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Sample records for genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming

  1. Epigenetic reprogramming in the porcine germ line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Sara Maj Hyldig; Croxall, Nicola; Contreras, David A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epigenetic reprogramming is critical for genome regulation during germ line development. Genome-wide demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells (PGC) is a unique reprogramming event essential for erasing epigenetic memory and preventing the transmission of epimutations to the next...... an increased proportion of cells in G2. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that epigenetic reprogramming occurs in pig migratory and gonadal PGC, and establishes the window of time for the occurrence of these events. Reprogramming of histone H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 detected between E15-E21 precedes the dynamic...... DNA demethylation at imprinted loci and DNA repeats between E22-E42. Our findings demonstrate that major epigenetic reprogramming in the pig germ line follows the overall dynamics shown in mice, suggesting that epigenetic reprogramming of germ cells is conserved in mammals. A better understanding...

  2. Nuclear Reprogramming in Mouse Primordial Germ Cells: Epigenetic Contribution

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    Massimo De Felici

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique capability of germ cells to give rise to a new organism, allowing the transmission of primary genetic information from generation to generation, depends on their epigenetic reprogramming ability and underlying genomic totipotency. Recent studies have shown that genome-wide epigenetic modifications, referred to as “epigenetic reprogramming”, occur during the development of the gamete precursors termed primordial germ cells (PGCs in the embryo. This reprogramming is likely to be critical for the germ line development itself and necessary to erase the parental imprinting and setting the base for totipotency intrinsic to this cell lineage. The status of genome acquired during reprogramming and the associated expression of key pluripotency genes render PGCs susceptible to transform into pluripotent stem cells. This may occur in vivo under still undefined condition, and it is likely at the origin of the formation of germ cell tumors. The phenomenon appears to be reproduced under partly defined in vitro culture conditions, when PGCs are transformed into embryonic germ (EG cells. In the present paper, I will try to summarize the contribution that epigenetic modifications give to nuclear reprogramming in mouse PGCs.

  3. The Epigenetic Reprogramming Roadmap in Generation of iPSCs from Somatic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Zhou, Yan; Luo, Yonglun

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a comprehensive epigenetic process involving genome-wide modifications of histones and DNA methylation. This process is often incomplete, which subsequently affects iPSC reprograming, pluripotency, and differentiation cap...

  4. Xenopatients 2.0: reprogramming the epigenetic landscapes of patient-derived cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A; Alarcón, Tomás; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Martin, Angel G; Vellon, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In the science-fiction thriller film Minority Report, a specialized police department called "PreCrime" apprehends criminals identified in advance based on foreknowledge provided by 3 genetically altered humans called "PreCogs". We propose that Yamanaka stem cell technology can be similarly used to (epi)genetically reprogram tumor cells obtained directly from cancer patients and create self-evolving personalized translational platforms to foresee the evolutionary trajectory of individual tumors. This strategy yields a large stem cell population and captures the cancer genome of an affected individual, i.e., the PreCog-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cancer cells, which are immediately available for experimental manipulation, including pharmacological screening for personalized "stemotoxic" cancer drugs. The PreCog-iPS cancer cells will re-differentiate upon orthotopic injection into the corresponding target tissues of immunodeficient mice (i.e., the PreCrime-iPS mouse avatars), and this in vivo model will run through specific cancer stages to directly explore their biological properties for drug screening, diagnosis, and personalized treatment in individual patients. The PreCog/PreCrime-iPS approach can perform sets of comparisons to directly observe changes in the cancer-iPS cell line vs. a normal iPS cell line derived from the same human genetic background. Genome editing of PreCog-iPS cells could create translational platforms to directly investigate the link between genomic expression changes and cellular malignization that is largely free from genetic and epigenetic noise and provide proof-of-principle evidence for cutting-edge "chromosome therapies" aimed against cancer aneuploidy. We might infer the epigenetic marks that correct the tumorigenic nature of the reprogrammed cancer cell population and normalize the malignant phenotype in vivo. Genetically engineered models of conditionally reprogrammable mice to transiently express the Yamanaka stemness factors

  5. Re: Epigenetics of Cellular Reprogramming

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    Fehmi Narter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Cells have some specific molecular and physiological properties that act their functional process. However, many cells have an ability of efficient transition from one type to another. This ability is named plasticity. This process occurs due to epigenetic reprogramming that involves changes in transcription and chromatin structure. Some changes during reprogramming that have been identified in recent years as genomic demethylation (both histone and DNA, histone acetylation and loss of heterochromatin during the development of many diseases such as infertility and cancer progression. In this review, the authors focused on the latest work addressing the mechanisms surrounding the epigenetic regulation of various types of reprogramming, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion and transcription factor- and microRNA-induced pluripotency. There are many responsible factors such as genes, cytokines, proteins, co-factors (i.e. vitamin C in this local area network. The exact mechanisms by which these changes are achieved and the detailed interplay between the players responsible, however, remain relatively unclear. In the treatment of diseases, such as infertility, urooncology, reconstructive urology, etc., epigenetic changes and cellular reprogramming will be crucial in the near future. Central to achieving that goal is a more thorough understanding of the epigenetic state of fully reprogrammed cells. By the progress of researches on this topic, new treatment modalities will be identified for these diseases.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Soil water deficit is one of the major factors limiting plant productivity. Plants cope with this adverse environmental condition by coordinating the up- or downregulation of an array of stress responsive genes. Reprogramming the expression of these genes leads to rebalanced development and growth that are in concert with the reduced water availability and that ultimately confer enhanced stress tolerance. Currently, several techniques have been employed to monitor genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress. The results from these high throughput studies indicate that drought stress-induced transcriptional reprogramming is dynamic, has temporal and spatial specificity, and is coupled with the circadian clock and phytohormone signaling pathways. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. All rights are reserved.

  7. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian species after SCNT-based cloning.

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    Niemann, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    The birth of "Dolly," the first mammal cloned from an adult mammary epithelial cell, abolished the decades-old scientific dogma implying that a terminally differentiated cell cannot be reprogrammed into a pluripotent embryonic state. The most dramatic epigenetic reprogramming occurs in SCNT when the expression profile of a differentiated cell is abolished and a new embryo-specific expression profile, involving 10,000 to 12,000 genes, and thus, most genes of the entire genome is established, which drives embryonic and fetal development. The initial release from somatic cell epigenetic constraints is followed by establishment of post-zygotic expression patterns, X-chromosome inactivation, and adjustment of telomere length. Somatic cell nuclear transfer may be associated with a variety of pathologic changes of the fetal and placental phenotype in a proportion of cloned offspring, specifically in ruminants, that are thought to be caused by aberrant epigenetic reprogramming. Improvements in our understanding of this dramatic epigenetic reprogramming event will be instrumental in realizing the great potential of SCNT for basic research and for important agricultural and biomedical applications. Here, current knowledge on epigenetic reprogramming after use of SCNT in livestock is reviewed, with emphasis on gene-specific and global DNA methylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and telomere length restoration in early development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

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    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Epigenetics of cell fate reprogramming and its implications for neurological disorders modelling.

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    Grzybek, Maciej; Golonko, Aleksandra; Walczak, Marta; Lisowski, Pawel

    2017-03-01

    The reprogramming of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) proceeds in a stepwise manner with reprogramming factors binding and epigenetic composition changes during transition to maintain the epigenetic landscape, important for pluripotency. There arises a question as to whether the aberrant epigenetic state after reprogramming leads to epigenetic defects in induced stem cells causing unpredictable long term effects in differentiated cells. In this review, we present a comprehensive view of epigenetic alterations accompanying reprogramming, cell maintenance and differentiation as factors that influence applications of hiPSCs in stem cell based technologies. We conclude that sample heterogeneity masks DNA methylation signatures in subpopulations of cells and thus believe that beside a genetic evaluation, extensive epigenomic screening should become a standard procedure to ensure hiPSCs state before they are used for genome editing and differentiation into neurons of interest. In particular, we suggest that exploitation of the single-cell composition of the epigenome will provide important insights into heterogeneity within hiPSCs subpopulations to fast forward development of reliable hiPSC-based analytical platforms in neurological disorders modelling and before completed hiPSC technology will be implemented in clinical approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic reprogramming of breast cancer cells with oocyte extracts

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    Kumari Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a disease characterised by both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an early event in breast carcinogenesis and reversion of gene silencing by epigenetic reprogramming can provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for tumour initiation and progression. In this study we apply the reprogramming capacity of oocytes to cancer cells in order to study breast oncogenesis. Results We show that breast cancer cells can be directly reprogrammed by amphibian oocyte extracts. The reprogramming effect, after six hours of treatment, in the absence of DNA replication, includes DNA demethylation and removal of repressive histone marks at the promoters of tumour suppressor genes; also, expression of the silenced genes is re-activated in response to treatment. This activity is specific to oocytes as it is not elicited by extracts from ovulated eggs, and is present at very limited levels in extracts from mouse embryonic stem cells. Epigenetic reprogramming in oocyte extracts results in reduction of cancer cell growth under anchorage independent conditions and a reduction in tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conclusions This study presents a new method to investigate tumour reversion by epigenetic reprogramming. After testing extracts from different sources, we found that axolotl oocyte extracts possess superior reprogramming ability, which reverses epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells in a mouse xenograft model. Therefore this system can be extremely valuable for dissecting the mechanisms involved in tumour suppressor gene silencing and identifying molecular activities capable of arresting tumour growth. These applications can ultimately shed light on the contribution of epigenetic alterations in breast cancer and advance the development of epigenetic therapies.

  11. Local epigenetic reprogramming induced by G-quadruplex ligands

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    Guilbaud, Guillaume; Murat, Pierre; Recolin, Bénédicte; Campbell, Beth C.; Maiter, Ahmed; Sale, Julian E.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2017-11-01

    DNA and histone modifications regulate transcriptional activity and thus represent valuable targets to reprogram the activity of genes. Current epigenetic therapies target the machinery that regulates these modifications, leading to global transcriptional reprogramming with the potential for extensive undesired effects. Epigenetic information can also be modified as a consequence of disrupting processive DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that impeding replication by small-molecule-mediated stabilization of G-quadruplex nucleic acid secondary structures triggers local epigenetic plasticity. We report the use of the BU-1 locus of chicken DT40 cells to screen for small molecules able to induce G-quadruplex-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. Further characterization of the top hit compound revealed its ability to induce a dose-dependent inactivation of BU-1 expression in two steps: the loss of H3K4me3 and then subsequent DNA cytosine methylation, changes that were heritable across cell divisions even after the compound was removed. Targeting DNA secondary structures thus represents a potentially new approach for locus-specific epigenetic reprogramming.

  12. Epigenetic reprogramming of pericentromeric satellite DNA in premalignant and malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückmann, Nadine Heidi; Pedersen, Christina Bøg; Ditzel, Henrik Jørn

    2018-01-01

    on pericentromeric satellites in primary melanocytes. This suggests that polycomb bodies form in cancer cells with global DNA demethylation to control the stability of pericentromeric satellite DNA. These results reveal a novel epigenetic perturbation specific to premalignant and malignant cells thatmaybe used...... as an early diagnostic marker for detection of precancerous changes and a new therapeutic entry point. Implications: Pericentromeric satellite DNA is epigenetically reprogrammed into polycomb bodies as a premalignant event with implications for transcriptional activity and genomic stability. Mol Cancer Res...

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic molecular determinants or modulators for epigenetic remodeling and reprogramming of somatic cell-derived genome in mammalian nuclear-transferred oocytes and resultant embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiec, M; Skrzyszowska, M

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of somatic cell cloning in mammals remains disappointingly low. Incomplete and aberrant reprogramming of epigenetic memory of somatic cell nuclei in preimplantation nuclear- transferred (NT) embryos is one of the most important factors that limit the cloning effectiveness. The extent of epigenetic genome-wide alterations, involving histone or DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, that are mediated by histone-lysine methyltransferases (HMTs) or DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) can be modulated/reversed via exogenous inhibitors of these enzymes throughout in vitro culture of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient oocytes and/or cloned embryos. The use of the artificial modifiers of epigenomically-conditioned gene expression leads to inhibition of both chromatin condensation and transcriptional silencing the genomic DNA of somatic cells that provide a source of nuclear donors for reconstruction of enucleated oocytes and generation of cloned embryos. The onset of chromatin decondensation and gene transcriptional activity is evoked both through specific/selective inactivating HMTs by BIX-01294 and through non-specific/non-selective blocking the activity of either DNMTs by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, S-adenosylhomocysteine or HDACs by trichostatin A, valproic acid, scriptaid, oxamflatin, sodium butyrate, m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide, panobinostat, abexinostat, quisinostat, dacinostat, belinostat and psammaplin A. Epigenomic modulation of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient cells and/or cloned embryos may facilitate and accelerate the reprogrammability for gene expression of donor cell nuclei that have been transplanted into a host ooplasm and subsequently underwent dedifferentiating and re-establishing the epigenetically dependent status of their transcriptional activity during pre- and postimplantation development of NT embryos. Nevertheless, a comprehensive additional work is necessary to determine

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cells reprogramming: Epigenetics and applications in the regenerative medicine

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    Kátia Maria Sampaio Gomes

    Full Text Available Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are somatic cells reprogrammed into an embryonic-like pluripotent state by the expression of specific transcription factors. iPSC technology is expected to revolutionize regenerative medicine in the near future. Despite the fact that these cells have the capacity to self-renew, they present low efficiency of reprogramming. Recent studies have demonstrated that the previous somatic epigenetic signature is a limiting factor in iPSC performance. Indeed, the process of effective reprogramming involves a complete remodeling of the existing somatic epigenetic memory, followed by the establishment of a "new epigenetic signature" that complies with the new type of cell to be differentiated. Therefore, further investigations of epigenetic modifications associated with iPSC reprogramming are required in an attempt to improve their self-renew capacity and potency, as well as their application in regenerative medicine, with a new strategy to reduce the damage in degenerative diseases. Our review aimed to summarize the most recent findings on epigenetics and iPSC, focusing on DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs, highlighting their potential in translating cell therapy into clinics.

  15. Hierarchical Oct4 Binding in Concert with Primed Epigenetic Rearrangements during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

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    Jun Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core pluripotency factor Oct4 plays key roles in somatic cell reprogramming through transcriptional control. Here, we profile Oct4 occupancy, epigenetic changes, and gene expression in reprogramming. We find that Oct4 binds in a hierarchical manner to target sites with primed epigenetic modifications. Oct4 binding is temporally continuous and seldom switches between bound and unbound. Oct4 occupancy in most of promoters is maintained throughout the entire reprogramming process. In contrast, somatic cell-specific enhancers are silenced in the early and intermediate stages, whereas stem cell-specific enhancers are activated in the late stage in parallel with cell fate transition. Both epigenetic remodeling and Oct4 binding contribute to the hyperdynamic enhancer signature transitions. The hierarchical Oct4 bindings are associated with distinct functional themes at different stages. Collectively, our results provide a comprehensive molecular roadmap of Oct4 binding in concert with epigenetic rearrangements and rich resources for future reprogramming studies.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming in response to inorganic arsenic links inhibition of CTCF binding, DNMT expression and cellular transformation

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    Rea, Matthew; Eckstein, Meredith; Eleazer, Rebekah; Smith, Caroline; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.

    2017-02-01

    Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes. We present a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methyl-sequencing to measure changes between normal and iAs-transformed cells. Additionally, these differential methylation changes correlated positively with changes in gene expression and alternative splicing. Interestingly, most of these differentially methylated genes function in cell adhesion and communication pathways. To gain insight into how genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated during iAs-mediated carcinogenesis, we show that iAs probably targets CTCF binding at the promoter of DNA methyltransferases, regulating their expression. These findings reveal how CTCF binding regulates DNA methyltransferase to reprogram the methylome in response to an environmental toxin.

  17. Epigenetic memory in mammals

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    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  18. Long-term in vitro, cell-type-specific genome-wide reprogramming of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakelien, Anne-Mari; Gaustad, Kristine G.; Taranger, Christel K.; Skalhegg, Bjorn S.; Kuentziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a cell extract-based, genome-wide and heritable reprogramming of gene expression in vitro. Kidney epithelial 293T cells have previously been shown to take on T cell properties following a brief treatment with an extract of Jurkat T cells. We show here that 293T cells exposed for 1 h to a Jurkat cell extract undergo genome-wide, target cell-type-specific and long-lasting transcriptional changes. Microarray analyses indicate that on any given week after extract treatment, ∼2500 genes are upregulated >3-fold, of which ∼900 are also expressed in Jurkat cells. Concomitantly, ∼1500 genes are downregulated or repressed, of which ∼500 are also downregulated in Jurkat cells. Gene expression changes persist for over 30 passages (∼80 population doublings) in culture. Target cell-type specificity of these changes is shown by the lack of activation or repression of Jurkat-specific genes by extracts of 293T cells or carcinoma cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirms the long-term transcriptional activation of genes involved in key T cell functions. Additionally, growth of cells in suspended aggregates, expression of CD3 and CD28 T cell surface markers, and interleukin-2 secretion by 293T cells treated with extract of adult peripheral blood T cells illustrate a functional nuclear reprogramming. Therefore, target cell-type-specific and heritable changes in gene expression, and alterations in cell function, can be promoted by extracts derived from transformed cells as well as from adult primary cells

  19. Genome-wide profiling of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks in adipocytes by ChIP-seq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    of the most widely used of these technologies. Using these methods, association of transcription factors, cofactors, and epigenetic marks can be mapped to DNA in a genome-wide manner. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for performing ChIP-seq analyses in preadipocytes and adipocytes. We have focused mainly...

  20. Gender Differences in Global but Not Targeted Demethylation in iPSC Reprogramming

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    Inês Milagre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global DNA demethylation is an integral part of reprogramming processes in vivo and in vitro, but whether it occurs in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is not known. Here, we show that iPSC reprogramming involves both global and targeted demethylation, which are separable mechanistically and by their biological outcomes. Cells at intermediate-late stages of reprogramming undergo transient genome-wide demethylation, which is more pronounced in female cells. Global demethylation requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-mediated downregulation of UHRF1 protein, and abolishing demethylation leaves thousands of hypermethylated regions in the iPSC genome. Independently of AID and global demethylation, regulatory regions, particularly ESC enhancers and super-enhancers, are specifically targeted for hypomethylation in association with transcription of the pluripotency network. Our results show that global and targeted DNA demethylation are conserved and distinct reprogramming processes, presumably because of their respective roles in epigenetic memory erasure and in the establishment of cell identity.

  1. A stochastic model of epigenetic dynamics in somatic cell reprogramming

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    Max eFloettmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell reprogramming has dramatically changed stem cell research inrecent years. The high pace of new findings in the field and an ever increasingamount of data from new high throughput techniques make it challengingto isolate core principles of the process. In order to analyze suchmechanisms, we developed an abstract mechanistic model of a subset of theknown regulatory processes during cell differentiation and production of inducedpluripotent stem cells. This probabilistic Boolean network describesthe interplay between gene expression, chromatin modifications and DNAmethylation. The model incorporates recent findings in epigenetics and reproducesexperimentally observed reprogramming efficiencies and changes inmethylation and chromatin remodeling. It enables us to investigate in detail,how the temporal progression of the process is regulated. It also explicitlyincludes the transduction of factors using viral vectors and their silencing inreprogrammed cells, since this is still a standard procedure in somatic cellreprogramming. Based on the model we calculate an epigenetic landscape.Simulation results show good reproduction of experimental observations duringreprogramming, despite the simple stucture of the model. An extensiveanalysis and introduced variations hint towards possible optimizations of theprocess, that could push the technique closer to clinical applications. Fasterchanges in DNA methylation increase the speed of reprogramming at theexpense of efficiency, while accelerated chromatin modifications moderatelyimprove efficiency.

  2. Initiation of epigenetic reprogramming of the X chromosome in somatic nuclei transplanted to a mouse oocyte.

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    Bao, Siqin; Miyoshi, Naoki; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Jenuwein, Thomas; Heard, Edith; Azim Surani, M

    2005-08-01

    The active and inactive X chromosomes have distinct epigenetic marks in somatic nuclei, which undergo reprogramming after transplantation into oocytes. We show that, despite the disappearance of Xist RNA coating in 30 min, the epigenetic memory of the inactive X persists with the precocious appearance of histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3-3meK27), without the expected colocalization with Eed/Ezh2. Subsequently, Xist re-appears on the original inactive X, and the silent Xist on the active X undergoes re-activation, resulting in unusual biallelic Xist RNA domains. Despite this abnormal Xist expression pattern, colocalization of H3-3meK27 and Eed is thereafter confined to a single Xist domain, which is presumably on the original inactive X. These epigenetic events differ markedly from the kinetics of preferential paternal X inactivation in normal embryos. All the epigenetic marks on the X are apparently erased in the epiblast, suggesting that the oocyte and epiblast may have distinct properties for stepwise programming of the genome.

  3. RNAi Reveals Phase-Specific Global Regulators of Human Somatic Cell Reprogramming

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    Cheng-Xu Delon Toh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms at work continues to hamper efforts to maximize reprogramming efficiency. Here, we present a systematic genome-wide RNAi screen to determine the global regulators during the early stages of human reprogramming. Our screen identifies functional repressors and effectors that act to impede or promote the reprogramming process. Repressors and effectors form close interacting networks in pathways, including RNA processing, G protein signaling, protein ubiquitination, and chromatin modification. Combinatorial knockdown of five repressors (SMAD3, ZMYM2, SFRS11, SAE1, and ESET synergistically resulted in ∼85% TRA-1-60-positive cells. Removal of the novel splicing factor SFRS11 during reprogramming is accompanied by rapid acquisition of pluripotency-specific spliced forms. Mechanistically, SFRS11 regulates exon skipping and mutually exclusive splicing of transcripts in genes involved in cell differentiation, mRNA splicing, and chromatin modification. Our study provides insights into the reprogramming process, which comprises comprehensive and multi-layered transcriptional, splicing, and epigenetic machineries.

  4. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line.

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    Michael K Skinner

    Full Text Available A number of environmental factors (e.g. toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Transgenerational inheritance requires the germline transmission of altered epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct environmental exposures. The primary periods for epigenetic programming of the germ line are those associated with primordial germ cell development and subsequent fetal germline development. The current study examined the actions of an agricultural fungicide vinclozolin on gestating female (F0 generation progeny in regards to the primordial germ cell (PGC epigenetic reprogramming of the F3 generation (i.e. great-grandchildren. The F3 generation germline transcriptome and epigenome (DNA methylation were altered transgenerationally. Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13 and after cord formation in the testis at embryonic day 16 (E16. A larger number of DNA methylation abnormalities (epimutations and transcriptional alterations were observed in the E13 germ cells than in the E16 germ cells. These observations indicate that altered transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming and function of the male germline is a component of vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Insights into the molecular control of germline transmitted epigenetic inheritance are provided.

  5. Restricted mobility of Dnmt1 in preimplantation embryos: implications for epigenetic reprogramming

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    Grohmann, Maik; Spada, Fabio; Schermelleh, Lothar; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Cardoso, M Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Background Mouse preimplantation development is characterized by both active and passive genomic demethylation. A short isoform of the prevalent maintenance DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt1S) is found in the cytoplasm of preimplantation embryos and transiently enters the nucleus only at the 8-cell stage. Results Using GFP fusions we show that both the long and short isoforms of Dnmt1 localize to the nucleus of somatic cells and the cytoplasm of preimplantation embryos and that these subcellular localization properties are independent of phosphorylation. Importantly, photobleaching techniques and salt extraction revealed that Dnmt1S has a very restricted mobility in the cytoplasm, while it is highly mobile in the nucleus of preimplantation embryos. Conclusion The restricted mobility of Dnmt1S limits its access to DNA and likely contributes to passive demethylation and epigenetic reprogramming during preimplantationdevelopment. PMID:16120212

  6. MicroRNAs Induce Epigenetic Reprogramming and Suppress Malignant Phenotypes of Human Colon Cancer Cells.

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    Hisataka Ogawa

    Full Text Available Although cancer is a genetic disease, epigenetic alterations are involved in its initiation and progression. Previous studies have shown that reprogramming of colon cancer cells using Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc reduces cancer malignancy. Therefore, cancer reprogramming may be a useful treatment for chemo- or radiotherapy-resistant cancer cells. It was also reported that the introduction of endogenous small-sized, non-coding ribonucleotides such as microRNA (miR 302s and miR-369-3p or -5p resulted in the induction of cellular reprogramming. miRs are smaller than the genes of transcription factors, making them possibly suitable for use in clinical strategies. Therefore, we reprogrammed colon cancer cells using miR-302s and miR-369-3p or -5p. This resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion and the stimulation of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype in colon cancer cells. Importantly, the introduction of the ribonucleotides resulted in epigenetic reprogramming of DNA demethylation and histone modification events. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the ribonucleotides in mice elicited the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, which involves the mitochondrial Bcl2 protein family. The present study shows that the introduction of miR-302s and miR-369s could induce cellular reprogramming and modulate malignant phenotypes of human colorectal cancer, suggesting that the appropriate delivery of functional small-sized ribonucleotides may open a new avenue for therapy against human malignant tumors.

  7. DNA immunoprecipitation semiconductor sequencing (DIP-SC-seq) as a rapid method to generate genome wide epigenetic signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John P.; Fawkes, Angie; Ottaviano, Raffaele; Hunter, Jennifer M.; Shukla, Ruchi; Mjoseng, Heidi K.; Clark, Richard; Coutts, Audrey; Murphy, Lee; Meehan, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Modification of DNA resulting in 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has been shown to influence the local chromatin environment and affect transcription. Although recent advances in next generation sequencing technology allow researchers to map epigenetic modifications across the genome, such experiments are often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. Here we present a rapid and cost effective method of generating genome wide DNA modification maps utilising commercially ...

  8. Genomic stability during cellular reprogramming: Mission impossible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joest, Mathieu von; Búa Aguín, Sabela; Li, Han, E-mail: han.li@pasteur.fr

    2016-06-15

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult somatic cells is one of the most exciting discoveries in recent biomedical research. It holds tremendous potential in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, a series of reports highlighting genomic instability in iPSCs raises concerns about their clinical application. Although the mechanisms cause genomic instability during cellular reprogramming are largely unknown, several potential sources have been suggested. This review summarizes current knowledge on this active research field and discusses the latest efforts to alleviate the genomic insults during cellular reprogramming to generate iPSCs with enhanced quality and safety.

  9. Network Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer Based on a Genome-Wide Genetic and Epigenetic Network Derived from Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

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    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic and microRNA (miRNA) regulation are associated with carcinogenesis and the development of cancer. By using the available omics data, including those from next-generation sequencing (NGS), genome-wide methylation profiling, candidate integrated genetic and epigenetic network (IGEN) analysis, and drug response genome-wide microarray analysis, we constructed an IGEN system based on three coupling regression models that characterize protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), gene regulatory networks (GRNs), miRNA regulatory networks (MRNs), and epigenetic regulatory networks (ERNs). By applying system identification method and principal genome-wide network projection (PGNP) to IGEN analysis, we identified the core network biomarkers to investigate bladder carcinogenic mechanisms and design multiple drug combinations for treating bladder cancer with minimal side-effects. The progression of DNA repair and cell proliferation in stage 1 bladder cancer ultimately results not only in the derepression of miR-200a and miR-200b but also in the regulation of the TNF pathway to metastasis-related genes or proteins, cell proliferation, and DNA repair in stage 4 bladder cancer. We designed a multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, yohimbine, and fulvestrant for treating stage 1 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects, and another multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, chlorpromazine, and LY294002 for treating stage 4 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects.

  10. Genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Soil water deficit is one of the major factors limiting plant productivity. Plants cope with this adverse environmental condition by coordinating the up- or downregulation of an array of stress responsive genes. Reprogramming the expression

  11. Combining genomic and proteomic approaches for epigenetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yumiao; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that do not change the DNA sequence. In this review, current methods, both genomic and proteomic, associated with epigenetics research are discussed. Among them, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing and other ChIP-based techniques are powerful techniques for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone post-translational modifications or nucleosome positions. However, mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in functional biological studies and has proved to be an indispensable tool to characterize histone modifications, as well as DNA–protein and protein–protein interactions. With the development of genomic and proteomic approaches, combination of ChIP and mass spectrometry has the potential to expand our knowledge of epigenetics research to a higher level. PMID:23895656

  12. Epigenetics of obesity: beyond the genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Oben, Jude A

    2015-07-01

    After the study of the gene code as a trigger for obesity, epigenetic code has appeared as a novel tool in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of obesity, and its related comorbidities. This review summarizes the status of the epigenetic field associated with obesity, and the current epigenetic-based approaches for obesity treatment. Thanks to technical advances, novel and key obesity-associated polymorphisms have been described by genome-wide association studies, but there are limitations with their predictive power. Epigenetics is also studied for disease association, which involves decoding of the genome information, transcriptional status and later phenotypes. Obesity could be induced during adult life by feeding and other environmental factors, and there is a strong association between obesity features and specific epigenetic patterns. These patterns could be established during early life stages, and programme the risk of obesity and its comorbidities during adult life. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation profile could be applied as biomarkers of diet-induced weight loss treatment. High-throughput technologies, recently implemented for commercial genetic test panels, could soon lead to the creation of epigenetic test panels for obesity. Nonetheless, epigenetics is a modifiable risk factor, and different dietary patterns or environmental insights during distinct stages of life could lead to rewriting of the epigenetic profile.

  13. Bioinformatics Tools for Genome-Wide Epigenetic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Del Sol, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics play a central role in the regulation of many important cellular processes, and dysregulations at the epigenetic level could be the source of serious pathologies, such as neurological disorders affecting brain development, neurodegeneration, and intellectual disability. Despite significant technological advances for epigenetic profiling, there is still a need for a systematic understanding of how epigenetics shapes cellular circuitry, and disease pathogenesis. The development of accurate computational approaches for analyzing complex epigenetic profiles is essential for disentangling the mechanisms underlying cellular development, and the intricate interaction networks determining and sensing chromatin modifications and DNA methylation to control gene expression. In this chapter, we review the recent advances in the field of "computational epigenetics," including computational methods for processing different types of epigenetic data, prediction of chromatin states, and study of protein dynamics. We also discuss how "computational epigenetics" has complemented the fast growth in the generation of epigenetic data for uncovering the main differences and similarities at the epigenetic level between individuals and the mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression.

  14. Genome-wide nucleosome map and cytosine methylation levels of an ancient human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Valen, Eivind; Velazquez, Amhed Missael Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic information is available from contemporary organisms, but is difficult to track back in evolutionary time. Here, we show that genome-wide epigenetic information can be gathered directly from next-generation sequence reads of DNA isolated from ancient remains. Using the genome sequence...... data generated from hair shafts of a 4000-yr-old Paleo-Eskimo belonging to the Saqqaq culture, we generate the first ancient nucleosome map coupled with a genome-wide survey of cytosine methylation levels. The validity of both nucleosome map and methylation levels were confirmed by the recovery...

  15. Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of imprinted microRNA-127 and Rtl1 in cloned mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiangshun; Zhang Dingxiao; Ko, Yoeung-Gyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) genes mir-127 and mir-136 are located near two CpG islands in the imprinted mouse retrotransposon-like gene Rtl1, a key gene involved in placenta formation. These miRNAs appear to be involved in regulating the imprinting of Rtl1. To obtain insights into the epigenetic reprogramming of cloned embryos, we compared the expression levels of mir-127 and mir-136 in fertilized mouse embryos, parthenotes, androgenotes and cloned embryos developing in vitro. We also examined the DNA methylation status of the promoter regions of Rtl1 and mir-127 in these embryos. Our data showed that mir-127 and mir-136 were highly expressed in parthenotes, but rarely expressed in androgenotes. Interestingly, the expression levels of mir-127 and mir-136 in parthenotes were almost twice that seen in the fertilized embryos, but were much lower in the cloned embryos. The Rtl1 promoter region was hyper-methylated in blastocyst stage parthenotes (75.0%), moderately methylated (32.4%) in the fertilized embryos and methylated to a much lower extent (∼10%) in the cloned embryos. Conversely, the promoter region of mir-127 was hypo-methylated in parthenogenetically activated embryos (0.4%), moderately methylated (30.0%) in fertilized embryos and heavily methylated in cloned blastocysts (63-70%). These data support a role for mir-127 and mir-136 in the epigenetic reprogramming of the Rtl1 imprinting process. Analysis of the aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of mir-127 and Rtl1 in cloned embryos may help to explain the nuclear reprogramming procedures that occur in donor cells following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

  16. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sik Jang

    Full Text Available Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner.

  17. Genome-Wide Methylome Analyses Reveal Novel Epigenetic Regulation Patterns in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Camarillo, Cynthia; Xu, Juan; Arana, Tania Bedard; Xiao, Yun; Zhao, Zheng; Chen, Hong; Ramirez, Mercedes; Zavala, Juan; Escamilla, Michael A.; Armas, Regina; Mendoza, Ricardo; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto; Jerez Magaña, Alvaro Antonio; Rubin, Lewis P.; Li, Xia; Xu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are complex genetic disorders. Their appearance is also likely informed by as yet only partially described epigenetic contributions. Using a sequencing-based method for genome-wide analysis, we quantitatively compared the blood DNA methylation landscapes in SZ and BP subjects to control, both in an understudied population, Hispanics along the US-Mexico border. Remarkably, we identified thousands of differentially methylated regions for SZ and BP preferentially located in promoters 3′-UTRs and 5′-UTRs of genes. Distinct patterns of aberrant methylation of promoter sequences were located surrounding transcription start sites. In these instances, aberrant methylation occurred in CpG islands (CGIs) as well as in flanking regions as well as in CGI sparse promoters. Pathway analysis of genes displaying these distinct aberrant promoter methylation patterns showed enhancement of epigenetic changes in numerous genes previously related to psychiatric disorders and neurodevelopment. Integration of gene expression data further suggests that in SZ aberrant promoter methylation is significantly associated with altered gene transcription. In particular, we found significant associations between (1) promoter CGIs hypermethylation with gene repression and (2) CGI 3′-shore hypomethylation with increased gene expression. Finally, we constructed a specific methylation analysis platform that facilitates viewing and comparing aberrant genome methylation in human neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25734057

  18. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the superior temporal gyrus reveals epigenetic signatures associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Corey T; Roussos, Panos; Garg, Paras; Ho, Daniel J; Azam, Nidha; Katsel, Pavel L; Haroutunian, Vahram; Sharp, Andrew J

    2016-01-19

    Alzheimer's disease affects ~13% of people in the United States 65 years and older, making it the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent work has identified roles for environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors in Alzheimer's disease risk. We performed a genome-wide screen of DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform on bulk tissue samples from the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and non-demented controls. We paired a sliding window approach with multivariate linear regression to characterize Alzheimer's disease-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We identified 479 DMRs exhibiting a strong bias for hypermethylated changes, a subset of which were independently associated with aging. DMR intervals overlapped 475 RefSeq genes enriched for gene ontology categories with relevant roles in neuron function and development, as well as cellular metabolism, and included genes reported in Alzheimer's disease genome-wide and epigenome-wide association studies. DMRs were enriched for brain-specific histone signatures and for binding motifs of transcription factors with roles in the brain and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Notably, hypermethylated DMRs preferentially overlapped poised promoter regions, marked by H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, previously shown to co-localize with aging-associated hypermethylation. Finally, the integration of DMR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study risk loci and brain expression quantitative trait loci highlights multiple potential DMRs of interest for further functional analysis. We have characterized changes in DNA methylation in the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, highlighting novel loci that facilitate better characterization of pathways and mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and improve our understanding of epigenetic signatures that may contribute to the

  19. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B; Skinner, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant) specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm) epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and methoxychlor (MXC) exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation data set showed a 100% prediction accuracy for all the DDT-MXC sperm epimutations. Observations further elucidate the genomic features associated with transgenerational germline epimutations and identify a genome-wide

  20. Epigenetic reprogramming in Mist1(-/- mice predicts the molecular response to cerulein-induced pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Gene expression is affected by modifications to histone core proteins within chromatin. Changes in these modifications, or epigenetic reprogramming, can dictate cell fate and promote susceptibility to disease. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of epigenetic reprogramming in response to chronic stress that occurs following ablation of MIST1 (Mist1(-/- , which is repressed in pancreatic disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for trimethylation of lysine residue 4 on histone 3 (H3K4Me3 in purified acinar cells from wild type and Mist1(-/- mice was followed by Next Generation sequencing (ChIP-seq or ChIP-qPCR. H3K4Me3-enriched genes were assessed for expression by qRT-PCR in pancreatic tissue before and after induction of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. While most of H3K4Me3-enrichment is restricted to transcriptional start sites, >25% of enrichment sites are found within, downstream or between annotated genes. Less than 10% of these sites were altered in Mist1(-/- acini, with most changes in H3K4Me3 enrichment not reflecting altered gene expression. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of genes differentially-enriched for H3K4Me3 revealed an association with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Mist1(-/- tissue. Most of these genes were not differentially expressed but several were readily induced by acute experimental pancreatitis, with significantly increased expression in Mist1(-/- tissue relative to wild type mice. We suggest that the chronic cell stress observed in the absence of MIST1 results in epigenetic reprogramming of genes involved in promoting pancreatitis to a poised state, thereby increasing the sensitivity to events that promote disease.

  1. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muksitul Haque

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs. Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (<3 CpG / 100bp termed CpG deserts and a number of unique DNA sequence motifs. The rat genome was annotated for these and additional relevant features. The objective of the current study was to use a machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and methoxychlor (MXC exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation

  2. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppala Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defect (CHD is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS, with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated. Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS.

  3. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS.

  4. NSD1 mutations generate a genome-wide DNA methylation signature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Choufani, S

    2015-12-22

    Sotos syndrome (SS) represents an important human model system for the study of epigenetic regulation; it is an overgrowth\\/intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations in a histone methyltransferase, NSD1. As layered epigenetic modifications are often interdependent, we propose that pathogenic NSD1 mutations have a genome-wide impact on the most stable epigenetic mark, DNA methylation (DNAm). By interrogating DNAm in SS patients, we identify a genome-wide, highly significant NSD1(+\\/-)-specific signature that differentiates pathogenic NSD1 mutations from controls, benign NSD1 variants and the clinically overlapping Weaver syndrome. Validation studies of independent cohorts of SS and controls assigned 100% of these samples correctly. This highly specific and sensitive NSD1(+\\/-) signature encompasses genes that function in cellular morphogenesis and neuronal differentiation, reflecting cardinal features of the SS phenotype. The identification of SS-specific genome-wide DNAm alterations will facilitate both the elucidation of the molecular pathophysiology of SS and the development of improved diagnostic testing.

  5. Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Di Stefano, Bruno; de Wit, Elzo; Limone, Francesco; van Oevelen, Chris; de Laat, Wouter; Graf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Forced expression of reprogramming factors can convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we studied genome topology dynamics during reprogramming of different somatic cell types with highly distinct genome conformations. We find large-scale topologically associated

  6. Regulation of the DNA Methylation Landscape in Human Somatic Cell Reprogramming by the miR-29 Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriona Hysolli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming to pluripotency after overexpression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is accompanied by global genomic and epigenomic changes. Histone modification and DNA methylation states in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been shown to be highly similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, epigenetic differences still exist between iPSCs and ESCs. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation states found in iPSCs are a major concern when using iPSCs in a clinical setting. Thus, it is critical to find factors that regulate DNA methylation states in reprogramming. Here, we found that the miR-29 family is an important epigenetic regulator during human somatic cell reprogramming. Our global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation analysis shows that DNA demethylation is a major event mediated by miR-29a depletion during early reprogramming, and that iPSCs derived from miR-29a depletion are epigenetically closer to ESCs. Our findings uncover an important miRNA-based approach to generate clinically robust iPSCs.

  7. Genome-wide, Single-Cell DNA Methylomics Reveals Increased Non-CpG Methylation during Human Oocyte Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of DNA methylation patterns in oocytes is a highly dynamic process marking gene-regulatory events during fertilization, embryonic development, and adulthood. However, after epigenetic reprogramming in primordial germ cells, how and when DNA methylation is re-established in developing human oocytes remains to be characterized. Here, using single-cell whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we describe DNA methylation patterns in three different maturation stages of human oocytes. We found that while broad-scale patterns of CpG methylation have been largely established by the immature germinal vesicle stage, localized changes continue into later development. Non-CpG methylation, on the other hand, undergoes a large-scale, generalized remodeling through the final stage of maturation, with the net overall result being the accumulation of methylation as oocytes mature. The role of the genome-wide, non-CpG methylation remodeling in the final stage of oocyte maturation deserves further investigation.

  8. DNA Methylation in Embryo Development: Epigenetic Impact of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, Sebastian; Ross, Pablo J; Kelsey, Gavin; Coy, Pilar

    2017-11-01

    DNA methylation can be considered a component of epigenetic memory with a critical role during embryo development, and which undergoes dramatic reprogramming after fertilization. Though it has been a focus of research for many years, the reprogramming mechanism is still not fully understood. Recent results suggest that absence of maintenance at DNA replication is a major factor, and that there is an unexpected role for TET3-mediated oxidation of 5mC to 5hmC in guarding against de novo methylation. Base-resolution and genome-wide profiling methods are enabling more comprehensive assessments of the extent to which ART might impair DNA methylation reprogramming, and which sequence elements are most vulnerable. Indeed, as we also review here, studies showing the effect of culture media, ovarian stimulation or embryo transfer on the methylation pattern of embryos emphasize the need to face ART-associated defects and search for strategies to mitigate adverse effects on the health of ART-derived children. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny van Dongen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19 using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs, compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

  10. Epigenetic regulation leading to induced pluripotency drives cancer development in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Kotaro [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Semi, Katsunori [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: y-yamada@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Epigenetic regulation of failed reprogramming-associated cancer cells is discussed. • Similarity between pediatric cancer and reprogramming-associated cancer is discussed. • Concept for epigenetic cancer is discussed. - Abstract: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transient expression of reprogramming factors. During the reprogramming process, somatic cells acquire the ability to undergo unlimited proliferation, which is also an important characteristic of cancer cells, while their underlying DNA sequence remains unchanged. Based on the characteristics shared between pluripotent stem cells and cancer cells, the potential involvement of the factors leading to reprogramming toward pluripotency in cancer development has been discussed. Recent in vivo reprogramming studies provided some clues to understanding the role of reprogramming-related epigenetic regulation in cancer development. It was shown that premature termination of the in vivo reprogramming result in the development of tumors that resemble pediatric cancers. Given that epigenetic modifications play a central role during reprogramming, failed reprogramming-associated cancer development may have provided a proof of concept for epigenetics-driven cancer development in vivo.

  11. Epigenetic regulation leading to induced pluripotency drives cancer development in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Kotaro; Semi, Katsunori; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Epigenetic regulation of failed reprogramming-associated cancer cells is discussed. • Similarity between pediatric cancer and reprogramming-associated cancer is discussed. • Concept for epigenetic cancer is discussed. - Abstract: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transient expression of reprogramming factors. During the reprogramming process, somatic cells acquire the ability to undergo unlimited proliferation, which is also an important characteristic of cancer cells, while their underlying DNA sequence remains unchanged. Based on the characteristics shared between pluripotent stem cells and cancer cells, the potential involvement of the factors leading to reprogramming toward pluripotency in cancer development has been discussed. Recent in vivo reprogramming studies provided some clues to understanding the role of reprogramming-related epigenetic regulation in cancer development. It was shown that premature termination of the in vivo reprogramming result in the development of tumors that resemble pediatric cancers. Given that epigenetic modifications play a central role during reprogramming, failed reprogramming-associated cancer development may have provided a proof of concept for epigenetics-driven cancer development in vivo

  12. DNA Oncogenic Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress, Genomic Damage, and Aberrant Epigenetic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo Magdeline Kgatle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of human cancers is attributable to DNA oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Unrepaired DNA damage is the most common and overlapping feature of these DNA oncogenic viruses and a source of genomic instability and tumour development. Sustained DNA damage results from unceasing production of reactive oxygen species and activation of inflammasome cascades that trigger genomic changes and increased propensity of epigenetic alterations. Accumulation of epigenetic alterations may interfere with genome-wide cellular signalling machineries and promote malignant transformation leading to cancer development. Untangling and understanding the underlying mechanisms that promote these detrimental effects remain the major objectives for ongoing research and hope for effective virus-induced cancer therapy. Here, we review current literature with an emphasis on how DNA damage influences HPV, HVB, and EBV replication and epigenetic alterations that are associated with carcinogenesis.

  13. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT. Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively. However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research.

