production for the period studied (34.8% of total articles, with USA ranking second (19.9%, and Latin America & the Caribbean ranking third (17.2%. The mean impact factor in articles published in Parasitology journals was highest for the USA (1.88. Oceania ranked first in research productivity when adjustments for both the gross national income per capita (GNIPC and population were made. Eastern Europe almost tripled the production of articles from only 1.9% of total production in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. Similarly, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia doubled their production. However, the absolute and relative production by some developing areas, including Africa, is still very low, despite the fact that parasitic diseases are major public health problems in these areas. Conclusion Our data suggest that more help should be provided by the developed nations to developing areas for improvement of the infrastructure of research.

  1. Defining future directions for endometriosis research: workshop report from the 2011 World Congress of Endometriosis In Montpellier, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter A W; D'Hooghe, Thomas M; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C; Montgomery, Grant W; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.(1) A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis.

  2. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies.

  3. The Development of Public Perception Research in the Genomics Field: An Empirical Analysis of the Literature in the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pin, Renske R.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a meta-analysis that was conducted on the subjects of published academic research on the public perception of genomics. In total, 451 journal articles were analyzed, all published between 1970 and 2006 and sampled from the databases Web of Science and Scopus. Results indicate

  4. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Donald West King, M.D. FNLM ... genetic foundation of all human beings; the second, a comprehensive information service to ...

  5. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product quality, and profitability in support of the commercial sector and for the benefit of consumers. In order to achieve these goals, it is important to un...

  6. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project: I. Surgical phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Christian M.; Laufer, Marc R.; Stratton, Pamela;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo standardize the recording of surgical phenotypic information on endometriosis and related sample collections obtained at laparoscopy, allowing large-scale collaborative research into the condition.......ObjectiveTo standardize the recording of surgical phenotypic information on endometriosis and related sample collections obtained at laparoscopy, allowing large-scale collaborative research into the condition....

  7. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and biobanking harmonization project: II. Clinical and covariate phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitonis, Allison F.; Vincent, Katy; Rahmioglu, Nilufer;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration.......ObjectiveTo harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration....

  8. Research on P2P Overlay Network Model with Small-world Features

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Topology structure of P2P network decides its system performance. However, the existing P2P network models don’t take clustering and symmetry of nodes into account. Based on the algebra and graph theory method of Cayley graph, this paper proposes a novel P2P overlay network model with small-world features. Its simplicity and symmetry can ensure the self-organization and scalability of P2P network. The results of analysis and experiment shows that this model provides better robustness, h...

  9. Research ethics for a globalised world: the revised CIOMS international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, Hans-Jöerg; Wiesing, Urban

    2017-03-07

    On December 6, 2016, the Council of International Organisations of Medical Sciences published a new version of its guidelines with the title "International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans." In this article we briefly describe the revision process and the structure and content of these guidelines. We outline some of its main guidelines such as the ones on social value, post-trial access, and risk-benefit ratio. In our overall evaluation we come to the conclusion that the CIOMS guidelines manage to strike a balance between the protection of human participants in health-related research and the promotion of such research activities in an exemplary way. The guidelines combine key principles with a guide to their application based on the state of the art in research ethics. Thus they represent a timely and indispensable orientation for researchers, ethics committees, and other stakeholders in health-related research.

  10. [Research progress in developing reporter systems for the enrichment of positive cells with targeted genome modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yichun; Xu, Kun; Wei, Zehui; Ma, Zheng; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Targeted genome editing technology plays an important role in studies of gene function, gene therapy and transgenic breeding. Moreover, the efficiency of targeted genome editing is increased dramatically with the application of recently developed artificial nucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9. However, obtaining positive cells with targeted genome modification is restricted to some extent by nucleases expression plasmid transfection efficiency, nucleases expression and activity, and repair efficiency after genome editing. Thus, the enrichment and screening of positive cells with targeted genome modification remains a problem that need to be solved. Surrogate reporter systems could be used to reflect the efficiency of nucleases indirectly and enrich genetically modified positive cells effectively, which may increase the efficiency of the enrichment and screening of positive cells with targeted genome modification. In this review, we mainly summarized principles and applications of reporter systems based on NHEJ and SSA repair mechanisms, which may provide references for related studies in future.