  14. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  15. Trans-differentiation via Epigenetics: A New Paradigm in the Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Dan; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo

    2018-02-01

    In regenerative medicine, growing cells or tissues in the laboratory is necessary when damaged cells can not heal by themselves. Acquisition of the required cells from the patient's own cells or tissues is an ideal option without additive side effects. In this context, cell reprogramming methods, including the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and trans-differentiation, have been widely studied in regenerative research. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and the possibility of de-differentiation because of the epigenetic memory of iPSCs has strengthened the need for controlling the epigenetic background for successful cell reprogramming. Therefore, interest in epigenetics has increased in the field of regenerative medicine. Herein, we outline in detail the cell trans-differentiation method using epigenetic modification for bone regeneration in comparison to the use of iPSCs.

  16. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2011-07-28

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Gan, Xiangchao; Belfield, Eric J.; Klingler, John  P.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Harberd, Nicholas  P.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. cisMEP: an integrated repository of genomic epigenetic profiles and cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Chung-Ching; Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), or the DNA sequences required for regulating gene expression, play the central role in biological researches on transcriptional regulation in metazoan species. Nowadays, the systematic understanding of CRMs still mainly resorts to computational methods due to the time-consuming and small-scale nature of experimental methods. But the accuracy and reliability of different CRM prediction tools are still unclear. Without comparative cross-analysis of the results and combinatorial consideration with extra experimental information, there is no easy way to assess the confidence of the predicted CRMs. This limits the genome-wide understanding of CRMs. It is known that transcription factor binding and epigenetic profiles tend to determine functions of CRMs in gene transcriptional regulation. Thus integration of the genome-wide epigenetic profiles with systematically predicted CRMs can greatly help researchers evaluate and decipher the prediction confidence and possible transcriptional regulatory functions of these potential CRMs. However, these data are still fragmentary in the literatures. Here we performed the computational genome-wide screening for potential CRMs using different prediction tools and constructed the pioneer database, cisMEP (cis-regulatory module epigenetic profile database), to integrate these computationally identified CRMs with genomic epigenetic profile data. cisMEP collects the literature-curated TFBS location data and nine genres of epigenetic data for assessing the confidence of these potential CRMs and deciphering the possible CRM functionality. cisMEP aims to provide a user-friendly interface for researchers to assess the confidence of different potential CRMs and to understand the functions of CRMs through experimentally-identified epigenetic profiles. The deposited potential CRMs and experimental epigenetic profiles for confidence assessment provide experimentally testable hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms

  19. Genome-wide alterations of the DNA replication program during tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, A.; Goldar, A.; Argoul, F.; Hyrien, O.; Audit, B.

    2016-08-01

    Oncogenic stress is a major driving force in the early stages of cancer development. Recent experimental findings reveal that, in precancerous lesions and cancers, activated oncogenes may induce stalling and dissociation of DNA replication forks resulting in DNA damage. Replication timing is emerging as an important epigenetic feature that recapitulates several genomic, epigenetic and functional specificities of even closely related cell types. There is increasing evidence that chromosome rearrangements, the hallmark of many cancer genomes, are intimately associated with the DNA replication program and that epigenetic replication timing changes often precede chromosomic rearrangements. The recent development of a novel methodology to map replication fork polarity using deep sequencing of Okazaki fragments has provided new and complementary genome-wide replication profiling data. We review the results of a wavelet-based multi-scale analysis of genomic and epigenetic data including replication profiles along human chromosomes. These results provide new insight into the spatio-temporal replication program and its dynamics during differentiation. Here our goal is to bring to cancer research, the experimental protocols and computational methodologies for replication program profiling, and also the modeling of the spatio-temporal replication program. To illustrate our purpose, we report very preliminary results obtained for the chronic myelogeneous leukemia, the archetype model of cancer. Finally, we discuss promising perspectives on using genome-wide DNA replication profiling as a novel efficient tool for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and personalized treatment.

  20. Genome-Wide Epigenetic Characterization of Tissues from Three Germ Layers Isolated from Sheep Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Capra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation of regulatory and growth-related genes contributes to fetal programming which is important for maintaining the correct development of three germ layers of the embryo that develope into different tissues and organs, and which persists into adult life. In this study, a preliminary epigenetic screen was performed to define genomic regions that are involved in fetal epigenome remodeling. Embryonic ectodermic tissues (origin of nervous tissue, mesenchymal tissues (origin of connective and muscular tissues, and foregut endoderm tissues (origin of epithelial tissue, from day 28 sheep fetuses were collected and the distribution of methylated CpGs was analyzed using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Patterns of methylation among the three tissues showed a high level of conservation of hypo-methylated CpG islands CGIs, and a consistent level of methylation in regulatory genetic elements. Analysis of tissue specific differentially methylated regions, revealed that 20% of the total CGIs differed between tissues. A proportion of the methylome was remodeled in gene bodies, 5′ UTRs and 3′ UTRs (7, 11, and 11%, respectively. Genes with overlapping differentially methylated regions in gene bodies and CGIs showed a significant enrichment for tissue morphogenesis and development pathways. The data presented here provides a “reference” for the epigenetic status of genes potentially involved in the maintenance and regulation of fetal developmental during early life, a period expected to be particularly prone to epigenetic alterations induced by environmental and nutritional stressors.

  1. Electromagnetic fields mediate efficient cell reprogramming into a pluripotent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Soonbong; Quan, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Soochan; Lengner, Christopher; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Jongpil

    2014-10-28

    Life on Earth is constantly exposed to natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and it is generally accepted that EMFs may exert a variety of effects on biological systems. Particularly, extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EL-EMFs) affect biological processes such as cell development and differentiation; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which EMFs influence these processes remain unclear. Here we show that EMF exposure induces epigenetic changes that promote efficient somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. These epigenetic changes resulted from EMF-induced activation of the histone lysine methyltransferase Mll2. Remarkably, an EMF-free system that eliminates Earth's naturally occurring magnetic field abrogates these epigenetic changes, resulting in a failure to undergo reprogramming. Therefore, our results reveal that EMF directly regulates dynamic epigenetic changes through Mll2, providing an efficient tool for epigenetic reprogramming including the acquisition of pluripotency.

  2. Inhibition of miRNA-212/132 improves the reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells by de-repressing important epigenetic remodelling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Pfaff

    2017-04-01

    Thus, conducting a full library miRNA screen we here describe a miRNA family, which markedly reduces generation of iPSC and upon inhibition in turn enhances reprogramming. These miRNAs, at least in part, exert their functions through repression of the epigenetic modulators p300 and Jarid1a, highlighting these two molecules as an endogenous epigenetic roadblock during iPSC generation.

  3. Using induced pluripotent stem cells to explore genetic and epigenetic variation associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imm, Jennifer; Kerrigan, Talitha L; Jeffries, Aaron; Lunnon, Katie

    2017-11-01

    It is thought that both genetic and epigenetic variation play a role in Alzheimer's disease initiation and progression. With the advent of somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells it is now possible to generate patient-derived cells that are able to more accurately model and recapitulate disease. Furthermore, by combining this with recent advances in (epi)genome editing technologies, it is possible to begin to examine the functional consequence of previously nominated genetic variants and infer epigenetic causality from recently identified epigenetic variants. In this review, we explore the role of genetic and epigenetic variation in Alzheimer's disease and how the functional relevance of nominated loci can be investigated using induced pluripotent stem cells and (epi)genome editing techniques.

  4. BIX-01294 increases pig cloning efficiency by improving epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Yao, Jing; Qin, Guosong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xianlong; Luo, Ailing; Zheng, Qiantao; Cao, Chunwei; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that faulty epigenetic reprogramming leads to the abnormal development of cloned embryos and results in the low success rates observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The aberrant methylation status of H3K9me and H3K9me2 has been reported in cloned mouse embryos. To explore the role of H3K9me2 and H3K9me in the porcine somatic cell nuclear reprogramming, BIX-01294, known as a specific inhibitor of G9A (histone-lysine methyltransferase of H3K9), was used to treat the nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes for 14-16 h after activation. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos was significantly enhanced both in vitro (blastocyst rate 16.4% vs 23.2%, Pcloning rate 1.59% vs 2.96%) after 50 nm BIX-01294 treatment. BIX-01294 treatment significantly decreased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K9me at the 2- and 4-cell stages, which are associated with embryo genetic activation, and increased the transcriptional expression of the pluripotency genes SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 in cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, the histone acetylation levels of H3K9, H4K8 and H4K12 in cloned embryos were decreased after BIX-01294 treatment. However, co-treatment of activated NT oocytes with BIX-01294 and Scriptaid rescued donor nuclear chromatin from decreased histone acetylation of H4K8 that resulted from exposure to BIX-01294 only and consequently improved the preimplantation development of SCNT embryos (blastocyst formation rates of 23.7% vs 21.5%). These results indicated that treatment with BIX-01294 enhanced the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos through improvements in epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  5. Genome Engineering for Personalized Arthritis Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Shaunak S; Brunger, Jonathan M; Willard, Vincent P; Wu, Chia-Lung; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid

    2017-10-01

    Arthritis represents a family of complex joint pathologies responsible for the majority of musculoskeletal conditions. Nearly all diseases within this family, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are chronic conditions with few or no disease-modifying therapeutics available. Advances in genome engineering technology, most recently with CRISPR-Cas9, have revolutionized our ability to interrogate and validate genetic and epigenetic elements associated with chronic diseases such as arthritis. These technologies, together with cell reprogramming methods, including the use of induced pluripotent stem cells, provide a platform for human disease modeling. We summarize new evidence from genome-wide association studies and genomics that substantiates a genetic basis for arthritis pathogenesis. We also review the potential contributions of genome engineering in the development of new arthritis therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus: a master epigenetic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rona S

    2017-10-01

    Like all herpesviruses, the ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to establish life-long persistent infections is related to a biphasic viral lifecycle that involves latency and reactivation/lytic replication. Memory B cells serve as the EBV latency compartment where silencing of viral gene expression allows maintenance of the viral genome, avoidance of immune surveillance, and life-long carriage. Upon viral reactivation, viral gene expression is induced for replication, progeny virion production, and viral spread. EBV uses the host epigenetic machinery to regulate its distinct viral gene expression states. However, epigenetic manipulation by EBV affects the host epigenome by reprogramming cells in ways that leave long-lasting, oncogenic phenotypes. Such virally-induced epigenetic alterations are evident in EBV-associated cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-Wide Epigenetic Characterization of Tissues from Three Germ Layers Isolated from Sheep Fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Capra, Emanuele; Toschi, Paola; Del Corvo, Marcello; Lazzari, Barbara; Scapolo, Pier A.; Loi, Pasqualino; Williams, John L.; Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation of regulatory and growth-related genes contributes to fetal programming which is important for maintaining the correct development of three germ layers of the embryo that develope into different tissues and organs, and which persists into adult life. In this study, a preliminary epigenetic screen was performed to define genomic regions that are involved in fetal epigenome remodeling. Embryonic ectodermic tissues (origin of nervous tissue), mesenchymal tissues (origin of connec...

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation before-and after Exercise in the Thoroughbred Horse with MeDIP-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jeong-An; Hong, Chang Pyo; Kim, Dae-Soo; Moon, Jae-Woo; Choi, Yuri; Eo, Jungwoo; Kwon, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Ja-Rang; Jung, Yi-Deun; Bae, Jin-Han; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Junsu; Song, Sanghoon; Ahn, Kung; Ha, Hong-Seok; Yang, Young Mok; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Park, Kyung-Do; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Han, Kyudong; Yi, Joo Mi; Cha, Hee-Jae; Ayarpadikannan, Selvam; Cho, Byung-Wook; Bhak, Jong; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic performance is an important criteria used for the selection of superior horses. However, little is known about exercise-related epigenetic processes in the horse. DNA methylation is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in response to environmental changes. We carried out comparative genomic analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in the blood samples of two different thoroughbred horses before and after exercise by methylated-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the pre-and post-exercise blood samples of superior and inferior horses were identified. Exercise altered the methylation patterns. After 30 min of exercise, 596 genes were hypomethylated and 715 genes were hypermethylated in the superior horse, whereas in the inferior horse, 868 genes were hypomethylated and 794 genes were hypermethylated. These genes were analyzed based on gene ontology (GO) annotations and the exercise-related pathway patterns in the two horses were compared. After exercise, gene regions related to cell division and adhesion were hypermethylated in the superior horse, whereas regions related to cell signaling and transport were hypermethylated in the inferior horse. Analysis of the distribution of methylated CpG islands confirmed the hypomethylation in the gene-body methylation regions after exercise. The methylation patterns of transposable elements also changed after exercise. Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) showed abundance of DMRs. Collectively, our results serve as a basis to study exercise-based reprogramming of epigenetic traits. PMID:25666347

  9. Phenotypic alteration of CD8+ T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with epigenetic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiazhu; Xu, Xiaojing; Lee, Eun-Joon; Shull, Austin Y; Pei, Lirong; Awan, Farrukh; Wang, Xiaoling; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Deng, Libin; Xin, Hong-Bo; Zhong, Wenxun; Liang, Jinhua; Miao, Yi; Wu, Yujie; Fan, Lei; Li, Jianyong; Xu, Wei; Shi, Huidong

    2016-06-28

    Immunosuppression is a prevalent clinical feature in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, with many patients demonstrating increased susceptibility to infections as well as increased failure of an antitumor immune response. However, much is currently not understood regarding the precise mechanisms that attribute to this immunosuppressive phenotype in CLL. To provide further clarity to this particular phenomenon, we analyzed the T-cell profile of CLL patient samples within a large cohort and observed that patients with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio had a shorter time to first treatment as well as overall survival. These observations coincided with higher expression of the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 in CLL patient CD8+ T cells when compared to age-matched healthy donors. Interestingly, we discovered that increased PD-1 expression in CD8+ T cells corresponds with decreased DNA methylation levels in a distal upstream locus of the PD-1 gene PDCD1. Further analysis using luciferase reporter assays suggests that the identified PDCD1 distal upstream region acts as an enhancer for PDCD1 transcription and this region becomes demethylated during activation of naïve CD8+ T cells by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies and IL2. Finally, we conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis comparing CD8+ T cells from CLL patients against healthy donors and identified additional differentially methylated genes with known immune regulatory functions including CCR6 and KLRG1. Taken together, our findings reveal the occurrence of epigenetic reprogramming taking place within CLL patient CD8+ T cells and highlight the potential mechanism of how immunosuppression is accomplished in CLL.

  10. The HIST1 Locus Escapes Reprogramming in Cloned Bovine Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungkuk Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic reprogramming is necessary in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos in order to erase the differentiation-associated epigenetic marks of donor cells. However, such epigenetic memories often persist throughout the course of clonal development, thus decreasing cloning efficiency. Here, we explored reprogramming-refractory regions in bovine SCNT blastocyst transcriptomes. We observed that histone genes residing in the 1.5 Mb spanning the cow HIST1 cluster were coordinately downregulated in SCNT blastocysts. In contrast, both the nonhistone genes of this cluster, and histone genes elsewhere remained unaffected. This indicated that the downregulation was specific to HIST1 histone genes. We found that, after trichostatin A treatment, HIST1 histone genes were derepressed, and DNA methylation at their promoters was decreased to the level of in vitro fertilization embryos. Therefore, our results indicate that the reduced expression of HIST1 histone genes is a consequence of poor epigenetic reprogramming in SCNT blastocysts.

  11. Reprogramming cancer cells: a novel approach for cancer therapy or a tool for disease-modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Açelya; de Lázaro, Irene; Taheri, Hadiseh

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin dynamics have been the major focus of many physiological and pathological processes over the past 20 years. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to be reshaped during both cellular reprogramming and tumorigenesis. For this reason, cancer cell reprogramming can provide a powerful tool to better understand both regenerative and cancer-fate processes, with a potential to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Recent studies showed that cancer cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the overexpression of reprogramming transcription factors. Activation of transcription factors and modification of chromatin regulators may result in the remodeling of epigenetic status and refueling of tumorigenicity in these reprogrammed cancer cells. However, studies focusing on cancer cell reprogramming are contradictory; some studies reported increased tumor progression whereas others showed that cellular reprogramming has a treatment potential for cancer. In this review, first, the current knowledge on the epigenetic mechanisms involved during cancer development and cellular reprogramming will be presented. Later, different reports and key factors about pluripotency-based reprogramming of cancer cells will be reviewed in detail. New insights will be provided on cancer biology and therapy in the light of cellular reprogramming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetics and sex differences in the brain: A genome-wide comparison of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Erica Y; Ahern, Todd H; Cheung, Iris; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dincer, Aslihan; Houston, Isaac; de Vries, Geert J; Akbarian, Schahram; Forger, Nancy G

    2015-06-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit gender disparities, and sex differences in the brain likely explain some of these effects. Recent work in rodents points to a role for epigenetics in the development or maintenance of neural sex differences, although genome-wide studies have so far been lacking. Here we review the existing literature on epigenetics and brain sexual differentiation and present preliminary analyses on the genome-wide distribution of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation in a sexually dimorphic brain region in male and female mice. H3K4me3 is a histone mark primarily organized as 'peaks' surrounding the transcription start site of active genes. We microdissected the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area (BNST/POA) in adult male and female mice and used ChIP-Seq to compare the distribution of H3K4me3 throughout the genome. We found 248 genes and loci with a significant sex difference in H3K4me3. Of these, the majority (71%) had larger H3K4me3 peaks in females. Comparisons with existing databases indicate that genes and loci with increased H3K4me3 in females are associated with synaptic function and with expression atlases from related brain areas. Based on RT-PCR, only a minority of genes with a sex difference in H3K4me3 has detectable sex differences in expression at baseline conditions. Together with previous findings, our data suggest that there may be sex biases in the use of epigenetic marks. Such biases could underlie sex differences in vulnerabilities to drugs or diseases that disrupt specific epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetically contextual effects of smoking on genome wide DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of death in the United States. It exerts its effects by increasing susceptibility to a variety of complex disorders among those who smoke, and if pregnant, to their unborn children. In prior efforts to understand the epigenetic mechanisms through which this increased vulnerability is conveyed, a number of investigators have conducted genome wide methylation analyses. Unfortunately, secondary to methodological limitations, these studies were unable to examine methylation in gene regions with significant amounts of genetic variation. Using genome wide genetic and epigenetic data from the Framingham Heart Study, we re-examined the relationship of smoking status to genome wide methylation status. When only methylation status is considered, smoking was significantly associated with differential methylation in 310 genes that map to a variety of biological process and cellular differentiation pathways. However, when SNP effects on the magnitude of smoking associated methylation changes are also considered, cis and trans-interaction effects were noted at a total of 266 and 4353 genes with no marked enrichment for any biological pathways. Furthermore, the SNP variation participating in the significant interaction effects is enriched for loci previously associated with complex medical illnesses. The enlarged scope of the methylome shown to be affected by smoking may better explicate the mediational pathways linking smoking with a myriad of smoking related complex syndromes. Additionally, these results strongly suggest that combined epigenetic and genetic data analyses may be critical for a more complete understanding of the relationship between environmental variables, such as smoking, and pathophysiological outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. In vitro epigenetic reprogramming of human cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells into functionally competent cardiovascular precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vecellio

    Full Text Available Adult human cardiac mesenchymal-like stromal cells (CStC represent a relatively accessible cell type useful for therapy. In this light, their conversion into cardiovascular precursors represents a potential successful strategy for cardiac repair. The aim of the present work was to reprogram CStC into functionally competent cardiovascular precursors using epigenetically active small molecules. CStC were exposed to low serum (5% FBS in the presence of 5 µM all-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA, 5 µM Phenyl Butyrate (PB, and 200 µM diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO, to create a novel epigenetically active cocktail (EpiC. Upon treatment the expression of markers typical of cardiac resident stem cells such as c-Kit and MDR-1 were up-regulated, together with the expression of a number of cardiovascular-associated genes including KDR, GATA6, Nkx2.5, GATA4, HCN4, NaV1.5, and α-MHC. In addition, profiling analysis revealed that a significant number of microRNA involved in cardiomyocyte biology and cell differentiation/proliferation, including miR 133a, 210 and 34a, were up-regulated. Remarkably, almost 45% of EpiC-treated cells exhibited a TTX-sensitive sodium current and, to a lower extent in a few cells, also the pacemaker I(f current. Mechanistically, the exposure to EpiC treatment introduced global histone modifications, characterized by increased levels of H3K4Me3 and H4K16Ac, as well as reduced H4K20Me3 and H3s10P, a pattern compatible with reduced proliferation and chromatin relaxation. Consistently, ChIP experiments performed with H3K4me3 or H3s10P histone modifications revealed the presence of a specific EpiC-dependent pattern in c-Kit, MDR-1, and Nkx2.5 promoter regions, possibly contributing to their modified expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CStC may be epigenetically reprogrammed to acquire molecular and biological properties associated with competent cardiovascular precursors.

  15. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  16. Genome-wide Analysis of Gene Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun

    to protein: through epigenetic modifications, transcription regulators or post-transcriptional controls. The following papers concern several layers of gene regulation with questions answered by different HTS approaches. Genome-wide screening of epigenetic changes by ChIP-seq allowed us to study both spatial...... and temporal alterations of histone modifications (Papers I and II). Coupling the data with machine learning approaches, we established a prediction framework to assess the most informative histone marks as well as their most influential nucleosome positions in predicting the promoter usages. (Papers I...... they regulated or if the sites had global elevated usage rates by multiple TFs. Using RNA-seq, 5’end-seq in combination with depletion of 5’exonuclease as well as nonsensemediated decay (NMD) factors, we systematically analyzed NMD substrates as well as their degradation intermediates in human cells (Paper V...

  17. Identification, replication and characterization of epigenetic remodelling in the aging genome: a cross population analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological process regulated by multiple cellular pathways and molecular mechanisms including epigenetics. Using genome-wide DNA methylation data measured in a large collection of Scottish old individuals, we performed discovery association analysis to identify age-methylated Cp...

  18. Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Gosik, Kirk; Xing, Sujuan; Jiang, Libo; Sun, Lidan; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Wu, Rongling

    2017-03-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing. This framework, named epigenetic game theory or epiGame, views embryogenesis as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos under Darwinian selection. By implementing a system of ordinary differential equations, epiGame quantifies the pattern and relative magnitude of the methylation effects on embryogenesis by the mechanisms of cooperation and competition. epiGame may gain new insight into reproductive biology and can be potentially applied to design personalized medicines for genetic disorder intervention.

  19. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic nucleus hybridized with embryonic stem cells by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masako; Tada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cell fusion is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming. In hybrid cells of somatic cells and pluripotential stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) and embryonic germ cells, somatic nuclei acquire pluripotential competence. ES and embryonic germ cells retain intrinsic trans activity to induce epigenetic reprogramming. For generating hybrid cells, we have used the technique of electrofusion. Electrofusion is a highly effective, reproducible, and biomedically safe in vitro system. For successful cell fusion, two sequential steps of electric pulse stimulation are required for the alignment (pearl chain formation) of two different types of cells between electrodes in response to alternating current stimulation and for the fusion of cytoplasmic membranes by direct current stimulation. Optimal conditions for electrofusion with a pulse generator are introduced for ES and somatic cell fusion. Topics in the field of stem cell research include the successful production of cloned animals via the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells and contribution of spontaneous cell fusion to generating intrinsic plasticity of tissue stem cells. Cell fusion technology may make important contributions to the fields of epigenetic reprogramming and regenerative medicine.

  20. The genome-wide landscape of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in response to sleep deprivation impacts on synaptic plasticity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, R; Freyburger, M; Suderman, M; Paquet, J; El Helou, J; Belanger-Nelson, E; Rachalski, A; Koumar, O C; Carrier, J; Szyf, M; Mongrain, V

    2014-01-21

    Sleep is critical for normal brain function and mental health. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sleep loss on both cognition and the sleep electroencephalogram remain mostly unknown. Acute sleep loss impacts brain gene expression broadly. These data contributed to current hypotheses regarding the role for sleep in metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. These changes in gene expression likely underlie increased sleep intensity following sleep deprivation (SD). Here we tested the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms coordinate the gene expression response driven by SD. We found that SD altered the cortical genome-wide distribution of two major epigenetic marks: DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. DNA methylation differences were enriched in gene pathways involved in neuritogenesis and synaptic plasticity, whereas large changes (>4000 sites) in hydroxymethylation where observed in genes linked to cytoskeleton, signaling and neurotransmission, which closely matches SD-dependent changes in the transcriptome. Moreover, this epigenetic remodeling applied to elements previously linked to sleep need (for example, Arc and Egr1) and synaptic partners of Neuroligin-1 (Nlgn1; for example, Dlg4, Nrxn1 and Nlgn3), which we recently identified as a regulator of sleep intensity following SD. We show here that Nlgn1 mutant mice display an enhanced slow-wave slope during non-rapid eye movement sleep following SD but this mutation does not affect SD-dependent changes in gene expression, suggesting that the Nlgn pathway acts downstream to mechanisms triggering gene expression changes in SD. These data reveal that acute SD reprograms the epigenetic landscape, providing a unique molecular route by which sleep can impact brain function and health.

  1. Epigenetic control of mobile DNA as an interface between experience and genome change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Shapiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile DNA in the genome is subject to RNA-targeted epigenetic control. This control regulates the activity of transposons, retrotransposons and genomic proviruses. Many different life history experiences alter the activities of mobile DNA and the expression of genetic loci regulated by nearby insertions. The same experiences induce alterations in epigenetic formatting and lead to trans-generational modifications of genome expression and stability. These observations lead to the hypothesis that epigenetic formatting directed by non-coding RNA provides a molecular interface between life history events and genome alteration.

  2. The specification and global reprogramming of histone epigenetic marks during gamete formation and early embryo development in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Samson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the DNA contributed by sperm and oocytes, embryos receive parent-specific epigenetic information that can include histone variants, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs, and DNA methylation. However, a global view of how such marks are erased or retained during gamete formation and reprogrammed after fertilization is lacking. To focus on features conveyed by histones, we conducted a large-scale proteomic identification of histone variants and PTMs in sperm and mixed-stage embryo chromatin from C. elegans, a species that lacks conserved DNA methylation pathways. The fate of these histone marks was then tracked using immunostaining. Proteomic analysis found that sperm harbor ∼2.4 fold lower levels of histone PTMs than embryos and revealed differences in classes of PTMs between sperm and embryos. Sperm chromatin repackaging involves the incorporation of the sperm-specific histone H2A variant HTAS-1, a widespread erasure of histone acetylation, and the retention of histone methylation at sites that mark the transcriptional history of chromatin domains during spermatogenesis. After fertilization, we show HTAS-1 and 6 histone PTM marks distinguish sperm and oocyte chromatin in the new embryo and characterize distinct paternal and maternal histone remodeling events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. These include the exchange of histone H2A that is marked by ubiquitination, retention of HTAS-1, removal of the H2A variant HTZ-1, and differential reprogramming of histone PTMs. This work identifies novel and conserved features of paternal chromatin that are specified during spermatogenesis and processed in the embryo. Furthermore, our results show that different species, even those with diverged DNA packaging and imprinting strategies, use conserved histone modification and removal mechanisms to reprogram epigenetic information.

  3. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

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    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enroth, Stefan; Rada-Iglesisas, Alvaro; Andersson, Robin; Wallerman, Ola; Wanders, Alkwin; Påhlman, Lars; Komorowski, Jan; Wadelius, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) was used to identify promoters enriched for histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples from two CRC patients and for the CRC cell line HT29. By comparing histone modification patterns in normal mucosa and tumors, we found that alterations predicted to have major functional consequences were quite rare. Furthermore, when normal or tumor tissue samples were compared to HT29, high similarities were observed for H3K4me3. However, the differences found for H3K27me3, which is important in determining cellular identity, indicates that cell lines do not represent optimal tissue models. Finally, using public expression data, we uncovered previously unknown changes in CRC expression patterns. Genes positive for H3K4me3 in normal and/or tumor samples, which are typically already active in normal mucosa, became hyperactivated in tumors, while genes with H3K27me3 in normal and/or tumor samples and which are expressed at low levels in normal mucosa, became hypersilenced in tumors. Genome wide histone modification profiles can be used to find epigenetic aberrations in genes associated with cancer. This strategy gives further insights into the epigenetic contribution to the oncogenic process and may identify new biomarkers

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Human Cardiac Reprogramming and Differentiation in Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Paul W; Sharma, Arun; Wu, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration or replacement of lost cardiomyocytes within the heart has the potential to revolutionize cardiovascular medicine. Numerous methodologies have been used to achieve this aim, including the engraftment of bone marrow- and heart-derived cells as well as the identification of modulators of adult cardiomyocyte proliferation. Recently, the conversion of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and induced cardiomyocyte-like cells has transformed potential approaches toward this goal, and the engraftment of cardiac progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells into patients is now feasible. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic control of human cardiogenesis, cardiac differentiation, and the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to cardiomyocytes. We also cover genetic programs for inducing the proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes and discuss the genetic state of cells used in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  6. Epigenetics: the language of the cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Jiang, Cizhong; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly developing fields of biological research. Breakthroughs in several technologies have enabled the possibility of genome-wide epigenetic research, for example the mapping of human genome-wide DNA methylation. In addition, with the development of various high-throughput and high-resolution sequencing technologies, a large number of functional noncoding RNAs have been identified. Massive studies indicated that these functional ncRNA also play an important role in epigenetics. In this review, we gain inspiration from the recent proposal of the ceRNAs hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that miRNAs act as a language of communication. Accordingly, we further deduce that all of epigenetics may functionally acquire such a unique language characteristic. In summary, various epigenetic markers may not only participate in regulating cellular processes, but they may also act as the intracellular 'language' of communication and are involved in extensive information exchanges within cell.

  7. Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Gosik, Kirk; Xing, Sujuan; Jiang, Libo; Sun, Lidan; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Wu, Rongling

    2017-03-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing. This framework, named epigenetic game theory or epiGame, views embryogenesis as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos under Darwinian selection. By implementing a system of ordinary differential equations, epiGame quantifies the pattern and relative magnitude of the methylation effects on embryogenesis by the mechanisms of cooperation and competition. epiGame may gain new insight into reproductive biology and can be potentially applied to design personalized medicines for genetic disorder intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epigenetics of human asthma and allergy: promises to keep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2013-09-01

    The interest in asthma epigenetics is high because epigenetic mechanisms likely contribute to the environmental origins of the disease and its phenotypic variability. This review presents the main findings of asthma epigenetics and the challenges that still delay progress. We examined the current literature on asthma epigenetics (31 reviews and 25 original data publications). We focused on DNA methylation studies in populations. Both genome-wide and candidate gene studies have explored DNA methylation in allergic disease. Genome-wide studies ask whether and which regions of the genome are differentially methylated in relation to the phenotype of interest. Identification of such regions provides clues about the identity of the genes, pathways and networks underpinning a phenotype and connects these networks to the phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms. Candidate gene studies examine DNA methylation in genes chosen because of their known or hypothesized role in immunity, responses to environmental stimuli or disease pathogenesis. Most existing studies in asthma and allergy focused on candidate genes involved in the response to environmental pollutants. Asthma epigenetics is still in its infancy. The paucity of primary literature originates from methodological and analytical challenges of genome-wide studies, the difficulties in interpreting small differences in DNA methylation, and the need to develop robust bioinformatic tools for pathway, network and system analyses of epigenetic data. Once these challenges have been overcome, epigenetic studies will likely provide important insights about the inception and pathogenesis of allergic disease and will help define disease endotypes.

  9. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

  10. Game theory in epigenetic reprogramming. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fei-Man; Chen, Pao-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Von Neumann and Morgenstern published the Theory of Games and Economic Behavior in 1944, describing game theory as a model in which intelligent rational decision-makers manage to find their best strategies in conflict, cooperative or other mutualistic relationships to acquire the greatest benefit [1]. This model was subsequently incorporated in ecology to simulate the ;fitness; of a species during natural selection, designated evolutionary game theory (EGT) [2]. Wang et al. proposed ;epiGame;, taking paternal and maternal genomes as ;intelligent; players that compete, cooperate or both during embryogenesis to maximize the fitness of the embryo [3]. They further extended game theory to an individual or single cell environment. During early zygote development, DNA methylation is reprogrammed such that the paternal genome is demethylated before the maternal genome. After the reset, the blastocyst is re-methylated during embryogenesis. At that time, the paternal and maternal genomes have a conflict of interest related to the expression of their own genes. The proposed epiGame models such interactive regulation between the parental genomes to reach a balance for embryo development (equation (2)).

  11. Investigating core genetic-and-epigenetic cell cycle networks for stemness and carcinogenic mechanisms, and cancer drug design using big database mining and genome-wide next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cell cycle plays a central role in development and carcinogenesis. Thus, the use of big databases and genome-wide high-throughput data to unravel the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying cell cycle progression in stem cells and cancer cells is a matter of considerable interest. Real genetic-and-epigenetic cell cycle networks (GECNs) of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and HeLa cancer cells were constructed by applying system modeling, system identification, and big database mining to genome-wide next-generation sequencing data. Real GECNs were then reduced to core GECNs of HeLa cells and ESCs by applying principal genome-wide network projection. In this study, we investigated potential carcinogenic and stemness mechanisms for systems cancer drug design by identifying common core and specific GECNs between HeLa cells and ESCs. Integrating drug database information with the specific GECNs of HeLa cells could lead to identification of multiple drugs for cervical cancer treatment with minimal side-effects on the genes in the common core. We found that dysregulation of miR-29C, miR-34A, miR-98, and miR-215; and methylation of ANKRD1, ARID5B, CDCA2, PIF1, STAMBPL1, TROAP, ZNF165, and HIST1H2AJ in HeLa cells could result in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis through NFκB, TGF-β, and PI3K pathways. We also identified 3 drugs, methotrexate, quercetin, and mimosine, which repressed the activated cell cycle genes, ARID5B, STK17B, and CCL2, in HeLa cells with minimal side-effects.

  12. Epigenetic Reprogramming of Lineage-Committed Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Requires DNMT3A and Loss of DOT1L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrica L. Breindel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organogenesis and tissue development occur through sequential stepwise processes leading to increased lineage restriction and loss of pluripotency. An exception to this appears in the adult human breast, where rare variant epithelial cells exhibit pluripotency and multilineage differentiation potential when removed from the signals of their native microenvironment. This phenomenon provides a unique opportunity to study mechanisms that lead to cellular reprogramming and lineage plasticity in real time. Here, we show that primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs lose expression of differentiated mammary epithelial markers in a manner dependent on paracrine factors and epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HMEC reprogramming is dependent on gene silencing by the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A and loss of histone transcriptional marks following downregulation of the methyltransferase DOT1L. These results demonstrate that lineage commitment in adult tissues is context dependent and highlight the plasticity of somatic cells when removed from their native tissue microenvironment.

  13. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  14. A unique Oct4 interface is crucial for reprogramming to pluripotency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, Daniel; Vahokoski, Juha; Groves, Matthew R; Pogenberg, Vivian; Cojocaru, Vlad; Vom Bruch, Hermann; Han, Dong; Drexler, Hannes C A; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Ng, Calista K L; Jauch, Ralf; Wilmanns, Matthias; Schöler, Hans R

    Terminally differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency by the forced expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. However, it remains unknown how this leads to the multitude of epigenetic changes observed during the reprogramming process. Interestingly, Oct4 is the only factor that cannot

  15. Genome-wide placental DNA methylation analysis of severely growth-discordant monochorionic twins reveals novel epigenetic targets for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roifman, Maian; Choufani, Sanaa; Turinsky, Andrei L; Drewlo, Sascha; Keating, Sarah; Brudno, Michael; Kingdom, John; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which refers to reduced fetal growth in the context of placental insufficiency, is etiologically heterogeneous. IUGR is associated not only with perinatal morbidity and mortality but also with adult-onset disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, posing a major health burden. Placental epigenetic dysregulation has been proposed as one mechanism that causes IUGR; however, the spectrum of epigenetic pathophysiological mechanisms leading to IUGR remains to be elucidated. Monozygotic monochorionic twins are particularly affected by IUGR, in the setting of severe discordant growth. Because monozygotic twins have the same genotype at conception and a shared maternal environment, they provide an ideal model system for studying epigenetic dysregulation of the placenta. We compared genome-wide placental DNA methylation patterns of severely growth-discordant twins to identify novel candidate genes for IUGR. Snap-frozen placental samples for eight severely growth-discordant monozygotic monochorionic twin pairs were obtained at delivery from each twin. A high-resolution DNA methylation array platform was used to identify methylation differences between IUGR and normal twins. Our analysis revealed differentially methylated regions in the promoters of eight genes: DECR1, ZNF300, DNAJA4, CCL28, LEPR, HSPA1A/L, GSTO1, and GNE. The largest methylation differences between the two groups were in the promoters of DECR1 and ZNF300. The significance of these group differences was independently validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing, implicating aberrations in fatty acid beta oxidation and transcriptional regulation, respectively. Further analysis of the array data identified methylation changes most prominently affecting the Wnt and cadherin pathways in the IUGR cohort. Our results suggest that IUGR in monozygotic twins is associated with impairments in lipid metabolism and transcriptional regulation as well as cadherin and Wnt

  16. Dynamic and static maintenance of epigenetic memory in pluripotent and somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Cohen, Netta Mendelson; Landan, Gilad; Chomsky, Elad; Zeliger, Shlomit Reich; Fried, Yael Chagit; Ainbinder, Elena; Friedman, Nir; Tanay, Amos

    2014-09-04

    Stable maintenance of gene regulatory programs is essential for normal function in multicellular organisms. Epigenetic mechanisms, and DNA methylation in particular, are hypothesized to facilitate such maintenance by creating cellular memory that can be written during embryonic development and then guide cell-type-specific gene expression. Here we develop new methods for quantitative inference of DNA methylation turnover rates, and show that human embryonic stem cells preserve their epigenetic state by balancing antagonistic processes that add and remove methylation marks rather than by copying epigenetic information from mother to daughter cells. In contrast, somatic cells transmit considerable epigenetic information to progenies. Paradoxically, the persistence of the somatic epigenome makes it more vulnerable to noise, since random epimutations can accumulate to massively perturb the epigenomic ground state. The rate of epigenetic perturbation depends on the genomic context, and, in particular, DNA methylation loss is coupled to late DNA replication dynamics. Epigenetic perturbation is not observed in the pluripotent state, because the rapid turnover-based equilibrium continuously reinforces the canonical state. This dynamic epigenetic equilibrium also explains how the epigenome can be reprogrammed quickly and to near perfection after induced pluripotency.

  17. Radiation-induced genomic instability: Are epigenetic mechanisms the missing link?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aypar, Umut; Morgan, William F.; Baulch, Janet E.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: This review examines the evidence for the hypothesis that epigenetics are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). Conclusion: In addition to the extensively studied targeted effects of radiation, it is now apparent that non-targeted delayed effects such as RIGI are also important post-irradiation outcomes. In RIGI, unirradiated progeny cells display phenotypic changes at delayed times after radiation of the parental cell. RIGI is thought to be important in the process of carcinogenesis, however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be elucidated. In the genomically unstable clones developed by Morgan and colleagues, radiation-induced mutations, double-strand breaks, or changes in mRNA levels alone could not account for the initiation or perpetuation of RIGI. Since changes in the DNA sequence could not fully explain the mechanism of RIGI, inherited epigenetic changes may be involved. Epigenetics are known to play an important role in many cellular processes and epigenetic aberrations can lead to carcinogenesis. Recent studies in the field of radiation biology suggest that the changes in methylation patterns may be involved in RIGI. Together these clues have led us to hypothesize that epigenetics may be the missing link in understanding the mechanism behind RIGI.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms and associated brain circuits in the regulation of positive emotions: A role for transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, Simona; Guffanti, Guia; Fallon, James; Macciardi, Fabio

    2016-10-15

    Epigenetic programming and reprogramming are at the heart of cellular differentiation and represent developmental and evolutionary mechanisms in both germline and somatic cell lines. Only about 2% of our genome is composed of protein-coding genes, while the remaining 98%, once considered "junk" DNA, codes for regulatory/epigenetic elements that control how genes are expressed in different tissues and across time from conception to death. While we already know that epigenetic mechanisms are at play in cancer development and in regulating metabolism (cellular and whole body), the role of epigenetics in the developing prenatal and postnatal brain, and in maintaining a proper brain activity throughout the various stages of life, in addition to having played a critical role in human evolution, is a relatively new domain of knowledge. Here we present the current state-of-the-art techniques and results of these studies within the domain of emotions, and then speculate on how genomic and epigenetic mechanisms can modify and potentially alter our emotional (limbic) brain and affect our social interactions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2944-2954, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chemical compound-based direct reprogramming for future clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yukimasa; Harada, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Dai, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that a combination of chemical compounds enables direct reprogramming from one somatic cell type into another without the use of transgenes by regulating cellular signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generally requires virus vector-mediated expression of multiple transcription factors, which might disrupt genomic integrity and proper cell functions. The direct reprogramming is a promising alternative to rapidly prepare different cell types by bypassing the pluripotent state. Because the strategy also depends on forced expression of exogenous lineage-specific transcription factors, the direct reprogramming in a chemical compound-based manner is an ideal approach to further reduce the risk for tumorigenesis. So far, a number of reported research efforts have revealed that combinations of chemical compounds and cell-type specific medium transdifferentiate somatic cells into desired cell types including neuronal cells, glial cells, neural stem cells, brown adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, somatic progenitor cells, and pluripotent stem cells. These desired cells rapidly converted from patient-derived autologous fibroblasts can be applied for their own transplantation therapy to avoid immune rejection. However, complete chemical compound-induced conversions remain challenging particularly in adult human-derived fibroblasts compared with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This review summarizes up-to-date progress in each specific cell type and discusses prospects for future clinical application toward cell transplantation therapy. PMID:29739872

  20. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emil K.; Bostr?m, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schi?th, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applyin...

  1. Epigenetics and Vasculitis: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renauer, Paul; Coit, Patrick; Sawalha, Amr H

    2016-06-01

    Vasculitides represent a group of relatively rare systemic inflammatory diseases of the blood vessels. Despite recent progress in understanding the genetic basis and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms in vasculitis, the etiology and pathogenesis of vasculitis remain incompletely understood. Epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role in immune-mediated diseases, and the contribution of epigenetic aberrancies in vasculitis is increasingly being recognized. Histone modifications in the PR3 and MPO gene loci might be mechanistically involved in the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Similarly, other studies revealed important epigenetic contribution to other vasculitides, including Kawasaki disease and IgA vasculitis. More recently, genome-wide epigenomic studies have been performed in several vasculitides. A recent genome-wide DNA methylation study uncovered an important role for epigenetic remodeling of cytoskeleton-related genes in the pathogenesis of Behçet's disease and suggested that reversal of some of these DNA methylation changes associates with disease remission. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling characterized the inflammatory response in temporal artery tissue from patients with giant cell arteritis and showed increased activation of calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling, prompting the suggestion that a specific calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor that is well tolerated and with the added beneficial anti-platelet activity, such as dipyridamole, might be of therapeutic potential in giant cell arteritis. While epigenetic studies in systemic vasculitis are still in their infancy, currently available data clearly indicate that investigating the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these diseases will help to better understand the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provide novel targets for the development of disease biomarkers and new therapies.

  2. Machine learning for epigenetics and future medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lawrence B; Haque, M Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-03

    Understanding epigenetic processes holds immense promise for medical applications. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) are critical to realize this promise. Previous studies used epigenetic data sets associated with the germline transmission of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and novel ML approaches to predict genome-wide locations of critical epimutations. A combination of Active Learning (ACL) and Imbalanced Class Learning (ICL) was used to address past problems with ML to develop a more efficient feature selection process and address the imbalance problem in all genomic data sets. The power of this novel ML approach and our ability to predict epigenetic phenomena and associated disease is suggested. The current approach requires extensive computation of features over the genome. A promising new approach is to introduce Deep Learning (DL) for the generation and simultaneous computation of novel genomic features tuned to the classification task. This approach can be used with any genomic or biological data set applied to medicine. The application of molecular epigenetic data in advanced machine learning analysis to medicine is the focus of this review.

  3. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  4. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  5. The genome in three dimensions: a new frontier in human brain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Whittle, Catheryne; Krueger, Winfried; Mirnics, Karoly; Hurd, Yasmin; Rasmussen, Theodore; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-06-15

    Less than 1.5% of the human genome encodes protein. However, vast portions of the human genome are subject to transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and many noncoding regulatory DNA elements are thought to regulate the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes. For example, chromosomal "loopings" are pivotal for the orderly process of gene expression, by enabling distal regulatory enhancer or silencer elements to directly interact with proximal promoter and transcription start sites, potentially bypassing hundreds of kilobases of interspersed sequence on the linear genome. To date, however, epigenetic studies in the human brain are mostly limited to the exploration of DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of the nucleosome core histones. In contrast, very little is known about the regulation of supranucleosomal structures. Here, we show that chromosome conformation capture, a widely used approach to study higher-order chromatin, is applicable to tissue collected postmortem, thereby informing about genome organization in the human brain. We introduce chromosome conformation capture protocols for brain and compare higher-order chromatin structures at the chromosome 6p22.2-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility locus, and additional neurodevelopmental risk genes, (DPP10, MCPH1) in adult prefrontal cortex and various cell culture systems, including neurons derived from reprogrammed skin cells. We predict that the exploration of three-dimensional genome architectures and function will open up new frontiers in human brain research and psychiatric genetics and provide novel insights into the epigenetic risk architectures of regulatory noncoding DNA. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Erasure and reestablishment of random allelic expression imbalance after epigenetic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Aaron Richard; Uwanogho, Dafe Aghogho; Cocks, Graham; Perfect, Leo William; Dempster, Emma; Mill, Jonathan; Price, Jack

    2016-10-01

    Clonal level random allelic expression imbalance and random monoallelic expression provides cellular heterogeneity within tissues by modulating allelic dosage. Although such expression patterns have been observed in multiple cell types, little is known about when in development these stochastic allelic choices are made. We examine allelic expression patterns in human neural progenitor cells before and after epigenetic reprogramming to induced pluripotency, observing that loci previously characterized by random allelic expression imbalance (0.63% of expressed genes) are generally reset to a biallelic state in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We subsequently neuralized the iPSCs and profiled isolated clonal neural stem cells, observing that significant random allelic expression imbalance is reestablished at 0.65% of expressed genes, including novel loci not found to show allelic expression imbalance in the original parental neural progenitor cells. Allelic expression imbalance was associated with altered DNA methylation across promoter regulatory regions, with clones characterized by skewed allelic expression being hypermethylated compared to their biallelic sister clones. Our results suggest that random allelic expression imbalance is established during lineage commitment and is associated with increased DNA methylation at the gene promoter. © 2016 Jeffries et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  7. Epigenetic Reprogramming of Muscle Progenitors: Inspiration for Clinical Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Consalvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regenerative medicine, based on the potential of stem cells to restore diseased tissues, epigenetics is becoming a pivotal area of interest. Therapeutic interventions that promote tissue and organ regeneration have as primary objective the selective control of gene expression in adult stem cells. This requires a deep understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling transcriptional programs in tissue progenitors. This review attempts to elucidate the principle epigenetic regulations responsible of stem cells differentiation. In particular we focus on the current understanding of the epigenetic networks that regulate differentiation of muscle progenitors by the concerted action of chromatin-modifying enzymes and noncoding RNAs. The novel exciting role of exosome-bound microRNA in mediating epigenetic information transfer is also discussed. Finally we show an overview of the epigenetic strategies and therapies that aim to potentiate muscle regeneration and counteract the progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD.

  8. MUC1-C Oncoprotein Integrates a Program of EMT, Epigenetic Reprogramming and Immune Evasion in Human Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Hasan; Kufe, Donald

    2017-08-01

    The MUC1 gene evolved in mammalian species to provide protection of epithelia. The transmembrane MUC1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) signals stress to the interior of the epithelial cell and, when overexpressed as in most carcinomas, functions as an oncoprotein. MUC1-C induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating the inflammatory NF-κB p65 pathway and, in turn, the EMT-transcriptional repressor ZEB1. Emerging evidence has indicated that MUC1-C drives a program integrating the induction of EMT with activation of stem cell traits, epigenetic reprogramming and immune evasion. This mini-review focuses on the potential importance of this MUC1-C program in cancer progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Data analysis in the post-genome-wide association study era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ling Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first report of a genome-wide association study (GWAS on human age-related macular degeneration, GWAS has successfully been used to discover genetic variants for a variety of complex human diseases and/or traits, and thousands of associated loci have been identified. However, the underlying mechanisms for these loci remain largely unknown. To make these GWAS findings more useful, it is necessary to perform in-depth data mining. The data analysis in the post-GWAS era will include the following aspects: fine-mapping of susceptibility regions to identify susceptibility genes for elucidating the biological mechanism of action; joint analysis of susceptibility genes in different diseases; integration of GWAS, transcriptome, and epigenetic data to analyze expression and methylation quantitative trait loci at the whole-genome level, and find single-nucleotide polymorphisms that influence gene expression and DNA methylation; genome-wide association analysis of disease-related DNA copy number variations. Applying these strategies and methods will serve to strengthen GWAS data to enhance the utility and significance of GWAS in improving understanding of the genetics of complex diseases or traits and translate these findings for clinical applications. Keywords: Genome-wide association study, Data mining, Integrative data analysis, Polymorphism, Copy number variation

  10. Epigenetic regulation of ageing: linking environmental inputs to genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Brunet, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Preface Ageing is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Here, we review the chromatin-based epigenetic changes that occur during ageing, the role of chromatin modifiers in modulating lifespan and the importance of epigenetic signatures as biomarkers of ageing. We also discuss how epigenome remodeling by environmental stimuli impacts several aspects of transcription and genomic stability, with important consequences on longevity, and outline epigenetic differences between the ‘mortal soma’ and the ‘immortal germline’. Finally, we discuss the inheritance of ageing characteristics and potential chromatin-based strategies to delay or reverse hallmarks of ageing or age-related diseases. PMID:26373265

  11. Cellular reprogramming dynamics follow a simple 1D reaction coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja Pusuluri, Sai; Lang, Alex H.; Mehta, Pankaj; Castillo, Horacio E.

    2018-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming, the conversion of one cell type to another, induces global changes in gene expression involving thousands of genes, and understanding how cells globally alter their gene expression profile during reprogramming is an ongoing problem. Here we reanalyze time-course data on cellular reprogramming from differentiated cell types to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and show that gene expression dynamics during reprogramming follow a simple 1D reaction coordinate. This reaction coordinate is independent of both the time it takes to reach the iPSC state as well as the details of the experimental protocol used. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that such a reaction coordinate emerges from epigenetic landscape models where cellular reprogramming is viewed as a ‘barrier-crossing’ process between cell fates. Overall, our analysis and model suggest that gene expression dynamics during reprogramming follow a canonical trajectory consistent with the idea of an ‘optimal path’ in gene expression space for reprogramming.

  12. Elusive inheritance: Transgenerational effects and epigenetic inheritance in human environmental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Suzanne N; Tang, Wan-Yee; Wang, Zhibin

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone modification, histone variants and nucleosome positioning, and noncoding RNAs regulate cell-, tissue-, and developmental stage-specific gene expression by influencing chromatin structure and modulating interactions between proteins and DNA. Epigenetic marks are mitotically inherited in somatic cells and may be altered in response to internal and external stimuli. The idea that environment-induced epigenetic changes in mammals could be inherited through the germline, independent of genetic mechanisms, has stimulated much debate. Many experimental models have been designed to interrogate the possibility of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance and provide insight into how environmental exposures influence phenotypes over multiple generations in the absence of any apparent genetic mutation. Unexpected molecular evidence has forced us to reevaluate not only our understanding of the plasticity and heritability of epigenetic factors, but of the stability of the genome as well. Recent reviews have described the difference between transgenerational and intergenerational effects; the two major epigenetic reprogramming events in the mammalian lifecycle; these two events making transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of environment-induced perturbations rare, if at all possible, in mammals; and mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in non-mammalian eukaryotic organisms. This paper briefly introduces these topics and mainly focuses on (1) transgenerational phenotypes and epigenetic effects in mammals, (2) environment-induced intergenerational epigenetic effects, and (3) the inherent difficulties in establishing a role for epigenetic inheritance in human environmental disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression governs the brain's response to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Roger P

    2016-06-20

    Mild stress from ischemia, seizure, hypothermia, or infection can produce a transient neuroprotected state in the brain. In the neuroprotected state, the brain responds differently to a severe stress and sustains less injury. At the genomic level, the response of the neuroprotected brain to a severe stress is characterized by widespread differential regulation of genes with diverse functions. This reprogramming of gene expression observed in the neuroprotected brain in response to a stress is consistent with an epigenetic model of regulation mediated by changes in DNA methylation and histone modification. Here, we summarize our evolving understanding of the molecular basis for endogenous neuroprotection and review recent findings that implicate DNA methylation and protein mediators of histone modification as epigenetic regulators of the brain's response to injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigenetic information in gametes: Gaming from before fertilization. Comment on ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qi

    2017-03-01

    In their interesting article [1] Wang et al. proposed a mathematical model based on evolutionary game theory [2] to tackle the fundamental question in embryo development, that how sperm and egg interact with each other, through epigenetic processes, to form a zygote and direct successful embryo development. This work is based on the premise that epigenetic reprogramming (referring to the erasure and reconstruction of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications) after fertilization might be of paramount importance to maintain the normal development of embryos, a premise we fully agree, given the compelling experimental evidence reported [3]. Wang et al. have specifically chosen to employ the well-studied DNA methylation reprogramming process during mammalian early embryo development, as a basis to develop their mathematical model, namely epigenetic game theory (epiGame). They concluded that the DNA methylation pattern in mammalian early embryo could be formulated and quantified, and their model can be further used to quantify the interactions, such as competition and/or cooperation of expressed genes that maximize the fitness of embryos. The efforts by Wang et al. in quantitatively and systematically analyzing the beginning of life apparently hold value and represent a novel direction for future embryo development research from both theoretical and experimental biologists. On the other hand, we see their theory still at its infancy, because there are plenty more parameters to consider and there are spaces for debates, such as the cases of haploid embryo development [4]. Here, we briefly comment on the dynamic process of epigenetic reprogramming that goes beyond DNA methylation, a dynamic interplay that involves histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, transposable elements et al., as well as the potential input of the various types of 'hereditary' epigenetic information in the gametes - a game that has started before the fertilization.

  15. Epigenetic mismatches with mutated transcribing genes at leukemogenic S-phase binding/start sites--potential targets for therapy with enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prindull, Gregor

    2012-11-01

    This review focuses on gene transcription patterns of leukemogenic S-phases in mitotic cell cycles for identification of enzymatic reactions as potential targets for epigenetics-based drug therapy. Transcription of leukemic genes is triggered by reprogrammed transcription factors (TFs) mediated by chromatin histones. Reprogrammed TFs originate from transcriptional alterations of CpG methylation patterns of mutated epigenetic genes. They preserve memory information of earlier leukemogenic exposures, even transgenerationally via the zygote, through small (e.g. pi)RNA transmitted between cells by exosomes. Normally, reprogrammed TFs are enzymatically silenced and stored as markers in heterochromatic domains. Failure of intra S-phase surveillance (IS) permits the formation and continual operation of DNA replication forks in spite of persisting genotoxic stress. Silenced TFs are re-activated by euchromatin, most likely through leakages of insulator barriers of cis-regulating chromatin modulators (CRM) that normally separate hetero- from euchromatin domains. During transport by sliding nucleosomes, reprogrammed leukemogenic TFs are misplaced at transcription factor binding-/starting-sites (TFBS /TSS) allowing them to interact with and trigger replication of mutated leukemic genes. Interactions of enzymatically reprogrammed TFs, transcribed from mutated epigenetic genes, with replicating leukemic genes at TFBS/TSSs are key driving forces in leukemogenesis. Probably, epigenetic genes, although mutated, still retain their control of replication of leukemic genes. Epigenetics-based enzyme inhibitors must target reprogrammed TFs. Prudently, therapeutic corrections should be introduced within the frame of conventional, cytoreductive treatment protocols. Alternatively, reprogrammed TFs could be replaced by cell populations with regular TF production. Clinically, classification of leukemias should be based on their epigenetic presentation.

  16. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  17. Generating pluripotent stem cells: Differential epigenetic changes during cellular reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Stacey C.; Kim, Kitai

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells hold enomous potential for therapuetic applications in tissue replacement therapy. Reprogramming somatic cells from a patient donor to generate pluripotent stem cells involves both ethical concerns inherent in the use of embryonic and oocyte-derived stem cells, as well as issues of histocompatibility. Among the various pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)—derived by ectopic expression of four reprogramming factors in donor somatic cells—are supe...

  18. The multifaceted interplay between lipids and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Koen F; Slagboom, P Eline; Jukema, J Wouter; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between lipids and epigenetic mechanisms has recently gained increased interest because of its relevance for common diseases and most notably atherosclerosis. This review discusses recent advances in unravelling this interplay with a particular focus on promising approaches and methods that will be able to establish causal relationships. Complementary approaches uncovered close links between circulating lipids and epigenetic mechanisms at multiple levels. A characterization of lipid-associated genetic variants suggests that these variants exert their influence on lipid levels through epigenetic changes in the liver. Moreover, exposure of monocytes to lipids persistently alters their epigenetic makeup resulting in more proinflammatory cells. Hence, epigenetic changes can both impact on and be induced by lipids. It is the combined application of technological advances to probe epigenetic modifications at a genome-wide scale and methodological advances aimed at causal inference (including Mendelian randomization and integrative genomics) that will elucidate the interplay between circulating lipids and epigenetics. Understanding its role in the development of atherosclerosis holds the promise of identifying a new category of therapeutic targets, since epigenetic changes are amenable to reversal.

  19. CpG preconditioning regulates miRNA expression that modulates genomic reprogramming associated with neuroprotection against ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Keri B; Mitchell, Hugh D; Stevens, Susan L; Conrad, Valerie K; McDermott, Jason E; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) preconditioning reprograms the genomic response to stroke to protect the brain against ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying genomic reprogramming are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; however, their role in modulating gene responses produced by CpG preconditioning is unknown. We evaluated brain miRNA expression in response to CpG preconditioning before and after stroke using microarray. Importantly, we have data from previous gene microarrays under the same conditions, which allowed integration of miRNA and gene expression data to specifically identify regulated miRNA gene targets. CpG preconditioning did not significantly alter miRNA expression before stroke, indicating that miRNA regulation is not critical for the initiation of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. However, after stroke, differentially regulated miRNAs between CpG- and saline-treated animals associated with the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, implicating these miRNAs in genomic reprogramming that increases neuroprotection. Statistical analysis revealed that the miRNA targets were enriched in the gene population regulated in the setting of stroke, implying that miRNAs likely orchestrate this gene expression. These data suggest that miRNAs regulate endogenous responses to stroke and that manipulation of these miRNAs may have the potential to acutely activate novel neuroprotective processes that reduce damage. PMID:25388675

  20. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression governs the brain’s response to injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    Mild stress from ischemia, seizure, hypothermia, or infection can produce a transient neuroprotected state in the brain. In the neuroprotected state, the brain responds differently to a severe stress and sustains less injury. At the genomic level, the response of the neuroprotected brain to a severe stress is characterized by widespread differential regulation of genes with diverse functions. This reprogramming of gene expression observed in the neuroprotected brain in response to a stress is consistent with an epigenetic model of regulation mediated by changes in DNA methylation and histone modification. Here, we summarize our evolving understanding of the molecular basis for endogenous neuroprotection and review recent findings that implicate DNA methylation and protein mediators of histone modification as epigenetic regulators of the brain’s response to injury. PMID:26739198

  1. Conference Scene: epigenetics eh! The first formal meeting of the Canadian epigenetics community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Alan; Hendzel, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    In recognition of Canada's longstanding interest in epigenetics - and a particular linguistic interjection - the inaugural 'Epigenetics, Eh!' conference was held between 4-7 May 2011 in London, Ontario. The meeting struck an excellent balance between Canadian and international leaders in epigenetic research while also providing a venue to showcase up-and-coming talent. Almost without exception, presentations touched on the wide-ranging and severe consequences of epigenetic dysfunction, as well as current and emerging therapeutic opportunities. While gaining a deeper understanding of how DNA and histone modifications, together with multiple classes of ncRNAs, act to functionalize our genome, participants were also provided with a glimpse of the astounding complexity of chromatin structure, challenging existing dogma.

  2. Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhabi, Mahmood; Zonooz, Elmira Rezaei; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns and transcription analysis in sheep muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a central role in regulating many aspects of growth and development in mammals through regulating gene expression. The development of next generation sequencing technologies have paved the way for genome-wide, high resolution analysis of DNA methylation landscapes using methodology known as reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS. While RRBS has proven to be effective in understanding DNA methylation landscapes in humans, mice, and rats, to date, few studies have utilised this powerful method for investigating DNA methylation in agricultural animals. Here we describe the utilisation of RRBS to investigate DNA methylation in sheep Longissimus dorsi muscles. RRBS analysis of ∼1% of the genome from Longissimus dorsi muscles provided data of suitably high precision and accuracy for DNA methylation analysis, at all levels of resolution from genome-wide to individual nucleotides. Combining RRBS data with mRNAseq data allowed the sheep Longissimus dorsi muscle methylome to be compared with methylomes from other species. While some species differences were identified, many similarities were observed between DNA methylation patterns in sheep and other more commonly studied species. The RRBS data presented here highlights the complexity of epigenetic regulation of genes. However, the similarities observed across species are promising, in that knowledge gained from epigenetic studies in human and mice may be applied, with caution, to agricultural species. The ability to accurately measure DNA methylation in agricultural animals will contribute an additional layer of information to the genetic analyses currently being used to maximise production gains in these species.

  4. Evidence for alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and epigenetic reprogramming in human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7-expressing keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Paula L; McDade, Simon S; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J; Patel, Daksha

    2011-11-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2 at both the mRNA and protein levels but do not exhibit the expected increase in trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) compared to normal keratinocytes. In contrast, these cells show a reduction in global H3K27me3 levels in vitro, as well as upregulation of the KDM6A demethylase. We further show for the first time that transformation with the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes also results in an increase in phosphorylated EZH2 serine 21 (P-EZH2-Ser21), mediated by active Akt, and in a downregulation of the PRC1 protein BMI1 in these cells. High-grade squamous cervical intraepithelial lesions also showed a loss of H3K27me3 in the presence of increased expression of EZH2. Correlating with the loss of H3K27me3, E6/E7 cells exhibited derepression of specific EZH2-, KMD6A-, and BMI1-targeted HOX genes. These results suggest that the observed reduction in H3K27me3 may be due to a combination of reduced activities/levels of specific polycomb proteins and increases in demethylases. The dysregulation of multiple chromatin proteins resulting in the loss of global H3K27me3 and the transcriptional reprogramming in HPV16 E6/E7-infected cells could provide an epigenetic signature associated with risk and/or progression of HPV16-associated cancers, as well as the potential for epigenetic reversion in the future.

  5. Genome-wide RNA polymerase II profiles and RNA accumulation reveal kinetics of transcription and associated epigenetic changes during diurnal cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendal Le Martelot

    Full Text Available Interactions of cell-autonomous circadian oscillators with diurnal cycles govern the temporal compartmentalization of cell physiology in mammals. To understand the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of diurnal rhythms in mouse liver genome-wide, we generated temporal DNA occupancy profiles by RNA polymerase II (Pol II as well as profiles of the histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. We used these data to quantify the relationships of phases and amplitudes between different marks. We found that rhythmic Pol II recruitment at promoters rather than rhythmic transition from paused to productive elongation underlies diurnal gene transcription, a conclusion further supported by modeling. Moreover, Pol II occupancy preceded mRNA accumulation by 3 hours, consistent with mRNA half-lives. Both methylation marks showed that the epigenetic landscape is highly dynamic and globally remodeled during the 24-hour cycle. While promoters of transcribed genes had tri-methylated H3K4 even at their trough activity times, tri-methylation levels reached their peak, on average, 1 hour after Pol II. Meanwhile, rhythms in tri-methylation of H3K36 lagged transcription by 3 hours. Finally, modeling profiles of Pol II occupancy and mRNA accumulation identified three classes of genes: one showing rhythmicity both in transcriptional and mRNA accumulation, a second class with rhythmic transcription but flat mRNA levels, and a third with constant transcription but rhythmic mRNAs. The latter class emphasizes widespread temporally gated posttranscriptional regulation in the mouse liver.

  6. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagamatsu, Go, E-mail: gonag@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kosaka, Takeo [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Takubo, Keiyo [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hotta, Akitsu [Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Department of Reprogramming Science, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ellis, James [Ontario Human iPS Cell Facility, Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, SickKids, Toronto, Canada MG1L7 (Canada); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. {yields} ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. {yields} iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. {yields} ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  7. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke; Nagamatsu, Go; Kosaka, Takeo; Takubo, Keiyo; Hotta, Akitsu; Ellis, James; Suda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. → ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. → iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. → ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  8. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine learning for epigenetics and future medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, Lawrence B.; Haque, M. Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding epigenetic processes holds immense promise for medical applications. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) are critical to realize this promise. Previous studies used epigenetic data sets associated with the germline transmission of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and novel ML approaches to predict genome-wide locations of critical epimutations. A combination of Active Learning (ACL) and Imbalanced Class Learning (ICL) was used to address past problems w...

  10. Genome-wide analysis of differential transcriptional and epigenetic variability across human immune cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ecker, Simone; Chen, Lu; Pancaldi, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background: A healthy immune system requires immune cells that adapt rapidly to environmental challenges. This phenotypic plasticity can be mediated by transcriptional and epigenetic variability. Results: We apply a novel analytical approach to measure and compare transcriptional and epigenetic v...

  11. Modeling Human Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Using Pluripotent Stem Cells and Genome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moonjung; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Winkler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The combination of epigenetic reprogramming with advanced genome editing technologies opened a new avenue to study disease mechanisms, particularly of disorders with depleted target tissue. Bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) typically present with a marked reduction of peripheral blood cells due to a destroyed or dysfunctional bone marrow compartment. Somatic and germline mutations have been etiologically linked to many cases of BMFS. However, without the ability to study primary patient material, the exact pathogenesis for many entities remained fragmentary. Capturing the pathological genotype in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allows studying potential developmental defects leading to a particular phenotype. The lack of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in these patients can also be overcome by differentiating patient-derived iPSCs into hematopoietic lineages. With fast growing genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, correction of disease-causing mutations in iPSCs or introduction of mutations in cells from healthy individuals enable comparative studies that may identify other genetic or epigenetic events contributing to a specific disease phenotype. In this review, we present recent progresses in disease modeling of inherited and acquired BMFS using reprogramming and genome editing techniques. We also discuss the challenges and potential shortcomings of iPSC-based models for hematological diseases.

  12. Widespread epigenetic abnormalities suggest a broad DNA methylation erasure defect in abnormal human sperm.

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    Sahar Houshdaran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis.We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm.This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line.

  13. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M. Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant) specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (

  14. Evidence for Alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6/E7-Expressing Keratinocytes ▿

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    Hyland, Paula L.; McDade, Simon S.; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J.; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J.; Patel, Daksha

    2011-01-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2 at both the mRNA and protein levels but do not exhibit the expected increase in trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) compared to normal keratinocytes. In contrast, these cells show a reduction in global H3K27me3 levels in vitro, as well as upregulation of the KDM6A demethylase. We further show for the first time that transformation with the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes also results in an increase in phosphorylated EZH2 serine 21 (P-EZH2-Ser21), mediated by active Akt, and in a downregulation of the PRC1 protein BMI1 in these cells. High-grade squamous cervical intraepithelial lesions also showed a loss of H3K27me3 in the presence of increased expression of EZH2. Correlating with the loss of H3K27me3, E6/E7 cells exhibited derepression of specific EZH2-, KMD6A-, and BMI1-targeted HOX genes. These results suggest that the observed reduction in H3K27me3 may be due to a combination of reduced activities/levels of specific polycomb proteins and increases in demethylases. The dysregulation of multiple chromatin proteins resulting in the loss of global H3K27me3 and the transcriptional reprogramming in HPV16 E6/E7-infected cells could provide an epigenetic signature associated with risk and/or progression of HPV16-associated cancers, as well as the potential for epigenetic reversion in the future. PMID:21865393

  15. Epigenetics and Epigenomics of Plants.

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    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Pandey, Garima; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Prasad, Manoj

    2018-01-23

    The genetic material DNA in association with histone proteins forms the complex structure called chromatin, which is prone to undergo modification through certain epigenetic mechanisms including cytosine DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small RNA-mediated methylation. Alterations in chromatin structure lead to inaccessibility of genomic DNA to various regulatory proteins such as transcription factors, which eventually modulates gene expression. Advancements in high-throughput sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to study the epigenetic mechanisms at genome-wide levels. Epigenomic studies using high-throughput technologies will widen the understanding of mechanisms as well as functions of regulatory pathways in plant genomes, which will further help in manipulating these pathways using genetic and biochemical approaches. This technology could be a potential research tool for displaying the systematic associations of genetic and epigenetic variations, especially in terms of cytosine methylation onto the genomic region in a specific cell or tissue. A comprehensive study of plant populations to correlate genotype to epigenotype and to phenotype, and also the study of methyl quantitative trait loci (QTL) or epiGWAS, is possible by using high-throughput sequencing methods, which will further accelerate molecular breeding programs for crop improvement. Graphical Abstract.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation maps in follicular lymphoma cells determined by methylation-enriched bisulfite sequencing.

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    Jeong-Hyeon Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma (FL is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL that arises from germinal center (GC B-cells. Despite the significant advances in immunotherapy, FL is still not curable. Beyond transcriptional profiling and genomics datasets, there currently is no epigenome-scale dataset or integrative biology approach that can adequately model this disease and therefore identify novel mechanisms and targets for successful prevention and treatment of FL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed methylation-enriched genome-wide bisulfite sequencing of FL cells and normal CD19(+ B-cells using 454 sequencing technology. The methylated DNA fragments were enriched with methyl-binding proteins, treated with bisulfite, and sequenced using the Roche-454 GS FLX sequencer. The total number of bases covered in the human genome was 18.2 and 49.3 million including 726,003 and 1.3 million CpGs in FL and CD19(+ B-cells, respectively. 11,971 and 7,882 methylated regions of interest (MRIs were identified respectively. The genome-wide distribution of these MRIs displayed significant differences between FL and normal B-cells. A reverse trend in the distribution of MRIs between the promoter and the gene body was observed in FL and CD19(+ B-cells. The MRIs identified in FL cells also correlated well with transcriptomic data and ChIP-on-Chip analyses of genome-wide histone modifications such as tri-methyl-H3K27, and tri-methyl-H3K4, indicating a concerted epigenetic alteration in FL cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to provide a large scale and comprehensive analysis of the DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the FL epigenome. These integrated approaches have led to the discovery of novel and frequent targets of aberrant epigenetic alterations. The genome-wide bisulfite sequencing approach developed here can be a useful tool for profiling DNA methylation in clinical samples.

  17. What obesity research tells us about epigenetic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Youngson, Neil A.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of obesity is extremely complex and is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. This situation, combined with the fact that all gene expression changes are thought to have associated epigenetic changes, means that the links between obesity and epigenetics will undoubtedly be vast. Much progress in identifying epigenetic changes induced by (or inducing) obesity has already been made, with candidate and genome-wide approaches. These d...

  18. Bisphenol-A: Epigenetic Reprogramming and Effects on Reproduction and Behavior

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    Mileva, Guergana; Baker, Stephanie L.; Konkle, Anne T.M.; Bielajew, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household dust. Exposure to BPA is almost universal: most people have measurable amounts of BPA in both urine and serum. BPA is similar in structure to estradiol and can bind to multiple targets both inside and outside the nucleus, in effect acting as an endocrine disruptor. Research on BPA exposure has accelerated in the past decade with findings suggesting that perinatal exposure to BPA can negatively impact both male and female reproduction, create alterations in behavior, and act as a carcinogen. BPA can have both short term and long term effects with the latter typically occurring through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review will draw on both human and animal studies in an attempt to synthesize the literature and examine the effects of BPA exposure on reproduction, behavior, and carcinogenesis with a focus on the potential epigenetic mechanisms by which it acts. PMID:25054232

  19. Epigenetic Alterations in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Diseases.

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    Niller, Hans Helmut; Banati, Ferenc; Salamon, Daniel; Minarovits, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Bar virus genomes undergo epigenetic modifications which are dependent on the respective tissue type and cellular phenotype. These define distinct viral epigenotypes corresponding with latent viral gene expression profiles. Viral Latent Membrane Proteins 1 and 2A can induce cellular DNA methyltransferases, thereby influencing the methylation status of the viral and cellular genomes. Therefore, not only the viral genomes carry epigenetic modifications, but also the cellular genomes adopt major epigenetic alterations upon EBV infection. The distinct cellular epigenotypes of EBV-infected cells differ from the epigenotypes of their normal counterparts. In Burkitt lymphoma (BL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) significant changes in the host cell methylome with a strong tendency towards CpG island hypermethylation are observed. Hypermethylated genes unique for EBVaGC suggest the existence of an EBV-specific "epigenetic signature". Contrary to the primary malignancies carrying latent EBV genomes, lymphoblastoid cells (LCs) established by EBV infection of peripheral B cells in vitro are characterized by a massive genome-wide demethylation and a significant decrease and redistribution of heterochromatic histone marks. Establishing complete epigenomes of the diverse EBV-associated malignancies shall clarify their similarities and differences and further clarify the contribution of EBV to the pathogenesis, especially for the epithelial malignancies, NPC and EBVaGC.

  20. Dictating genomic destiny: Epigenetic regulation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundara, Justin S; Jamal, Karim; Kurzawinski, Tom

    2018-07-05

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a diverse group of neoplasms with an increasingly well-defined genomic basis. Despite this, much of what drives this disease is still unknown and epigenetic influences represent the next tier of gene, and hence disease modifiers that are of unquestionable importance. Moreover, they are of arguably more significance than the genes themselves given their malleable nature and potential to be exploited for not only diagnosis and prognosis, but also therapy. This review summarises what is known regarding the key epigenetic modifiers of disease through the domains of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A wide reprogramming of histone H3 modifications during male meiosis I in rice is dependent on the Argonaute protein MEL1.

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    Liu, Hua; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    The roles of epigenetic mechanisms, including small-RNA-mediated silencing, in plant meiosis largely remain unclear, despite their importance in plant reproduction. This study unveiled that rice chromosomes are reprogrammed during the premeiosis-to-meiosis transition in pollen mother cells (PMCs). This large-scale meiotic chromosome reprogramming (LMR) continued throughout meiosis I, during which time H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) was increased, and H3K9 acetylation and H3S10 phosphorylation were broadly decreased, with an accompanying immunostaining pattern shift of RNA polymerase II. LMR was dependent on the rice Argonaute protein, MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE1 (MEL1), which is specifically expressed in germ cells prior to meiosis, because LMR was severely diminished in mel1 mutant anthers. Pivotal meiotic events, such as pre-synaptic centromere association, DNA double-strand break initiation and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, were also disrupted in this mutant. Interestingly, and as opposed to the LMR loss in most chromosomal regions, aberrant meiotic protein loading and hypermethylation of H3K9 emerged on the nucleolar organizing region in the mel1 PMCs. These results suggest that MEL1 plays important roles in epigenetic LMR to promote faithful homologous recombination and synapsis during rice meiosis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Epigenetic Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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    Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of psychiatric diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD invokes, as with most complex diseases, both genetic and environmental factors. The era of genome-wide high throughput technologies has sparked the initiation of genotype screenings in large cohorts of diseased and control individuals, but had limited success in identification of disease causing genetic variants. It has become evident that these efforts at the genomic level need to be complemented with endeavours in elucidating the proteome, transcriptome and epigenetic profiles. Epigenetics is attractive in particular because there is accumulating evidence that the lasting impact of adverse life events is reflected in certain covalent modifications of the chromatin.

  3. Genomic and epigenetic evidence for oxytocin receptor deficiency in autism

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    Worley Gordon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism comprises a spectrum of behavioral and cognitive disturbances of childhood development and is known to be highly heritable. Although numerous approaches have been used to identify genes implicated in the development of autism, less than 10% of autism cases have been attributed to single gene disorders. Methods We describe the use of high-resolution genome-wide tilepath microarrays and comparative genomic hybridization to identify copy number variants within 119 probands from multiplex autism families. We next carried out DNA methylation analysis by bisulfite sequencing in a proband and his family, expanding this analysis to methylation analysis of peripheral blood and temporal cortex DNA of autism cases and matched controls from independent datasets. We also assessed oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene expression within the temporal cortex tissue by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Our analysis revealed a genomic deletion containing the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR (MIM accession no.: 167055, previously implicated in autism, was present in an autism proband and his mother who exhibits symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The proband's affected sibling did not harbor this deletion but instead may exhibit epigenetic misregulation of this gene through aberrant gene silencing by DNA methylation. Further DNA methylation analysis of the CpG island known to regulate OXTR expression identified several CpG dinucleotides that show independent statistically significant increases in the DNA methylation status in the peripheral blood cells and temporal cortex in independent datasets of individuals with autism as compared to control samples. Associated with the increase in methylation of these CpG dinucleotides is our finding that OXTR mRNA showed decreased expression in the temporal cortex tissue of autism cases matched for age and sex compared to controls. Conclusion Together, these data provide

  4. Using game theory to investigate the epigenetic control mechanisms of embryo development: Comment on: "Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition" by Qian Wang et al.

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    Zhang, Le; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2017-03-01

    A body of research [1-7] has already shown that epigenetic reprogramming plays a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. However, the mechanistic quantitation of the epigenetic interactions between sperms and oocytes and the related impact on embryo development are still not clear [6,7]. In this study, Wang et al., [8] develop a modeling framework that addresses this question by integrating game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasticity of adult human pancreatic duct cells by neurogenin3-mediated reprogramming.

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    Nathalie Swales

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3. In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it. METHODS: The extent of the Ngn3-mediated duct-to-endocrine cell reprogramming was measured employing genome wide mRNA profiling. By modulation of the Delta-Notch signaling or addition of pancreatic endocrine transcription factors Myt1, MafA and Pdx1 we intended to improve the reprogramming. RESULTS: Ngn3 stimulates duct cells to express a focused set of genes that are characteristic for islet endocrine cells and/or neural tissues. This neuro-endocrine shift however, is incomplete with less than 10% of full duct-to-endocrine reprogramming achieved. Transduction of exogenous Ngn3 activates endogenous Ngn3 suggesting auto-activation of this gene. Furthermore, pancreatic endocrine reprogramming of human duct cells can be moderately enhanced by inhibition of Delta-Notch signaling as well as by co-expressing the transcription factor Myt1, but not MafA and Pdx1. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The results provide further insight into the plasticity of adult human duct cells and suggest measurable routes to enhance Ngn3-mediated in vitro reprogramming protocols for regenerative beta cell therapy in diabetes.

  6. Evaluating genome-wide DNA methylation changes in mice by Methylation Specific Digital Karyotyping

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    Maruoka Shuichiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of genome-wide DNA methylation changes has become more accessible with the development of various array-based technologies though when studying species other than human the choice of applications are limited and not always within reach. In this study, we adapted and tested the applicability of Methylation Specific Digital Karyotyping (MSDK, a non-array based method, for the prospective analysis of epigenetic changes after perinatal nutritional modifications in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. MSDK is a sequenced based method that allows a comprehensive and unbiased methylation profiling. The method generates 21 base pairs long sequence tags derived from specific locations in the genome. The resulting tag frequencies determine in a quantitative manner the methylation level of the corresponding loci. Results Genomic DNA from whole lung was isolated and subjected to MSDK analysis using the methylation-sensitive enzyme Not I as the mapping enzyme and Nla III as the fragmenting enzyme. In a pair wise comparison of the generated mouse MSDK libraries we identified 158 loci that are significantly differentially methylated (P-value = 0.05 after perinatal dietary changes in our mouse model. Quantitative methylation specific PCR and sequence analysis of bisulfate modified genomic DNA confirmed changes in methylation at specific loci. Differences in genomic MSDK tag counts for a selected set of genes, correlated well with changes in transcription levels as measured by real-time PCR. Furthermore serial analysis of gene expression profiling demonstrated a dramatic difference in expressed transcripts in mice exposed to perinatal nutritional changes. Conclusion The genome-wide methylation survey applied in this study allowed for an unbiased methylation profiling revealing subtle changes in DNA methylation in mice maternally exposed to dietary changes in methyl-donor content. The MSDK method is applicable for mouse models

  7. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects

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    William A. MacDonald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic inheritance whereby the regulation of a gene or chromosomal region is dependent on the sex of the transmitting parent. During gametogenesis, imprinted regions of DNA are differentially marked in accordance to the sex of the parent, resulting in parent-specific expression. While mice are the primary research model used to study genomic imprinting, imprinted regions have been described in a broad variety of organisms, including other mammals, plants, and insects. Each of these organisms employs multiple, interrelated, epigenetic mechanisms to maintain parent-specific expression. While imprinted genes and imprint control regions are often species and locus-specific, the same suites of epigenetic mechanisms are often used to achieve imprinted expression. This review examines some examples of the epigenetic mechanisms responsible for genomic imprinting in mammals, plants, and insects.

  8. Identification, replication and characterization of epigenetic remodelling in the aging genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare

    Background: Aging is a complex biological process that involves numerous changes at various levels through remodelling of multiple biological processes and regulatory mechanisms including epigenetics. Recent analysis of the DNA methylome has reported large numbers of epigenetic markers associated......, and by overwhelming age-related methylation in CpG island and demethylation at shore/shelf and open sea. Biological pathway analysis showed that age-dependent methylations were especially involved in cellular signalling activities while demethylations were particularly related to functions of the extracellular matrix....... Conclusion: Extensive epigenetic remodelling in the DNA methylome could be involved in the aging process. The identified age-methylated and demethylated sites displayed differential distribution patterns over genomic regions and were involved in biological pathways closely related to aging phenotypes and age...

  9. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Gillberg, Linn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, w...... and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dys)metabolic traits associated with the development of obesity and diabetes.......Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men......, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5...

  10. Epigenetic Basis of Neuronal and Synaptic Plasticity.

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    Karpova, Nina N; Sales, Amanda J; Joca, Samia R

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal network and plasticity change as a function of experience. Altered neural connectivity leads to distinct transcriptional programs of neuronal plasticity-related genes. The environmental challenges throughout life may promote long-lasting reprogramming of gene expression and the development of brain disorders. The modifications in neuronal epigenome mediate gene-environmental interactions and are required for activity-dependent regulation of neuronal differentiation, maturation and plasticity. Here, we highlight the latest advances in understanding the role of the main players of epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation and demethylation, histone modifications, chromatin-remodeling enzymes, transposons, and non-coding RNAs) in activity-dependent and long- term neural and synaptic plasticity. The review focuses on both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression levels, including the processes of promoter activation, alternative splicing, regulation of stability of gene transcripts by natural antisense RNAs, and alternative polyadenylation. Further, we discuss the epigenetic aspects of impaired neuronal plasticity and the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental (Rett syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, genomic imprinting disorders, schizophrenia, and others), stressrelated (mood disorders) and neurodegenerative Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disorders. The review also highlights the pharmacological compounds that modulate epigenetic programming of gene expression, the potential treatment strategies of discussed brain disorders, and the questions that should be addressed during the development of effective and safe approaches for the treatment of brain disorders.

  11. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma

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    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

  12. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

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    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  13. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by different levels of rye genome integration in wheat recipient.

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    Zheng, X L; Zhou, J P; Zang, L L; Tang, A T; Liu, D Q; Deng, K J; Zhang, Y

    2016-06-17

    The narrow genetic variation present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties has greatly restricted the improvement of crop yield in modern breeding systems. Alien addition lines have proven to be an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. Wheat-rye addition lines, which are the direct bridge materials for wheat improvement, have been wildly used to produce new wheat cultivars carrying alien rye germplasm. In this study, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic alterations in two sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines (1R-7R) and the corresponding triticales. We used expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analyses to analyze the effects of the introduction of alien chromosomes (either the entire genome or sub-genome) to wheat genetic background. We found obvious and diversiform variations in the genomic primary structure, as well as alterations in the extent and pattern of the genomic DNA methylation of the recipient. Meanwhile, these results also showed that introduction of different rye chromosomes could induce different genetic and epigenetic alterations in its recipient, and the genetic background of the parents is an important factor for genomic and epigenetic variation induced by alien chromosome addition.

  14. Anxiety and Epigenetics.

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    Bartlett, Andrew A; Singh, Rumani; Hunter, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. A number of anxiety disorder subtypes are considered "stress related." A large focus of research has been on the epigenetic and anxiety-like behavioral consequences of stress. Animal models of anxiety-related disorders have provided strong evidence for the role of stress on the epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of stress-responsive brain regions. Neuroepigenetics may continue to explain individual variation in susceptibility to environmental perturbations and consequently anxious behavior. Behavioral and pharmacological interventions aimed at targeting epigenetic marks associated with anxiety may prove fruitful in developing treatments.

  15. New insights into the epigenetics of inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

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    Ballestar, Esteban; Li, Tianlu

    2017-10-01

    Over the past decade, awareness of the importance of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases has grown in parallel with a general recognition of the fundamental role of epigenetics in the regulation of gene expression. Large-scale efforts to generate genome-wide maps of epigenetic modifications in different cell types, as well as in physiological and pathological contexts, illustrate the increasing recognition of the relevance of epigenetics. To date, although several reports have demonstrated the occurrence of epigenetic alterations in a wide range of inflammatory rheumatic conditions, epigenomic information is rarely used in a clinical setting. By contrast, several epigenetic biomarkers and treatments are currently in use for personalized therapies in patients with cancer. This Review highlights advances from the past 5 years in the field of epigenetics and their application to inflammatory rheumatic diseases, delineating the future lines of development for a rational use of epigenetic information in clinical settings and in personalized medicine. These advances include the identification of epipolymorphisms associated with clinical outcomes, DNA methylation as a contributor to disease susceptibility in rheumatic conditions, the discovery of novel epigenetic mechanisms that modulate disease susceptibility and the development of new epigenetic therapies.

  16. An epigenetic hypothesis for the genomic memory of pain.

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    Sebastian eAlvarado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is accompanied with long-term sensory, affective and cognitive disturbances. What are the mechanisms that mediate the long-term consequences of painful experiences and embed them in the genome? We hypothesize that alterations in DNA methylation, an enzymatic covalent modification of cytosine bases in DNA, serve as a genomic memory of pain in the adult cortex. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for long-term regulation of gene expression. Neuronal plasticity at the neuroanatomical, functional, morphological, physiological and molecular levels has been demonstrated throughout the neuroaxis in response to persistent pain, including in the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC. We have previously reported widespread changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in the PFC many months following peripheral nerve injury. In support of this hypothesis, we show here that up-regulation of a gene involved with synaptic function, Synaptotagmin II (syt2, in the PFC in a chronic pain model is associated with long-term changes in DNA methylation. The challenges of understanding the contributions of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation within the PFC to pain chronicity and their therapeutic implications are discussed.

  17. Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Scott; Patterson, Geoff; Muir, Lindsey A; Lindsly, Stephen; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wicha, Max S; Bloch, Anthony; Brockett, Roger; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-11-07

    The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Phlegm-Dampness Constitution

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    Haiqiang Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metabolic diseases are leading health concerns in today’s global society. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, one body type studied is the phlegm-dampness constitution (PC, which predisposes individuals to complex metabolic disorders. Genomic studies have revealed the potential metabolic disorders and the molecular features of PC. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of PC, however, is unknown. Methods: We analyzed a genome-wide DNA methylation in 12 volunteers using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Eight volunteers had PC and 4 had balanced constitutions. Results: Methylation data indicated a genome-scale hyper-methylation pattern in PC. We located 288 differentially methylated probes (DMPs. A total of 256 genes were mapped, and some of these were metabolic-related. SQSTM1, DLGAP2 and DAB1 indicated diabetes mellitus; HOXC4 and SMPD3, obesity; and GRWD1 and ATP10A, insulin resistance. According to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially methylated genes were abundant in multiple metabolic pathways. Conclusion: Our results suggest the potential risk for metabolic disorders in individuals with PC. We also explain the clinical characteristics of PC with DNA methylation features.

  19. Multi-platform whole-genome microarray analyses refine the epigenetic signature of breast cancer metastasis with gene expression and copy number.