  11. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  12. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  13. DNA Sequence Patterns – A Successful Example of Grid Computing in Genome Research and Building Virtual Super-Computers for the Research Commons of e-Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); A. Abuseiris (Anis); M. Lesnussa (Michael); F.N. Kepper (Nick); R.M. de Graaf (Rob); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe amount of information is growing exponentially with ever-new technologies emerging and is believed to be always at the limit. In contrast, huge resources are obviously available, which are underused in the IT sector, similar as e.g. in the renewable energy sector. Genome research is

  14. Research Ethics 2.0 : New Perspectives on Norms, Values, and Integrity in Genomic Research in Times of Even Scarcer Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brall, Caroline; Maeckelberghe, Els; Porz, Rouven; Makhoul, Jihad; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Research ethics anew gained importance due to the changing scientific landscape and increasing demands and competition in the academic field. These changes are further exaggerated because of scarce(r) resources in some countries on the one hand and advances in genomics on the other. In this paper, w

  15. DNA Sequence Patterns – A Successful Example of Grid Computing in Genome Research and Building Virtual Super-Computers for the Research Commons of e-Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); A. Abuseiris (Anis); M. Lesnussa (Michael); F.N. Kepper (Nick); R.M. de Graaf (Rob); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe amount of information is growing exponentially with ever-new technologies emerging and is believed to be always at the limit. In contrast, huge resources are obviously available, which are underused in the IT sector, similar as e.g. in the renewable energy sector. Genome research is

  16. Motivating teachers in the developing world: Insights from research with English language teachers in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    According to some commentators, targets set by the international community for bringing education to all children in developing countries are threatened by a teacher motivation crisis. For this crisis to be addressed, challenges to the motivation of teachers in such contexts need to be understood from perspectives both theoretical and comparative. Thus an analysis is required of the changes that have taken place particularly in countries whose education systems have developed rapidly in recent decades. Case studies of motivated teacher behaviour in such national contexts might be of relevance to educational reformers. Drawing upon the tenets of self-determination theory (SDT), this article begins by discussing the nature of the reported teacher motivation crisis in the developing world more generally. It then focuses on the Sultanate of Oman, highlighting recent historical developments there. Having thus set the scene, the author considers the extent to which negative environmental influences on teacher motivation in Oman have been addressed and then looks for evidence of intrinsic motivation in case studies of Omani English teachers. Returning to the developing world more generally, conclusions focus on how teachers' psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness can be met through educational policies that reduce negative influences on teacher motivation and provide both inspiring professional development opportunities and work environments characterised by respect.

  17. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  18. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weihong; Teichert, Martina; Chasman, Daniel I; Heit, John A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Li, Guo; Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R; Uitterlinden, André G; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L; Pankow, James S; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C; Bovill, Edwin G; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ridker, Paul M; Folsom, Aaron R; Smith, Nicholas L

    2013-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to approximately 2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (P ≤ 0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (P FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations.

  19. Mindfulness Goes to School: Things Learned (So Far) from Research and Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Randye J.; Droutman, Vita; Reid, Brittany Ann

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness-based curricula are being implemented in K-12 schools across the nation. Many of these programs, although well considered and implemented, have little or no research support for their effectiveness. Recognizing the paucity of published research in this area, a sampling of school-based programs currently being implemented in the schools…

  20. Mindfulness Goes to School: Things Learned (So Far) from Research and Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Randye J.; Droutman, Vita; Reid, Brittany Ann

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness-based curricula are being implemented in K-12 schools across the nation. Many of these programs, although well considered and implemented, have little or no research support for their effectiveness. Recognizing the paucity of published research in this area, a sampling of school-based programs currently being implemented in the schools…

  1. Research-informed strategies to address educational challenges in a digitally networked world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Pareja Roblin, N.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue represents the scholarly work that emerged from the EDUsummIT 2013. EDUsummIT is a growing and active community of researchers, policy makers and practitioners that is committed to promote research-informed strategies to effectively integrate ICT in educational policy and practice