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    Joseph Andrews

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously identified genome-wide DNA methylation changes in a cell line model of breast cancer metastasis. These complex epigenetic changes that we observed, along with concurrent karyotype analyses, have led us to hypothesize that complex genomic alterations in cancer cells (deletions, translocations and ploidy are superimposed over promoter-specific methylation events that are responsible for gene-specific expression changes observed in breast cancer metastasis.We undertook simultaneous high-resolution, whole-genome analyses of MDA-MB-468GFP and MDA-MB-468GFP-LN human breast cancer cell lines (an isogenic, paired lymphatic metastasis cell line model using Affymetrix gene expression (U133, promoter (1.0R, and SNP/CNV (SNP 6.0 microarray platforms to correlate data from gene expression, epigenetic (DNA methylation, and combination copy number variant/single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. Using Partek Software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we integrated datasets from these three platforms and detected multiple hypomethylation and hypermethylation events. Many of these epigenetic alterations correlated with gene expression changes. In addition, gene dosage events correlated with the karyotypic differences observed between the cell lines and were reflected in specific promoter methylation patterns. Gene subsets were identified that correlated hyper (and hypo methylation with the loss (or gain of gene expression and in parallel, with gene dosage losses and gains, respectively. Individual gene targets from these subsets were also validated for their methylation, expression and copy number status, and susceptible gene pathways were identified that may indicate how selective advantage drives the processes of tumourigenesis and metastasis.Our approach allows more precisely profiling of functionally relevant epigenetic signatures that are associated with cancer progression and metastasis.

  20. Chromatin resetting mechanisms preventing trangenerational inheritance of epigenetic states

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    Mayumi eIwasaki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation can be altered by environmental cues including abiotic and biotic stresses. In most cases, environmentally-induced epigenetic changes are transient, but in some cases they are maintained for extensive periods of time and may even be transmitted to the next generation. However, the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational transmission of environmentally-induced epigenetic states remain largely unknown. Such traits can be adaptive, but also can have negative consequences if the parentally inherited epigenetic memory interferes with canonical environmental responses of the progeny. This review highlights recent insights into the mechanisms preventing transgenerational transmission of environmentally-induced epigenetic states in plants, which resemble those of germline reprogramming in mammals.

  1. Comparative in silico profiling of epigenetic modifiers in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi-Young; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-04-06

    The technology of tissue differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells has attracted attention as a useful resource for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug development. Recent studies have suggested various key factors and specific culture methods to improve the successful tissue differentiation and efficient generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Among these methods, epigenetic regulation and epigenetic signatures are regarded as an important hurdle to overcome during reprogramming and differentiation. Thus, in this study, we developed an in silico epigenetic panel and performed a comparative analysis of epigenetic modifiers in the RNA-seq results of 32 human tissues. We demonstrated that an in silico epigenetic panel can identify epigenetic modifiers in order to overcome epigenetic barriers to tissue-specific differentiation.

  2. Histone H3 Methylated at Arginine 17 Is Essential for Reprogramming the Paternal Genome in Zygotes

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    Yuki Hatanaka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At fertilization, the paternal genome undergoes extensive reprogramming through protamine-histone exchange and active DNA demethylation, but only a few maternal factors have been defined in these processes. We identified maternal Mettl23 as a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT, which most likely catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R17 (H3R17me2a, as indicated by in vitro assays and treatment with TBBD, an H3R17 PRMT inhibitor. Maternal histone H3.3, which is essential for paternal nucleosomal assembly, is unable to be incorporated into the male pronucleus when it lacks R17me2a. Mettl23 interacts with Tet3, a 5mC-oxidizing enzyme responsible for active DNA demethylation, by binding to another maternal factor, GSE (gonad-specific expression. Depletion of Mettl23 from oocytes resulted in impaired accumulation of GSE, Tet3, and 5hmC in the male pronucleus, suggesting that Mettl23 may recruit GSE-Tet3 to chromatin. Our findings establish H3R17me2a and its catalyzing enzyme Mettl23 as key regulators of paternal genome reprogramming.

  3. Transgenerational epigenetics: Inheritance of global cytosine methylation and methylation-related epigenetic markers in the shrub Lavandula latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Alonso, Conchita; Medrano, Mónica; Pérez, Ricardo; Bazaga, Pilar

    2018-04-01

    The ecological and evolutionary significance of natural epigenetic variation (i.e., not based on DNA sequence variants) variation will depend critically on whether epigenetic states are transmitted from parents to offspring, but little is known on epigenetic inheritance in nonmodel plants. We present a quantitative analysis of transgenerational transmission of global DNA cytosine methylation (= proportion of all genomic cytosines that are methylated) and individual epigenetic markers (= methylation status of anonymous MSAP markers) in the shrub Lavandula latifolia. Methods based on parent-offspring correlations and parental variance component estimation were applied to epigenetic features of field-growing plants ('maternal parents') and greenhouse-grown progenies. Transmission of genetic markers (AFLP) was also assessed for reference. Maternal parents differed significantly in global DNA cytosine methylation (range = 21.7-36.7%). Greenhouse-grown maternal families differed significantly in global methylation, and their differences were significantly related to maternal origin. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers exhibited significant transgenerational transmission, as denoted by significant maternal variance component of marker scores in greenhouse families and significant mother-offspring correlations of marker scores. Although transmission-related measurements for global methylation and MSAP markers were quantitatively lower than those for AFLP markers taken as reference, this study has revealed extensive transgenerational transmission of genome-wide global cytosine methylation and anonymous epigenetic markers in L. latifolia. Similarity of results for global cytosine methylation and epigenetic markers lends robustness to this conclusion, and stresses the value of considering both types of information in epigenetic studies of nonmodel plants. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Global DNA Methylation in the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation Accompanied with Sectorization

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    Kum-Kang So

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation in CpBck1, an ortholog of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica resulted in a sporadic sectorization as culture proceeded. The progeny from the sectored area maintained the characteristics of the sector, showing a massive morphogenetic change, including robust mycelial growth without differentiation. Epigenetic changes were investigated as the genetic mechanism underlying this sectorization. Quantification of DNA methylation and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing revealed genome-wide DNA methylation of the wild-type at each nucleotide level and changes in DNA methylation of the sectored progeny. Compared to the wild-type, the sectored progeny exhibited marked genome-wide DNA hypomethylation but increased methylation sites. Expression analysis of two DNA methyltransferases, including two representative types of DNA methyltransferase (DNMTase, demonstrated that both were significantly down-regulated in the sectored progeny. However, functional analysis using mutant phenotypes of corresponding DNMTases demonstrated that a mutant of CpDmt1, an ortholog of RID of Neurospora crassa, resulted in the sectored phenotype but the CpDmt2 mutant did not, suggesting that the genetic basis of fungal sectorization is more complex. The present study revealed that a mutation in a signaling pathway component resulted in sectorization accompanied with changes in genome-wide DNA methylation, which suggests that this signal transduction pathway is important for epigenetic control of sectorization via regulation of genes involved in DNA methylation.

  5. Diversity among POU transcription factors in chromatin recognition and cell fate reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vikas; Zimmer, Dennis; Jauch, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) protein family is an evolutionary ancient group of transcription factors (TFs) that bind specific DNA sequences to direct gene expression programs. The fundamental importance of POU TFs to orchestrate embryonic development and to direct cellular fate decisions is well established, but the molecular basis for this activity is insufficiently understood. POU TFs possess a bipartite 'two-in-one' DNA binding domain consisting of two independently folding structural units connected by a poorly conserved and flexible linker. Therefore, they represent a paradigmatic example to study the molecular basis for the functional versatility of TFs. Their modular architecture endows POU TFs with the capacity to accommodate alternative composite DNA sequences by adopting different quaternary structures. Moreover, associations with partner proteins crucially influence the selection of their DNA binding sites. The plentitude of DNA binding modes confers the ability to POU TFs to regulate distinct genes in the context of different cellular environments. Likewise, different binding modes of POU proteins to DNA could trigger alternative regulatory responses in the context of different genomic locations of the same cell. Prominent POU TFs such as Oct4, Brn2, Oct6 and Brn4 are not only essential regulators of development but have also been successfully employed to reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency and neural lineages. Here we review biochemical, structural, genomic and cellular reprogramming studies to examine how the ability of POU TFs to select regulatory DNA, alone or with partner factors, is tied to their capacity to epigenetically remodel chromatin and drive specific regulatory programs that give cells their identities.

  6. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2016-02-18

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as 'backbone', largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Epigenetic dysregulation underlies radiation-induced transgenerational genome instability in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturbash, Igor; Baker, Mike; Loree, Jonathan; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hudson, Darryl; Pogribny, Igor; Sedelnikova, Olga; Bonner, William; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although modern cancer radiation therapy has led to increased patient survival rates, the risk of radiation treatment-related complications is becoming a growing problem. Among various complications, radiation also poses a threat to the progeny of exposed parents. It causes transgenerational genome instability that is linked to transgenerational carcinogenesis. Although the occurrence of transgenerational genome instability, which manifests as elevated delayed and nontargeted mutation, has been well documented, the mechanisms by which it arises remain obscure. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations may play a pivotal role in the molecular etiology of transgenerational genome instability. Methods and Materials: We studied the levels of cytosine DNA methylation in somatic tissues of unexposed offspring upon maternal, paternal, or combined parental exposure. Results: We observed a significant loss of global cytosine DNA methylation in the thymus tissue of the offspring upon combined parental exposure. The loss of DNA methylation was paralleled by a significant decrease in the levels of maintenance (DNMT1) and de novo methyltransferases DNMT3a and 3b and methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2. Along with profound changes in DNA methylation, we noted a significant accumulation of DNA strand breaks in thymus, which is a radiation carcinogenesis target organ. Conclusions: The observed changes were indicative of a profound epigenetic dysregulation in the offspring, which in turn could lead to genome destabilization and possibly could serve as precursor for transgenerational carcinogenesis. Future studies are clearly needed to address the cellular and carcinogenic repercussions of those changes

  8. Hierarchical mechanisms for transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of fibroblasts to neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapinski, Orly L.; Vierbuchen, Thomas; Qu, Kun; Lee, Qian Yi; Chanda, Soham; Fuentes, Daniel R.; Giresi, Paul G.; Ng, Yi Han; Marro, Samuele; Neff, Norma F.; Drechsel, Daniela; Martynoga, Ben; Castro, Diogo S.; Webb, Ashley E.; Brunet, Anne; Guillemot, Francois; Chang, Howard Y.; Wernig, Marius

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Direct lineage reprogramming is a promising approach for human disease modeling and regenerative medicine with poorly understood mechanisms. Here we reveal a hierarchical mechanism in the direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced neuronal (iN) cells mediated by the transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l. Ascl1 acts as an “on target” pioneer factor by immediately occupying most cognate genomic sites in fibroblasts. In contrast, Brn2 and Myt1l do not access fibroblast chromatin productively on their own; instead Ascl1 recruits Brn2 to Ascl1 sites genome-wide. A unique trivalent chromatin signature in the host cells predicts the permissiveness for Ascl1 pioneering activity among different cell types. Finally, we identified Zfp238 as a key Ascl1 target gene that can partially substitute for Ascl1 during iN cell reprogramming. Thus, precise match between pioneer factor and the chromatin context at key target genes is determinative for trans-differentiation to neurons and likely other cell types. PMID:24243019

  9. Genome-wide methylation study of diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo-Soto, L; Leunda, P M; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Morán, P

    2015-06-01

    The induction of triploidization in fish is a very common practice in aquaculture. Although triploidization has been applied successfully in many salmonid species, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the maintenance of the normal functions of the new polyploid genome. By means of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, genome-wide methylation changes associated with triploidization were assessed in DNA samples obtained from diploid and triploid siblings of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Simple comparative body measurements showed that the triploid trout used in the study were statistically bigger, however, not heavier than their diploid counterparts. The statistical analysis of the MSAP data showed no significant differences between diploid and triploid brown trout in respect to brain, gill, heart, liver, kidney or muscle samples. Nonetheless, local analysis pointed to the possibility of differences in connection with concrete loci. This is the first study that has investigated DNA methylation alterations associated with triploidization in brown trout. Our results set the basis for new studies to be undertaken and provide a new approach concerning triploidization effects of the salmonid genome while also contributing to the better understanding of the genome-wide methylation processes. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Genome-wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA interactions are enriched in intergenic regions and gene promoters and correlate with infection-induced differential gene expression.

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    J Stephen Dumler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: i intergenic regions predicted to be matrix attachment regions (MARs; ii within predicted lamina-associated domains; and iii at promoters ≤3,000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome re-organizer. AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity.

  11. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Epigenetic Adaptation of Stickleback to Marine and Freshwater Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Artem V; Mugue, Nikolai S; Rastorguev, Sergey M; Zhenilo, Svetlana; Mazur, Alexander M; Tsygankova, Svetlana V; Boulygina, Eugenia S; Kaplun, Daria; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2017-09-01

    The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) represents a convenient model to study microevolution-adaptation to a freshwater environment. Although genetic adaptations to freshwater environments are well-studied, epigenetic adaptations have attracted little attention. In this work, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the adaptation of the marine stickleback population to freshwater conditions. DNA methylation profiling was performed in marine and freshwater populations of sticklebacks, as well as in marine sticklebacks placed into a freshwater environment and freshwater sticklebacks placed into seawater. We showed that the DNA methylation profile after placing a marine stickleback into fresh water partially converged to that of a freshwater stickleback. For six genes including ATP4A ion pump and NELL1, believed to be involved in skeletal ossification, we demonstrated similar changes in DNA methylation in both evolutionary and short-term adaptation. This suggested that an immediate epigenetic response to freshwater conditions can be maintained in freshwater population. Interestingly, we observed enhanced epigenetic plasticity in freshwater sticklebacks that may serve as a compensatory regulatory mechanism for the lack of genetic variation in the freshwater population. For the first time, we demonstrated that genes encoding ion channels KCND3, CACNA1FB, and ATP4A were differentially methylated between the marine and the freshwater populations. Other genes encoding ion channels were previously reported to be under selection in freshwater populations. Nevertheless, the genes that harbor genetic and epigenetic changes were not the same, suggesting that epigenetic adaptation is a complementary mechanism to selection of genetic variants favorable for freshwater environment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

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    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  13. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  14. Epigenetic Pathways of Oncogenic Viruses: Therapeutic Promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Araby, Amr M; Fouad, Abdelrahman A; Hanbal, Amr M; Abdelwahab, Sara M; Qassem, Omar M; El-Araby, Moustafa E

    2016-02-01

    Cancerous transformation comprises different events that are both genetic and epigenetic. The ultimate goal for such events is to maintain cell survival and proliferation. This transformation occurs as a consequence of different features such as environmental and genetic factors, as well as some types of infection. Many viral infections are considered to be causative agents of a number of different malignancies. To convert normal cells into cancerous cells, oncogenic viruses must function at the epigenetic level to communicate with their host cells. Oncogenic viruses encode certain epigenetic factors that lead to the immortality and proliferation of infected cells. The epigenetic effectors produced by oncogenic viruses constitute appealing targets to prevent and treat malignant diseases caused by these viruses. In this review, we highlight the importance of epigenetic reprogramming for virus-induced oncogenesis, with special emphasis on viral epigenetic oncoproteins as therapeutic targets. The discovery of molecular components that target epigenetic pathways, especially viral factors, is also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  16. Genome-wide Differences in DNA Methylation Changes in Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes in Response to Drought Conditions

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    Wensheng Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Differences in drought stress tolerance within diverse rice genotypes have been attributed to genetic diversity and epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that influences diverse biological processes, but its effects on rice drought stress tolerance are poorly understood. In this study, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing and an Affymetrix GeneChip rice genome array were used to profile the DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes of the drought-tolerant introgression line DK151 and its drought-sensitive recurrent parent IR64 under drought and control conditions. The introgression of donor genomic DNA induced genome-wide DNA methylation changes in DK151 plants. A total of 1190 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were detected between the two genotypes under normal growth conditions, and the DMR-associated genes in DK151 plants were mainly related to stress response, programmed cell death, and nutrient reservoir activity, which are implicated to constitutive drought stress tolerance. A comparison of the DNA methylation changes in the two genotypes under drought conditions indicated that DK151 plants have a more stable methylome, with only 92 drought-induced DMRs, than IR64 plants with 506 DMRs. Gene ontology analyses of the DMR-associated genes in drought-stressed plants revealed that changes to the DNA methylation status of genotype-specific genes are associated with the epigenetic regulation of drought stress responses. Transcriptome analysis further helped to identify a set of 12 and 23 DMR-associated genes that were differentially expressed in DK151 and IR64, respectively, under drought stress compared with respective controls. Correlation analysis indicated that DNA methylation has various effects on gene expression, implying that it affects gene expression directly or indirectly through diverse regulatory pathways. Our results indicate that drought-induced alterations to DNA

  17. Immediate Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in F1 Hybrids Parented by Species with Divergent Genomes in the Rice Genus (Oryza.

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    Ying Wu

    Full Text Available Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in higher plants, and represents a driving force of evolution and speciation. Inter-specific hybridization often induces genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant homoploid hybrids or allopolyploids, a phenomenon known as genome shock. Although genetic and epigenetic consequences of hybridizations between rice subspecies (e.g., japonica and indica and closely related species sharing the same AA genome have been extensively investigated, those of inter-specific hybridizations between more remote species with different genomes in the rice genus, Oryza, remain largely unknown.We investigated the immediate chromosomal and molecular genetic/epigenetic instability of three triploid F1 hybrids produced by inter-specific crossing between species with divergent genomes of Oryza by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and molecular marker analysis. Transcriptional and transpositional activity of several transposable elements (TEs and methylation stability of their flanking regions were also assessed. We made the following principle findings: (i all three triploid hybrids are stable in both chromosome number and gross structure; (ii stochastic changes in both DNA sequence and methylation occurred in individual plants of all three triploid hybrids, but in general methylation changes occurred at lower frequencies than genetic changes; (iii alteration in DNA methylation occurred to a greater extent in genomic loci flanking potentially active TEs than in randomly sampled loci; (iv transcriptional activation of several TEs commonly occurred in all three hybrids but transpositional events were detected in a genetic context-dependent manner.Artificially constructed inter-specific hybrids of remotely related species with divergent genomes in genus Oryza are chromosomally stable but show immediate and highly stochastic genetic and epigenetic instabilities at the molecular level. These novel hybrids might

  18. An Algorithmic Information Calculus for Causal Discovery and Reprogramming Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2017-09-08

    We introduce a conceptual framework and an interventional calculus to steer and manipulate systems based on their intrinsic algorithmic probability using the universal principles of the theory of computability and algorithmic information. By applying sequences of controlled interventions to systems and networks, we estimate how changes in their algorithmic information content are reflected in positive/negative shifts towards and away from randomness. The strong connection between approximations to algorithmic complexity (the size of the shortest generating mechanism) and causality induces a sequence of perturbations ranking the network elements by the steering capabilities that each of them is capable of. This new dimension unmasks a separation between causal and non-causal components providing a suite of powerful parameter-free algorithms of wide applicability ranging from optimal dimension reduction, maximal randomness analysis and system control. We introduce methods for reprogramming systems that do not require the full knowledge or access to the system\\'s actual kinetic equations or any probability distributions. A causal interventional analysis of synthetic and regulatory biological networks reveals how the algorithmic reprogramming qualitatively reshapes the system\\'s dynamic landscape. For example, during cellular differentiation we find a decrease in the number of elements corresponding to a transition away from randomness and a combination of the system\\'s intrinsic properties and its intrinsic capabilities to be algorithmically reprogrammed can reconstruct an epigenetic landscape. The interventional calculus is broadly applicable to predictive causal inference of systems such as networks and of relevance to a variety of machine and causal learning techniques driving model-based approaches to better understanding and manipulate complex systems.

  19. Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2006-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle--as interpreted in the European Union--are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  20. Current reprogramming systems in regenerative medicine: from somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenxia; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) paved the way for research fields including cell therapy, drug screening, disease modeling and the mechanism of embryonic development. Although iPSC technology has been improved by various delivery systems, direct transduction and small molecule regulation, low reprogramming efficiency and genomic modification steps still inhibit its clinical use. Improvements in current vectors and the exploration of novel vectors are required to balance efficiency and genomic modification for reprogramming. Herein, we set out a comprehensive analysis of current reprogramming systems for the generation of iPSCs from somatic cells. By clarifying advantages and disadvantages of the current reprogramming systems, we are striding toward an effective route to generate clinical grade iPSCs.

  1. Great migration: epigenetic reprogramming and germ cell-oocyte metamorphosis determine individual ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Onder; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Celik, Nilufer; Aydin, Suleyman; Haberal, Esra Tustas; Sahin, Levent; Yavuz, Yasemin; Celik, Sudenaz

    2016-01-01

    Emigration is defined as a synchronized movement of germ cells between the yolk sack and genital ridges. The miraculous migration of germ cells resembles the remigration of salmon traveling from one habitat to other. This migration of germ cells is indispensible for the development of new generations. It is not, however, clear why germ cells differentiate during migration but not at the place of origin. In order to escape harmful somatic signals which might disturb the proper establishment of germ cells forced germ cell migration may be necessary. Another reason may be to benefit from the opportunities of new habitats. Therefore, emigration may have powerful effects on the population dynamics of the immigrant germ cells. While some of these cells do reach their target, some others die or reach to wrong targets. Only germ cell precursors with genetically, and structurally powerful can reach their target. Likewise, epigenetic reprogramming in both migratory and post-migratory germ cells is essential for the establishment of totipotency. During this journey some germ cells may sacrifice themselves for the goodness of the others. The number and quality of germ cells reaching the genital ridge may vary depending on the problems encountered during migration. If the aim in germ cell specification is to provide an optimal ovarian reserve for the continuity of the generation, then this cascade of events cannot be only accomplished at the same level for every one but also are manifested by several outcomes. This is significant evidence supporting the possibility of unique individual ovarian reserve.

  2. Epigenetic change detection and pattern recognition via Bayesian hierarchical hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlei; Zang, Miao; Xiao, Guanghua

    2013-06-15

    Epigenetics is the study of changes to the genome that can switch genes on or off and determine which proteins are transcribed without altering the DNA sequence. Recently, epigenetic changes have been linked to the development and progression of disease such as psychiatric disorders. High-throughput epigenetic experiments have enabled researchers to measure genome-wide epigenetic profiles and yield data consisting of intensity ratios of immunoprecipitation versus reference samples. The intensity ratios can provide a view of genomic regions where protein binding occur under one experimental condition and further allow us to detect epigenetic alterations through comparison between two different conditions. However, such experiments can be expensive, with only a few replicates available. Moreover, epigenetic data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical model, combined with hidden Markov processes with four states for modeling spatial dependence, to detect genomic sites with epigenetic changes from two-sample experiments with paired internal control. One attractive feature of the proposed method is that the four states of the hidden Markov process have well-defined biological meanings and allow us to directly call the change patterns based on the corresponding posterior probabilities. In contrast, none of existing methods can offer this advantage. In addition, the proposed method offers great power in statistical inference by spatial smoothing (via hidden Markov modeling) and information pooling (via hierarchical modeling). Both simulation studies and real data analysis in a cocaine addiction study illustrate the reliability and success of this method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Chemically Induced Reprogramming of Somatic Cells to Pluripotent Stem Cells and Neural Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dhruba; Jiang, Peng

    2016-02-06

    The ability to generate transplantable neural cells in a large quantity in the laboratory is a critical step in the field of developing stem cell regenerative medicine for neural repair. During the last few years, groundbreaking studies have shown that cell fate of adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed through lineage specific expression of transcription factors (TFs)-and defined culture conditions. This key concept has been used to identify a number of potent small molecules that could enhance the efficiency of reprogramming with TFs. Recently, a growing number of studies have shown that small molecules targeting specific epigenetic and signaling pathways can replace all of the reprogramming TFs. Here, we provide a detailed review of the studies reporting the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs), neural stem cells (ciNSCs), and neurons (ciN). We also discuss the main mechanisms of actions and the pathways that the small molecules regulate during chemical reprogramming.

  4. De novo prediction of human chromosome structures: Epigenetic marking patterns encode genome architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Michele; Cheng, Ryan R; Lieberman Aiden, Erez; Wolynes, Peter G; Onuchic, José N

    2017-11-14

    Inside the cell nucleus, genomes fold into organized structures that are characteristic of cell type. Here, we show that this chromatin architecture can be predicted de novo using epigenetic data derived from chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq). We exploit the idea that chromosomes encode a 1D sequence of chromatin structural types. Interactions between these chromatin types determine the 3D structural ensemble of chromosomes through a process similar to phase separation. First, a neural network is used to infer the relation between the epigenetic marks present at a locus, as assayed by ChIP-Seq, and the genomic compartment in which those loci reside, as measured by DNA-DNA proximity ligation (Hi-C). Next, types inferred from this neural network are used as an input to an energy landscape model for chromatin organization [Minimal Chromatin Model (MiChroM)] to generate an ensemble of 3D chromosome conformations at a resolution of 50 kilobases (kb). After training the model, dubbed Maximum Entropy Genomic Annotation from Biomarkers Associated to Structural Ensembles (MEGABASE), on odd-numbered chromosomes, we predict the sequences of chromatin types and the subsequent 3D conformational ensembles for the even chromosomes. We validate these structural ensembles by using ChIP-Seq tracks alone to predict Hi-C maps, as well as distances measured using 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. Both sets of experiments support the hypothesis of phase separation being the driving process behind compartmentalization. These findings strongly suggest that epigenetic marking patterns encode sufficient information to determine the global architecture of chromosomes and that de novo structure prediction for whole genomes may be increasingly possible. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  7. Whole Genome Epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmell, Michelle A; Hannon, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    .... However, this is only part of the picture. Increasingly, we are learning that epigenetic changes, that is, changes in chromatin structure, are critically important in regulating cellular gene expression...

  8. Whole Genome Epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmell, Michelle A; Hannon, Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    .... However, this is only part of the picture. Increasingly, we are learning that epigenetic changes, that is, changes in chromatin structure, are critically important in regulating cellular gene expression...

  9. Whole Genome Epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmell, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    .... However, this is only part of the picture. Increasingly, we are learning that epigenetic changes, that is, changes in chromatin structure, are critically important in regulation cellular gene expression...

  10. Target‐specific epigenetic silencing of endogenous retroviruses in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Gernot

    factors, have evolved to recognise and restrict ERVs in a target-specific manner. During his studies, Gernot Wolf investigated evolutionary and mechanistic aspects of epigenetic ERV restriction in various mammalian species. The studies included genome-wide transcription factor binding analysis using next...

  11. Transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to short-term nutrient-exercise stress in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laker, R C; Garde, C; Camera, D M

    2017-01-01

    of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation. HFD markedly induced...... association between DNA methylation and gene expression changes were PYGM, which was epigenetically regulated in both groups, and ANGPTL4, which was regulated only following Ex. In conclusion, while short-term Ex did not prevent a HFD-induced inflammatory response, it provoked a genomic response that may...... protect skeletal muscle from atrophy. These epigenetic adaptations provide mechanistic insight into the gene-specific regulation of inflammatory and metabolic processes in human skeletal muscle....

  12. Development Refractoriness of MLL-Rearranged Human B Cell Acute Leukemias to Reprogramming into Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Muñoz-López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are a powerful tool for disease modeling. They are routinely generated from healthy donors and patients from multiple cell types at different developmental stages. However, reprogramming leukemias is an extremely inefficient process. Few studies generated iPSCs from primary chronic myeloid leukemias, but iPSC generation from acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemias (ALL has not been achieved. We attempted to generate iPSCs from different subtypes of B-ALL to address the developmental impact of leukemic fusion genes. OKSM(L-expressing mono/polycistronic-, retroviral/lentiviral/episomal-, and Sendai virus vector-based reprogramming strategies failed to render iPSCs in vitro and in vivo. Addition of transcriptomic-epigenetic reprogramming “boosters” also failed to generate iPSCs from B cell blasts and B-ALL lines, and when iPSCs emerged they lacked leukemic fusion genes, demonstrating non-leukemic myeloid origin. Conversely, MLL-AF4-overexpressing hematopoietic stem cells/B progenitors were successfully reprogrammed, indicating that B cell origin and leukemic fusion gene were not reprogramming barriers. Global transcriptome/DNA methylome profiling suggested a developmental/differentiation refractoriness of MLL-rearranged B-ALL to reprogramming into pluripotency.

  13. Transgenerational stress-adaption: an opportunity for ecological epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Arne

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been considerable interest to investigate the adaptive transgenerational plasticity of plants and how a "stress memory" can be transmitted to the following generation. Although, increasing evidence suggests that transgenerational adaptive responses have widespread ecological relevance, the underlying epigenetic processes have rarely been elucidated. On the other hand, model plant species have been deeply investigated in their genome-wide methylation landscape without connecting this to the ecological reality of the plant. What we need is the combination of an ecological understanding which plant species would benefit from transgenerational epigenetic stress-adaption in their natural habitat, combined with a deeper molecular analysis of non-model organisms. Only such interdisciplinary linkage in an ecological epigenetic study could unravel the full potential that epigenetics could play for the transgenerational stress-adaption of plants.

  14. Small Molecules Modulate Chromatin Accessibility to Promote NEUROG2-Mediated Fibroblast-to-Neuron Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek K. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pro-neural transcription factors and small molecules can induce the reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional neurons; however, the immediate-early molecular events that catalyze this conversion have not been well defined. We previously demonstrated that neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2, forskolin (F, and dorsomorphin (D can reprogram fibroblasts into functional neurons with high efficiency. Here, we used this model to define the genetic and epigenetic events that initiate an acquisition of neuronal identity. We demonstrate that NEUROG2 is a pioneer factor, FD enhances chromatin accessibility and H3K27 acetylation, and synergistic transcription activated by these factors is essential to successful reprogramming. CREB1 promotes neuron survival and acts with NEUROG2 to upregulate SOX4, which co-activates NEUROD1 and NEUROD4. In addition, SOX4 targets SWI/SNF subunits and SOX4 knockdown results in extensive loss of open chromatin and abolishes reprogramming. Applying these insights, adult human glioblastoma cell and skin fibroblast reprogramming can be improved using SOX4 or chromatin-modifying chemicals.

  15. Whole Genome Epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmell, Michelle A; Hannon, Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    .... Recently, several labs have published manuscripts identifying RNA interference as being crucial for the establishment of such epigenetic changes in species as diverse as Drosophila, plants, and the fission yeast S. pombe...

  16. Whole Genome Epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmell, Michelle A; Hannon, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    .... Recently, several labs have published manuscripts identifying RNA interference as being crucial for the establishment of such epigenetic changes in species as diverse as Drosophila, plants, and the fission yeast S. pombe...

  17. Whole Genome Epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmell, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    .... Recently, several labs have published manuscripts identifying RNA interference as being crucial for the establishment of such epigenetic changes in species as diverse as Drosphilia, plants, and the fission yeast S. pombe...

  18. Array-based assay detects genome-wide 5-mC and 5-hmC in the brains of humans, non-human primates, and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pankaj; Papale, Ligia A; White, Andrew T J; Hatch, Andrea; Brown, Ryan M; Garthwaite, Mark A; Roseboom, Patrick H; Golos, Thaddeus G; Warren, Stephen T; Alisch, Reid S

    2014-02-13

    Methylation on the fifth position of cytosine (5-mC) is an essential epigenetic mark that is linked to both normal neurodevelopment and neurological diseases. The recent identification of another modified form of cytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), in both stem cells and post-mitotic neurons, raises new questions as to the role of this base in mediating epigenetic effects. Genomic studies of these marks using model systems are limited, particularly with array-based tools, because the standard method of detecting DNA methylation cannot distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC and most methods have been developed to only survey the human genome. We show that non-human data generated using the optimization of a widely used human DNA methylation array, designed only to detect 5-mC, reproducibly distinguishes tissue types within and between chimpanzee, rhesus, and mouse, with correlations near the human DNA level (R(2) > 0.99). Genome-wide methylation analysis, using this approach, reveals 6,102 differentially methylated loci between rhesus placental and fetal tissues with pathways analysis significantly overrepresented for developmental processes. Restricting the analysis to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes finds 76 differentially methylated loci, suggesting that rhesus placental tissue carries a cancer epigenetic signature. Similarly, adapting the assay to detect 5-hmC finds highly reproducible 5-hmC levels within human, rhesus, and mouse brain tissue that is species-specific with a hierarchical abundance among the three species (human > rhesus > mouse). Annotation of 5-hmC with respect to gene structure reveals a significant prevalence in the 3'UTR and an association with chromatin-related ontological terms, suggesting an epigenetic feedback loop mechanism for 5-hmC. Together, these data show that this array-based methylation assay is generalizable to all mammals for the detection of both 5-mC and 5-hmC, greatly improving the utility of mammalian model systems

  19. Looking into the Black Box: Insights into the Mechanisms of Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Wrana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic discovery that somatic cells could be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, by the expression of just four factors, has opened new opportunities for regenerative medicine and novel ways of modeling human diseases. Extensive research over the short time since the first iPSCs were generated has yielded the ability to reprogram various cell types using a diverse range of methods. However the duration, efficiency, and safety of induced reprogramming have remained a persistent limitation to achieving a robust experimental and therapeutic system. The field has worked to resolve these issues through technological advances using non-integrative approaches, factor replacement or complementation with microRNA, shRNA and drugs. Despite these advances, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming process remain poorly understood. Recently, through the use of inducible secondary reprogramming systems, researchers have now accessed more rigorous mechanistic experiments to decipher this complex process. In this review we will discuss some of the major recent findings in reprogramming, pertaining to proliferation and cellular senescence, epigenetic and chromatin remodeling, and other complex cellular processes such as morphological changes and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We will focus on the implications of this work in the construction of a mechanistic understanding of reprogramming and discuss unexplored areas in this rapidly expanding field.

  20. Epigenetics of prostate cancer and the prospect of identification of novel drug targets by RNAi screening of epigenetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Mari; Rantala, Juha; Nees, Matthias; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2010-10-01

    Alterations in epigenetic processes probably underlie most human malignancies. Novel genome-wide techniques, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing, have become state-of-the-art methods to map the epigenomic landscape of development and disease, such as in cancers. Despite these advances, the functional significance of epigenetic enzymes in cancer progression, such as prostate cancer, remain incompletely understood. A comprehensive mapping and functional understanding of the cancer epigenome will hopefully help to facilitate development of novel cancer therapy targets and improve future diagnostics. The authors have developed a novel cell microarray-based high-content siRNA screening technique suitable to address the putative functional role and impact of all known putative and novel epigenetic enzymes in cancer, including prostate cancer.

  1. The ascent of acetylation in the epigenetics of rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabiec, Aleksander M.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms make a substantial but incomplete contribution to the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Efforts to understand the nongenetic contributions to RA disease susceptibility have recently focused on the study of epigenetic

  2. Quantitative interaction proteomics and genome-wide profiling of epigenetic histone marks and their readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Michiel; Eberl, H Christian; Matarese, Filomena

    2010-01-01

    Trimethyl-lysine (me3) modifications on histones are the most stable epigenetic marks and they control chromatin-mediated regulation of gene expression. Here, we determine proteins that bind these marks by high-accuracy, quantitative mass spectrometry. These chromatin "readers" are assigned...

  3. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlie Genome Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Technological and methodological advances, in particular next-generation sequencing and chromatin profiling, has led to a deluge of data on epigenetic mechanisms and processes. Epigenetic regulation in the brain is no exception. In this commentary, Ehud Lamm writes that extending existing frameworks for thinking about psychological development to…

  4. A feeder- and xeno-free human induced pluripotent stem cell line obtained from primary human dermal fibroblasts with epigenetic repression of reprogramming factors expression: GPCCi001-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Stefan Lach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs from breast cancer patient were obtained to generate the human induced pluripotent stem cell line GPCCi001-A via lentiviral transfection. Thus, a modified EF1a-hSTEMCCA-loxP with tetO operator which regulates transgene expression was used. This method takes advantage of epigenetic regulation of transcription and allows for stable silencing of the reprogramming factors in obtained hiPS cells. To increase the potential utility of hiPSCs for clinical applications, they were adapted to feeder- and xeno-free conditions. The pluripotency of GPCCi001-A cell line and ability to differentiate into three germ layers was confirmed.

  5. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  6. Transgenerational epigenetics of parental exposure to ionising radiation and other mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that epigenetic changes play an important role in many common human diseases, including cancer. Given that the epigenetic landscape of the mammalian cell is not fixed and undergoes massive reprogramming during development, it can potentially be affected by a variety of environmental factors. As the majority of the de novo epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, are faithfully reproduced during DNA replication, they are transmissible through many cell divisions and, in some cases, can be passed from parents to their offspring. An increasing body of experimental evidence from animal and human studies suggests that environmentally-induced epigenetic changes can be inherited by subsequent generations and can result in transgenerational phenotypic alterations, including predisposition to common diseases

  7. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGräff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  8. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  9. Effects of short-term high-fat overfeeding on genome-wide DNA methylation in the skeletal muscle of healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S C; Brøns, Charlotte; Bork-Jensen, Jette

    2012-01-01

    Energy-dense diets that are high in fat are associated with a risk of metabolic diseases. The underlying molecular mechanisms could involve epigenetics, as recent data show altered DNA methylation of putative type 2 diabetes candidate genes in response to high-fat diets. We examined the effect...... of a short-term high-fat overfeeding (HFO) diet on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in human skeletal muscle....

  10. Oviduct-on-a-chip : Creating an in vitro oviduct to study bovine gamete interaction and early embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida Monteiro Melo Ferraz, M.

    2018-01-01

    The oviduct is host to the period in which the early embryo undergoes complete reprogramming of its (epi)genome in preparation for the reacquisition of epigenetic marks as differentiation proceeds. This reprogramming period is vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions, such as compromised

  11. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of pseudohypoparathyroidism patients with GNAS imprinting defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochtus, Anne; Martin-Trujillo, Alejandro; Izzi, Benedetta; Elli, Francesca; Garin, Intza; Linglart, Agnes; Mantovani, Giovanna; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Thiele, Suzanne; Decallonne, Brigitte; Van Geet, Chris; Monk, David; Freson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is caused by (epi)genetic defects in the imprinted GNAS cluster. Current classification of PHP patients is hampered by clinical and molecular diagnostic overlaps. The European Consortium for the study of PHP designed a genome-wide methylation study to improve molecular diagnosis. The HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip was used to analyze genome-wide methylation in 24 PHP patients with parathyroid hormone resistance and 20 age- and gender-matched controls. Patients were previously diagnosed with GNAS-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and include 6 patients with known STX16 deletion (PHP(Δstx16)) and 18 without deletion (PHP(neg)). The array demonstrated that PHP patients do not show DNA methylation differences at the whole-genome level. Unsupervised clustering of GNAS-specific DMRs divides PHP(Δstx16) versus PHP(neg) patients. Interestingly, in contrast to the notion that all PHP patients share methylation defects in the A/B DMR while only PHP(Δstx16) patients have normal NESP, GNAS-AS1 and XL methylation, we found a novel DMR (named GNAS-AS2) in the GNAS-AS1 region that is significantly different in both PHP(Δstx16) and PHP(neg), as validated by Sequenom EpiTYPER in a larger PHP cohort. The analysis of 58 DMRs revealed that 8/18 PHP(neg) and 1/6 PHP(Δstx16) patients have multi-locus methylation defects. Validation was performed for FANCC and SVOPL DMRs. This is the first genome-wide methylation study for PHP patients that confirmed that GNAS is the most significant DMR, and the presence of STX16 deletion divides PHP patients in two groups. Moreover, a novel GNAS-AS2 DMR affects all PHP patients, and PHP patients seem sensitive to multi-locus methylation defects.

  12. A cell cycle role for the epigenetic factor CTCF-L/BORIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosa-Garrido

    Full Text Available CTCF is a ubiquitous epigenetic regulator that has been proposed as a master keeper of chromatin organisation. CTCF-like, or BORIS, is thought to antagonise CTCF and has been found in normal testis, ovary and a large variety of tumour cells. The cellular function of BORIS remains intriguing although it might be involved in developmental reprogramming of gene expression patterns. We here unravel the expression of CTCF and BORIS proteins throughout human epidermis. While CTCF is widely distributed within the nucleus, BORIS is confined to the nucleolus and other euchromatin domains. Nascent RNA experiments in primary keratinocytes revealed that endogenous BORIS is present in active transcription sites. Interestingly, BORIS also localises to interphase centrosomes suggesting a role in the cell cycle. Blocking the cell cycle at S phase or mitosis, or causing DNA damage, produced a striking accumulation of BORIS. Consistently, ectopic expression of wild type or GFP- BORIS provoked a higher rate of S phase cells as well as genomic instability by mitosis failure. Furthermore, down-regulation of endogenous BORIS by specific shRNAs inhibited both RNA transcription and cell cycle progression. The results altogether suggest a role for BORIS in coordinating S phase events with mitosis.

  13. Epigenome-wide association study of DNA methylation in narcolepsy: an integrated genetic and epigenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Mihoko; Miyagawa, Taku; Toyoda, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Honda, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy, which is a hypersomnia characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Several genetic factors including HLA-DQB1*06:02 have been identified; however, the disease etiology is still unclear. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Here, we examined DNA methylation profiles of blood samples from narcolepsy and healthy control individuals and performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to investigate methylation loci associated with narcolepsy. Moreover, data from the EWAS and a previously performed narcolepsy genome-wide association study were integrated to search for methylation loci with causal links to the disease. We found that (1) genes annotated to the top-ranked differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in narcolepsy were associated with pathways of hormone secretion and monocarboxylic acid metabolism. (2) Top-ranked narcolepsy-associated DMPs were significantly more abundant in non-CpG island regions and more than 95 per cent of such sites were hypomethylated in narcolepsy patients. (3) The integrative analysis identified the CCR3 region where both a single methylation site and multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be associated with the disease as a candidate region responsible for narcolepsy. The findings of this study suggest the importance of future replication studies, using methylation technologies with wider genome coverage and/or larger number of samples, to confirm and expand on these results.

  14. Centrosome Dysfunction Contributes To Chromosome Instability, Chromoanagenesis And Genome Reprograming In Cancer.

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    German A Pihan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The unique ability of centrosomes to nucleate and organize microtubules makes them unrivaled conductors of important interphase processes, such as intracellular payload traffic, cell polarity, cell locomotion, and organization of the immunologic synapse. But it is in mitosis that centrosomes loom large, for they orchestrate, with clockmaker’s precision, the assembly and functioning of the mitotic spindle, ensuring the equal partitioning of the replicated genome into daughter cells. Centrosome dysfunction is inextricably linked to aneuploidy and chromosome instability, both hallmarks of cancer cells. Several aspects of centrosome function in normal and cancer cells have been molecularly characterized during the last two decades, greatly enhancing our mechanistic understanding of this tiny organelle. Whether centrosome defects alone can cause cancer, remains unanswered. Until recently, the aggregate of the evidence had suggested that centrosome dysfunction, by deregulating the fidelity of chromosome segregation, promotes and accelerates the characteristic Darwinian evolution of the cancer genome enabled by increased mutational load and/or decreased DNA repair. Very recent experimental work has shown that missegreated chromosomes resulting from centrosome dysfunction may experience extensive DNA damage, suggesting additional dimensions to the role of centrosomes in cancer. Centrosome dysfunction is particularly prevalent in tumors in which the genome has undergone extensive structural rearrangements and chromosome domain reshuffling. Ongoing gene reshuffling reprograms the genome for continuous growth, survival, and evasion of the immune system. Manipulation of molecular networks controlling centrosome function may soon become a viable target for specific therapeutic intervention in cancer, particularly since normal cells, which lack centrosome alterations, may be spared the toxicity of such therapies.

  15. Epigenetic Induction of Definitive and Pancreatic Endoderm Cell Fate in Human Fibroblasts

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    Rangarajan Sambathkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming can occur by the introduction of key transcription factors (TFs as well as by epigenetic changes. We demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi Trichostatin A (TSA combined with a chromatin remodeling medium (CRM induced expression of a number of definitive endoderm and early and late pancreatic marker genes. When CRM was omitted, endoderm/pancreatic marker genes were not induced. Furthermore, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi 5-azacytidine (5AZA CRM did not affect gene expression changes, and when 5AZA was combined with TSA, no further increase in gene expression of endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and endocrine markers was seen over levels induced with TSA alone. Interestingly, TSA-CRM did not affect expression of pluripotency and hepatocyte genes but induced some mesoderm transcripts. Upon removal of TSA-CRM, the endoderm/pancreatic gene expression profile returned to baseline. Our findings underscore the role epigenetic modification in transdifferentiation of one somatic cell into another. However, full reprogramming of fibroblasts to β-cells will require combination of this approach with TF overexpression and/or culture of the partially reprogrammed cells under β-cell specific conditions.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling with MeDIP-seq using archived dried blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Starnawska, Anna; Nyegaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In utero and early-life experienced environmental exposures are suggested to play an important role in many multifactorial diseases potentially mediated through lasting effects on the epigenome. As the epigenome in addition remains modifiable throughout life, identifying specific...... biobanks. However, availability of this biological material is highly limited as each DBS is made only from a few droplets of blood and storage conditions may be suboptimal for epigenetic studies. Furthermore, as relevant markers may reside outside gene bodies, epigenome-wide interrogation is needed....... RESULTS: Here we demonstrate, as a proof of principle, that genome-wide interrogation of the methylome based on methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) is feasible using a single 3.2 mm DBS punch (60 ng DNA) from filter cards archived for up to 16 years...

  17. Genetics and epigenetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Blanca M; Keildson, Sarah; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2011-05-01

    Obesity results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Despite a relatively high heritability of common, non-syndromic obesity (40-70%), the search for genetic variants contributing to susceptibility has been a challenging task. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have dramatically changed the pace of detection of common genetic susceptibility variants. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been associated with obesity and fat distribution. However, since these variants do not fully explain the heritability of obesity, other forms of variation, such as epigenetics marks, must be considered. Epigenetic marks, or "imprinting", affect gene expression without actually changing the DNA sequence. Failures in imprinting are known to cause extreme forms of obesity (e.g. Prader-Willi syndrome), but have also been convincingly associated with susceptibility to obesity. Furthermore, environmental exposures during critical developmental periods can affect the profile of epigenetic marks and result in obesity. We review the most recent evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the susceptibility and development of obesity. Only a comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and the metabolic processes they govern, will allow us to manage, and eventually prevent, obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular basis for the genome engagement by Sox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Linlin; Srivastava, Yogesh; Jauch, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    The Sox transcription factor family consists of 20 members in the human genome. Many of them are key determinants of cellular identities and possess the capacity to reprogram cell fates by pioneering the epigenetic remodeling of the genome. This activity is intimately tied to their ability to specifically bind and bend DNA alone or with other proteins. Here we discuss our current knowledge on how Sox transcription factors such as Sox2, Sox17, Sox18 and Sox9 'read' the genome to find and regulate their target genes and highlight the roles of partner factors including Pax6, Nanog, Oct4 and Brn2. We integrate insights from structural and biochemical studies as well as high-throughput assays to probe DNA specificity in vitro as well as in cells and tissues. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust Differentiation of mRNA-Reprogrammed Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Toward a Retinal Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Akshayalakshmi; Ohlemacher, Sarah K; Langer, Kirstin B; Meyer, Jason S

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patient-specific sources has allowed for the development of novel approaches to studies of human development and disease. However, traditional methods of generating hiPSCs involve the risks of genomic integration and potential constitutive expression of pluripotency factors and often exhibit low reprogramming efficiencies. The recent description of cellular reprogramming using synthetic mRNA molecules might eliminate these shortcomings; however, the ability of mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs to effectively give rise to retinal cell lineages has yet to be demonstrated. Thus, efforts were undertaken to test the ability and efficiency of mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs to yield retinal cell types in a directed, stepwise manner. hiPSCs were generated from human fibroblasts via mRNA reprogramming, with parallel cultures of isogenic human fibroblasts reprogrammed via retroviral delivery of reprogramming factors. New lines of mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs were established and were subsequently differentiated into a retinal fate using established protocols in a directed, stepwise fashion. The efficiency of retinal differentiation from these lines was compared with retroviral-derived cell lines at various stages of development. On differentiation, mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs were capable of robust differentiation to a retinal fate, including the derivation of photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells, at efficiencies often equal to or greater than their retroviral-derived hiPSC counterparts. Thus, given that hiPSCs derived through mRNA-based reprogramming strategies offer numerous advantages owing to the lack of genomic integration or constitutive expression of pluripotency genes, such methods likely represent a promising new approach for retinal stem cell research, in particular, those for translational applications. In the current report, the ability to derive mRNA-reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hi

  20. Elucidating novel dysfunctional pathways in Alzheimer's disease by integrating loci identified in genetic and epigenetic studies

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    Adam R. Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. A large number of genome-wide association studies have been performed, which have been supplemented more recently by the first epigenome-wide association studies, leading to the identification of a number of novel loci altered in disease. Twin studies have shown monozygotic twin discordance for Alzheimer's disease (Gatz et al., 2006, leading to the conclusion that a combination of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms is likely to be involved in disease etiology (Lunnon & Mill, 2013. This review focuses on identifying overlapping pathways between published genome-wide association studies and epigenome-wide association studies, highlighting dysfunctional synaptic, lipid metabolism, plasma membrane/cytoskeleton, mitochondrial, and immune cell activation pathways. Identifying common pathways altered in genetic and epigenetic studies will aid our understanding of disease mechanisms and identify potential novel targets for pharmacological intervention.

  1. Sensitive periods in epigenetics: bringing us closer to complex behavioral phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Corina; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-08-01

    Genetic studies have attempted to elucidate causal mechanisms for the development of complex disease, but genome-wide associations have been largely unsuccessful in establishing these links. As an alternative link between genes and disease, recent efforts have focused on mechanisms that alter the function of genes without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Known as epigenetic mechanisms, these include DNA methylation, chromatin conformational changes through histone modifications, ncRNAs and, most recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Although DNA methylation is involved in normal development, aging and gene regulation, altered methylation patterns have been associated with disease. It is generally believed that early life constitutes a period during which there is increased sensitivity to the regulatory effects of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to outline the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to genomic function, particularly in the development of complex behavioral phenotypes, focusing on the sensitive periods.

  2. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  3. Epigenetic mechanisms in pulmonary arterial hypertension: the need for global perspectives

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    Prakash Chelladurai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a severe and progressive disease, characterised by high pulmonary artery pressure that usually culminates in right heart failure. Recent findings of alterations in the DNA methylation state of superoxide dismutase 2 and granulysin gene loci; histone H1 levels; aberrant expression levels of histone deacetylases and bromodomain-containing protein 4; and dysregulated microRNA networks together suggest the involvement of epigenetics in PAH pathogenesis. Thus, PAH pathogenesis evidently involves the interplay of a predisposed genetic background, epigenetic state and injurious events. Profiling the genome-wide alterations in the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation or histone modification pattern in PAH vascular cells, may explain the great variability in susceptibility and disease severity that is frequently associated with pronounced remodelling and worse clinical outcome. Moreover, the influence of genetic predisposition and the acquisition of epigenetic alterations in response to environmental cues in PAH progression and establishment has largely been unexplored on a genome-wide scale. In order to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of PAH and to design novel therapeutic strategies, high-throughput approaches have to be adopted to facilitate systematic identification of the disease-specific networks using next-generation sequencing technologies, the application of these technologies in PAH has been relatively trivial to date.

  4. Reprogramming to pluripotency can conceal somatic cell chromosomal instability.

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    Masakazu Hamada

    Full Text Available The discovery that somatic cells are reprogrammable to pluripotency by ectopic expression of a small subset of transcription factors has created great potential for the development of broadly applicable stem-cell-based therapies. One of the concerns regarding the safe use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in therapeutic applications is loss of genomic integrity, a hallmark of various human conditions and diseases, including cancer. Structural chromosome defects such as short telomeres and double-strand breaks are known to limit reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs, but whether defects that cause whole-chromosome instability (W-CIN preclude reprogramming is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using aneuploidy-prone mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in which chromosome missegregation is driven by BubR1 or RanBP2 insufficiency, that W-CIN is not a barrier to reprogramming. Unexpectedly, the two W-CIN defects had contrasting effects on iPSC genomic integrity, with BubR1 hypomorphic MEFs almost exclusively yielding aneuploid iPSC clones and RanBP2 hypomorphic MEFs karyotypically normal iPSC clones. Moreover, BubR1-insufficient iPSC clones were karyotypically unstable, whereas RanBP2-insufficient iPSC clones were rather stable. These findings suggest that aneuploid cells can be selected for or against during reprogramming depending on the W-CIN gene defect and present the novel concept that somatic cell W-CIN can be concealed in the pluripotent state. Thus, karyotypic analysis of somatic cells of origin in addition to iPSC lines is necessary for safe application of reprogramming technology.

  5. The Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profile of Peripheral Blood Is Not Systematically Changed by Short-Time Storage at Room Temperature

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    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic epidemiology has proven an important research discipline in the delineation of diseases of complex etiology. The approach, in such studies, is often to use bio-banked clinical material, however, many such samples were collected for purposes other than epigenetic studies and, thus, potentially not processed and stored appropriately. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC includes more than 100,000 peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples shipped from maternity wards by ordinary mail in EDTA tubes. While this and other similar cohorts hold great promises for DNA methylation studies the potential systematic changes prompted by storage at ambient temperatures have never been assessed on a genome-wide level. Methods and Results: In this study, matched EDTA whole blood samples were stored up to three days at room temperature prior to DNA extraction and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (MeDIP-seq. We established that the quality of the MeDIP-seq libraries was high and comparable across samples; and that the methylation profiles did not change systematically during the short-time storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation profile is stable in whole blood samples stored for up to three days at room temperature in EDTA tubes making genome-wide methylation studies on such material feasible.

  6. Epigenetic Induction of Definitive and Pancreatic Endoderm Cell Fate in Human Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Kalo, Eric; Van Rossom, Rob; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming can occur by the introduction of key transcription factors (TFs) as well as by epigenetic changes. We demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA) combined with a chromatin remodeling medium (CRM) induced expression of a number of definitive endoderm and

  7. The causal effect of red blood cell folate on genome-wide methylation in cord blood: a Mendelian randomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Alexandra M; Michels, Karin B

    2013-12-04

    Investigation of the biological mechanism by which folate acts to affect fetal development can inform appraisal of expected benefits and risk management. This research is ethically imperative given the ubiquity of folic acid fortified products in the US. Considering that folate is an essential component in the one-carbon metabolism pathway that provides methyl groups for DNA methylation, epigenetic modifications provide a putative molecular mechanism mediating the effect of folic acid supplementation on neonatal and pediatric outcomes. In this study we use a Mendelian Randomization Unnecessary approach to assess the effect of red blood cell (RBC) folate on genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood. Site-specific CpG methylation within the proximal promoter regions of approximately 14,500 genes was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 Bead Chip for 50 infants from the Epigenetic Birth Cohort at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. Using methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype as the instrument, the Mendelian Randomization approach identified 7 CpG loci with a significant (mostly positive) association between RBC folate and methylation level. Among the genes in closest proximity to this significant subset of CpG loci, several enriched biologic processes were involved in nucleic acid transport and metabolic processing. Compared to the standard ordinary least squares regression method, our estimates were demonstrated to be more robust to unmeasured confounding. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest genome-wide analysis of the effects of folate on methylation pattern, and the first to employ Mendelian Randomization to assess the effects of an exposure on epigenetic modifications. These results can help guide future analyses of the causal effects of periconceptional folate levels on candidate pathways.

  8. Identification of potential nuclear reprogramming and differentiation factors by a novel selection method for cloning chromatin-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liu; Zheng Aihua; Yi Ling; Xu Chongren; Ding Mingxiao; Deng Hongkui

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming is critical for animal cloning and stem cell creation through nuclear transfer, which requires extensive remodeling of chromosomal architecture involving dramatic changes in chromatin-binding proteins. To understand the mechanism of nuclear reprogramming, it is critical to identify chromatin-binding factors specify the reprogramming process. In this report, we have developed a high-throughput selection method, based on T7 phage display and chromatin immunoprecipitation, to isolate chromatin-binding factors expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells using primary mouse embryonic fibroblast chromatin. Seven chromatin-binding proteins have been isolated by this method. We have also isolated several chromatin-binding proteins involved in hepatocyte differentiation. Our method provides a powerful tool to rapidly and selectively identify chromatin-binding proteins. The method can be used to study epigenetic modification of chromatin during nuclear reprogramming, cell differentiation, and transdifferentiation

  9. The Interaction between Epigenetics, Nutrition and the Development of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Bishop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the genome, the epigenome can be modified and hence some epigenetic risk markers have the potential to be reversed. Such modifications take place by means of drugs, diet or environmental exposures. It is widely accepted that epigenetic modifications take place during early embryonic and primordial cell development, but it is also important that we gain an understanding of the potential for such changes later in life. These “later life” epigenetic modifications in response to dietary intervention are the focus of this paper. The epigenetic modifications investigated include DNA methylation, histone modifications and the influence of microRNAs. The epigenotype could be used not only to predict susceptibility to certain cancers but also to assess the effectiveness of dietary modifications to reduce such risk. The influence of diet or dietary components on epigenetic modifications and the impact on cancer initiation or progression has been assessed herein.

  10. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  11. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    could be detrimental to health later in life. Current epigenetic studies using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling have discovered molecular evidence confirming that, as important early life events, both low birth-weight and premature birth can result in long-lasting epigenetic consequences...... that impact health at adult ages. Results from our epigenome-wide association studies indicate that the two moderately correlated traits of adverse pregnancy outcome could be linked to increased susceptibility to different health problems with low birth-weight more relevant to metabolic disorders, while......Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period which...

  12. Strategies to overcome HBV-specific T cell exhaustion: checkpoint inhibitors and metabolic re-programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Paola; Boni, Carolina; Barili, Valeria; Laccabue, Diletta; Ferrari, Carlo

    2018-01-29

    HBV-specific T cells play a key role in antiviral protection and failure to control HBV is associated with severely dysfunctional T cell responses. Therefore, functional T cell reconstitution represents a potential way to treat chronically infected patients. The growing understanding of the dysregulated transcriptional/epigenetic and metabolic programs underlying T cell exhaustion allows to envisage functional T cell reconstitution strategies based on the combined/sequential use of compounds able to induce decline of antigen load, checkpoint modulation, metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming with possible boosting of functionally restored responses by specific vaccines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined negative effect of donor age and time in culture on the reprogramming efficiency into induced pluripotent stem cells

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    Ras Trokovic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC by the forced expression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotent reprogramming appears as a slow and inefficient process because of genetic and epigenetic barriers of somatic cells. In this report, we have extended previous observations concerning donor age and passage number of human fibroblasts as critical determinants of the efficiency of iPSC induction. Human fibroblasts from 11 different donors of variable age were reprogrammed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Although all fibroblasts gave rise to iPSC colonies, the reprogramming efficiency correlated negatively and declined rapidly with increasing donor age. In addition, the late passage fibroblasts gave less reprogrammed colonies than the early passage cell counterparts, a finding associated with the cellular senescence-induced upregulation of p21. Knockdown of p21 restored iPSC generation even in long-term passaged fibroblasts of an old donor, highlighting the central role of the p53/p21 pathway in cellular senescence induced by both donor age and culture time.

  14. Reprogramming chromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensberger, Andreas Hasso; Svejstrup, Jesper Qualmann

    2012-01-01

    attributed to high kinetic barriers that affect all cells equally and can only be overcome by rare stochastic events. The barriers to reprogramming are likely to involve transformations of chromatin state because (i) inhibitors of chromatin-modifying enzymes can enhance the efficiency of reprogramming...... and (ii) knockdown or knock-out of chromatin-modifying enzymes can lower the efficiency of reprogramming. Here, we review the relationship between chromatin state transformations (chromatin reprogramming) and cellular reprogramming, with an emphasis on transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors...

  15. Evidence for Alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6/E7-Expressing Keratinocytes ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Paula L.; McDade, Simon S.; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J.; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J.; Patel, Daksha

    2011-01-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2...

  16. Molecular Imaging Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Mutant IDH Cells

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    Pavithra eViswanath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70-90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an oncometabolite, inhibits key α-KG- dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprogramming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprogramming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH cells and how this reprogramming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo.

  17. Optical reprogramming with ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans G.; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    The use of sub-15 femtosecond laser pulses in stem cell research is explored with particular emphasis on the optical reprogramming of somatic cells. The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be evoked through the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Conventional approaches utilize retro/lenti-viruses to deliver genes/transcription factors as well as to facilitate the integration of transcription factors into that of the host genome. However, the use of viruses may result in insertional mutations caused by the random integration of genes and as a result, this may limit the use within clinical applications due to the risk of the formation of cancer. In this study, a new approach is demonstrated in realizing non-viral reprogramming through the use of ultrashort laser pulses, to introduce transcription factors into the cell so as to generate iPS cells.

  18. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.; Ehli, E.A.; Slieker, R.C.; Bartels, M.; Weber, Z.M.; Davies, G.E.; Slagboom, P.E.; Heijmans, B.T.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent

  19. Parent-of-origin effects in autism identified through genome-wide linkage analysis of 16,000 SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Fradin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a common heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with complex etiology. Several genome-wide linkage and association scans have been carried out to identify regions harboring genes related to autism or autism spectrum disorders, with mixed results. Given the overlap in autism features with genetic abnormalities known to be associated with imprinting, one possible reason for lack of consistency would be the influence of parent-of-origin effects that may mask the ability to detect linkage and association.We have performed a genome-wide linkage scan that accounts for potential parent-of-origin effects using 16,311 SNPs among families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH autism repository. We report parametric (GH, Genehunter and allele-sharing linkage (Aspex results using a broad spectrum disorder case definition. Paternal-origin genome-wide statistically significant linkage was observed on chromosomes 4 (LOD(GH = 3.79, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 2.96, p = 0.008, 15 (LOD(GH = 3.09, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 3.62, empirical p = 0.003 and 20 (LOD(GH = 3.36, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 3.38, empirical p = 0.006.These regions may harbor imprinted sites associated with the development of autism and offer fruitful domains for molecular investigation into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in autism.

  20. Transgenic Epigenetics: Using Transgenic Organisms to Examine Epigenetic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A. McEachern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-model organisms are generally more difficult and/or time consuming to work with than model organisms. In addition, epigenetic analysis of model organisms is facilitated by well-established protocols, and commercially-available reagents and kits that may not be available for, or previously tested on, non-model organisms. Given the evolutionary conservation and widespread nature of many epigenetic mechanisms, a powerful method to analyze epigenetic phenomena from non-model organisms would be to use transgenic model organisms containing an epigenetic region of interest from the non-model. Interestingly, while transgenic Drosophila and mice have provided significant insight into the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of the epigenetic processes that target epigenetic control regions in other model organisms, this method has so far been under-exploited for non-model organism epigenetic analysis. This paper details several experiments that have examined the epigenetic processes of genomic imprinting and paramutation, by transferring an epigenetic control region from one model organism to another. These cross-species experiments demonstrate that valuable insight into both the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of epigenetic processes may be obtained via transgenic experiments, which can then be used to guide further investigations and experiments in the species of interest.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation across human polycystic ovary syndrome ovary granulosa cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawei; Bao, Xiao; Peng, Zhaofeng; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Niu, Wenbin; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-05-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 7% of the reproductive-age women. A growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic mechanisms contributed to the development of PCOS. The role of DNA modification in human PCOS ovary granulosa cell is still unknown in PCOS progression. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were detected between PCOS' and controls' granulosa cell. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled to investigate the putative function of DNA methylaiton. Selected genes expressions were analyzed between PCOS' and controls' granulosa cell. Our results showed that the granulosa cell global DNA methylation of PCOS patients was significant higher than the controls'. The global DNA hydroxymethylation showed low level and no statistical difference between PCOS and control. 6936 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified between control and PCOS-obesity. 12245 differential methylated CpG sites were detected between control and PCOS-nonobesity group. 5202 methylated CpG sites were significantly differential between PCOS-obesity and PCOS-nonobesity group. Our results showed that DNA methylation not hydroxymethylation altered genome-wide in PCOS granulosa cell. The different methylation genes were enriched in development protein, transcription factor activity, alternative splicing, sequence-specific DNA binding and embryonic morphogenesis. YWHAQ, NCF2, DHRS9 and SCNA were up-regulation in PCOS-obesity patients with no significance different between control and PCOS-nonobesity patients, which may be activated by lower DNA methylaiton. Global and genome-wide DNA methylation alteration may contribute to different genes expression and PCOS clinical pathology.

  2. REVIEW: Genome-wide findings in schizophrenia and the role of gene-environment interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkel, Ruud; Esquivel, Gabriel; Kenis, Gunter; Wichers, Marieke; Collip, Dina; Peerbooms, Odette; Rutten, Bart; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Van Os, Jim

    2010-10-01

    The recent advent of genome-wide mass-marker technology has resulted in renewed optimism to unravel the genetic architecture of psychotic disorders. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of common polymorphisms robustly associated with schizophrenia, in ZNF804A, transcription factor 4, major histocompatibility complex, and neurogranin. In addition, copy number variants (CNVs) in 1q21.1, 2p16.3, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, and 22q11.2 were convincingly implicated in schizophrenia risk. Furthermore, these studies have suggested considerable genetic overlap with bipolar disorder (particularly for common polymorphisms) and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism (particularly for CNVs). The influence of these risk variants on relevant intermediate phenotypes needs further study. In addition, there is a need for etiological models of psychosis integrating genetic risk with environmental factors associated with the disorder, focusing specifically on environmental impact on gene expression (epigenetics) and convergence of genes and environment on common biological pathways bringing about larger effects than those of genes or environment in isolation (gene-environment interaction). Collaborative efforts that bring together expertise in statistics, genetics, epidemiology, experimental psychiatry, brain imaging, and clinical psychiatry will be required to succeed in this challenging task. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Mitochondrial regulation of epigenetics and its role in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Tollefsbol, Trygve O; Singh, Keshav K

    2012-01-01

    as the sole pathogenic factor suggesting that additional mechanisms contribute to lack of genotype and clinical phenotype correlationship. An increasing number of studies have identified a possible effect on the epigenetic landscape of the nuclear genome as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction....... In particular, these studies demonstrate reversible or irreversible changes in genomic DNA methylation profiles of the nuclear genome. Here we review how mitochondria damage checkpoint (mitocheckpoint) induces epigenetic changes in the nucleus. Persistent pathogenic mutations in mtDNA may also lead...... to epigenetic changes causing genomic instability in the nuclear genome. We propose that "mitocheckpoint" mediated epigenetic and genetic changes may play key roles in phenotypic variation related to mitochondrial diseases or host of human diseases in which mitochondrial defect plays a primary role....

  4. Design principles for nuclease-deficient CRISPR-based transcriptional regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael K.

    2018-01-01

    The engineering of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) continues to expand the toolkit available for genome editing, reprogramming gene regulation, genome visualization, and epigenetic studies of living organisms. In this review the ...

  5. Decoding the genome with an integrative analysis tool: combinatorial CRM Decoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keunsoo; Kim, Joomyeong; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Daeyoup

    2011-09-01

    The identification of genome-wide cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) and characterization of their associated epigenetic features are fundamental steps toward the understanding of gene regulatory networks. Although integrative analysis of available genome-wide information can provide new biological insights, the lack of novel methodologies has become a major bottleneck. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis tool called combinatorial CRM decoder (CCD), which utilizes the publicly available information to identify and characterize genome-wide CRMs in a species of interest. CCD first defines a set of the epigenetic features which is significantly associated with a set of known CRMs as a code called 'trace code', and subsequently uses the trace code to pinpoint putative CRMs throughout the genome. Using 61 genome-wide data sets obtained from 17 independent mouse studies, CCD successfully catalogued ∼12 600 CRMs (five distinct classes) including polycomb repressive complex 2 target sites as well as imprinting control regions. Interestingly, we discovered that ∼4% of the identified CRMs belong to at least two different classes named 'multi-functional CRM', suggesting their functional importance for regulating spatiotemporal gene expression. From these examples, we show that CCD can be applied to any potential genome-wide datasets and therefore will shed light on unveiling genome-wide CRMs in various species.

  6. Intrauterine Reprogramming of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Evidence from a Pilot Study of Cord Blood Global Methylation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lambertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects 5–15% of women. PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder displaying endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk manifestations. Evidence of heritability exists, but only a portion of the genetic transmission has been identified by genome-wide association studies and linkage studies, suggesting epigenetic phenomena may play a role. Evidence implicates intrauterine influences in the genesis of PCOS. This was a pilot study that aimed at identifying an epigenetic PCOS reprogramming signature by profiling the methylation of the DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood (UCB from 12 subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization. Six subjects were anovulatory PCOS women diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria and six ovulatory non-PCOS women matched for age and body mass index. UCB was collected at delivery of the placenta; the DNA was extracted and submitted to methylation analysis. A differential methylation picture of prevalent hypomethylation affecting 918 genes was detected. Of these, 595 genes (64.8% carried single or multiple hypomethylated CpG dinucleotides and 323 genes (35.2% single or multiple hypermethylated CpG dinucleotides. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA online platform enlisted 908 of the 918 input genes and clustered 794 of them into 21 gene networks. Key features of the primary networks scored by IPA included carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter signaling, cardiovascular system development and function, glycosaminoglycan signaling regulation and control of amino acid biosynthesis. Central to the network activities were genes controlling hormonal regulation (ESR1, mitochondrial activity (APP, PARK2, and glucose metabolism (INS. Regulatory pathways such as G-protein coupled receptor signaling, inositol metabolism, and inflammatory response were also highlighted. These data suggested the existence of a putative “PCOS epigenomic superpathway” with three main

  7. EG-13GENOME-WIDE METHYLATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES GENOMIC DNA DEMETHYLATION DURING MALIGNANT PROGRESSION OF GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kuniaki; Mukasa, Akitake; Nagae, Genta; Aihara, Koki; Otani, Ryohei; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Omata, Mayu; Tanaka, Shota; Shibahara, Junji; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Shimamura, Teppei; Miyano, Satoru; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ueki, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Ryo; Nagane, Motoo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Saito, Nobuhito

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas often undergo malignant progression, and these transformations are a leading cause of death in patients with low-grade gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant tumor progression are still not well understood. Recent evidence indicates that epigenetic deregulation is an important cause of gliomagenesis; therefore, we examined the impact of epigenetic changes during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas. Specifically, we used the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 120 gliomas and four normal brains. This study sample included 25 matched-pairs of initial low-grade gliomas and recurrent tumors (temporal heterogeneity) and 20 of the 25 recurring tumors recurred as malignant progressions, and one matched-pair of newly emerging malignant lesions and pre-existing lesions (spatial heterogeneity). Analyses of methylation profiles demonstrated that most low-grade gliomas in our sample (43/51; 84%) had a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Remarkably, approximately 50% of secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade tumors with the G-CIMP status exhibited a characteristic partial demethylation of genomic DNA during malignant progression, but other recurrent gliomas showed no apparent change in DNA methylation pattern. Interestingly, we found that most loci that were demethylated during malignant progression were located outside of CpG islands. The information of histone modifications patterns in normal human astrocytes and embryonal stem cells also showed that the ratio of active marks at the site corresponding to DNA demethylated loci in G-CIMP-demethylated tumors was significantly lower; this finding indicated that most demethylated loci in G-CIMP-demethylated tumors were likely transcriptionally inactive. A small number of the genes that were upregulated and had demethylated CpG islands were associated with cell cycle-related pathway. In

  8. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...

  9. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  10. CtIP-Specific Roles during Cell Reprogramming Have Long-Term Consequences in the Survival and Fitness of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gómez-Cabello

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired genomic instability is one of the major concerns for the clinical use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. All reprogramming methods are accompanied by the induction of DNA damage, of which double-strand breaks are the most cytotoxic and mutagenic. Consequently, DNA repair genes seem to be relevant for accurate reprogramming to minimize the impact of such DNA damage. Here, we reveal that reprogramming is associated with high levels of DNA end resection, a critical step in homologous recombination. Moreover, the resection factor CtIP is essential for cell reprogramming and establishment of iPSCs, probably to repair reprogramming-induced DNA damage. Our data reveal a new role for DNA end resection in maintaining genomic stability during cell reprogramming, allowing DNA repair fidelity to be retained in both human and mouse iPSCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that reprogramming in a resection-defective environment has long-term consequences on stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

  11. The Epigenetic Cytocrin Pathway to the Nucleus. Epigenetic Factors, Epigenetic Mediators, and Epigenetic Traits. A Biochemist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Navarro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A single word, Epigenetics, underlies one exciting subject in today's Science, with different sides and with interactions with philosophy. The apparent trivial description includes everything in between genotype and phenotype that occurs for a given unique DNA sequence/genome. This Perspective article first presents an historical overview and the reasons for the lack of consensus in the field, which derives from different interpretations of the diverse operative definitions of Epigenetics. In an attempt to reconcile the different views, we propose a novel concept, the “cytocrin system.” Secondly, the article questions the inheritability requirement and makes emphasis in the epigenetic mechanisms, known or to be discovered, that provide hope for combating human diseases. Hopes in cancer are at present in deep need of deciphering mechanisms to support ad hoc therapeutic approaches. Better perspectives are for diseases of the central nervous system, in particular to combat neurodegeneration and/or cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Neurons are post-mitotic cells and, therefore, epigenetic targets to prevent neurodegeneration should operate in non-dividing diseased cells. Accordingly, epigenetic-based human therapy may not need to count much on transmissible potential.

  12. Epigenetic changes of Arabidopsis genome associated with altered DNA methyltransferase and demethylase expressions after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation at carbon 5 of cytosines is a hall mark of epigenetic inactivation and heterochromatin in both plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation has two roles that protect the genome from selfish DNA elements and regulate gene expression. Plant genome has three types of DNA methyltransferase, METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1), DOMAINREARRANGED METHYLASE (DRM) and CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 (CMT3) that are capable of methylating CG, CHG (where H is A, T, or C) and CHH sites, respectively. MET1 is a maintenance DNA methyltransferase that controls CG methylation. Two members of the DRM family, DRM1 and DRM2, are responsible for de novo methylation of CG, CHG, and CHH sites but show a preference for CHH sites. Finally, CMT3 principally carries out CHG methylation and is involved in both de novo methylation and maintenance. Alternatively, active DNA demethylation may occur through the glycosylase activity by removing the methylcytosines from DNA. It may have essential roles in preventing transcriptional silencing of transgenes and endogenous genes and in activating the expression of imprinted genes. DNA demetylation in Arabidopsis is mediated by the DEMETER (DME) family of bifunctional DNA glycosylase. Three targets of DME are MEA (MEDEA), FWA (FLOWERING WAGENINGEN), and FIS2 (FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED 2). The DME family contains DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), DML3, and REPRESSOR OF SILENING 1 (ROS1). DNA demetylation by ROS1, DML2, and DML3 protect the hypermethylation of specific genome loci. ROS1 is necessary to suppress the promoter methylation and the silencing of endogenous genes. In contrast, the function of DML2 and DML3 has not been reported. Several recent studies have suggested that epigenetic alterations such as change in DNA methylation and histone modification should be caused in plant genomes upon exposure to ionizing radiation. However, there is a lack of data exploring the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize and

  13. Epigenetic changes of Arabidopsis genome associated with altered DNA methyltransferase and demethylase expressions after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    DNA methylation at carbon 5 of cytosines is a hall mark of epigenetic inactivation and heterochromatin in both plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation has two roles that protect the genome from selfish DNA elements and regulate gene expression. Plant genome has three types of DNA methyltransferase, METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1), DOMAINREARRANGED METHYLASE (DRM) and CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 (CMT3) that are capable of methylating CG, CHG (where H is A, T, or C) and CHH sites, respectively. MET1 is a maintenance DNA methyltransferase that controls CG methylation. Two members of the DRM family, DRM1 and DRM2, are responsible for de novo methylation of CG, CHG, and CHH sites but show a preference for CHH sites. Finally, CMT3 principally carries out CHG methylation and is involved in both de novo methylation and maintenance. Alternatively, active DNA demethylation may occur through the glycosylase activity by removing the methylcytosines from DNA. It may have essential roles in preventing transcriptional silencing of transgenes and endogenous genes and in activating the expression of imprinted genes. DNA demetylation in Arabidopsis is mediated by the DEMETER (DME) family of bifunctional DNA glycosylase. Three targets of DME are MEA (MEDEA), FWA (FLOWERING WAGENINGEN), and FIS2 (FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED 2). The DME family contains DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), DML3, and REPRESSOR OF SILENING 1 (ROS1). DNA demetylation by ROS1, DML2, and DML3 protect the hypermethylation of specific genome loci. ROS1 is necessary to suppress the promoter methylation and the silencing of endogenous genes. In contrast, the function of DML2 and DML3 has not been reported. Several recent studies have suggested that epigenetic alterations such as change in DNA methylation and histone modification should be caused in plant genomes upon exposure to ionizing radiation. However, there is a lack of data exploring the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize and

  14. Epigenetics and obesity: a relationship waiting to be explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity can have multifactorial causes that may change with development and are not simply attributable to one's genetic constitution. To date, expensive and laborious genome-wide association studies have only ascribed a small contribution of genetic variants to obesity. The emergence of the field of epigenetics now offers a new paradigm with which to study excess fat mass. Currently, however, there are no compelling epigenetic studies to explain the role of epigenetics in obesity, especially from a developmental perspective. It is clear that until there are advances in the understanding of the main mechanisms by which different fat types, i.e. brown, beige, and white, are established and how these differ between depots and species, population-based studies designed to determine specific aspects of epigenetics will be potentially limited. Obesity is a slowly evolving condition that is not simply explained by changes in the intake of one macronutrient. The latest advances in epigenetics, coupled with the establishment of relevant longitudinal models of obesity, which incorporate functionally relevant end points, may now permit the precise contribution of epigenetic modifications to excess fat mass to be effectively studied. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Genome-Wide Mapping of 5mC and 5hmC Identified Differentially Modified Genomic Regions in Late-Onset Severe Preeclampsia: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Zhu

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, as a common form of PE, the etiology of late-onset PE is elusive. We analyzed 5-methylcytosine (5mC and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC levels in the placentas of late-onset severe PE patients (n = 4 and normal controls (n = 4 using a (hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation approach combined with deep sequencing ([h]MeDIP-seq, and the results were verified by (hMeDIP-qPCR. The most significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs were verified by MassARRAY EppiTYPER in an enlarged sample size (n = 20. Bioinformatics analysis identified 714 peaks of 5mC that were associated with 403 genes and 119 peaks of 5hmC that were associated with 61 genes, thus showing significant differences between the PE patients and the controls (>2-fold, p<0.05. Further, only one gene, PTPRN2, had both 5mC and 5hmC changes in patients. The ErbB signaling pathway was enriched in those 403 genes that had significantly different 5mC level between the groups. This genome-wide mapping of 5mC and 5hmC in late-onset severe PE and normal controls demonstrates that both 5mC and 5hmC play epigenetic roles in the regulation of the disease, but work independently. We reveal the genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation in late-onset PE placentas for the first time, and the identified ErbB signaling pathway and the gene PTPRN2 may be relevant to the epigenetic pathogenesis of late-onset PE.

  16. Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis of Air Pollution Exposure and Childhood Asthma with Functional Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, Anna; Merid, Simon K; Gruzieva, Olena; Ballereau, Stéphane; Becker, Allan; Bellander, Tom; Bergström, Anna; Bossé, Yohan; Bottai, Matteo; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Fuertes, Elaine; Ierodiakonou, Despo; Jiang, Ruiwei; Joly, Stéphane; Jones, Meaghan; Kobor, Michael S; Korek, Michal; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanaël; MacIntyre, Elaina; Ménard, Camille; Nickle, David; Obeidat, Ma'en; Pellet, Johann; Standl, Marie; Sääf, Annika; Söderhäll, Cilla; Tiesler, Carla M T; van den Berge, Maarten; Vonk, Judith M; Vora, Hita; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Antó, Josep M; Auffray, Charles; Brauer, Michael; Bousquet, Jean; Brunekreef, Bert; Gauderman, W James; Heinrich, Joachim; Kere, Juha; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje; Carlsten, Christopher; Pershagen, Göran; Melén, Erik

    2017-05-15

    The evidence supporting an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and incident childhood asthma is inconsistent and may depend on genetic factors. To identify gene-environment interaction effects on childhood asthma using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and air pollution exposure. Identified loci were further analyzed at epigenetic and transcriptomic levels. We used land use regression models to estimate individual air pollution exposure (represented by outdoor NO 2 levels) at the birth address and performed a genome-wide interaction study for doctors' diagnoses of asthma up to 8 years in three European birth cohorts (n = 1,534) with look-up for interaction in two separate North American cohorts, CHS (Children's Health Study) and CAPPS/SAGE (Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study/Study of Asthma, Genetics and Environment) (n = 1,602 and 186 subjects, respectively). We assessed expression quantitative trait locus effects in human lung specimens and blood, as well as associations among air pollution exposure, methylation, and transcriptomic patterns. In the European cohorts, 186 SNPs had an interaction P asthma development and provided supportive evidence for interaction with air pollution for ADCY2, B4GALT5, and DLG2.

  17. Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Length Polymorphism (MS-AFLP) Microarrays for Epigenetic Analysis of Human Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Suzuki, Koichi; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Perucho, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Somatic, and in a minor scale also germ line, epigenetic aberrations are fundamental to carcinogenesis, cancer progression, and tumor phenotype. DNA methylation is the most extensively studied and arguably the best understood epigenetic mechanisms that become altered in cancer. Both somatic loss of methylation (hypomethylation) and gain of methylation (hypermethylation) are found in the genome of malignant cells. In general, the cancer cell epigenome is globally hypomethylated, while some regions-typically gene-associated CpG islands-become hypermethylated. Given the profound impact that DNA methylation exerts on the transcriptional profile and genomic stability of cancer cells, its characterization is essential to fully understand the complexity of cancer biology, improve tumor classification, and ultimately advance cancer patient management and treatment. A plethora of methods have been devised to analyze and quantify DNA methylation alterations. Several of the early-developed methods relied on the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, whose activity depends on the methylation status of their recognition sequences. Among these techniques, methylation-sensitive amplification length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) was developed in the early 2000s, and successfully adapted from its original gel electrophoresis fingerprinting format to a microarray format that notably increased its throughput and allowed the quantification of the methylation changes. This array-based platform interrogates over 9500 independent loci putatively amplified by the MS-AFLP technique, corresponding to the NotI sites mapped throughout the human genome.

  18. Genomic selection: genome-wide prediction in plant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Zeratsion Abera; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2014-09-01

    Association analysis is used to measure relations between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL). Their estimation ignores genes with small effects that trigger underpinning quantitative traits. By contrast, genome-wide selection estimates marker effects across the whole genome on the target population based on a prediction model developed in the training population (TP). Whole-genome prediction models estimate all marker effects in all loci and capture small QTL effects. Here, we review several genomic selection (GS) models with respect to both the prediction accuracy and genetic gain from selection. Phenotypic selection or marker-assisted breeding protocols can be replaced by selection, based on whole-genome predictions in which phenotyping updates the model to build up the prediction accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of open chromatin in pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kikyo, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in pluripotent stem cell research has opened new avenues of disease modeling, drug screening, and transplantation of patient-specific tissues that had been unimaginable until a decade ago. The central mechanism underlying pluripotency is epigenetic gene regulation; the majority of cell signaling pathways, both extracellular and cytoplasmic, eventually alter the epigenetic status of their target genes during the process of activating or suppressing the genes to acquire or maintain pluripotency. It has long been thought that the chromatin of pluripotent stem cells is globally open to enable the timely activation of essentially all genes in the genome during differentiation into multiple lineages. The current article reviews descriptive observations and the epigenetic machinery relevant to what is supposed to be globally open chromatin in pluripotent stem cells. This includes microscopic appearance, permissive gene transcription, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone modifications, DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, dynamic movement of chromatin proteins, nucleosome accessibility and positioning, and long-range chromosomal interactions. Detailed analyses of each element, however, have revealed that the globally open chromatin hypothesis is not necessarily supported by some of the critical experimental evidence, such as genome-wide nucleosome accessibility and nucleosome positioning. Further understanding of the epigenetic gene regulation is expected to determine the true nature of the so-called globally open chromatin in pluripotent stem. PMID:24695097

  20. Overcoming reprogramming resistance of Fanconi anemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lars U. W.; Milsom, Michael D.; Harris, Chad E.; Vyas, Rutesh; Brumme, Kristina M.; Parmar, Kalindi; Moreau, Lisa A.; Schambach, Axel; Park, In-Hyun; London, Wendy B.; Strait, Kelly; Schlaeger, Thorsten; DeVine, Alexander L.; Grassman, Elke; D'Andrea, Alan; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive syndrome characterized by progressive fatal BM failure and chromosomal instability. FA cells have inactivating mutations in a signaling pathway that is critical for maintaining genomic integrity and protecting cells from the DNA damage caused by cross-linking agents. Transgenic expression of the implicated genes corrects the phenotype of hematopoietic cells, but previous attempts at gene therapy have failed largely because of inadequate numbers of hematopoietic stem cells available for gene correction. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) constitute an alternate source of autologous cells that are amenable to ex vivo expansion, genetic correction, and molecular characterization. In the present study, we demonstrate that reprogramming leads to activation of the FA pathway, increased DNA double-strand breaks, and senescence. We also demonstrate that defects in the FA DNA-repair pathway decrease the reprogramming efficiency of murine and human primary cells. FA pathway complementation reduces senescence and restores the reprogramming efficiency of somatic FA cells to normal levels. Disease-specific iPSCs derived in this fashion maintain a normal karyotype and are capable of hematopoietic differentiation. These data define the role of the FA pathway in reprogramming and provide a strategy for future translational applications of patient-specific FA iPSCs. PMID:22371882

  1. Evolutionary significance of epigenetic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, C.L.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Bossdorf, O.; Wendel, J.F.; Greilhuber, J.; Dolezel, J.; Leitch, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several chapters in this volume demonstrate how epigenetic work at the molecular level over the last few decades has revolutionized our understanding of genome function and developmental biology. However, epigenetic processes not only further our understanding of variation and regulation at the

  2. Moving through the stressed genome: Emerging regulatory roles for transposons in plant stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi Pooja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock’s original ’Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences which project TEs as distributed genomic control modules. According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution and function, and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement.

  3. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as "distributed genomic control modules." According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement.

  4. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original ‘Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as “distributed genomic control modules.” According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement. PMID:27777577

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in wild samples of two morphotypes of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gilbert; Smith, Carl; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Ritchie, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation play important biological roles in gene expression regulation and cellular differentiation during development. To examine whether DNA methylation patterns are potentially associated with naturally occurring phenotypic differences, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation within Gasterosteus aculeatus, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. First, we identified highly methylated regions of the stickleback genome, finding such regions to be located predominantly within genes, and associated with genes functioning in metabolism and biosynthetic processes, cell adhesion, signaling pathways, and blood vessel development. Next, we identified putative differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the genome between complete and low lateral plate morphs of G. aculeatus. We detected 77 DMRs that were mainly located in intergenic regions. Annotations of genes associated with these DMRs revealed potential functions in a number of known divergent adaptive phenotypes between G. aculeatus ecotypes, including cardiovascular development, growth, and neuromuscular development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitimu, Shedrack R; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J; Rodríguez López, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops.

  7. An update on the epigenetics of psychotic diseases and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi; Zhou, Jin-Rong; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The examination of potential roles of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of psychotic diseases have become an essential alternative in recent years as genetic studies alone are yet to uncover major gene(s) for psychosis. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge from the gene-specific and genome-wide studies of postmortem brain and blood cells indicating that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and dysregulation of micro-RNAs are linked to the pathogenesis of mental diseases. There is also strong evidence supporting that all classes of psychiatric drugs modulate diverse features of the epigenome. While comprehensive environmental and genetic/epigenetic studies are uncovering the origins, and the key genes/pathways affected in psychotic diseases, characterizing the epigenetic effects of psychiatric drugs may help to design novel therapies in psychiatry.

  8. Noncoding Elements: Evolution and Epigenetic Regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2016-03-09

    When the human genome project was completed, it revealed a surprising result. 98% of the genome did not code for protein of which more than 50% are repeats— later known as ”Junk DNA”. However, comparative genomics unveiled that many noncoding elements are evolutionarily constrained; thus luckily to have a role in genome stability and regulation. Though, their exact functions remained largely unknown. Several large international consortia such as the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genomes (FANTOM) and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) were set to understand the structure and the regulation of the genome. Specifically, these endeavors aim to measure and reveal the transcribed components and functional elements of the genome. One of the most the striking findings of these efforts is that most of the genome is transcribed, including non-conserved noncoding elements and repeat elements. Specifically, we investigated the evolution and epigenetic properties of noncoding elements. 1. We compared genomes of evolutionarily distant species and showed the ubiquity of constrained noncoding elements in metazoa. 2. By integrating multi-omic data (such as transcriptome, nucleosome profiling, histone modifications), I conducted a comprehensive analysis of epigenetic properties (chromatin states) of conserved noncoding elements in insects. We showed that those elements have distinct and protective sequence features, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. 3. I focused on the relationship between enhancers and repetitive elements. Using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and RNASeq, I compiled a full catalog of active enhancers (a class of noncoding elements) during myogenesis of human primary cells of healthy donors and donors affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Comparing the two time-courses, a significant change in the epigenetic

  9. Epigenetic drift in the aging genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2016-01-01

    for 10 years (age at intake 73-82 years). Biological pathway analysis and survival analysis were also conducted on CpGs showing longitudinal change in their DNA-methylation levels. Classical twin models were fitted to each CpG site to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on DNA...... × 10-07. Pathway analysis of genes linked to these CpGs identified biologically meaningful gene-sets involved in cellular-signalling events and in transmission across chemical synapses, which are important molecular underpinnings of aging-related degenerative disorders. CONCLUSION: Our epigenome......BACKGROUND: Current epigenetic studies on aging are dominated by the cross-sectional design that correlates subjects' ages or age groups with their measured epigenetic profiles. Such studies have been more aimed at age prediction or building up the epigenetic clock of age rather than focusing...