  2. On becoming multicultural in a monocultural research world: A conceptual approach to studying ethnocultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Yip, Tiffany; Zárate, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Race, culture, and ethnicity are critical components of the human experience, yet they are often treated as nuisance variables or as post hoc explanations for poorly predicted results. Mandates to pay attention to ethnocultural diversity in research have largely been ignored. Here, we affirm some basic principles of multicultural psychology in conceptually grounded research. We first identify the importance of clear and conceptually guided ethnocultural research, and describe multiple perspectives in the field. The first perspective, a generalizability approach, seeks to find similarities and universalities across diverse groups. The second perspective, a group differences approach, attempts to determine the generalizability and limits to generalizability across different groups that are assumed to represent different cultures. The third perspective, multicultural psychology, involves specifying and measuring the mechanisms of cultural influences on behavior in ethnocultural groups underrepresented in research. In contrast to conventional approaches to culture that apply existing models to other groups, we propose an "inside-out" model that prizes the perspectives of those in ethnocultural communities that are underrepresented in research and places a secondary emphasis on generalizability. We follow with examples and new directions for multicultural psychology research. This approach has the potential to enhance researchers' ability to answer conceptually derived research questions and in combination with the other approaches promises to enhance the advancement of psychological science generally. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Big Data and the brave new world of social media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Schroeder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent Facebook study about emotional contagion has generated a high-profile debate about the ethical and social issues in Big Data research. These issues are not unprecedented, but the debate highlighted that, in focusing on research ethics and the legal issues about this type of research, an important larger picture is overlooked about the extent to which free will is compatible with the growth of deterministic scientific knowledge, and how Big Data research has become central to this growth of knowledge. After discussing the ‘emotional contagion study’ as an illustration, these larger issues about Big Data and scientific knowledge are addressed by providing definitions of data, Big Data and of how scientific knowledge changes the human-made environment. Against this background, it will be possible to examine why the uses of data-driven analyses of human behaviour in particular have recently experienced rapid growth. The essay then goes on to discuss the distinction between basic scientific research as against applied research, a distinction which, it is argued, is necessary to understand the quite different implications in the context of scientific as opposed to applied research. Further, it is important to recognize that Big Data analyses are both enabled and constrained by the nature of data sources available. Big Data research is bound to become more widespread, and this will require more awareness on the part of data scientists, policymakers and a wider public about its contexts and often unintended consequences.

  4. World of Fresh Water: A Resource for Studying Issues of Freshwater Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Janet; Sigford, Ann; Drummond, Robert; Novy, Nancy

    Activities in this packet were developed in reference to research conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, Minnesota (MED-D). The research helps us better understand the effects of pollutants on freshwater systems such as lakes, rivers, and streams and determines how we can best keep these…

  5. In the middle of the world, aquendar the methodology: notes for queering curriculum research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ranniery Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the condition of queer critique not only reflects in the sphere of social exchange, but it can acquire methodological dimensions to the extent that allows reapply to the investigative positions and the paths of curriculum research ironic and jocular style redefinition of the queer insult. The explored argument is that the queer critique allows to question the normative naturalization of research procedures into the curriculum as those contained in the formulas that tend to oppose researcher/researched, realism/fiction, coherence/multiplicity. From the perspective of taking queer as a heterogeneous reading, this text explores how four notes, combinations, wanderings, affectations and fertilizations, translate what happens when queering research methodology. Movements that can be seen as wandering experiments in relation to the paradigm of queer critique in Education and curriculum.

  6. Surviving Grounded Theory Research Method in an Academic World: Proposal Writing and Theoretical Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Elliott

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research students are frequently faced with the challenge of writing a research proposal and using a theoretical framework as part of the academic requirements for a degree programme. Drawing from personal experiences of two PhD graduates who used classic grounded theory in two different universities, this paper highlights key lessons learnt which may help future students who are setting out to use grounded theory method. It identifies key discussion points that students may find useful when engaging with critical audiences, and defending their grounded theory thesis at final examination. Key discussion points included are: the difference between inductive and deductive inquiry; how grounded theory method of data gathering and analysis provide researchers with a viable means of generating new theory; the primacy of the questions used in data gathering and data analysis; and, the research-theory link as opposed to the theory-research link.

  7. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  8. Statistical approach to research of development of information society in the context of world tendencies

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    E. N. Klochkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current world tendencies influence also the Russian economy which has fully entered an era of forming of information society. Development and broad application of information and communication technologies is determined by a global tendency of world development and has crucial importance for increase of competitiveness of economy, expansion of opportunities of its integration into world system of economy, increase of efficiency of public administration and local self-government. Now development of information society does not have alternatives. Expansion of use of information and communication technologies is a condition of transition to new economic way, a factor of growth of quality of life of citizens and a labor productivity of economy, the instrument of protection of national interests. In recent years information and communication technologies became the effective tool in the economic relations arising in a production process, distributions, an exchange and consumption of the benefits between economic actors. Widespread introduction of information technologies in economic activity of society stimulates profound infrastructure changes in scales of all global economic space. Today the majority of the countries aims at forming of information society, and the most priority directions of development are creation of the electronic government, implementation of information technologies in education, culture and health care. Indicators of development of information society dynamically change both in the Russian Federation, and in the majority of foreign countries, competitive struggle for presence of the companies in the international market becomes tougher. Important task of further social and economic development of Russia is improvement of quality of information exchange in various spheres of activity of society on the basis ofeffective development of the sphere of information and communication technologies. In

  9. The impact of biomedical literature published in the province of Vojvodina on researchers in the world and in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, S

    2001-01-01

    This study uses bibliometric analysis to evaluate scientific biomedical literature published on the territory of Vojvodina and its impact on researchers in Yugoslavia and in the world. The study sample comprised 6.979 publications from the territory of Vojvodina published in the period 1986-1997. The following parameters were determined: productivity of authors and institutions where they were employed and some other bibliometric parameters. The impact of these publications on other researches was analyzed for the same period, by citation analysis of papers published in 3 most eminent medical journals in Yugoslavia (3.440 articles, 58.484 references) and in Science Citation Index. Results of the study revealed that production of biomedical literature on the territory of Vojvodina was at high level. Medical research presented in journals of Vojvodina, which are the carriers of current information and accomplishments in science, technique, and practice in biomedicine, was satisfactory. Biomedical articles published in Vojvodina showed a tendency towards increase in number of authors, whereas the greater number of publications were written by a small number of extremely productive authors and institutions. Biomedical researches in Yugoslavia usually cite only foreign literature, while domestic references are mostly self-citations or citations of older literature. The impact of publications published in Vojvodina on other researchers in Yugoslavia is evident, but it is greatest on the territory where they are published. In regard to biomedical journals from Vojvodina "Medical review" is the most cited journal in Yugoslavia and in SCI. Most of the cited references belong to a small number of authors. Thus, according to bibliometric criteria the impact of medical science and professional practice in Vojvodina on international scientific streems is negligible, as well as the impact of papers published in Vojvodina on researchers in the world. Only 0.4 works published in

  10. Research on P2P Overlay Network Model with Small-world Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Topology structure of P2P network decides its system performance. However, the existing P2P network models don’t take clustering and symmetry of nodes into account. Based on the algebra and graph theory method of Cayley graph, this paper proposes a novel P2P overlay network model with small-world features. Its simplicity and symmetry can ensure the self-organization and scalability of P2P network. The results of analysis and experiment shows that this model provides better robustness, higher enquiry efficiency and better load balance than the existing P2P Overlay Network models such as Chord and CAN. Furthermore, it possesses the property of high clustering.

  11. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    Findings and recommendations of the workshop on organic soils are summarized. The major finding of the workshop is that organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. If half of the released carbon remains airborne, organic soils contribute 0.6% to 8.0% of the annual rise in CO/sub 2/. Uncertainties in data suggest the actual release could lie outside the range. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. When combined with additional carbon release from other known drainage programs and the possibility of major drainage activity in the tropics, this figure suggests that the lower limit of the world estimate of carbon release from organic soils is too low. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. This estimate is based on only a few studies, however, and precision is probably no better than an order of magnitude. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.

  12. Biodiversity and biosystematic research in a brave new 21st century information-technology world

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    Robert Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of challenges to biodiversity and biosystematics research are discussed. Despite escalating estimates of the biodiversity of the planet, resources being devoted to advance this knowledge have been in decline. Despite the proliferation of information technologies, the focus of knowledge has frequently shifted to making information readily available, rather than generating new information. The principles of authorial responsibility and of explicit documentation of knowledge are under siege. The shortfall of investment in training, research, and collections management (the ''taxonomic deficit'' has lead to a ''taxonomic impediment'' to ecological research, at a time when rates of extinction appear to be rising dramatically. The contents of present volume represent stepping-stones of biodiversity research – a discipline vital to the future of life on the planet.

  13. FDA Bioinformatics Tool for Microbial Genomics Research on Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Using Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the genomics tool ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to man...

  14. Innovation, informed consent, health research and the Supreme Court: Montgomery v Lanarkshire - a brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchale, Jean V

    2017-10-01

    The Supreme Court decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire ([2015] UKSC11) has been hailed as a landmark not least because the Court enshrines the doctrine of informed consent formally into English law for the first time in relation to medical treatment. This paper explores the decision in Montgomery. It examines what its implications may be in the future for the consent process in relation to health research and innovative treatment and whether it may prove a watershed moment leading to changing dialogues and expectations in relation to consent. First, the paper explores the concept of 'informed consent' in clinical research as seen through international, Council of Europe and EU instruments. Second, it considers how English law currently governs the provision of information to research participants in the context of clinical research. It questions whether such an approach will be sustainable in the future. Third, it discusses the decision of the UK Supreme Court in Montgomery v Lanarkshire and asks what might be the impact of this Supreme Court decision in the health research context. It asks whether Montgomery may result in new approaches to consent in health research and innovative treatment.