  10. Genomic and epigenetic instability in chordoma: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yong Feng,1,2 Jacson K Shen,1,3 Francis J Hornicek,1,3 Zhenfeng Duan1,3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Sarcoma Biology Laboratory, Center for Sarcoma and Connective Tissue Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Chordoma is a malignant bone tumor, which currently can only be defined by histologic and immunohistochemical criteria. There are no prognostic biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome or response to treatment yet. Currently, chordoma pathogenesis is very poorly understood; however, recent large-scale genetic and epigenetic studies have identified some of the underlying mechanisms and pathways that may contribute to the disease. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings in the field of chordoma genomics and epigenomics, from comparative genomic hybridization to evaluate chromosomal alteration, large-scale deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequencing to determine the gene mutation, microarray to access messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA and microRNA gene expression, and DNA-methylation profiling. These studies may also hold valuable clinical potential in the management of chordoma. Keywords: chordoma, chromosomal alterations, sequencing, miRNA, DNA methylation

  11. The physics of epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortini, Ruggero; Barbi, Maria; Caré, Bertrand R.; Lavelle, Christophe; Lesne, Annick; Mozziconacci, Julien; Victor, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    In higher organisms, all cells share the same genome, but every cell expresses only a limited and specific set of genes that defines the cell type. During cell division, not only the genome, but also the cell type is inherited by the daughter cells. This intriguing phenomenon is achieved by a variety of processes that have been collectively termed epigenetics: the stable and inheritable changes in gene expression patterns. This article reviews the extremely rich and exquisitely multiscale physical mechanisms that govern the biological processes behind the initiation, spreading, and inheritance of epigenetic states. These include not only the changes in the molecular properties associated with the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, such as methylation and acetylation, but also less conventional changes, typically in the physics that governs the three-dimensional organization of the genome in cell nuclei. Strikingly, to achieve stability and heritability of epigenetic states, cells take advantage of many different physical principles, such as the universal behavior of polymers and copolymers, the general features of dynamical systems, and the electrostatic and mechanical properties related to chemical modifications of DNA and histones. By putting the complex biological literature in this new light, the emerging picture is that a limited set of general physical rules play a key role in initiating, shaping, and transmitting this crucial "epigenetic landscape." This new perspective not only allows one to rationalize the normal cellular functions, but also helps to understand the emergence of pathological states, in which the epigenetic landscape becomes dysfunctional.

  12. A method to evaluate genome-wide methylation in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiling Li

    Full Text Available The use of DNA from archival formalin and paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue for genetic and epigenetic analyses may be problematic, since the DNA is often degraded and only limited amounts may be available. Thus, it is currently not known whether genome-wide methylation can be reliably assessed in DNA from archival FFPE tissue.Ovarian tissues, which were obtained and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded in either 1999 or 2011, were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E.Epithelial cells were captured by laser micro dissection, and their DNA subjected to whole genomic bisulfite conversion, whole genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, and purification. Sequencing and software analyses were performed to identify the extent of genomic methylation. We observed that 31.7% of sequence reads from the DNA in the 1999 archival FFPE tissue, and 70.6% of the reads from the 2011 sample, could be matched with the genome. Methylation rates of CpG on the Watson and Crick strands were 32.2% and 45.5%, respectively, in the 1999 sample, and 65.1% and 42.7% in the 2011 sample.We have developed an efficient method that allows DNA methylation to be assessed in archival FFPE tissue samples.

  13. Epigenetic dynamics across the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Tony Bou; Lund, Anders H.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of the mammalian cell cycle depends on correct timing and co-ordination of a series of events, which are managed by the cellular transcriptional machinery and epigenetic mechanisms governing genome accessibility. Epigenetic chromatin modifications are dynamic across the cell cycle...... a correct inheritance of epigenetic chromatin modifications to daughter cells. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge on the dynamics of epigenetic chromatin modifications during progression of the cell cycle....

  14. Epigenetics in the Vascular Endothelium: Looking From a Different Perspective in the Epigenomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Matthew S; Marsden, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are commonly thought to be complex, non-Mendelian diseases that are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic pathways play a key role in vascular biology and might be involved in defining and transducing cardiovascular disease inheritability. In this review, we argue the importance of epigenetics in vascular biology, especially from the perspective of endothelial cell phenotype. We highlight and discuss the role of epigenetic modifications across the transcriptional unit of protein-coding genes, especially the role of intragenic chromatin modifications, which are underappreciated and not well characterized in the current era of genome-wide studies. Importantly, we describe the practical application of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease therapeutics. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. System-Wide Hypersensitive Response-Associated Transcriptome and Metabolome Reprogramming in Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalo, D.W.; Stulemeijer, I.J.E.; Esse, van H.P.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the

  16. Regulation of mouse retroelement MuERV-L/MERVL expression by REX1 and epigenetic control of stem cell potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eSchoorlemmer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available About half of mammalian genomes is occupied by DNA sequences that originatefrom transposable elements. Retrotransposons can modulate gene expression indifferent ways and, particularly retrotransposon-derived LTRs, profoundly shapeexpression of both surrounding and distant genomic loci. This is especially important inpreimplantation development, during which extensive reprogramming of the genometakes place and cells pass through totipotent and pluripotent states. At this stage, themain mechanisms responsible for retrotransposon silencing i.e. DNA methylation, isinoperative. A particular retrotransposon called muERV-L/MERVL is expressed duringpreimplantation stages and contributes to the plasticity of mouse embryonic stem cells.This review will focus on the role of MERVL-derived sequences as controllingelements of gene expression specific for preimplantation development, two-cell stagespecific gene expression and stem cell pluripotency, the epigenetic mechanisms thatcontrol their expression, and the contributions of the pluripotency marker REX1 and therelated YY1 family of transcription factors to this regulation process.

  17. Testicular cancer from diagnosis to epigenetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Vanacore, Daniela; Zappavigna, Silvia; Cavaliere, Carla; Rossetti, Sabrina; D’Aniello, Carmine; Chieffi, Paolo; Amler, Evzen; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Di Franco, Rossella; Izzo, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Perdonà, Sisto; Caraglia, Michele; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is one of the most common neoplasms that occurs in male and includes germ cell tumors (GCT), sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors and secondary testicular tumors. Diagnosis of TC involves the evaluation of serum tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and lactate dehydrogenase, but clinically several types of immunohistochemical markers are more useful and more sensitive in GCT, but not in teratoma. These new biomarkers are genes expressed in primordial germ cells/gonocytes and embryonic pluripotency-related cells but not in normal adult germ cells and they include PLAP, OCT3/4 (POU5F1), NANOG, SOX2, REX1, AP-2γ (TFAP2C) and LIN28. Gene expression in GCT is regulated, at least in part, by DNA and histone modifications, and the epigenetic profile of these tumours is characterised by genome-wide demethylation. There are different epigenetic modifications in TG-subtypes that reflect the normal developmental switch in primordial germ cells from an under- to normally methylated genome. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the findings of recent investigations in the classification of male genital organs, the discoveries in the use of prognostic and diagnostic markers and the epigenetic aberrations mainly affecting the patterns of DNA methylation/histone modifications of genes (especially tumor suppressors) and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:29262668

  18. Genome-wide screen of ovary-specific DNA methylation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Liu, Yin-Kun; Li, Yan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    To compare genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in ovary tissue from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy controls. Case-control study matched for age and body mass index. University-affiliated hospital. Ten women with PCOS who underwent ovarian drilling to induce ovulation and 10 healthy women who were undergoing laparoscopic sterilization, hysterectomy for benign conditions, diagnostic laparoscopy for pelvic pain, or oophorectomy for nonovarian indications. None. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns determined by immunoprecipitation and microarray (MeDIP-chip) analysis. The methylation levels were statistically significantly higher in CpG island shores (CGI shores), which lie outside of core promoter regions, and lower within gene bodies in women with PCOS relative to the controls. In addition, high CpG content promoters were the most frequently hypermethylated promoters in PCOS ovaries but were more often hypomethylated in controls. Second, 872 CGIs, specifically methylated in PCOS, represented 342 genes that could be associated with various molecular functions, including protein binding, hormone activity, and transcription regulator activity. Finally, methylation differences were validated in seven genes by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. These genes correlated to several functional families related to the pathogenesis of PCOS and may be potential biomarkers for this disease. Our results demonstrated that epigenetic modification differs between PCOS and normal ovaries, which may help to further understand the pathophysiology of this disease. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CTCF Prevents the Epigenetic Drift of EBV Latency Promoter Qp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Italo; Wiedmer, Andreas; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection requires distinct viral gene expression programs. These gene expression programs, termed latency types, are determined largely by promoter selection, and controlled through the interplay between cell-type specific transcription factors, chromatin structure, and epigenetic modifications. We used a genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to identify epigenetic modifications that correlate with different latency types. We found that the chromatin insulator protein CTCF binds at several key regulatory nodes in the EBV genome and may compartmentalize epigenetic modifications across the viral genome. Highly enriched CTCF binding sites were identified at the promoter regions upstream of Cp, Wp, EBERs, and Qp. Since Qp is essential for long-term maintenance of viral genomes in type I latency and epithelial cell infections, we focused on the role of CTCF in regulating Qp. Purified CTCF bound ∼40 bp upstream of the EBNA1 binding sites located at +10 bp relative to the transcriptional initiation site at Qp. Mutagenesis of the CTCF binding site in EBV bacmids resulted in a decrease in the recovery of stable hygromycin-resistant episomes in 293 cells. EBV lacking the Qp CTCF site showed a decrease in Qp transcription initiation and a corresponding increase in Cp and Fp promoter utilization at 8 weeks post-transfection. However, by 16 weeks post-transfection, bacmids lacking CTCF sites had no detectable Qp transcription and showed high levels of histone H3 K9 methylation and CpG DNA methylation at the Qp initiation site. These findings provide direct genetic evidence that CTCF functions as a chromatin insulator that prevents the promiscuous transcription of surrounding genes and blocks the epigenetic silencing of an essential promoter, Qp, during EBV latent infection. PMID:20730088

  20. Genome-wide characterization of the routes to pluripotency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein, Samer M I; Puri, Mira C; Tonge, Peter D; Benevento, Marco; Corso, Andrew J; Clancy, Jennifer L; Mosbergen, Rowland; Li, Mira; Lee, Dong-Sung; Cloonan, Nicole; Wood, David L A; Munoz, Javier; Middleton, Robert; Korn, Othmar; Patel, Hardip R; White, Carl A; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Gauthier, Maely E; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Kim, Jong-Il; Mar, Jessica C; Shakiba, Nika; Ritchie, William; Rasko, John E J; Grimmond, Sean M; Zandstra, Peter W; Wells, Christine A; Preiss, Thomas; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Heck, Albert J R; Rogers, Ian M; Nagy, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell reprogramming to a pluripotent state continues to challenge many of our assumptions about cellular specification, and despite major efforts, we lack a complete molecular characterization of the reprograming process. To address this gap in knowledge, we generated extensive

  1. Young men with low birthweight exhibit decreased plasticity of genome-wide muscle DNA methylation by high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW...... individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after...... a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet....

  2. A new concept: Epigenetic game theory. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Tao, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary significance of the interaction between paternal and maternal genomes in fertilized zygotes is a very interesting and challenging question. Wang et al. developed the concept of epigenetic game theory, and they try to use this concept to explain the interaction between paternal and maternal genomes in fertilized zygotes [1]. They emphasize that the embryogenesis can be considered as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos under Darwinian selection. More specifically, they integrate game theory to model the pattern of coordination of paternal genome and maternal genomes mediated by DNA methylation dynamics, and they called this epigenetic game theory.

  3. GWAMA: software for genome-wide association meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi Reedik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies in identifying novel loci contributing effects to complex human traits, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, much of the genetic component of variation in these phenotypes remains unexplained. One way to improving power to detect further novel loci is through meta-analysis of studies from the same population, increasing the sample size over any individual study. Although statistical software analysis packages incorporate routines for meta-analysis, they are ill equipped to meet the challenges of the scale and complexity of data generated in genome-wide association studies. Results We have developed flexible, open-source software for the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. The software incorporates a variety of error trapping facilities, and provides a range of meta-analysis summary statistics. The software is distributed with scripts that allow simple formatting of files containing the results of each association study and generate graphical summaries of genome-wide meta-analysis results. Conclusions The GWAMA (Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis software has been developed to perform meta-analysis of summary statistics generated from genome-wide association studies of dichotomous phenotypes or quantitative traits. Software with source files, documentation and example data files are freely available online at http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/GWAMA.

  4. Integrated analysis of hematopoietic differentiation outcomes and molecular characterization reveals unbiased differentiation capacity and minor transcriptional memory in HPC/HSC-iPSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuai; Hou, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yonghua; Xu, Zijian; Cai, Tao; Chen, Jiajie; Chang, Gang

    2017-01-23

    Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming can reset the epigenetics of somatic cells into a pluripotency compatible state. Recent studies show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) always inherit starting cell-specific characteristics, called epigenetic memory, which may be advantageous, as directed differentiation into specific cell types is still challenging; however, it also may be unpredictable when uncontrollable differentiation occurs. In consideration of biosafety in disease modeling and personalized medicine, the availability of high-quality iPSCs which lack a biased differentiation capacity and somatic memory could be indispensable. Herein, we evaluate the hematopoietic differentiation capacity and somatic memory state of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell (HPC/HSC)-derived-iPSCs (HPC/HSC-iPSCs) using a previously established sequential reprogramming system. We found that HPC/HSCs are amenable to being reprogrammed into iPSCs with unbiased differentiation capacity to hematopoietic progenitors and mature hematopoietic cells. Genome-wide analyses revealed that no global epigenetic memory was detectable in HPC/HSC-iPSCs, but only a minor transcriptional memory of HPC/HSCs existed in a specific tetraploid complementation (4 N)-incompetent HPC/HSC-iPSC line. However, the observed minor transcriptional memory had no influence on the hematopoietic differentiation capacity, indicating the reprogramming of the HPC/HSCs was nearly complete. Further analysis revealed the correlation of minor transcriptional memory with the aberrant distribution of H3K27me3. This work provides a comprehensive framework for obtaining high-quality iPSCs from HPC/HSCs with unbiased hematopoietic differentiation capacity and minor transcriptional memory.

  5. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics, gene doping, and athleticogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2010-03-01

    Hugh Montgomery's discovery of the first of more than 239 fitness genes together with rapid advances in human gene therapy have created a prospect of using genes, genetic elements, and cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This brief overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and predicts a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 acetylation patterns in AML identifies PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi; Isken, Fabienne; Agelopoulos, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    to have lower H3Ac levels in AML compared with progenitor cells, which suggested that a large number of genes are epigenetically silenced in AML. Intriguingly, we identified peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) as a novel potential tumor suppressor gene in AML. H3Ac was decreased at the PRDX2 gene promoter in AML......With the use of ChIP on microarray assays in primary leukemia samples, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts exhibit significant alterations in histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) levels at > 1000 genomic loci compared with CD34+ progenitor cells. Importantly, core promoter regions tended......, which correlated with low mRNA and protein expression. We also observed DNA hypermethylation at the PRDX2 promoter in AML. Low protein expression of the antioxidant PRDX2 gene was clinically associated with poor prognosis in patients with AML. Functionally, PRDX2 acted as inhibitor of myeloid cell...

  7. The epigenetic landscape of latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Günther

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus latency is generally thought to be governed by epigenetic modifications, but the dynamics of viral chromatin at early timepoints of latent infection are poorly understood. Here, we report a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of DNA methylation and histone modifications during latent infection with Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, the etiologic agent of Kaposi Sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL. By use of high resolution tiling microarrays in conjunction with immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA (MeDIP or modified histones (chromatin IP, ChIP, our study revealed highly distinct landscapes of epigenetic modifications associated with latent KSHV infection in several tumor-derived cell lines as well as de novo infected endothelial cells. We find that KSHV genomes are subject to profound methylation at CpG dinucleotides, leading to the establishment of characteristic global DNA methylation patterns. However, such patterns evolve slowly and thus are unlikely to control early latency. In contrast, we observed that latency-specific histone modification patterns were rapidly established upon a de novo infection. Our analysis furthermore demonstrates that such patterns are not characterized by the absence of activating histone modifications, as H3K9/K14-ac and H3K4-me3 marks were prominently detected at several loci, including the promoter of the lytic cycle transactivator Rta. While these regions were furthermore largely devoid of the constitutive heterochromatin marker H3K9-me3, we observed rapid and widespread deposition of H3K27-me3 across latent KSHV genomes, a bivalent modification which is able to repress transcription in spite of the simultaneous presence of activating marks. Our findings suggest that the modification patterns identified here induce a poised state of repression during viral latency, which can be rapidly reversed once the lytic cycle is induced.

  8. Progress and bottleneck in induced pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhen-Ning

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With their capability to undergo unlimited self-renewal and to differentiate into all cell types in the body, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, reprogrammed from somatic cells of individual patients with defined factors, have unlimited potential in cell therapy and in modeling complex human diseases. Significant progress has been achieved to improve the safety of iPSCs and the reprogramming efficiency. To avoid the cancer risk and spontaneous reactivation of the reprogramming factors associated with the random integration of viral vectors into the genome, several approaches have been established to deliver the reprogramming factors into the somatic cells without inducing genetic modification. In addition, a panel of small molecule compounds, many of which targeting the epigenetic machinery, have been identified to increase the reprogramming efficiency. Despite these progresses, recent studies have identified genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of iPSCs as well as the immunogenicity of some cells derived from iPSCs. In addition, due to the oncogenic potential of the reprogramming factors and the reprogramming-induced DNA damage, the critical tumor suppressor pathways such as p53 and ARF are activated to act as the checkpoints that suppress induced pluripotency. The inactivation of these tumor suppression pathways even transiently during reprogramming processes could have significant adverse impact on the genome integrity. These safety concerns must be resolved to improve the feasibility of the clinic development of iPSCs into human cell therapy.

  9. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data.

  10. Twins for epigenetic studies of human aging and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Most of the complex traits including aging phenotypes are caused by the interaction between genome and environmental conditions and the interface of epigenetics may be a central mechanism. Although modern technologies allow us high-throughput profiling of epigenetic patterns already at genome level...... and environmental contributions to human diseases and complex traits. In the era of functional genomics, the valuable sample of twins is helping to bridge the gap between gene activity and the environments through epigenetic mechanisms unlimited by DNA sequence variations. We propose to extend the classical twin...... design to study the aging-related molecular epigenetic phenotypes and link them with environmental exposures especially early life events. Different study designs and application issues will be highlighted and novel approaches introduced with aim at making uses of twins in assessing the environmental...

  11. Grand challenges in evolutionary and population genetics: The importance of integrating epigenetics, genomics, modeling, and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-01-01

    This is a time of explosive growth in the fields of evolutionary and population genetics, with whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics driving a transformative paradigm shift (Morozova and Marra, 2008). At the same time, advances in epigenetics are thoroughly transforming our understanding of evolutionary processes and their implications for populations, species and...

  12. Genome-wide survey and developmental expression mapping of zebrafish SET domain-containing genes.

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    Xiao-Jian Sun

    Full Text Available SET domain-containing proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family of epigenetic regulators, which are responsible for most histone lysine methylation. Since some of these genes have been revealed to be essential for embryonic development, we propose that the zebrafish, a vertebrate model organism possessing many advantages for developmental studies, can be utilized to study the biological functions of these genes and the related epigenetic mechanisms during early development. To this end, we have performed a genome-wide survey of zebrafish SET domain genes. 58 genes total have been identified. Although gene duplication events give rise to several lineage-specific paralogs, clear reciprocal orthologous relationship reveals high conservation between zebrafish and human SET domain genes. These data were further subject to an evolutionary analysis ranging from yeast to human, leading to the identification of putative clusters of orthologous groups (COGs of this gene family. By means of whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization strategy, we have also carried out a developmental expression mapping of these genes. A group of maternal SET domain genes, which are implicated in the programming of histone modification states in early development, have been identified and predicted to be responsible for all known sites of SET domain-mediated histone methylation. Furthermore, some genes show specific expression patterns in certain tissues at certain stages, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of these systems. These results provide a global view of zebrafish SET domain histone methyltransferases in evolutionary and developmental dimensions and pave the way for using zebrafish to systematically study the roles of these genes during development.

  13. Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and DNA methylation profiling of four human cell lines

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    Aaron L. Statham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning are two key mechanisms that contribute to the epigenetic control of gene expression. During carcinogenesis, the expression of many genes is altered alongside extensive changes in the epigenome, with repressed genes often being associated with local DNA hypermethylation and gain of nucleosomes at their promoters. However the spectrum of alterations that occur at distal regulatory regions has not been extensively studied. To address this we used Nucleosome Occupancy and Methylation sequencing (NOMe-seq to compare the genome-wide DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy profiles between normal and cancer cell line models of the breast and prostate. Here we describe the bioinformatic pipeline and methods that we developed for the processing and analysis of the NOMe-seq data published by (Taberlay et al., 2014 [1] and deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession GSE57498.

  14. CMS: a web-based system for visualization and analysis of genome-wide methylation data of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Doderer, Mark S; Huang, Yi-Wen; Roa, Juan C; Goodfellow, Paul J; Kizer, E Lynette; Huang, Tim H M; Chen, Yidong

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with gene suppression, and its unique genome-wide profiles have been linked to tumor progression. Coupled with high-throughput sequencing technologies, it can now efficiently determine genome-wide methylation profiles in cancer cells. Also, experimental and computational technologies make it possible to find the functional relationship between cancer-specific methylation patterns and their clinicopathological parameters. Cancer methylome system (CMS) is a web-based database application designed for the visualization, comparison and statistical analysis of human cancer-specific DNA methylation. Methylation intensities were obtained from MBDCap-sequencing, pre-processed and stored in the database. 191 patient samples (169 tumor and 22 normal specimen) and 41 breast cancer cell-lines are deposited in the database, comprising about 6.6 billion uniquely mapped sequence reads. This provides comprehensive and genome-wide epigenetic portraits of human breast cancer and endometrial cancer to date. Two views are proposed for users to better understand methylation structure at the genomic level or systemic methylation alteration at the gene level. In addition, a variety of annotation tracks are provided to cover genomic information. CMS includes important analytic functions for interpretation of methylation data, such as the detection of differentially methylated regions, statistical calculation of global methylation intensities, multiple gene sets of biologically significant categories, interactivity with UCSC via custom-track data. We also present examples of discoveries utilizing the framework. CMS provides visualization and analytic functions for cancer methylome datasets. A comprehensive collection of datasets, a variety of embedded analytic functions and extensive applications with biological and translational significance make this system powerful and unique in cancer methylation research. CMS is freely accessible

  15. Single-cell 5hmC sequencing reveals chromosome-wide cell-to-cell variability and enables lineage reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman, Dylan; Dey, Siddharth S; Boisset, Jean-Charles; Crosetto, Nicola; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic DNA modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has crucial roles in development and gene regulation. Quantifying the abundance of this epigenetic mark at the single-cell level could enable us to understand its roles. We present a single-cell, genome-wide and strand-specific 5hmC

  16. Understanding Neurological Disease Mechanisms in the Era of Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning field of epigenetics is making a significant impact on our understanding of brain evolution, development, and function. In fact, it is now clear that epigenetic mechanisms promote seminal neurobiological processes, ranging from neural stem cell maintenance and differentiation to learning and memory. At the molecular level, epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues, including the deployment of cell type–specific gene networks and those underlying synaptic plasticity. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of epigenetic factors can, in turn, induce remarkable changes in neural cell identity and cognitive and behavioral phenotypes. Not surprisingly, it is also becoming apparent that epigenetics is intimately involved in neurological disease pathogenesis. Herein, we highlight emerging paradigms for linking epigenetic machinery and processes with neurological disease states, including how (1) mutations in genes encoding epigenetic factors cause disease, (2) genetic variation in genes encoding epigenetic factors modify disease risk, (3) abnormalities in epigenetic factor expression, localization, or function are involved in disease pathophysiology, (4) epigenetic mechanisms regulate disease-associated genomic loci, gene products, and cellular pathways, and (5) differential epigenetic profiles are present in patient-derived central and peripheral tissues. PMID:23571666

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Genome-Wide Transcriptomic, Methylomic, and Network Perturbations in Brain and Blood Predicting Neurological Disorders

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    Qingying Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the traumatic brain injury (TBI pathology, particularly concussive injury, is a serious obstacle for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term prognosis. Here we utilize modern systems biology in a rodent model of concussive injury to gain a thorough view of the impact of TBI on fundamental aspects of gene regulation, which have the potential to drive or alter the course of the TBI pathology. TBI perturbed epigenomic programming, transcriptional activities (expression level and alternative splicing, and the organization of genes in networks centered around genes such as Anax2, Ogn, and Fmod. Transcriptomic signatures in the hippocampus are involved in neuronal signaling, metabolism, inflammation, and blood function, and they overlap with those in leukocytes from peripheral blood. The homology between genomic signatures from blood and brain elicited by TBI provides proof of concept information for development of biomarkers of TBI based on composite genomic patterns. By intersecting with human genome-wide association studies, many TBI signature genes and network regulators identified in our rodent model were causally associated with brain disorders with relevant link to TBI. The overall results show that concussive brain injury reprograms genes which could lead to predisposition to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and that genomic information from peripheral leukocytes has the potential to predict TBI pathogenesis in the brain.

  18. Obesity: epigenetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.

  19. Genome-wide tracking of unmethylated DNA Alu repeats in normal and cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Jairo; Vives, Laura; Jordà, Mireia

    2008-01-01

    Methylation of the cytosine is the most frequent epigenetic modification of DNA in mammalian cells. In humans, most of the methylated cytosines are found in CpG-rich sequences within tandem and interspersed repeats that make up to 45% of the human genome, being Alu repeats the most common family....

  20. Human X chromosome inactivation and reactivation: implications for cell reprogramming and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Irene; Fisher, Amanda G

    2017-11-05

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an exemplar of epigenetic regulation that is set up as pluripotent cells differentiate. Once established, XCI is stably propagated, but can be reversed in vivo or by pluripotent reprogramming in vitro Although reprogramming provides a useful model for inactive X (Xi) reactivation in mouse, the relative instability and heterogeneity of human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hampers comparable progress in human. Here we review studies aimed at reactivating the human Xi using different reprogramming strategies. We outline our recent results using mouse ES cells to reprogramme female human fibroblasts by cell-cell fusion. We show that pluripotent reprogramming induces widespread and rapid chromatin remodelling in which the human Xi loses XIST and H3K27m3 enrichment and selected Xi genes become reactivated, ahead of mitotic division. Using RNA sequencing to map the extent of human Xi reactivation, and chromatin-modifying drugs to potentiate reactivation, we outline how this approach could be used to better design strategies to re-express human X-linked loci. As cell fusion induces the expression of human pluripotency genes that represent both the 'primed' and 'naive' states, this approach may also offer a fresh opportunity to segregate human pluripotent states with distinct Xi expression profiles, using single-cell-based approaches.This article is part of the themed issue 'X-chromosome inactivation: a tribute to Mary Lyon'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. How does a neuron know to modulate its epigenetic machinery in response to early-life environment/experience?

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    Carley A Karsten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently re-programmed via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early life experience on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting re-wiring of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other stress-related disorders.

  2. Epigenetic Regulation in Particulate Matter-Mediated Cardiopulmonary Toxicities: A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe Gn; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exerts significant adverse health effects in global populations, particularly in developing countries with extensive air pollution. Understanding of the mechanisms of PM-induced health effects including the risk for cardiovascular diseases remains limited. In addition to the direct cellular physiological responses such as mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, PM mediates remarkable dysregulation of gene expression, especially in cardiovascular tissues. The PM-mediated gene dysregulation is likely to be a complex mechanism affected by various genetic and non-genetic factors. Notably, PM is known to alter epigenetic markers (e.g., DNA methylation and histone modifications), which may contribute to air pollution-mediated health consequences including the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Notably, epigenetic changes induced by ambient PM exposure have emerged to play a critical role in gene regulation. Though the underlying mechanism(s) are not completely clear, the available evidence suggests that the modulated activities of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone acetylase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) may contribute to the epigenetic changes induced by PM or PM-related chemicals. By employing genome-wide epigenomic and systems biology approaches, PM toxicogenomics could conceivably progress greatly with the potential identification of individual epigenetic loci associated with dysregulated gene expression after PM exposure, as well the interactions between epigenetic pathways and PM. Furthermore, novel therapeutic targets based on epigenetic markers could be identified through future epigenomic studies on PM-mediated cardiopulmonary toxicities. These considerations collectively inform the future population health applications of genomics in developing countries while benefiting global personalized medicine at the same time.

  3. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation

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    Shedrack Reuben Kitimu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype By Sequencing (msGBS identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologues have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops.

  4. Genome-wide DNA polymorphism analyses using VariScan

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    Vilella Albert J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequence polymorphisms analysis can provide valuable information on the evolutionary forces shaping nucleotide variation, and provides an insight into the functional significance of genomic regions. The recent ongoing genome projects will radically improve our capabilities to detect specific genomic regions shaped by natural selection. Current available methods and software, however, are unsatisfactory for such genome-wide analysis. Results We have developed methods for the analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms at the genome-wide scale. These methods, which have been tested on a coalescent-simulated and actual data files from mouse and human, have been implemented in the VariScan software package version 2.0. Additionally, we have also incorporated a graphical-user interface. The main features of this software are: i exhaustive population-genetic analyses including those based on the coalescent theory; ii analysis adapted to the shallow data generated by the high-throughput genome projects; iii use of genome annotations to conduct a comprehensive analyses separately for different functional regions; iv identification of relevant genomic regions by the sliding-window and wavelet-multiresolution approaches; v visualization of the results integrated with current genome annotations in commonly available genome browsers. Conclusion VariScan is a powerful and flexible suite of software for the analysis of DNA polymorphisms. The current version implements new algorithms, methods, and capabilities, providing an important tool for an exhaustive exploratory analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data.

  5. A novel statistic for genome-wide interaction analysis.

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    Xuesen Wu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although great progress in genome-wide association studies (GWAS has been made, the significant SNP associations identified by GWAS account for only a few percent of the genetic variance, leading many to question where and how we can find the missing heritability. There is increasing interest in genome-wide interaction analysis as a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. However, the existing statistics for testing interaction have low power for genome-wide interaction analysis. To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we have developed a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked. The null distribution and the type I error rates of the new statistic for testing interaction are validated using simulations. Extensive power studies show that the developed statistic has much higher power to detect interaction than classical logistic regression. The results identified 44 and 211 pairs of SNPs showing significant evidence of interactions with FDR<0.001 and 0.001genome-wide interaction analysis is a valuable tool for finding remaining missing heritability unexplained by the current GWAS, and the developed novel statistic is able to search significant interaction between SNPs across the genome. Real data analysis showed that the results of genome-wide interaction analysis can be replicated in two independent studies.

  6. 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability. Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 14–18 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher J; Ausió, Juan

    2012-06-01

    The 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability in Whistler, Canada, 14-18 March 2012, brought together 31 speakers from different nationalities. The organizing committee, led by Jim Davie (Chair) at the University of Manitoba (Manitoba, Canada), consisted of several established researchers in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics from across Canada. The meeting was centered on the contribution of epigenetics to gene expression, DNA damage and repair, and the role of environmental factors. A few interesting talks on replication added some insightful information on the controversial issue of histone post-translational modifications as genuine epigenetic marks that are inherited through cell division.

  7. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring

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    Neil A Youngson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16-19 weeks old, n = 14/14. A small (0.25% increase in total 5-methyl-2Ͳ-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells.

  8. A genome-wide methylation study on obesity: differential variability and differential methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Barnes, Vernon A; De Miguel, Carmen; Pollock, Jennifer; Ownby, Dennis; Shi, Hidong; Zhu, Haidong; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling

    2013-05-01

    Besides differential methylation, DNA methylation variation has recently been proposed and demonstrated to be a potential contributing factor to cancer risk. Here we aim to examine whether differential variability in methylation is also an important feature of obesity, a typical non-malignant common complex disease. We analyzed genome-wide methylation profiles of over 470,000 CpGs in peripheral blood samples from 48 obese and 48 lean African-American youth aged 14-20 y old. A substantial number of differentially variable CpG sites (DVCs), using statistics based on variances, as well as a substantial number of differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs), using statistics based on means, were identified. Similar to the findings in cancers, DVCs generally exhibited an outlier structure and were more variable in cases than in controls. By randomly splitting the current sample into a discovery and validation set, we observed that both the DVCs and DMCs identified from the first set could independently predict obesity status in the second set. Furthermore, both the genes harboring DMCs and the genes harboring DVCs showed significant enrichment of genes identified by genome-wide association studies on obesity and related diseases, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers, supporting their roles in the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity. We generalized the recent finding on methylation variability in cancer research to obesity and demonstrated that differential variability is also an important feature of obesity-related methylation changes. Future studies on the epigenetics of obesity will benefit from both statistics based on means and statistics based on variances.

  9. Genome-wide analysis reveals a cell cycle-dependent mechanism controlling centromere propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Sylvia; Mellone, Barbara G; Betts, Craig M; Zhang, Weiguo; Karpen, Gary H; Straight, Aaron F

    2008-12-01

    Centromeres are the structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation, spindle attachment, and chromosome segregation. In this study, we isolated factors required for centromere propagation using genome-wide RNA interference screening for defects in centromere protein A (CENP-A; centromere identifier [CID]) localization in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified the proteins CAL1 and CENP-C as essential factors for CID assembly at the centromere. CID, CAL1, and CENP-C coimmunoprecipitate and are mutually dependent for centromere localization and function. We also identified the mitotic cyclin A (CYCA) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibitor RCA1/Emi1 as regulators of centromere propagation. We show that CYCA is centromere localized and that CYCA and RCA1/Emi1 couple centromere assembly to the cell cycle through regulation of the fizzy-related/CDH1 subunit of the APC. Our findings identify essential components of the epigenetic machinery that ensures proper specification and propagation of the centromere and suggest a mechanism for coordinating centromere inheritance with cell division.

  10. Direct Neuronal Reprogramming for Disease Modeling Studies Using Patient-Derived Neurons: What Have We Learned?

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    Janelle Drouin-Ouellet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct neuronal reprogramming, by which a neuron is formed via direct conversion from a somatic cell without going through a pluripotent intermediate stage, allows for the possibility of generating patient-derived neurons. A unique feature of these so-called induced neurons (iNs is the potential to maintain aging and epigenetic signatures of the donor, which is critical given that many diseases of the CNS are age related. Here, we review the published literature on the work that has been undertaken using iNs to model human brain disorders. Furthermore, as disease-modeling studies using this direct neuronal reprogramming approach are becoming more widely adopted, it is important to assess the criteria that are used to characterize the iNs, especially in relation to the extent to which they are mature adult neurons. In particular: i what constitutes an iN cell, ii which stages of conversion offer the earliest/optimal time to assess features that are specific to neurons and/or a disorder and iii whether generating subtype-specific iNs is critical to the disease-related features that iNs express. Finally, we discuss the range of potential biomedical applications that can be explored using patient-specific models of neurological disorders with iNs, and the challenges that will need to be overcome in order to realize these applications.

  11. Genome-wide study of correlations between genomic features and their relationship with the regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravatsky, Yuri V; Chechetkin, Vladimir R; Tchurikov, Nikolai A; Kravatskaya, Galina I

    2015-02-01

    The broad class of tasks in genetics and epigenetics can be reduced to the study of various features that are distributed over the genome (genome tracks). The rapid and efficient processing of the huge amount of data stored in the genome-scale databases cannot be achieved without the software packages based on the analytical criteria. However, strong inhomogeneity of genome tracks hampers the development of relevant statistics. We developed the criteria for the assessment of genome track inhomogeneity and correlations between two genome tracks. We also developed a software package, Genome Track Analyzer, based on this theory. The theory and software were tested on simulated data and were applied to the study of correlations between CpG islands and transcription start sites in the Homo sapiens genome, between profiles of protein-binding sites in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, and between DNA double-strand breaks and histone marks in the H. sapiens genome. Significant correlations between transcription start sites on the forward and the reverse strands were observed in genomes of D. melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, H. sapiens, and Danio rerio. The observed correlations may be related to the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Genome Track Analyzer is freely available at http://ancorr.eimb.ru/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome

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    Johanna Klughammer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS, which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish. Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org. The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome.

  13. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-05-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the

  14. Genome-Wide Approaches to Drosophila Heart Development

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    Manfred Frasch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the dorsal vessel in Drosophila is one of the first systems in which key mechanisms regulating cardiogenesis have been defined in great detail at the genetic and molecular level. Due to evolutionary conservation, these findings have also provided major inputs into studies of cardiogenesis in vertebrates. Many of the major components that control Drosophila cardiogenesis were discovered based on candidate gene approaches and their functions were defined by employing the outstanding genetic tools and molecular techniques available in this system. More recently, approaches have been taken that aim to interrogate the entire genome in order to identify novel components and describe genomic features that are pertinent to the regulation of heart development. Apart from classical forward genetic screens, the availability of the thoroughly annotated Drosophila genome sequence made new genome-wide approaches possible, which include the generation of massive numbers of RNA interference (RNAi reagents that were used in forward genetic screens, as well as studies of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the developing heart under normal and experimentally manipulated conditions. Moreover, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments have been performed with the aim to define the full set of genomic binding sites of the major cardiogenic transcription factors, their relevant target genes, and a more complete picture of the regulatory network that drives cardiogenesis. This review will give an overview on these genome-wide approaches to Drosophila heart development and on computational analyses of the obtained information that ultimately aim to provide a description of this process at the systems level.

  15. 2009 Epigenetics Gordon Research Conference (August 9 - 14, 2009)

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    Jeanie Lee

    2009-08-14

    Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in genome function that occur without a change in primary DNA sequence. The 2009 Gordon Conference in Epigenetics will feature discussion of various epigenetic phenomena, emerging understanding of their underlying mechanisms, and the growing appreciation that human, animal, and plant health all depend on proper epigenetic control. Special emphasis will be placed on genome-environment interactions particularly as they relate to human disease. Towards improving knowledge of molecular mechanisms, the conference will feature international leaders studying the roles of higher order chromatin structure, noncoding RNA, repeat elements, nuclear organization, and morphogenic evolution. Traditional and new model organisms are selected from plants, fungi, and metazoans.

  16. [Epigenetics 2.0: The multiple faces of the genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetics is the branch of genetics that studies the dynamic relationship between stable genotypes and varying phenotypes. To this end, epigenetics aims to discover the molecular mechanisms that explain how different nutrients and hormones, environmental changes, and emotional, social and cognitive experiences modify gene expression and behaviors, even permanently so. Psychiatry has learned that diseases with strong genetic predisposition, such as schizophrenia, show a concordance of around 50% between monozygotic twins, thus evidencing the importance of the genetic background and the presence of environmental variables that stimulate or block phenotypic development. The interest in epigenetics has increased during the last few years due to fundamental discoveries made in molecular and behavioral genetics, although within this framework factual knowledge coexists with fictional expectations and wrong concepts. Is it possible that epigenetic variants modify temperament and human behavior? May abused or neglected children develop long-lasting epigenetic marks in their DNA? May bipolar states correlate with different epigenetic signatures? Studying these subjects in not an easy task, but experiments performed in lab animals suggest that these conjectures are reasonable, although there is still a long distance between hypotheses and scientifically proven facts.

  17. Re-patterning of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 and DNA methylation during fibroblast conversion into induced cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs offers an alternative strategy for cardiac disease modeling and regeneration. During iCM reprogramming, the starting fibroblasts must overcome existing epigenetic barriers to acquire the CM-like chromatin pattern. However, epigenetic dynamics along this reprogramming process have not been studied. Here, we took advantage of our recently generated polycistronic system and determined the dynamics of two critical histone marks, H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, in parallel with gene expression at a set of carefully selected cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming. We observed reduced H3K27me3 and increased H3K4me3 at cardiac promoters as early as day 3, paralleled by a rapid significant increase in their mRNA expression. In contrast, H3K27me3 at loci encoding fibroblast marker genes did not increase until day 10 and H3K4me3 progressively decreased along the reprogramming process; these changes were accompanied by a gradual decrease in the mRNA expression of fibroblast marker genes. Further analyses of fibroblast-enriched transcription factors revealed a similarly late deposition of H3K27me3 and decreased mRNA expression of Sox9, Twist1 and Twist2, three important players in epithelial−mesenchymal transition. Our data suggest early rapid activation of the cardiac program and later progressive suppression of fibroblast fate at both epigenetic and transcriptional levels. Additionally, we determined the DNA methylation states of representative cardiac promoters and found that not every single CpG was equally demethylated during early stages of iCM reprogramming. Rather, there are specific CpGs, whose demethylation states correlated tightly with transcription activation, that we propose are the major contributing CpGs. Our work thus reveals a differential re-patterning of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 at cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming and could provide future genome-wide

  18. Epigenetic control of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María E; Nota, Florencia; Cambiagno, Damián A

    2010-07-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, gene expression and DNA recombination are affected by structural chromatin traits. Chromatin structure is shaped by the activity of enzymes that either introduce covalent modifications in DNA and histone proteins or use energy from ATP to disrupt histone-DNA interactions. The genomic 'marks' that are generated by covalent modifications of histones and DNA, or by the deposition of histone variants, are susceptible to being altered in response to stress. Recent evidence has suggested that proteins generating these epigenetic marks play crucial roles in the defence against pathogens. Histone deacetylases are involved in the activation of jasmonic acid- and ethylene-sensitive defence mechanisms. ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers mediate the constitutive repression of the salicylic acid-dependent pathway, whereas histone methylation at the WRKY70 gene promoter affects the activation of this pathway. Interestingly, bacterial-infected tissues show a net reduction in DNA methylation, which may affect the disease resistance genes responsible for the surveillance against pathogens. As some epigenetic marks can be erased or maintained and transmitted to offspring, epigenetic mechanisms may provide plasticity for the dynamic control of emerging pathogens without the generation of genomic lesions.

  19. Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanen, N Carolyn

    2006-10-15

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a complex group of behaviorally related disorders that are primarily genetic in origin. Involvement of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ASD has been suggested by the occurrence of ASD in patients with disorders arising from epigenetic mutations (fragile X syndrome) or that involve key epigenetic regulatory factors (Rett syndrome). Moreover, the most common recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in ASD involve maternally derived duplications of the imprinted domain on chromosome 15q11-13. Thus, parent of origin effects on sharing and linkage to imprinted regions on chromosomes 15q and 7q suggest that these regions warrant specific examination from an epigenetic perspective, particularly because epigenetic modifications do not change the primary genomic sequence, allowing risk epialleles to evade detection using standard screening strategies. This review examines the potential role of epigenetic factors in the etiology of ASD.

  20. Epigenetic functions enriched in transcription factors binding to mouse recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jie

    2012-06-21

    The regulatory mechanism of recombination is a fundamental problem in genomics, with wide applications in genome-wide association studies, birth-defect diseases, molecular evolution, cancer research, etc. In mammalian genomes, recombination events cluster into short genomic regions called "recombination hotspots". Recently, a 13-mer motif enriched in hotspots is identified as a candidate cis-regulatory element of human recombination hotspots; moreover, a zinc finger protein, PRDM9, binds to this motif and is associated with variation of recombination phenotype in human and mouse genomes, thus is a trans-acting regulator of recombination hotspots. However, this pair of cis and trans-regulators covers only a fraction of hotspots, thus other regulators of recombination hotspots remain to be discovered. In this paper, we propose an approach to predicting additional trans-regulators from DNA-binding proteins by comparing their enrichment of binding sites in hotspots. Applying this approach on newly mapped mouse hotspots genome-wide, we confirmed that PRDM9 is a major trans-regulator of hotspots. In addition, a list of top candidate trans-regulators of mouse hotspots is reported. Using GO analysis we observed that the top genes are enriched with function of histone modification, highlighting the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of recombination hotspots.

  1. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27555869

  2. Advances in epigenetics and epigenomics for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2011-10-01

    In the post-genomic era, epigenetic factors-literally those that are "over" or "above" genetic ones and responsible for controlling the expression and function of genes-have emerged as important mediators of development and aging; gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions; and the pathophysiology of complex disease states. Here, we provide a brief overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms (ie, DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA regulation). We highlight the nearly ubiquitous profiles of epigenetic dysregulation that have been found in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. We also review innovative methods and technologies that enable the characterization of individual epigenetic modifications and more widespread epigenomic states at high resolution. We conclude that, together with complementary genetic, genomic, and related approaches, interrogating epigenetic and epigenomic profiles in neurodegenerative diseases represent important and increasingly practical strategies for advancing our understanding of and the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  3. A comparison of non-integrating reprogramming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Daheron, Laurence; Brickler, Thomas R; Entwisle, Samuel; Chan, Karrie; Cianci, Amelia; DeVine, Alexander; Ettenger, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Kelly; Godfrey, Michelle; Gupta, Dipti; McPherson, Jade; Malwadkar, Prerana; Gupta, Manav; Bell, Blair; Doi, Akiko; Jung, Namyoung; Li, Xin; Lynes, Maureen S; Brookes, Emily; Cherry, Anne B C; Demirbas, Didem; Tsankov, Alexander M; Zon, Leonard I; Rubin, Lee L; Feinberg, Andrew P; Meissner, Alexander; Cowan, Chad A; Daley, George Q

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs1–3) are useful in disease modeling and drug discovery, and they promise to provide a new generation of cell-based therapeutics. To date there has been no systematic evaluation of the most widely used techniques for generating integration-free hiPSCs. Here we compare Sendai-viral (SeV)4, episomal (Epi)5 and mRNA transfection mRNA6 methods using a number of criteria. All methods generated high-quality hiPSCs, but significant differences existed in aneuploidy rates, reprogramming efficiency, reliability and workload. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of each approach, and present and review the results of a survey of a large number of human reprogramming laboratories on their independent experiences and preferences. Our analysis provides a valuable resource to inform the use of specific reprogramming methods for different laboratories and different applications, including clinical translation. PMID:25437882

  4. Genome‐wide DNA methylation analysis identifies MEGF10 as a novel epigenetically repressed candidate tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Jessica; Tomari, Ayumi; Dallosso, Anthony R.; Szemes, Marianna; Kaselova, Martina; Curry, Thomas J.; Almutairi, Bader; Etchevers, Heather C.; McConville, Carmel; Malik, Karim T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer in which many children still have poor outcomes, emphasising the need to better understand its pathogenesis. Despite recent genome‐wide mutation analyses, many primary neuroblastomas do not contain recognizable driver mutations, implicating alternate molecular pathologies such as epigenetic alterations. To discover genes that become epigenetically deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, we took the novel approach of comparing neuroblastomas to neural crest precursor cells, using genome‐wide DNA methylation analysis. We identified 93 genes that were significantly differentially methylated of which 26 (28%) were hypermethylated and 67 (72%) were hypomethylated. Concentrating on hypermethylated genes to identify candidate tumor suppressor loci, we found the cell engulfment and adhesion factor gene MEGF10 to be epigenetically repressed by DNA hypermethylation or by H3K27/K9 methylation in neuroblastoma cell lines. MEGF10 showed significantly down‐regulated expression in neuroblastoma tumor samples; furthermore patients with the lowest‐expressing tumors had reduced relapse‐free survival. Our functional studies showed that knock‐down of MEGF10 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines promoted cell growth, consistent with MEGF10 acting as a clinically relevant, epigenetically deregulated neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27862318

  5. A minimal set of tissue-specific hypomethylated CpGs constitute epigenetic signatures of developmental programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Colaneri

    Full Text Available Cell specific states of the chromatin are programmed during mammalian development. Dynamic DNA methylation across the developing embryo guides a program of repression, switching off genes in most cell types. Thus, the majority of the tissue specific differentially methylated sites (TS-DMS must be un-methylated CpGs.Comparison of expanded Methyl Sensitive Cut Counting data (eMSCC among four tissues (liver, testes, brain and kidney from three C57BL/6J mice, identified 138,052 differentially methylated sites of which 23,270 contain CpGs un-methylated in only one tissue (TS-DMS. Most of these CpGs were located in intergenic regions, outside of promoters, CpG islands or their shores, and up to 20% of them overlapped reported active enhancers. Indeed, tissue-specific enhancers were up to 30 fold enriched in TS-DMS. Testis showed the highest number of TS-DMS, but paradoxically their associated genes do not appear to be specific to the germ cell functions, but rather are involved in organism development. In the other tissues the differentially methylated genes are associated with tissue-specific physiological or anatomical functions. The identified sets of TS-DMS quantify epigenetic distances between tissues, generated during development. We applied this concept to measure the extent of reprogramming in the liver of mice exposed to in utero or early postnatal nutritional stress. Different protocols of food restriction reprogrammed the liver methylome in different but reproducible ways.Thus, each identified set of differentially methylated sites constituted an epigenetic signature that traced the developmental programing or the early nutritional reprogramming of each exposed mouse. We propose that our approach has the potential to outline a number of disease-associated epigenetic states. The composition of differentially methylated CpGs may vary with each situation, behaving as a composite variable, which can be used as a pre-symptomatic marker for

  6. Pluripotent Conversion of Muscle Stem Cells Without Reprogramming Factors or Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bipasha; Shenoy P, Sudheer

    2016-02-01

    Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several lineages including skeletal muscle precursor cells. Here, we show that MDSCs from myostatin null mice (Mstn (-/-) ) can be readily induced into pluripotent stem cells without using reprogramming factors. Microarray studies revealed a strong upregulation of markers like Leukemia Inhibitory factor (LIF) and Leukemia Inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) in Mstn (-/-) MDSCs as compared to wild type MDSCs (WT-MDSCs). Furthermore when cultured in mouse embryonic stem cell media with LIF for 95 days, Mstn (-/-) MDSCs formed embryonic stem cell (ES) like colonies. We termed such ES like cells as the culture-induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSC). CiPSCs from Mstn (-/-) MDSCs were phenotypically similar to ESCs, expressed high levels of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and SSEA-1, maintained a normal karyotype. Furthermore, CiPSCs formed embryoid bodies and teratomas when injected into immunocompromised mice. In addition, CiPSCs differentiated into somatic cells of all three lineages. We further show that culturing in ES cell media, resulted in hypermethylation and downregulation of BMP2 in Mstn(-/-) MDSCs. Western blot further confirmed a down regulation of BMP2 signaling in Mstn (-/-) MDSCs in supportive of pluripotent reprogramming. Given that down regulation of BMP2 has been shown to induce pluripotency in cells, we propose that lack of myostatin epigenetically reprograms the MDSCs to become pluripotent stem cells. Thus, here we report the successful establishment of ES-like cells from adult stem cells of the non-germline origin under culture-induced conditions without introducing reprogramming genes.

  7. Nucleosome organizations in induced pluripotent stem cells reprogrammed from somatic cells belonging to three different germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Zheng, Weisheng; Jiang, Yonghua; Ding, Guitao; Hou, Xinfeng; Tang, Yitao; Li, Yueying; Gao, Shuai; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaobai; Liu, Wenqiang; Kou, Xiaochen; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Cizhong; Gao, Shaorong

    2014-12-21

    Nucleosome organization determines the chromatin state, which in turn controls gene expression or silencing. Nucleosome remodeling occurs during somatic cell reprogramming, but it is still unclear to what degree the re-established nucleosome organization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resembles embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and whether the iPSCs inherit some residual gene expression from the parental fibroblast cells. We generated genome-wide nucleosome maps in mouse ESCs and in iPSCs reprogrammed from somatic cells belonging to three different germ layers using a secondary reprogramming system. Pairwise comparisons showed that the nucleosome organizations in the iPSCs, regardless of the iPSCs' tissue of origin, were nearly identical to the ESCs, but distinct from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). There is a canonical nucleosome arrangement of -1, nucleosome depletion region, +1, +2, +3, and so on nucleosomes around the transcription start sites of active genes whereas only a nucleosome occupies silent transcriptional units. Transcription factor binding sites possessed characteristic nucleosomal architecture, such that their access was governed by the rotational and translational settings of the nucleosome. Interestingly, the tissue-specific genes were highly expressed only in the parental somatic cells of the corresponding iPS cell line before reprogramming, but had a similar expression level in all the resultant iPSCs and ESCs. The re-established nucleosome landscape during nuclear reprogramming provides a conserved setting for accessibility of DNA sequences in mouse pluripotent stem cells. No persistent residual expression program or nucleosome positioning of the parental somatic cells that reflected their tissue of origin was passed on to the resulting mouse iPSCs.

  8. How to stomach an epigenetic insult: the gastric cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Nisha; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Tan, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a deadly malignancy afflicting close to a million people worldwide. Patient survival is poor and largely due to late diagnosis and suboptimal therapies. Disease heterogeneity is a substantial obstacle, underscoring the need for precision treatment strategies. Studies have identified different subgroups of gastric cancer displaying not just genetic, but also distinct epigenetic hallmarks. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities in gastric cancer are not mere bystander events, but rather promote carcinogenesis through active mechanisms. Epigenetic aberrations, induced by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, are an early component of gastric carcinogenesis, probably preceding genetic abnormalities. This Review summarizes our current understanding of the gastric cancer epigenome, highlighting key advances in recent years in both tumours and pre-malignant lesions, made possible through targeted and genome-wide technologies. We focus on studies related to DNA methylation and histone modifications, linking these findings to potential therapeutic opportunities. Lessons learned from the gastric cancer epigenome might also prove relevant for other gastrointestinal cancers.

  9. Genome-wide DNA-(de)methylation is associated with Noninfectious Bud-failure exhibition in Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A.Webb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Chan, Helen M; Parfitt, Dan E; Crisosto, Carlos H; Gradziel, Thomas M

    2017-02-16

    Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar. Genome-wide methylation profiles for different clones within almond genotypes were developed to examine their association with BF levels and association with the chronological time from initial propagation. The degree of BF exhibition was found to be associated with DNA-(de)methylation and clonal age, which suggests that epigenetic changes associated with ageing may be involved in the differential exhibition of BF within and among almond clones. Research is needed to investigate the potential of DNA-(de)methylation status as a predictor for BF as well as for effective strategies to improve clonal selection against age related deterioration. This is the first report of an epigenetic-related disorder threatening a major tree crop.

  10. Genome-wide association study of multiplex schizophrenia pedigrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinson, Douglas F; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs).......The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs)....

  11. Tertiary Epimutations – A Novel Aspect of Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance Promoting Genome Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrey, John R.; Lehle, Jake D.; Raju, Seetha S.; Wang, Yufeng; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental factors can induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Alterations to the epigenome termed “epimutations” include “primary epimutations” which are epigenetic alterations in the absence of genetic change and “secondary epimutations” which form following an initial genetic change. To determine if secondary epimutations contribute to transgenerational transmission of disease following in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin, we exposed pregnant female rats carrying the lacI mutation-reporter transgene to vinclozolin and assessed the frequency of mutations in kidney tissue and sperm recovered from F1 and F3 generation progeny. Our results confirm that vinclozolin induces primary epimutations rather than secondary epimutations, but also suggest that some primary epimutations can predispose a subsequent accelerated accumulation of genetic mutations in F3 generation descendants that have the potential to contribute to transgenerational phenotypes. We therefore propose the existence of “tertiary epimutations” which are initial primary epimutations that promote genome instability leading to an accelerated accumulation of genetic mutations. PMID:27992467

  12. The epigenetic alterations of endogenous retroelements in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Maurizio

    2018-02-16

    Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation. Indeed, most of the genomic CpG sites subjected to DNA methylation in the nuclear DNA are carried by these repetitive elements. As other parts of the genome, endogenous retroelements and other transposable elements are subjected to deep epigenetic alterations during aging, repeatedly observed in the context of organismal and cellular senescence, in human and other species. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge about the epigenetic alterations occurring in this large, non-genic portion of the genome in aging and age-related conditions, with a focus on the causes and the possible functional consequences of these alterations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood Cells of Pigs Cloned by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Li, Shengting; Lin, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To date, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of cloned pigs has not been investigated. Due to the relatively low success rate of pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a better understanding of the epigenetic reprogramming and the global methylation patterns associated with development...... in cloned pigs is required. In this study we applied methylation-specific digital karyotyping tag sequencing by Solexa technology and investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes in comparison with their naturally bred controls....... In the result, we found that globally there was no significant difference of DNA methylation patterns between the two groups. Locus-specifically, some genes involved in embryonic development presented a generally increased level of methylation. Our findings suggest that in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes...

  14. Epigenetics in mammary gland biology and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the post genome era, the focus has shifted to understanding the mechanisms that regulate the interpretation of the genetic code. "Epigenetics" as a research field is taking center stage. Epigenetics is a term which is now being used throughout the scientific community in different contexts from p...

  15. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Shedrack Reuben Kitimu; Shedrack Reuben Kitimu; Julian eTaylor; Timothy J March; Fred eTairo; Mike J Wilkinson; Carlos Marcelino Rodriguez Lopez

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta...

  16. Adiponectin Concentrations: A Genome-wide Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, Sun Ha; Sull, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong-Eun; Shin, Chol; Park, Jongkeun; Kimm, Heejin; Cho, Eun-Young; Shin, Eun-Soon; Yun, Ji Eun; Park, Ji Wan; Kim, Sang Yeun; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Eun Jung; Baik, Inkyung; Kao, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. To date, there has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adiponectin levels in Asians. Here we present a GWAS of a cohort of Korean volunteers. A total of 4,001 subjects were genotyped by using a genome-wide marker panel in a two-stage design (979 subjects initially and 3,022 in a second stage). Another 2,304 subjects were used for follow-up replication studies with selected markers. In the discovery phase, the top SNP a...

  17. A genome-wide scan reveals important roles of DNA methylation in human longevity by regulating age-related disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hui Xiao

    Full Text Available It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to human longevity. Besides the hypothesis of existence of longevity genes, another suggests that a lower frequency of risk alleles decreases the incidence of age-related diseases in the long-lived people. However, the latter finds no support from recent genetic studies. Considering the crucial role of epigenetic modification in gene regulation, we then hypothesize that suppressing disease-related genes in longevity individuals is likely achieved by epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genome-wide methylation profile in 4 Chinese female centenarians and 4 middle-aged controls using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. 626 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed between both groups. Interestingly, genes with these DMRs were enriched in age-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This pattern remains rather stable after including methylomes of two white individuals. Further analyses suggest that the observed DMRs likely have functional roles in regulating disease-associated gene expressions, with some genes [e.g. caspase 3 (CASP3] being down-regulated whereas the others [i.e. interleukin 1 receptor, type 2 (IL1R2] up-regulated. Therefore, our study suggests that suppressing the disease-related genes via epigenetic modification is an important contributor to human longevity.

  18. DOT1L inhibitor improves early development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the genome of donor cells causes poor early and full-term developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Previous research indicate that inhibition of the histone H3 K79 methyltransferase DOT1L, using a selective pharmacological...... inhibitor EPZ004777 (EPZ), significantly improved reprogramming efficiency during the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the roles of DOT1L in porcine nuclear transfer-mediated cellular reprogramming are not yet known. Here we showed that DOT1L inhibition via 0.5 nM EPZ treatment...

  19. Imaging epigenetics in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Garaci, Francesco G; Toschi, Nicola; Hampel, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent, complex and chronically progressive brain disease. Its course is non-linear, dynamic, adaptive to maladaptive, and compensatory to decompensatory, affecting large-scale neural networks through a plethora of mechanistic and signaling pathway alterations that converge into regional and cell type-specific neurodegeneration and, finally, into clinically overt cognitive and behavioral decline. This decline includes reductions in the activities of daily living, quality of life, independence, and life expectancy. Evolving lines of research suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may play a crucial role during AD development and progression. Epigenetics designates molecular mechanisms that alter gene expression without modifications of the genetic code. This topic includes modifications on DNA and histone proteins, the primary elements of chromatin structure. Accumulating evidence has revealed the relevant processes that mediate epigenetic modifications and has begun to elucidate how these processes are apparently dysregulated in AD. This evidence has led to the clarification of the roles of specific classes of therapeutic compounds that affect epigenetic pathways and characteristics of the epigenome. This insight is accompanied by the development of new methods for studying the global patterns of DNA methylation and chromatin alterations. In particular, high-throughput sequencing approaches, such as next-generation DNA sequencing techniques, are beginning to drive the field into the next stage of development. In parallel, genetic imaging is beginning to answer additional questions through its ability to uncover genetic variants, with or without genome-wide significance, that are related to brain structure, function and metabolism, which impact disease risk and fundamental network-based cognitive processes. Neuroimaging measures can further be used to define AD systems and endophenotypes. The integration of genetic neuroimaging

  20. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  1. LOSS OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLCYTOSINE IS AN EPIGENETIC HALLMARK OF MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Christine Guo; Xu, Yufei; Ceol, Craig; Wu, Feizhen; Larson, Allison; Dresser, Karen; Xu, Wenji; Tan, Li; Hu, Yeguang; Zhan, Qian; Lee, Chung-wei; Hu, Di; Lian, Bill Q.; Kleffel, Sonja; Yang, Yijun; Neiswender, James; Khorasani, Abraham J.; Fang, Rui; Lezcano, Cecilia; Duncan, Lyn M.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Thompson, John F.; Kakavand, Hojabr; Houvras, Yariv; Zon, Leonard; Mihm, Martin C.; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Schatton, Tobias; Woda, Bruce A.; Murphy, George F.; Shi, Yujiang G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5-mC) is a key epigenetic mark critical for various biological and pathological processes. 5-mC can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by the Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) family of DNA hydroxylases. Here we report that “loss of 5-hmC” is an epigenetic hallmark of melanoma with diagnostic and prognostic implications. Genome-wide mapping of 5-hmC reveals loss of 5-hmC landscape in the melanoma epigenome. We show that down-regulation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and TET family enzymes is likely one of the mechanisms underlying 5-hmC loss in melanoma. Rebuilding the 5-hmC landscape in melanoma cells by reintroducing active TET2 or IDH2 suppresses melanoma growth and increases tumor-free survival in animal models. Thus, our study reveals a critical function of 5-hmC in melanoma development and directly links the IDH and TET activity-dependent epigenetic pathway to 5-hmC-mediated suppression of melanoma progression, suggesting a new strategy for epigenetic cancer therapy. PMID:22980977

  2. Genome-wide analysis reveals a cell cycle–dependent mechanism controlling centromere propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Sylvia; Mellone, Barbara G.; Betts, Craig M.; Zhang, Weiguo; Karpen, Gary H.; Straight, Aaron F.

    2008-01-01

    Centromeres are the structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation, spindle attachment, and chromosome segregation. In this study, we isolated factors required for centromere propagation using genome-wide RNA interference screening for defects in centromere protein A (CENP-A; centromere identifier [CID]) localization in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified the proteins CAL1 and CENP-C as essential factors for CID assembly at the centromere. CID, CAL1, and CENP-C coimmunoprecipitate and are mutually dependent for centromere localization and function. We also identified the mitotic cyclin A (CYCA) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibitor RCA1/Emi1 as regulators of centromere propagation. We show that CYCA is centromere localized and that CYCA and RCA1/Emi1 couple centromere assembly to the cell cycle through regulation of the fizzy-related/CDH1 subunit of the APC. Our findings identify essential components of the epigenetic machinery that ensures proper specification and propagation of the centromere and suggest a mechanism for coordinating centromere inheritance with cell division. PMID:19047461

  3. An integrative analysis of reprogramming in human isogenic system identified a clone selection criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutova, Maria V; Surdina, Anastasia V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Naumov, Vladimir A; Bogomazova, Alexandra N; Vassina, Ekaterina M; Alekseev, Dmitry G; Lagarkova, Maria A; Kiselev, Sergey L

    2016-01-01

    The pluripotency of newly developed human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is usually characterized by physiological parameters; i.e., by their ability to maintain the undifferentiated state and to differentiate into derivatives of the 3 germ layers. Nevertheless, a molecular comparison of physiologically normal iPSCs to the "gold standard" of pluripotency, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), often reveals a set of genes with different expression and/or methylation patterns in iPSCs and ESCs. To evaluate the contribution of the reprogramming process, parental cell type, and fortuity in the signature of human iPSCs, we developed a complete isogenic reprogramming system. We performed a genome-wide comparison of the transcriptome and the methylome of human isogenic ESCs, 3 types of ESC-derived somatic cells (fibroblasts, retinal pigment epithelium and neural cells), and 3 pairs of iPSC lines derived from these somatic cells. Our analysis revealed a high input of stochasticity in the iPSC signature that does not retain specific traces of the parental cell type and reprogramming process. We showed that 5 iPSC clones are sufficient to find with 95% confidence at least one iPSC clone indistinguishable from their hypothetical isogenic ESC line. Additionally, on the basis of a small set of genes that are characteristic of all iPSC lines and isogenic ESCs, we formulated an approach of "the best iPSC line" selection and confirmed it on an independent dataset.

  4. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  5. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  6. Epigenetics and human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, S J; Molloy, P L; Varinli, H; Morrison, J L; Muhlhausler, B S

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances in epigenome profiling have led to an increasing number of studies investigating the role of the epigenome in obesity. There is also evidence that environmental exposures during early life can induce persistent alterations in the epigenome, which may lead to an increased risk of obesity later in life. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the association between obesity and either global, site-specific or genome-wide methylation of DNA. Studies on the impact of pre- and postnatal interventions on methylation and obesity are also reviewed. We discuss outstanding questions, and introduce EpiSCOPE, a multidisciplinary research program aimed at increasing the understanding of epigenetic changes in emergence of obesity. An electronic search for relevant articles, published between September 2008 and September 2013 was performed. From the 319 articles identified, 46 studies were included and reviewed. The studies provided no consistent evidence for a relationship between global methylation and obesity. The studies did identify multiple obesity-associated differentially methylated sites, mainly in blood cells. Extensive, but small, alterations in methylation at specific sites were observed in weight loss intervention studies, and several associations between methylation marks at birth and later life obesity were found. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Eventually this may help in predicting an individual's obesity risk at a young age and opens possibilities for introducing targeted prevention strategies. It has also become clear that several epigenetic marks are modifiable, by changing the exposure in utero, but also by lifestyle changes in adult life, which implies that there is the potential for interventions to be introduced in postnatal life to modify

  7. Biosemiotic Entropy of the Genome: Mutations and Epigenetic Imbalances Resulting in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. Shepard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosemiotic entropy involves the deterioration of biological sign systems. The genome is a coded sign system that is connected to phenotypic outputs through the interpretive functions of the tRNA/ribosome machinery. This symbolic sign system (semiosis at the core of all biology has been termed “biosemiosis”. Layers of biosemiosis and cellular information management are analogous in varying degrees to the semiotics of computer programming, spoken, and written human languages. Biosemiotic entropy — an error or deviation from a healthy state — results from errors in copying functional information (mutations and errors in the appropriate context or quantity of gene expression (epigenetic imbalance. The concept of biosemiotic entropy is a deeply imbedded assumption in the study of cancer biology. Cells have a homeostatic, preprogrammed, ideal or healthy state that is rooted in genomics, strictly orchestrated by epigenetic regulation, and maintained by DNA repair mechanisms. Cancer is an eminent illustration of biosemiotic entropy, in which the corrosion of genetic information via substitutions, deletions, insertions, fusions, and aberrant regulation results in malignant phenotypes. However, little attention has been given to explicitly outlining the paradigm of biosemiotic entropy in the context of cancer. Herein we distill semiotic theory (from the familiar and well understood spheres of human language and computer code to draw analogies useful for understanding the operation of biological semiosis at the genetic level. We propose that the myriad checkpoints, error correcting mechanisms, and immunities are all systems whose primary role is to defend against the constant pressure of biosemiotic entropy, which malignancy must shut down in order to achieve advanced stages. In lieu of the narrower tumor suppressor/oncogene model, characterization of oncogenesis into the biosemiotic framework of sign, index, or object entropy may allow for more

  8. Reprogramming of round spermatids by the germinal vesicle cytoplasm in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Kong

    Full Text Available The birthrate following round spermatid injection (ROSI remains low in current and evidence suggests that factors in the germinal vesicle (GV cytoplasm and certain substances in the GV such as the nucleolus might be responsible for genomic reprogramming and embryonic development. However, little is known whether the reprogramming factors in GV oocyte cytoplasm and/or nucleolus in GV are beneficial to the reprogramming of round spermatids and development of ROSI embryos. Here, round spermatids were treated with GV cytolysates and injected this round spermatid alone or co-injected with GV oocyte nucleolus into mature metaphase II oocytes. Subsequent embryonic development was assessed morphologically and by Oct4 expression in blastocysts. There was no significant difference between experimental groups at the zygote to four-cell development stages. Blastocysts derived from oocytes which were injected with cytolysate treated-round spermatid alone or co-injected with nucleoli injection yielded 63.6% and 70.3% high quality embryos, respectively; comparable to blastocysts derived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, but higher than these oocytes which were co-injected with lysis buffer-treated round spermatids and nucleoli or injected with the lysis buffer-treated round spermatids alone. Furthermore, the proportion of live offspring resulting from oocytes which were co-injected with cytolysate treated-round spermatids and nucleoli or injected with cytolysate treated-round spermatids alone was higher than those were injected with lysis buffer treated-round spermaids, but comparable with the ICSI group. Our results demonstrate that factors from the GV cytoplasm improve round spermatid reprogramming, and while injection of the extra nucleolus does not obviously improve reprogramming its potential contribution, although which cannot be definitively excluded. Thus, some reprogramming factors are evidently present in GV oocyte cytoplasm and could

  9. Efficient generation of fully reprogrammed human iPS cells via polycistronic retroviral vector and a new cocktail of chemical compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Zhang

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells by defined transcription factors (TFs provides great potential for regenerative medicine and biomedical research. This procedure has many challenges, including low reprogramming efficiency, many partially reprogrammed colonies, somatic coding mutations in the genome, etc. Here, we describe a simple approach for generating fully reprogrammed human iPS cells by using a single polycistronic retroviral vector expressing four human TFs in a single open reading frame (ORF, combined with a cocktail containing three small molecules (Sodium butyrate, SB431542, and PD0325901. Our results demonstrate that human iPS cells generated by this approach express human ES cells markers and exhibit pluripotency demonstrated by their abilities to differentiate into the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Notably, this approach not only provides a much faster reprogramming process but also significantly diminishes partially reprogrammed iPS cell colonies, thus facilitating efficient isolation of desired fully reprogrammed iPS cell colonies.

  10. A symbiotic liaison between the genetic and epigenetic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eHeyn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With rapid advances in sequencing technologies, we are undergoing a paradigm shift from hypothesis- to data-driven research. Genome-wide profiling efforts gave informative insights into biological processes; however, considering the wealth of variation, the major challenge remains their meaningful interpretation. In particular sequence variation in non-coding contexts is often challenging to interpret. Here, data integration approaches for the identification of functional genetic variability represent a likely solution. Exemplary, functional linkage analysis integrating genotype and expression data determined regulatory quantitative trait loci (QTL and proposed causal relationships. In addition to gene expression, epigenetic regulation and specifically DNA methylation was established as highly valuable surrogate mark for functional variance of the genetic code. Epigenetic modification served as powerful mediator trait to elucidate mechanisms forming phenotypes in health and disease. Particularly, integrative studies of genetic and DNA methylation data yet guided interpretation strategies of risk genotypes, but also proved their value for physiological traits, such as natural human variation and aging. This Perspective seeks to illustrate the power of data integration in the genomic era exemplified by DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs. However, the model is further extendable to virtually all traceable molecular traits.

  11. [Epigenetics of schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivollier, F; Lotersztajn, L; Chaumette, B; Krebs, M-O; Kebir, O

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent and disabling disease associated with heterogeneous psychiatric phenotypes. It emerges during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and has dramatic consequences for the affected individuals, causing considerable familial and social burden, as well as increasing health expenses. Although some progress has been made in the understanding of their physiopathology, many questions remain unsolved, and the disease is still poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis regarding psychotic disorders proposes that a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors, during critical periods of brain development increases the risk for these illnesses. Epigenetic regulations, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene x environment interactions at the level of the genome and may provide a potential substrate to explain the variability in symptom severity and family heritability. Initially, epigenetics was used to design mitotic and meiotic changes in gene transcription that could not be attributed to genetic mutations. It referred later to changes in the epigenome not transmitted through the germline. Thus, epigenetics refers to a wide range of molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and post-translational histone modifications. These mechanisms alter the way the transcriptional factors bind the DNA, modulating its expression. Prenatal and postnatal environmental factors may affect these epigenetics factors, having responsability in long-term DNA transcription, and influencing the development of psychiatric disorders. The object of this review is to present the state of knowledge in epigenetics of schizophrenia, outlining the most recent findings in the matter. We did so using Pubmed, researching words such as 'epigenetics', 'epigenetic', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'psychiatric'. This review summarizes evidences mostly for two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and post

  12. Genome-wide mapping of DNA strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Leduc

    Full Text Available Determination of cellular DNA damage has so far been limited to global assessment of genome integrity whereas nucleotide-level mapping has been restricted to specific loci by the use of specific primers. Therefore, only limited DNA sequences can be studied and novel regions of genomic instability can hardly be discovered. Using a well-characterized yeast model, we describe a straightforward strategy to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks without compromising nucleotide-level resolution. This technique, termed "damaged DNA immunoprecipitation" (dDIP, uses immunoprecipitation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end-labeling (TUNEL to capture DNA at break sites. When used in combination with microarray or next-generation sequencing technologies, dDIP will allow researchers to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks as well as other types of DNA damage and to establish a clear profiling of altered genes and/or intergenic sequences in various experimental conditions. This mapping technique could find several applications for instance in the study of aging, genotoxic drug screening, cancer, meiosis, radiation and oxidative DNA damage.

  13. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Melissa; Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Schmid, Christoph D.; Noreen, Faiza; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Schuermann, David; Schär, Primo

    2017-03-01

    Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Yet, underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Genome instability seems an unlikely reason as the energy transmitted by ELF-MF is too low to damage DNA and induce cancer-promoting mutations. ELF-MF, however, may perturb the epigenetic code of genomes, which is well-known to be sensitive to environmental conditions and generally deranged in cancers, including leukaemia. We examined the potential of ELF-MF to influence key epigenetic modifications in leukaemic Jurkat cells and in human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells undergoing in vitro differentiation into the neutrophilic lineage. During granulopoiesis, sensitive genome-wide profiling of multiple replicate experiments did not reveal any statistically significant, ELF-MF-dependent alterations in the patterns of active (H3K4me2) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks nor in DNA methylation. However, ELF-MF exposure showed consistent effects on the reproducibility of these histone and DNA modification profiles (replicate variability), which appear to be of a stochastic nature but show preferences for the genomic context. The data indicate that ELF-MF exposure stabilizes active chromatin, particularly during the transition from a repressive to an active state during cell differentiation.

  14. Computational micromodel for epigenetic mechanisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raghavan, Karthika

    2010-11-01

    Characterization of the epigenetic profile of humans since the initial breakthrough on the human genome project has strongly established the key role of histone modifications and DNA methylation. These dynamic elements interact to determine the normal level of expression or methylation status of the constituent genes in the genome. Recently, considerable evidence has been put forward to demonstrate that environmental stress implicitly alters epigenetic patterns causing imbalance that can lead to cancer initiation. This chain of consequences has motivated attempts to computationally model the influence of histone modification and DNA methylation in gene expression and investigate their intrinsic interdependency. In this paper, we explore the relation between DNA methylation and transcription and characterize in detail the histone modifications for specific DNA methylation levels using a stochastic approach.

  15. Epigenetics: a new frontier in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S D; Hughes, T E; Adler, C J; Brook, A H; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, only four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the journal Science announced that epigenetics was the 'breakthrough of the year'. Time magazine placed it second in the top 10 discoveries of 2009. While our genetic code (i.e. our DNA) contains all of the information to produce the elements we require to function, our epigenetic code determines when and where genes in the genetic code are expressed. Without the epigenetic code, the genetic code is like an orchestra without a conductor. Although there is now a substantial amount of published research on epigenetics in medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is in its infancy. However, epigenetics promises to become increasingly relevant to dentistry because of the role it plays in gene expression during development and subsequently potentially influencing oral disease susceptibility. This paper provides a review of the field of epigenetics aimed specifically at oral health professionals. It defines epigenetics, addresses the underlying concepts and provides details about specific epigenetic molecular mechanisms. Further, we discuss some of the key areas where epigenetics is implicated, and review the literature on epigenetics research in dentistry, including its relevance to clinical disciplines. This review considers some implications of epigenetics for the future of dental practice, including a 'personalized medicine' approach to the management of common oral diseases. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in cultured eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamagata

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of isolated endometrial stromal cells obtained from eutopic endometria with (euESCa and without endometriosis (euESCb and ovarian endometrial cysts (choESC. Three samples were analyzed in each group. The infinium methylation array identified more hypermethylated and hypomethylated CpGs in choESC than in euESCa, and only a few genes were methylated differently in euESCa and euESCb. A functional analysis revealed that signal transduction, developmental processes, immunity, etc. were different in choESC and euESCa. A clustering analysis and a principal component analysis performed based on the methylation levels segregated choESC from euESC, while euESCa and euESCb were identical. A transcriptome analysis was then conducted and the results were compared with those of the DNA methylation analysis. Interestingly, the hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed that choESC were segregated from euESCa and euESCb in the DNA methylation analysis, while no segregation was recognized in the transcriptome analysis. The mRNA expression levels of the epigenetic modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, obtained from the specimens were not significantly different between the groups. Some of the differentially methylated and/or expressed genes (NR5A1, STAR, STRA6 and HSD17B2, which are related with steroidogenesis, were validated by independent methods in a larger number of samples. Our findings indicate that different DNA methylation profiles exist in ectopic ESC, highlighting the benefits of genome wide DNA methylation analyses over transcriptome analyses in clarifying the development and characterization of endometriosis.

  17. A model for genetic and epigenetic regulatory networks identifies rare pathways for transcription factor induced pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyomov, Maxim; Meissner, Alex; Chakraborty, Arup

    2010-03-01

    Most cells in an organism have the same DNA. Yet, different cell types express different proteins and carry out different functions. This is because of epigenetic differences; i.e., DNA in different cell types is packaged distinctly, making it hard to express certain genes while facilitating the expression of others. During development, upon receipt of appropriate cues, pluripotent embryonic stem cells differentiate into diverse cell types that make up the organism (e.g., a human). There has long been an effort to make this process go backward -- i.e., reprogram a differentiated cell (e.g., a skin cell) to pluripotent status. Recently, this has been achieved by transfecting certain transcription factors into differentiated cells. This method does not use embryonic material and promises the development of patient-specific regenerative medicine, but it is inefficient. The mechanisms that make reprogramming rare, or even possible, are poorly understood. We have developed the first computational model of transcription factor-induced reprogramming. Results obtained from the model are consistent with diverse observations, and identify the rare pathways that allow reprogramming to occur. If validated, our model could be further developed to design optimal strategies for reprogramming and shed light on basic questions in biology.

  18. German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizoso, Miguel; Esteller, Manel

    2013-09-01

    In the First German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer held in Heidelberg, Germany (June 17-19, 2013), cutting-edge laboratories (PEBC, IMPPC, DKFZ, and the Collaborative Research Centre Medical Epigenetics of Freiburg) discussed the latest breakthroughs in the field. The importance of DNA demethylation, non-coding and imprinted genes, metabolic stress, and cell transdifferentiation processes in cancer and non-cancer diseases were addressed in several lectures in a very participative and dynamic atmosphere.   The meeting brought together leading figures in the field of cancer epigenetics to present their research work from the last five years. Experts in different areas of oncology described important advances in colorectal, lung, neuroblastoma, leukemia, and lymphoma cancers. The workshop also provided an interesting forum for pediatrics, and focused on the need to improve the treatment of childhood tumors in order to avoid, as far as possible, brain damage and disruption of activity in areas of high plasticity. From the beginning, the relevance of "omics" and the advances in genome-wide analysis platforms, which allow cancer to be studied in a more comprehensive and inclusive way, was very clear. Modern "omics" offer the possibility of identifying metastases of uncertain origin and establishing epigenetic signatures linked to a specific cluster of patients with a particular prognosis. In this context, invited speakers described novel tumor-associated histone variants and DNA-specific methylation, highlighting their close connection with other processes such as cell-lineage commitment and stemness.

  19. Genome-wide screening and identification of antigens for rickettsial vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capacity to identify immunogens for vaccine development by genome-wide screening has been markedly enhanced by the availability of complete microbial genome sequences coupled to rapid proteomic and bioinformatic analysis. Critical to this genome-wide screening is in vivo testing in the context o...

  20. Peromyscus as a Mammalian Epigenetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Shorter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer mice (Peromyscus offer an opportunity for studying the effects of natural genetic/epigenetic variation with several advantages over other mammalian models. These advantages include the ability to study natural genetic variation and behaviors not present in other models. Moreover, their life histories in diverse habitats are well studied. Peromyscus resources include genome sequencing in progress, a nascent genetic map, and >90,000 ESTs. Here we review epigenetic studies and relevant areas of research involving Peromyscus models. These include differences in epigenetic control between species and substance effects on behavior. We also present new data on the epigenetic effects of diet on coat-color using a Peromyscus model of agouti overexpression. We suggest that in terms of tying natural genetic variants with environmental effects in producing specific epigenetic effects, Peromyscus models have a great potential.

  1. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for (i) organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for (ii) QC...

  2. Genome-wide association study of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M; Leménager, T; Streit, F; Fauth-Bühler, M; Frank, J; Juraeva, D; Witt, S H; Degenhardt, F; Hofmann, A; Heilmann-Heimbach, S; Kiefer, F; Brors, B; Grabe, H-J; John, U; Bischof, A; Bischof, G; Völker, U; Homuth, G; Beutel, M; Lind, P A; Medland, S E; Slutske, W S; Martin, N G; Völzke, H; Nöthen, M M; Meyer, C; Rumpf, H-J; Wurst, F M; Rietschel, M; Mann, K F

    2016-08-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence. Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence. No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value=6.63×10(-3)); 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value=9.57×10(-3)); and apoptosis (P-value=1.75×10(-2)) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status. The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Replication stress, a source of epigenetic aberrations in cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasencakova, Zusana; Groth, Anja

    2010-01-01

    . Chromatin organization is transiently disrupted during DNA replication and maintenance of epigenetic information thus relies on faithful restoration of chromatin on the new daughter strands. Acute replication stress challenges proper chromatin restoration by deregulating histone H3 lysine 9 mono......-methylation on new histones and impairing parental histone recycling. This could facilitate stochastic epigenetic silencing by laying down repressive histone marks at sites of fork stalling. Deregulation of replication in response to oncogenes and other tumor-promoting insults is recognized as a significant source...... of genome instability in cancer. We propose that replication stress not only presents a threat to genome stability, but also jeopardizes chromatin integrity and increases epigenetic plasticity during tumorigenesis....

  4. Brief Report: Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Reprogramming to Pluripotency Is a Rare Event and Selects for Patient Hematopoietic Cells Devoid of Leukemic Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hee; Salci, Kyle R; Reid, Jennifer C; Orlando, Luca; Tanasijevic, Borko; Shapovalova, Zoya; Bhatia, Mickie

    2017-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming has provided critical insights into disease processes by modeling the genetics and related clinical pathophysiology. Human cancer represents highly diverse genetics, as well as inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity, where cellular model systems capable of capturing this disease complexity would be invaluable. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents one of most heterogeneous cancers and has been divided into genetic subtypes correlated with unique risk stratification over the decades. Here, we report our efforts to induce pluripotency from the heterogeneous population of human patients that represents this disease in the clinic. Using robust optimized reprogramming methods, we demonstrate that reprogramming of AML cells harboring leukemic genomic aberrations is a rare event with the exception of those with de novo mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) mutations that can be reprogrammed and model drug responses in vitro. Our findings indicate that unlike hematopoietic cells devoid of genomic aberrations, AML cells harboring driver mutations are refractory to reprogramming. Expression of MLL fusion proteins in AML cells did not contribute to induced reprogramming success, which continued to select for patient derived cells devoid of AML patient-specific aberrations. Our study reveals that unanticipated blockades to achieving pluripotency reside within the majority of transformed AML patient cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:2095-2102. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. High-efficiency generation of induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells from human dermal fibroblasts using recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanfan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yu, Ling; Feng, Yanye; Li, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Sun, Dapeng; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-07-30

    Induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) are novel candidates for drug screening, regenerative medicine, and cell therapy. However, introduction of transcription factor encoding genes for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation which could be used to generate mesenchymal stem cells is accompanied by the risk of insertional mutations in the target cell genome. We demonstrate a novel method using an inactivated viral particle to package and deliver four purified recombinant Yamanaka transcription factors (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc) resulting in reprogramming of human primary fibroblasts. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was used to analyze genome-wide CpG methylation of human iPMSCs. Western blot, quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and in-vitro differentiation were used to assess the pluripotency of iPMSCs. The resulting reprogrammed fibroblasts show high-level expression of stem cell markers. The human fibroblast-derived iPMSC genome showed gains in DNA methylation in low to medium methylated regions and concurrent loss of methylation in previously hypermethylated regions. Most of the differentially methylated regions are close to transcription start sites and many of these genes are pluripotent pathway associated. We found that DNA methylation of these genes is regulated by the four iPSC transcription factors, which functions as an epigenetic switch during somatic reprogramming as reported previously. These iPMSCs successfully differentiate into three embryonic germ layer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Following multipotency induction in our study, the delivered transcription factors were degraded, leading to an improved efficiency of subsequent programmed differentiation. Recombinant transcription factor based reprogramming and derivatization of iPMSC offers a novel high-efficiency approach for regenerative medicine from patient-derived cells.

  6. DNA methyltransferases and stress-related genes expression in zebrafish larvae after exposure to heat and copper during reprogramming of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Falisse, Elodie; Schoofs, Emilie; Flamion, Enora; Kestemont, Patrick; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2016-10-12

    DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process called reprogramming. Embryos were exposed to 325 μg Cu/L from fertilization (<1 h post fertilization - hpf) to 4 hpf at either 26.5 °C or 34 °C, followed by incubation in clean water at 26.5 °C till 96 hpf. Significant increased mortality rates and delayed hatching were observed following exposure to combined high temperature and Cu. Secondly, both stressors, alone or in combination, significantly upregulated the expression of de novo DNA methyltransferase genes (dnmt3) along with no differences in global cytosine methylation level. Finally, Cu exposure significantly increased the expression of metallothionein (mt2) and heat shock protein (hsp70), the latter being also increased following exposure to high temperature. These results highlighted the sensitivity of early embryogenesis and more precisely of the reprogramming period to environmental challenges, in a realistic situation of combined stressors.

  7. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Till F. M.; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A.; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G.; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H.; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K.; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O.; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M.; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M.; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis. PMID:27386562

  8. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Till F M; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis.

  9. Clinical implications of epigenetic regulation in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Wendy; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-12-01

    Oral cancer is a high incidence cancer which is of major public health concern in India being the most common cancer in males and fifth most common cancer in females in India, contributing to 26% of the global oral cancer burden. The major risk factors of oral cancer are tobacco, alcohol and high risk Human Papilloma Virus type 16/18. However, only 3-12% of the high risk individuals with dysplasia develop oral cancer. Thus, individual genomic variants representing the genomic constitution and epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the development of oral cancer. Extensive epigenetic studies on the molecular lesions including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, genes associated with apoptosis, DNA damage repair have been reported. The current review highlights epigenetic regulation with a focus on molecular biomarkers and epidrug therapy in oral cancer. Epigenetic regulation by hypermethylation, histone modifications and specific microRNAs are often associated with early events and advanced stages in oral cancer, and thus indicate epidrug therapy for intervention. The presence of epigenetic marks in oral lesions, cancers and tumor associated mucosa emphasizes indications as biomarkers and epidrugs with therapeutic potential for better patient management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient p53 suppression increases reprogramming of human fibroblasts without affecting apoptosis and DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Holst, Bjørn; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has sparked great interest in the potential treatment of patients with their own in vitro differentiated cells. Recently, knockout of the Tumor Protein 53 (p53) gene was reported to facilitate reprogramming but unfortunately also led...... to genomic instability. Here, we report that transient suppression of p53 during nonintegrative reprogramming of human fibroblasts leads to a significant increase in expression of pluripotency markers and overall number of iPSC colonies, due to downstream suppression of p21, without affecting apoptosis...... and DNA damage. Stable iPSC lines generated with or without p53 suppression showed comparable expression of pluripotency markers and methylation patterns, displayed normal karyotypes, contained between 0 and 5 genomic copy number variations and produced functional neurons in vitro. In conclusion...