  15. Shared voices, different worlds: Process and product in the Food Dignity action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Porter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of perspective makes for greater depth when painting a portrait of community life. But embracing the idea of representing true diversity in a formal research project is a whole lot easier than putting it into practice. The three dozen members of the Food Dignity action research team, now entering the fourth year of a five-year project, are intimately familiar with this challenge. In this article, four of the collaborators explore the intricacies of navigating what it means to bring together a genuine cross-section of community-based activists and academics in an effort to draw on one another’s professional and personal strengths to collect and disseminate research findings that represent the truth of a community’s experiences, and are ultimately disseminated in a way that brings tangible benefit to the heart and soul of that community. The authors include Food Dignity’s principal investigator (Porter and three community organisers (Marshall, Herrera and Woodsum in organisations that have partnered with Food Dignity. Two of the organisers (Herrera and Woodsum also serve project-wide roles. These collaborators share their personal and professional hopes, struggles, concerns, successes and failures as participants in this cutting-edge effort to equalise community and university partnerships in research. Keywords: community-based participatory research (CBPR, food justice, equitable community-campus partnerships, food sovereignty, case study, action research

  16. Are we in a pickle? Rethinking the world of research and user interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Patricia J

    2011-01-01

    The lion's tail and knowledge boundaries are two analogies referred to in the lead essay by Lindstrom, MacLeod and Levy. These may be helpful but require slight readjustment. Grabbing onto the lion's tail implies one reality and one intersection point, whereas the old analogy of the blind men and the elephant shows that various perspectives are required. Integrated knowledge translation refers to user involvement throughout the research process. Participatory models are one form of integrated knowledge translation, but caution is required to help maintain the knowledge boundaries. There is the real danger of one group becoming "pickled," or having unbalanced osmotic pressure from another group, resulting in destroyed "cell wall" boundaries. Neither researchers nor users should morph into each other but should, rather, fulfill unique roles within a respectful, trusted research relationship. Lessons learned at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy teach us that collaborative health services research takes time, money, mutual understanding and respect (including respect from academic institutions for this paradigm of research). This requires a dedicated centre of core group scientists willing to devote the necessary time. Diffused networks may not be stable enough to maintain the long-term relationship building required for the intersection of researchers and decision-makers.

  17. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksyk, Taras K; Pombert, Jean-Francois; Siu, Daniel; Mazo-Vargas, Anyimilehidi; Ramos, Brian; Guiblet, Wilfried; Afanador, Yashira; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Nickerson, Michael L; Logue, David M; Dean, Michael; Figueroa, Luis; Valentin, Ricardo; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan-Carlos

    2012-09-28

    Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp), which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp). This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  18. Dissemination of information about the technologies of the Vision Research Lab through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    The Vision Research Lab at NASA John Glenn Research Center is headed by Dr. Rafat Ansari. Dr. Ansari and other researchers have developed technologies that primarily use laser and fiber optics to non-invasively detect different ailments and diseases of the eye. One of my goals as a LERCIP intern and ACCESS scholar for the 2004 summer is to inform other NASA employees, researchers and the general public about these technologies through the development of a website. The website incorporates the theme that the eye is a window to the body. Thus by investigating the processes of the eye, we can better understand and diagnosis different ailments and diseases. These ailments occur in not only earth bound humans, but astronauts as well as a result of exposure to elevated levels of radiation and microgravity conditions. Thus the technologies being developed at the Vision Research Lab are invaluable to humans on Earth in addition to those astronauts in space. One of my first goals was to research the technologies being developed at the lab. The first several days were spent immersing myself in the various articles, journals and reports about the theories behind Dynamic Light Scattering, Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Autofluoresence, Raman Spectroscopy, Polarimetry and Oximetry. Interviews with the other researchers proved invaluable to help understand these theories as well gain hands on experience with the devices being developed using these technologies. The rest of the Vision Research Team and I sat down and discussed how the overall website should be presented. Combining this information with the knowledge of the theories and applications of the hardware being developed, I worked out different ideas to present this information. I quickly learned Paint Shop Pro 8 and FrontPage 2002, as well as using online tutorials and other resources to help design an effective website. The Vision Research Lab website incorporates the anatomy and physiology of the eye, different diseases

  19. The Brave New World of clinical cancer research: Adaptive biomarker-driven trials integrating clinical practice with clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donald A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials are the final links in the chains of knowledge and for determining the roles of therapeutic advances. Unfortunately, in an important sense they are the weakest links. This article describes two designs that are being explored today: platform trials and basket trials. Both are attempting to merge clinical research and clinical practice.

  20. Selection at DNA level: Genomic selection brings about a revolution in animal breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    10 years ago it was still a futuristic dream. Today, genomic selection is the hot topic in the world of animal breeding. But what precisely does it involve? Dutch researchers outline the background to this new technology.