  11. Computer and Statistical Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding and Chromatin Modifications by ChIP-seq data in Embryonic Stem Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Yuriy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in high throughput sequencing technology have enabled the identification of transcription factor (TF binding sites in genome scale. TF binding studies are important for medical applications and stem cell research. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the combined introduction of factors such as Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4. These reprogrammed cells share many characteristics with embryonic stem cells (ESCs and are known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. The signaling requirements for maintenance of human and murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differ considerably. Genome wide ChIP-seq TF binding maps in mouse stem cells include Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Tbx3, Smad2 as well as group of other factors. ChIP-seq allows study of new candidate transcription factors for reprogramming. It was shown that Nr5a2 could replace Oct4 for reprogramming. Epigenetic modifications play important role in regulation of gene expression adding additional complexity to transcription network functioning. We have studied associations between different histone modification using published data together with RNA Pol II sites. We found strong associations between activation marks and TF binding sites and present it qualitatively. To meet issues of statistical analysis of genome ChIP-sequencing maps we developed computer program to filter out noise signals and find significant association between binding site affinity and number of sequence reads. The data provide new insights into the function of chromatin organization and regulation in stem cells.

  12. Identification of secretaglobin Scgb2a1 as a target for developmental reprogramming by BPA in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca Lee Yean; Wang, Quan; Treviño, Lindsey S; Bosland, Maarten C; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Prins, Gail S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Secretoglobins are a superfamily of secreted proteins thought to participate in inflammation, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Secretoglobin family 2A member 1 (Scgb2a1) is a component of prostatein, a major androgen-binding protein secreted by the rat prostate. Using a rat model for developmental reprogramming of susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis, we identified, by RNA-seq, that Scgb2a1 is significantly upregulated (>100-fold) in the prostate of adult rats neonatally exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), with increased gene expression confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation for histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. Bisulfite analysis of both CpG islands located within 10 kb of the Scgb2a1 promoter identified significant hypomethylation of the CpG island upstream of the transcription start site of this gene in the reprogrammed prostate. These data suggest that expression of Scgb2a1 in the adult prostate could be epigenetically reprogrammed by BPA exposure during prostate development, with potential implications for cancer risk and response to chemotherapeutics associated with prostatein binding.

  13. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be r...

  14. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jusiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a highly tractable genetic model system for the study of animal development, and many genes that regulate Drosophila eye formation have homologs implicated in human development and disease. Among these is the homeobox gene sine oculis (so, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor (TF that is both necessary for eye development and sufficient to reprogram a subset of cells outside the normal eye field toward an eye fate. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of So binding to DNA prepared from developing Drosophila eye tissue in order to identify candidate direct targets of So-mediated transcriptional regulation, as described in our recent article [20]. The data are available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO with the accession number GSE52943. Here we describe the methods, data analysis, and quality control of our So ChIP-seq dataset.

  15. Epigenetics: What it is about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saade E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has captured the attention of scientists in the past decades, yet its scope has been continuously changing. In this paper, we give an overview on how and why its definition has evolved and suggest several clarification on the concepts used in this field. Waddington coined the term in 1942 to describe genes interaction with each other and with their environment and insisted on dissociating these events from development. Then, Holliday and others argued that epigenetic phenomena are characterized by their heritability. However, differentiated cells can maintain their phenotypes for decades without undergoing division, which points out the limitation of the «heritability» criterion for a particular phenomenon to qualify as epigenetic. «Epigenetic stability» encompasses traits preservation in both dividing and non dividing cells. Likewise, the use of the term «epigenetic regulation» has been misleading as it overlaps with «regulation of gene expression», whereas «epigenetic information» clearly distinguishes epigenetic from genetic phenomena. Consequently, how could epigenetic information be transmitted and perpetuated? The term «epigenetic templating» has been proposed to refer to a general mechanism of perpetuation of epigenetic information that is based on the preferential activity of enzymes that deposit a particular epigenetic mark on macromolecular complexes already containing the same mark. Another issue that we address is the role of epigenetic information. Not only it is important in allowing alternative interpretations of genetic information, but it appears to be important in protecting the genome, as can be illustrated by bacterial endonucleases that targets non methylated DNA – i. e. foreign DNA – and not the endogenous methylated DNA.

  16. Computational Micromodel for Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Karthika; Ruskin, Heather J.; Perrin, Dimitri; Goasmat, Francois; Burns, John

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the epigenetic profile of humans since the initial breakthrough on the human genome project has strongly established the key role of histone modifications and DNA methylation. These dynamic elements interact to determine the normal level of expression or methylation status of the constituent genes in the genome. Recently, considerable evidence has been put forward to demonstrate that environmental stress implicitly alters epigenetic patterns causing imbalance that can lead to cancer initiation. This chain of consequences has motivated attempts to computationally model the influence of histone modification and DNA methylation in gene expression and investigate their intrinsic interdependency. In this paper, we explore the relation between DNA methylation and transcription and characterize in detail the histone modifications for specific DNA methylation levels using a stochastic approach. PMID:21152421

  17. Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis. Genome-scale mapping of DMA methylation, histone modifications and variants, and chromosomal loopings for promoter-enhancer interactions and other epigenetic determinants of genome organization and function are likely to provide important clues about mechanisms contributing to dysregulated expression of synaptic and metabolic genes in schizophrenia brain, including the potential links to the underlying genetic risk architecture and environmental exposures. In addition, studies in animal models are providing a rapidly increasing list of chromatin-regulatory mechanisms with significant effects on cognition and complex behaviors, thereby pointing to the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drug targets in the nervous system.

  18. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia.......Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  19. GWIS: Genome-Wide Inferred Statistics for Functions of Multiple Phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, H.A.; Pool, R.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.; Nivard, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a method of genome-wide inferred study (GWIS) that provides an approximation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics for a variable that is a function of phenotypes for which GWAS summary statistics, phenotypic means, and covariances are available. A GWIS can be

  20. Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells using synthetic modified mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Luigi; Manos, Philip D.; Ahfeldt, Tim; Loh, Yuin-Han; Li, Hu; Lau, Frank; Ebina, Wataru; Mandal, Pankaj; Smith, Zachary D.; Meissner, Alexander; Daley, George Q.; Brack, Andrew S.; Collins, James J.; Cowan, Chad; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is limited by the low efficiency of iPS derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPS cells towards clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, non-integrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate anti-viral re...

  1. Ecological plant epigenetics: Evidence from model and non-model species, and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christina L; Alonso, Conchita; Becker, Claude; Bossdorf, Oliver; Bucher, Etienne; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Durka, Walter; Engelhardt, Jan; Gaspar, Bence; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Grosse, Ivo; van Gurp, Thomas P; Heer, Katrin; Kronholm, Ilkka; Lampei, Christian; Latzel, Vít; Mirouze, Marie; Opgenoorth, Lars; Paun, Ovidiu; Prohaska, Sonja J; Rensing, Stefan A; Stadler, Peter F; Trucchi, Emiliano; Ullrich, Kristian; Verhoeven, Koen J F

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence shows that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to complex traits, with implications across many fields of biology. In plant ecology, recent studies have attempted to merge ecological experiments with epigenetic analyses to elucidate the contribution of epigenetics to plant phenotypes, stress responses, adaptation to habitat, and range distributions. While there has been some progress in revealing the role of epigenetics in ecological processes, studies with non-model species have so far been limited to describing broad patterns based on anonymous markers of DNA methylation. In contrast, studies with model species have benefited from powerful genomic resources, which contribute to a more mechanistic understanding but have limited ecological realism. Understanding the significance of epigenetics for plant ecology requires increased transfer of knowledge and methods from model species research to genomes of evolutionarily divergent species, and examination of responses to complex natural environments at a more mechanistic level. This requires transforming genomics tools specifically for studying non-model species, which is challenging given the large and often polyploid genomes of plants. Collaboration among molecular geneticists, ecologists and bioinformaticians promises to enhance our understanding of the mutual links between genome function and ecological processes. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Treatment of Donor Cells and Reconstructed Embryos with a Combination of Trichostatin-A and 5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Improves the Developmental Competence and Quality of Buffalo Embryos Produced by Handmade Cloning and Alters Their Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Monika; Selokar, Naresh L; Agrawal, Himanshu; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham S; Palta, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    The application of cloning technology on a large scale is limited by very low offspring rate primarily due to aberrant or incomplete epigenetic reprogramming. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, are widely used for altering the epigenetic status of cloned embryos. We optimized the doses of these epigenetic modifiers for production of buffalo embryos by handmade cloning and examined whether combined treatment with these epigenetic modifiers offered any advantage over treatment with the individual epigenetic modifier. Irrespective of whether donor cells or reconstructed embryos or both were treated with 50 nM TSA +7.5 nM 5-aza-dC, (1) the blastocyst rate was significantly higher (71.6 ± 3.5, 68.3 ± 2.6, and 71.8 ± 2.4, respectively, vs. 43.1 ± 3.4 for controls, p cells or reconstructed embryos or both with the combination of TSA +5-aza-dC. Therefore, there is no advantage in treating both donor cells and reconstructed embryos when the combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC is used.

  3. Epigenetics of psoriatic disease: A systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Remy A; Abji, Fatima; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease of the skin that is sometimes accompanied by an auto-inflammatory arthritis called psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis and PsA are multifactorial diseases that result from complex interactions of environmental and genetic risk factors. Epigenetic marks, which are labile chemical marks with diverse functions, form a layer of biological information that sits at the interface of genetics and the environment. Aberrant epigenetic regulation has been previously implicated in other rheumatological disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate the nascent literature on epigenetics in psoriasis and PsA. A systematic review yielded 52 primary articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized template and study quality assessed using a methodological quality checklist. Studies reflect a broad range of epigenetic sub-disciplines, the most common being DNA methylation, followed by the parent of origin effect or genomic imprinting, expression or activity of epigenetic modifying enzymes, and histone modifications. Epidemiological studies demonstrating excessive paternal transmission provided the earliest evidence of epigenetic deregulation in psoriatic disease, however few studies have examined its molecular mechanisms. Methylation studies evolved rapidly from low resolution global to targeted analyses of known psoriatic disease susceptibility loci such as HLA-C*0602. The recent explosion of epigenome-wide association studies has provided us with novel insights into psoriasis pathogenesis, and the mechanism of action of UVB, methotrexate, and anti-TNF therapies, as well as molecular signatures of psoriasis that may have clinical relevance. Finally, recent studies of pharmacological inhibitors of epigenetic modifier enzymes demonstrate their potential applicability as novel treatment modalities for psoriasis. Challenges of epigenetics research in psoriasis and Ps

  4. Genome-Wide Detection and Analysis of Multifunctional Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, Yuri; Ghersi, Dario; Singh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Many genes can play a role in multiple biological processes or molecular functions. Identifying multifunctional genes at the genome-wide level and studying their properties can shed light upon the complexity of molecular events that underpin cellular functioning, thereby leading to a better understanding of the functional landscape of the cell. However, to date, genome-wide analysis of multifunctional genes (and the proteins they encode) has been limited. Here we introduce a computational approach that uses known functional annotations to extract genes playing a role in at least two distinct biological processes. We leverage functional genomics data sets for three organisms—H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, and S. cerevisiae—and show that, as compared to other annotated genes, genes involved in multiple biological processes possess distinct physicochemical properties, are more broadly expressed, tend to be more central in protein interaction networks, tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, and are more likely to be essential. We also find that multifunctional genes are significantly more likely to be involved in human disorders. These same features also hold when multifunctionality is defined with respect to molecular functions instead of biological processes. Our analysis uncovers key features about multifunctional genes, and is a step towards a better genome-wide understanding of gene multifunctionality. PMID:26436655

  5. Common structural and epigenetic changes in the genome of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Terence W; Roy, Ritu; Tomlins, Scott A; Ngo, Vy T; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Azameera, Aruna; Rubin, Mark A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Ittmann, Michael M; Ryan, Charles J; Paris, Pamela L

    2012-02-01

    Progression of primary prostate cancer to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations that are thought to promote survival at metastatic sites. In this study, we investigated gene copy number and CpG methylation status in CRPC to gain insight into specific pathophysiologic pathways that are active in this advanced form of prostate cancer. Our analysis defined and validated 495 genes exhibiting significant differences in CRPC in gene copy number, including gains in androgen receptor (AR) and losses of PTEN and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1). Significant copy number differences existed between tumors with or without AR gene amplification, including a common loss of AR repressors in AR-unamplified tumors. Simultaneous gene methylation and allelic deletion occurred frequently in RB1 and HSD17B2, the latter of which is involved in testosterone metabolism. Lastly, genomic DNA from most CRPC was hypermethylated compared with benign prostate tissue. Our findings establish a comprehensive methylation signature that couples epigenomic and structural analyses, thereby offering insights into the genomic alterations in CRPC that are associated with a circumvention of hormonal therapy. Genes identified in this integrated genomic study point to new drug targets in CRPC, an incurable disease state which remains the chief therapeutic challenge. ©2012 AACR.

  6. Genetic and epigenetic variants influencing the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Yuan

    2012-12-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common worldwide. The importance of genetic and epigenetic changes in etiology and pathogenesis of NAFLD has been increasingly recognized. However, the exact mechanism is largely unknown. A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to NAFLD has been documented by candidate gene studies (CGSs). Among these genes, peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α were frequently reported. Since the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), there have been significant advances in our understanding of genomic variations of NAFLD. Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing family member A3 (PNPLA3, SNP rs738409, encoding I148M), also termed adiponutrin, has caught most attention. The evidence that PNPLA3 is associated with increased hepatic fat levels and hepatic inflammation has been validated by a series of studies. Epigenetic modification refers to phenotypic changes caused by an adaptive mechanism unrelated to alteration of primary DNA sequences. Epigenetic regulation mainly includes microRNAs (miRs), DNA methylation, histone modifications and ubiquitination, among which miRs are studied most extensively. miRs are small natural single stranded RNA molecules regulating mRNA degradation or translation inhibition, subsequently altering protein expression of target genes. The miR-122, a highly abundant miR accounting for nearly 70% of all miRs in the liver, is significantly under-expressed in NAFLD subjects. Inhibition of miR-122 with an antisense oligonucleotide results in decreased mRNA expression of lipogenic genes and improvement of liver steatosis. The investigation into epigenetic involvement in NAFLD pathogenesis is just at the beginning and needs to be refined. This review summarizes the roles of genetics and epigenetics in the development of NAFLD. The progress made in this field may provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic

  7. The epigenetic effects of assisted reproductive technologies: ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M-C; Dupras, C; Ravitsky, V

    2017-08-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased significantly, allowing many coping with infertility to conceive. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that ART could carry epigenetic risks for those conceived through the use of these technologies. In accordance with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, ART could increase the risk of developing late-onset diseases through epigenetic mechanisms, as superovulation, fertilization methods and embryo culture could impair the embryo's epigenetic reprogramming. Such epigenetic risks raise ethical issues for all stakeholders: prospective parents and children, health professionals and society. This paper focuses on ethical issues raised by the consideration of these risks when using ART. We apply two key ethical principles of North American bioethics (respect for autonomy and non-maleficence) and suggest that an ethical tension may emerge from conflicting duties to promote the reproductive autonomy of prospective parents on one hand, and to minimize risks to prospective children on the other. We argue that this tension is inherent to the entire enterprise of ART and thus cannot be addressed by individual clinicians in individual cases. We also consider the implications of the 'non-identity problem' in this context. We call for additional research that would allow a more robust evidence base for policy. We also call upon professional societies to provide clinicians with guidelines and educational resources to facilitate the communication of epigenetic risks associated with ART to patients, taking into consideration the challenges of communicating risk information whose validity is still uncertain.

  8. Epigenetic Influences During the Periconception Period and Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Akwasi A; Nafee, Tamer M; Ola, Bolarinde

    2017-01-01

    The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals. There is, however, an ongoing debate as to whether epigenetic changes in humans, causing embryo mal-development, placenta dysfunction and birth defects, result from assisted reproductive technologies or are consequences of pre-existing medical and/or genetic conditions in the parents. The periconception period starts from ovarian folliculogenesis, through resumption of oogenesis, fertilisation, peri-implantation embryo development, embryogenesis until the end of organogenesis. In men, it is the period from spermatogenesis to epididymal sperm storage and fertilisation. Gametes and developing embryos are sensitive to environmental factors during this period, and epigenetic modifications can occur in response to adverse lifestyles and environmental factors. We now know that lifestyle factors such as advanced parentage age, obesity or undernutrition, smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine intake and recreational drugs used during gamete production and embryogenesis could induce epigenetic alterations, which could impact adversely on pregnancy outcomes and health of the offspring. Furthermore, these can also result in a permanent and irreversible effect in a dose-dependent manner, which can be passed on to the future generations.

  9. Direct Reprogramming of Fibroblasts via a Chemically Induced XEN-like State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Defang; Ma, Yantao; Du, Xiaomin; Jing, Junzhan; Wang, Lipeng; Xie, Bingqing; Sun, Da; Sun, Shaoqiang; Jin, Xueqin; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Ting; Guan, Jingyang; Yi, Zexuan; Lai, Weifeng; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhuo; Chang, Yanzhong; Chai, Zhen; Xu, Jun; Deng, Hongkui

    2017-08-03

    Direct lineage reprogramming, including with small molecules, has emerged as a promising approach for generating desired cell types. We recently found that during chemical induction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts, cells pass through an extra-embryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state. Here, we show that these chemically induced XEN-like cells can also be induced to directly reprogram into functional neurons, bypassing the pluripotent state. The induced neurons possess neuron-specific expression profiles, form functional synapses in culture, and further mature after transplantation into the adult mouse brain. Using similar principles, we were also able to induce hepatocyte-like cells from the XEN-like cells. Cells in the induced XEN-like state were readily expandable over at least 20 passages and retained genome stability and lineage specification potential. Our study therefore establishes a multifunctional route for chemical lineage reprogramming and may provide a platform for generating a diverse range of cell types via application of this expandable XEN-like state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) and Genome-Wide Environment Interaction Study (GWEIS) of Depressive Symptoms in African American and Hispanic/Latina Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C.; Wiste, Anna; Radmanesh, Farid; Almli, Lynn M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Sofer, Tamar; Faul, Jessica D.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Weir, David R.; Zhao, Wei; Soare, Thomas W.; Mirza, Saira S.; Hek, Karin; Tiemeier, Henning W.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Snively, Beverly M.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kraft, Peter; Purcell, Shaun; Ressler, Kerry J.; Rosand, Jonathan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been unable to identify variants linked to depression. We hypothesized that examining depressive symptoms and considering gene-environment interaction (G×E) might improve efficiency for gene discovery. We therefore conducted a GWAS and genome-wide environment interaction study (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms. Methods Using data from the SHARe cohort of the Women’s Health Initiative, comprising African Americans (n=7179) and Hispanics/Latinas (n=3138), we examined genetic main effects and G×E with stressful life events and social support. We also conducted a heritability analysis using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Replication was attempted in four independent cohorts. Results No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for main effects in either discovery sample. The top signals in African Americans were rs73531535 (located 20kb from GPR139, p=5.75×10−8) and rs75407252 (intronic to CACNA2D3, p=6.99×10−7). In Hispanics/Latinas, the top signals were rs2532087 (located 27kb from CD38, p=2.44×10−7) and rs4542757 (intronic to DCC, p=7.31×10−7). In the GWEIS with stressful life events, one interaction signal was genome-wide significant in African Americans (rs4652467; p=4.10×10−10; located 14kb from CEP350). This interaction was not observed in a smaller replication cohort. Although heritability estimates for depressive symptoms and stressful life events were each less than 10%, they were strongly genetically correlated (rG=0.95), suggesting that common variation underlying depressive symptoms and stressful life event exposure, though modest on their own, were highly overlapping in this sample. Conclusions Our results underscore the need for larger samples, more GWEIS, and greater investigation into genetic and environmental determinants of depressive symptoms in minorities. PMID:27038408

  11. Prenatal maternal stress and wheeze in children: novel insights into epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Saskia; Bieg, Matthias; Gu, Zuguang; Thürmann, Loreen; Bauer, Tobias; Bauer, Mario; Ishaque, Naveed; Röder, Stefan; Gu, Lei; Herberth, Gunda; Lawerenz, Christian; Borte, Michael; Schlesner, Matthias; Plass, Christoph; Diessl, Nicolle; Eszlinger, Markus; Mücke, Oliver; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Herrmann, Carl; Weichenhan, Dieter; Wright, Rosalind J; Lehmann, Irina; Eils, Roland

    2016-06-28

    Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs. These data were complemented by longitudinal targeted methylation and transcriptional analyses in children from our prospective mother-child cohort LINA for whom maternal stress and wheezing information was available (n = 443). High maternal stress was associated with an increased risk for persistent wheezing in the child until the age of 5. Both mothers and children showed genome-wide alterations in DNA-methylation specifically in enhancer elements. Deregulated neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter receptor interactions were observed in stressed mothers and their children. In children but not in mothers, calcium- and Wnt-signaling required for lung maturation in the prenatal period were epigenetically deregulated and could be linked with wheezing later in children's life.

  12. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  13. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation at all human imprinted regions reveals preservation of epigenetic stability in adult somatic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfine Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes subject to genomic imprinting are mono-allelically expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. Each imprinted locus has at least one differentially methylated region (DMR which has allele specific DNA methylation and contributes to imprinted gene expression. Once DMRs are established, they are potentially able to withstand normal genome reprogramming events that occur during cell differentiation and germ-line DMRs are stably maintained throughout development. These DMRs, in addition to being either maternally or paternally methylated, have differences in whether methylation was acquired in the germ-line or post fertilization and are present in a variety of genomic locations with different Cytosine-phosphate guanine (CpG densities and CTCF binding capacities. We therefore examined the stability of maintenance of DNA methylation imprints and determined the normal baseline DNA methylation levels in several adult tissues for all imprinted genes. In order to do this, we first developed and validated 50 highly specific, quantitative DNA methylation pyrosequencing assays for the known DMRs associated with human imprinted genes. Results Remarkable stability of the DNA methylation imprint was observed in all germ-line DMRs and paternally methylated somatic DMRs (which maintained average methylation levels of between 35% - 65% in all somatic tissues, independent of gene expression. Maternally methylated somatic DMRs were found to have more variation with tissue specific methylation patterns. Most DMRs, however, showed some intra-individual variability for DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood, suggesting that more than one DMR needs to be examined in order to get an overall impression of the epigenetic stability in a tissue. The plasticity of DNA methylation at imprinted genes was examined in a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. All cell lines showed changes in DNA methylation, especially at the paternal germ

  14. Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells with synthetic modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Luigi; Manos, Philip D; Ahfeldt, Tim; Loh, Yuin-Han; Li, Hu; Lau, Frank; Ebina, Wataru; Mandal, Pankaj K; Smith, Zachary D; Meissner, Alexander; Daley, George Q; Brack, Andrew S; Collins, James J; Cowan, Chad; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Rossi, Derrick J

    2010-11-05

    Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is limited by the low efficiency of iPSC derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPSCs toward clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, nonintegrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate antiviral responses. We show that this approach can reprogram multiple human cell types to pluripotency with efficiencies that greatly surpass established protocols. We further show that the same technology can be used to efficiently direct the differentiation of RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs) into terminally differentiated myogenic cells. This technology represents a safe, efficient strategy for somatic cell reprogramming and directing cell fate that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Genome-Wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    SNPs from the African American breast cancer scan to COGs , a European collaborative study which is has designed a SNP array with that will be genotyped...Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0383 TITLE: A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher A...SUBTITLE A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0383 5c. PROGRAM

  16. Epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somi; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2017-01-13

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of memory formation and maintenance has been a major goal in the field of neuroscience. Memory formation and maintenance are tightly controlled complex processes. Among the various processes occurring at different levels, gene expression regulation is especially crucial for proper memory processing, as some genes need to be activated while some genes must be suppressed. Epigenetic regulation of the genome involves processes such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These processes edit genomic properties or the interactions between the genome and histone cores. They then induce structural changes in the chromatin and lead to transcriptional changes of different genes. Recent studies have focused on the concept of chromatin remodeling, which consists of 3D structural changes in chromatin in relation to gene regulation, and is an important process in learning and memory. In this review, we will introduce three major epigenetic processes involved in memory regulation: DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation. We will also discuss general mechanisms of long-term memory storage and relate the epigenetic control of learning and memory to chromatin remodeling. Finally, we will discuss how epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to the pathologies of neurological disorders and cause memory-related symptoms.

  17. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  18. Daphnia as an Emerging Epigenetic Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kami D. M. Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia offer a variety of benefits for the study of epigenetics. Daphnia’s parthenogenetic life cycle allows the study of epigenetic effects in the absence of confounding genetic differences. Sex determination and sexual reproduction are epigenetically determined as are several other well-studied alternate phenotypes that arise in response to environmental stressors. Additionally, there is a large body of ecological literature available, recently complemented by the genome sequence of one species and transgenic technology. DNA methylation has been shown to be altered in response to toxicants and heavy metals, although investigation of other epigenetic mechanisms is only beginning. More thorough studies on DNA methylation as well as investigation of histone modifications and RNAi in sex determination and predator-induced defenses using this ecologically and evolutionarily important organism will contribute to our understanding of epigenetics.

  19. Distinguishing epigenetic marks of developmental and imprinting regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of epigenetics is developing rapidly, however we are only beginning to comprehend the complexity of its influence on gene regulation. Using genomic imprinting as a model we examine epigenetic profiles associated with different forms of gene regulation. Imprinting refers to the expression of a gene from only one of the chromosome homologues in a parental-origin-specific manner. This is dependent on heritable germline epigenetic control at a cis-acting imprinting control region that influences local epigenetic states. Epigenetic modifications associated with imprinting regulation can be compared to those associated with the more canonical developmental regulation, important for processes such as differentiation and tissue specificity. Here we test the hypothesis that these two mechanisms are associated with different histone modification enrichment patterns. Results Using high-throughput data extraction with subsequent analysis, we have found that particular histone modifications are more likely to be associated with either imprinting repression or developmental repression of imprinted genes. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 are together enriched at imprinted genes with differentially methylated promoters and do not show a correlation with developmental regulation. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, however, are more often associated with developmental regulation. We find that imprinted genes are subject to developmental regulation through bivalency with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 enrichment on the same allele. Furthermore, a specific tri-mark signature comprising H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 has been identified at all imprinting control regions. Conclusion A large amount of data is produced from whole-genome expression and epigenetic profiling studies of cellular material. We have shown that such publicly available data can be mined and analysed in order to generate novel findings for categories of genes or regulatory elements. Comparing two

  20. Emerging technologies advancing forage and turf grass genomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Studer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2014), s. 190-199 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/0504; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytogenetics * Epigenetics * Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.015, year: 2014

  1. Obesity-Associated Alterations in Inflammation, Epigenetics, and Mammary Tumor Growth Persist in Formerly Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emily L; de Angel, Rebecca E; Bowers, Laura W; Khatib, Subreen A; Smith, Laura A; Van Buren, Eric; Bhardwaj, Priya; Giri, Dilip; Estecio, Marcos R; Troester, Melissa A; Hair, Brionna Y; Kirk, Erin L; Gong, Ting; Shen, Jianjun; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hursting, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Using a murine model of basal-like breast cancer, we tested the hypothesis that chronic obesity, an established breast cancer risk and progression factor in women, induces mammary gland epigenetic reprogramming and increases mammary tumor growth. Moreover, we assessed whether the obesity-induced epigenetic and protumor effects are reversed by weight normalization. Ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or diet-induced obesity (DIO) regimen for 17 weeks, resulting in a normal weight or obese phenotype, respectively. Mice on the DIO regimen were then randomized to continue the DIO diet or were switched to the control diet, resulting in formerly obese (FOb) mice with weights comparable with control mice. At week 24, all mice were orthotopically injected with MMTV-Wnt-1 mouse mammary tumor cells. Mean tumor volume, serum IL6 levels, expression of proinflammatory genes in the mammary fat pad, and mammary DNA methylation profiles were similar in DIO and FOb mice and higher than in controls. Many of the genes found to have obesity-associated hypermethylation in mice were also found to be hypermethylated in the normal breast tissue of obese versus nonobese human subjects, and nearly all of these concordant genes remained hypermethylated after significant weight loss in the FOb mice. Our findings suggest that weight normalization may not be sufficient to reverse the effects of chronic obesity on epigenetic reprogramming and inflammatory signals in the microenvironment that are associated with breast cancer progression. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 339-48. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Association of a History of Child Abuse With Impaired Myelination in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Convergent Epigenetic, Transcriptional, and Morphological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Tanti, Arnaud; Gasecka, Alicja; Barnett-Burns, Sarah; Kim, John J; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Gang G; Wakid, Marina; Shaw, Meghan; Almeida, Daniel; Chay, Marc-Aurele; Yang, Jennie; Larivière, Vanessa; M'Boutchou, Marie-Noël; van Kempen, Léon C; Yerko, Volodymyr; Prud'homme, Josée; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Vaillancourt, Kathryn; Théroux, Jean-François; Bramoullé, Alexandre; Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Meaney, Michael J; Ernst, Carl; Côté, Daniel; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo

    2017-12-01

    Child abuse has devastating and long-lasting consequences, considerably increasing the lifetime risk of negative mental health outcomes such as depression and suicide. Yet the neurobiological processes underlying this heightened vulnerability remain poorly understood. The authors investigated the hypothesis that epigenetic, transcriptomic, and cellular adaptations may occur in the anterior cingulate cortex as a function of child abuse. Postmortem brain samples from human subjects (N=78) and from a rodent model of the impact of early-life environment (N=24) were analyzed. The human samples were from depressed individuals who died by suicide, with (N=27) or without (N=25) a history of severe child abuse, as well as from psychiatrically healthy control subjects (N=26). Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression were investigated using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA sequencing, respectively. Cell type-specific validation of differentially methylated loci was performed after fluorescence-activated cell sorting of oligodendrocyte and neuronal nuclei. Differential gene expression was validated using NanoString technology. Finally, oligodendrocytes and myelinated axons were analyzed using stereology and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. A history of child abuse was associated with cell type-specific changes in DNA methylation of oligodendrocyte genes and a global impairment of the myelin-related transcriptional program. These effects were absent in the depressed suicide completers with no history of child abuse, and they were strongly correlated with myelin gene expression changes observed in the animal model. Furthermore, a selective and significant reduction in the thickness of myelin sheaths around small-diameter axons was observed in individuals with history of child abuse. The results suggest that child abuse, in part through epigenetic reprogramming of oligodendrocytes, may lastingly disrupt cortical myelination, a

  3. Efficient Direct Reprogramming of Mature Amniotic Cells into Endothelial Cells by ETS Factors and TGFβ Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Michael; James, Daylon; Ding, Bi-Sen; Nolan, Daniel; Geng, Fuqiang; Butler, Jason M; Schachterle, William; Pulijaal, Venkat R; Mathew, Susan; Chasen, Stephen T; Xiang, Jenny; Rosenwaks, Zev; Shido, Koji; Elemento, Olivier; Rabbany, Sina Y; Rafii, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    ETS transcription factors ETV2, FLI1 and ERG1 specify pluripotent stem cells into endothelial cells (ECs). However, these ECs are unstable and drift towards non-vascular cell fates. We show that human mid-gestation c-Kit− lineage-committed amniotic cells (ACs) can be readily reprogrammed into induced vascular endothelial cells (iVECs). Transient ETV2 expression in ACs generated proliferative but immature iVECs, while co-expression with FLI1/ERG1 endowed iVECs with a vascular repertoire and morphology matching mature stable ECs. Brief TGFβ-inhibition functionalized VEGFR2 signaling, augmenting specification of ACs to iVECs. Genome-wide transcriptional analyses showed that iVECs are similar to adult ECs in which vascular-specific genes are turned on and non-vascular genes are silenced. Functionally, iVECs form long-lasting patent vasculature in Matrigel plugs and regenerating livers. Thus, short-term ETV2 expression and TGFβ-inhibition along with constitutive ERG1/FLI1 co-expression reprogram mature ACs into durable and functional iVECs with clinical-scale expansion potential. Public banking of HLA-typed iVECs would establish a vascular inventory for treatment of genetically diverse disorders. PMID:23084400

  4. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  5. Dynamic epigenetic responses to muscle contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Zierath, Juleen R; Barrès, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a malleable organ that responds to a single acute exercise bout by inducing the expression of genes involved in structural, metabolic and functional adaptations. Several epigenetic mechanisms including histone H4 deacetylation and loss of promoter methylation have been implicated...... in modifying exercise-responsive gene expression. These transient changes suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are not restricted to early stages of human development but are broad dynamic controllers of genomic plasticity in response to environmental factors....

  6. Epigenetic game theory and its application in plants. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Yinghao; Guo, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Wang's et al. article [1] is the first to integrate game theory (especially evolutionary game theory) with epigenetic modification of zygotic genomes. They described and assessed a modeling framework based on evolutionary game theory to quantify, how sperms and oocytes interact through epigenetic processes, to determine embryo development. They also studied the internal mechanisms for normal embryo development: 1) evolutionary interactions between DNA methylation of the paternal and maternal genomes, and 2) the application of game theory to formulate and quantify how different genes compete or cooperate to regulate embryogenesis through methylation. Although it is not very comprehensive and profound regarding game theory modeling, this article bridges the gap between evolutionary game theory and the epigenetic control of embryo development by powerful ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The epiGame framework includes four aspects: 1) characterizing how epigenetic game theory works by the strategy matrix, in which the pattern and relative magnitude of the methylation effects on embryogenesis, are described by the cooperation and competition mechanisms, 2) quantifying the game that the direction and degree of P-M interactions over embryo development can be explained by the sign and magnitude of interaction parameters in model (2), 3) modeling epigenetic interactions within the morula, especially for two coupled nonlinear ODEs, with explicit functions in model (4), which provide a good fit to the observed data for the two sexes (adjusted R2 = 0.956), and 4) revealing multifactorial interactions in embryogenesis from the coupled ODEs in model (2) to triplet ODEs in model (6). Clearly, this article extends game theory from evolutionary game theory to epigenetic game theory.

  7. Pervasive, Genome-Wide Transcription in the Organelle Genomes of Diverse Plastid-Bearing Protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Sanitá Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Organelle genomes are among the most sequenced kinds of chromosome. This is largely because they are small and widely used in molecular studies, but also because next-generation sequencing technologies made sequencing easier, faster, and cheaper. However, studies of organelle RNA have not kept pace with those of DNA, despite huge amounts of freely available eukaryotic RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq data. Little is known about organelle transcription in nonmodel species, and most of the available eukaryotic RNA-seq data have not been mined for organelle transcripts. Here, we use publicly available RNA-seq experiments to investigate organelle transcription in 30 diverse plastid-bearing protists with varying organelle genomic architectures. Mapping RNA-seq data to organelle genomes revealed pervasive, genome-wide transcription, regardless of the taxonomic grouping, gene organization, or noncoding content. For every species analyzed, transcripts covered ≥85% of the mitochondrial and/or plastid genomes (all of which were ≤105 kb, indicating that most of the organelle DNA—coding and noncoding—is transcriptionally active. These results follow earlier studies of model species showing that organellar transcription is coupled and ubiquitous across the genome, requiring significant downstream processing of polycistronic transcripts. Our findings suggest that noncoding organelle DNA can be transcriptionally active, raising questions about the underlying function of these transcripts and underscoring the utility of publicly available RNA-seq data for recovering complete genome sequences. If pervasive transcription is also found in bigger organelle genomes (>105 kb and across a broader range of eukaryotes, this could indicate that noncoding organelle RNAs are regulating fundamental processes within eukaryotic cells.

  8. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulate Innate Immunity against Uropathogenic and Commensal-Like Escherichia coli in the Surrogate Insect Model Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmueller, Miriam; Billion, André; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2017-10-01

    Innate-immunity-related genes in humans are activated during urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli but are suppressed by commensals. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms can explain the different behaviors of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, we infected larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella , a widely used model insect host, with a uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain that causes symptomatic UTIs in humans or a commensal-like strain that causes asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Infection with the UPEC strain (CFT073) was more lethal to larvae than infection with the attenuated ABU strain (83972) due to the recognition of each strain by different Toll-like receptors, ultimately leading to differential DNA/RNA methylation and histone acetylation. We used next-generation sequencing and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to correlate epigenetic changes with the induction of innate-immunity-related genes. Transcriptomic analysis of G. mellonella larvae infected with E. coli strains CFT073 and 83972 revealed strain-specific variations in the class and expression levels of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and enzymes controlling DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Our results provide evidence for the differential epigenetic regulation of transcriptional reprogramming by UPEC and ABU strains of E. coli in G. mellonella larvae, which may be relevant to understanding the different behaviors of these bacterial strains in the human urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Adiponectin Concentrations: A Genome-wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sun Ha; Sull, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong-Eun; Shin, Chol; Park, Jongkeun; Kimm, Heejin; Cho, Eun-Young; Shin, Eun-Soon; Yun, Ji Eun; Park, Ji Wan; Kim, Sang Yeun; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Eun Jung; Baik, Inkyung; Kao, Linda; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Jang, Yangsoo; Beaty, Terri H.

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. To date, there has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adiponectin levels in Asians. Here we present a GWAS of a cohort of Korean volunteers. A total of 4,001 subjects were genotyped by using a genome-wide marker panel in a two-stage design (979 subjects initially and 3,022 in a second stage). Another 2,304 subjects were used for follow-up replication studies with selected markers. In the discovery phase, the top SNP associated with mean log adiponectin was rs3865188 in CDH13 on chromosome 16 (p = 1.69 × 10−15 in the initial sample, p = 6.58 × 10−39 in the second genome-wide sample, and p = 2.12 × 10−32 in the replication sample). The meta-analysis p value for rs3865188 in all 6,305 individuals was 2.82 × 10−83. The association of rs3865188 with high-molecular-weight adiponectin (p = 7.36 × 10−58) was even stronger in the third sample. A reporter assay that evaluated the effects of a CDH13 promoter SNP in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs3865188 revealed that the major allele increased expression 2.2-fold. This study clearly shows that genetic variants in CDH13 influence adiponectin levels in Korean adults. PMID:20887962

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ripke, Stephan

    2011-10-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia for seven loci, five of which are new (1p21.3, 2q32.3, 8p23.2, 8q21.3 and 10q24.32-q24.33) and two of which have been previously implicated (6p21.32-p22.1 and 18q21.2). The strongest new finding (P = 1.6 × 10(-11)) was with rs1625579 within an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)).

  11. In vitro analysis of integrated global high-resolution DNA methylation profiling with genomic imbalance and gene expression in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekim Sadikovic

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to deregulation of gene expression and development of human cancer. Changes in DNA methylation are key epigenetic factors regulating gene expression and genomic stability. Recent progress in microarray technologies resulted in developments of high resolution platforms for profiling of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression changes. OS is a pediatric bone tumor with characteristically high level of numerical and structural chromosomal changes. Furthermore, little is known about DNA methylation changes in OS. Our objective was to develop an integrative approach for analysis of high-resolution epigenomic, genomic, and gene expression profiles in order to identify functional epi/genomic differences between OS cell lines and normal human osteoblasts. A combination of Affymetrix Promoter Tilling Arrays for DNA methylation, Agilent array-CGH platform for genomic imbalance and Affymetrix Gene 1.0 platform for gene expression analysis was used. As a result, an integrative high-resolution approach for interrogation of genome-wide tumour-specific changes in DNA methylation was developed. This approach was used to provide the first genomic DNA methylation maps, and to identify and validate genes with aberrant DNA methylation in OS cell lines. This first integrative analysis of global cancer-related changes in DNA methylation, genomic imbalance, and gene expression has provided comprehensive evidence of the cumulative roles of epigenetic and genetic mechanisms in deregulation of gene expression networks.

  12. FGWAS: Functional genome wide association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Thompson, Paul; Wang, Yalin; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jingwen; Kong, Dehan; Colen, Rivka R; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Zhu, Hongtu

    2017-10-01

    Functional phenotypes (e.g., subcortical surface representation), which commonly arise in imaging genetic studies, have been used to detect putative genes for complexly inherited neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, existing statistical methods largely ignore the functional features (e.g., functional smoothness and correlation). The aim of this paper is to develop a functional genome-wide association analysis (FGWAS) framework to efficiently carry out whole-genome analyses of functional phenotypes. FGWAS consists of three components: a multivariate varying coefficient model, a global sure independence screening procedure, and a test procedure. Compared with the standard multivariate regression model, the multivariate varying coefficient model explicitly models the functional features of functional phenotypes through the integration of smooth coefficient functions and functional principal component analysis. Statistically, compared with existing methods for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), FGWAS can substantially boost the detection power for discovering important genetic variants influencing brain structure and function. Simulation studies show that FGWAS outperforms existing GWAS methods for searching sparse signals in an extremely large search space, while controlling for the family-wise error rate. We have successfully applied FGWAS to large-scale analysis of data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative for 708 subjects, 30,000 vertices on the left and right hippocampal surfaces, and 501,584 SNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epigenetic Impact on EBV Associated B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatadru Ghosh Roy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications leading to either transcriptional repression or activation, play an indispensable role in the development of human cancers. Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers—both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. This review elucidates the epigenetic consequences of EBV–host interactions during development of multiple EBV-induced B-cell lymphomas, which may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions against EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas by alteration of reversible patho-epigenetic markings.

  14. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Kahn, Tatyana G.; Nix, David A.; Li,Xiao-Yong; Bourgon, Richard; Biggin, Mark; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2006-04-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) complexes are multiprotein assemblages that bind to chromatin and establish chromatin states leading to epigenetic silencing. PcG proteins regulate homeotic genes in flies and vertebrates but little is known about other PcG targets and the role of the PcG in development, differentiation and disease. We have determined the distribution of the PcG proteins PC, E(Z) and PSC and of histone H3K27 trimethylation in the Drosophila genome. At more than 200 PcG target genes, binding sites for the three PcG proteins colocalize to presumptive Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). In contrast, H3 me3K27 forms broad domains including the entire transcription unit and regulatory regions. PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors but receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways are also included.

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association from genomic prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A limitation of many genome-wide association studies (GWA) in animal breeding is that there are many loci with small effect sizes; thus, larger sample sizes (N) are required to guarantee suitable power of detection. To increase sample size, results from different GWA can be combined in a meta-analys...

  17. Enduring epigenetic landmarks define the cancer microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidsley, Ruth; Lawrence, Mitchell G.; Zotenko, Elena; Niranjan, Birunthi; Statham, Aaron; Song, Jenny; Chabanon, Roman M.; Qu, Wenjia; Wang, Hong; Richards, Michelle; Nair, Shalima S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Nim, Hieu T.; Papargiris, Melissa; Balanathan, Preetika; French, Hugh; Peters, Timothy; Norden, Sam; Ryan, Andrew; Pedersen, John; Kench, James; Daly, Roger J.; Horvath, Lisa G.; Stricker, Phillip; Frydenberg, Mark; Taylor, Renea A.; Stirzaker, Clare; Risbridger, Gail P.; Clark, Susan J.

    2018-01-01

    The growth and progression of solid tumors involves dynamic cross-talk between cancer epithelium and the surrounding microenvironment. To date, molecular profiling has largely been restricted to the epithelial component of tumors; therefore, features underpinning the persistent protumorigenic phenotype of the tumor microenvironment are unknown. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show for the first time that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from localized prostate cancer display remarkably distinct and enduring genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, significantly at enhancers and promoters, compared to nonmalignant prostate fibroblasts (NPFs). Differentially methylated regions associated with changes in gene expression have cancer-related functions and accurately distinguish CAFs from NPFs. Remarkably, a subset of changes is shared with prostate cancer epithelial cells, revealing the new concept of tumor-specific epigenome modifications in the tumor and its microenvironment. The distinct methylome of CAFs provides a novel epigenetic hallmark of the cancer microenvironment and promises new biomarkers to improve interpretation of diagnostic samples. PMID:29650553

  18. Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance in reef-building corals

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2018-02-22

    The notion that intergenerational or transgenerational inheritance operates solely through genetic means is slowly being eroded: epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to induce heritable changes in gene activity in plants and metazoans. Inheritance of DNA methylation provides a potential pathway for environmentally induced phenotypes to contribute to evolution of species and populations. However, in basal metazoans, it is unknown whether inheritance of CpG methylation patterns occurs across the genome (as in plants) or as rare exceptions (as in mammals). Here, we demonstrate genome-wide intergenerational transmission of CpG methylation patterns from parents to sperm and larvae in a reef-building coral. We also show variation in hypermethylated genes in corals from distinct environments, indicative of responses to variations in temperature and salinity. These findings support a role of DNA methylation in the transgenerational inheritance of traits in corals, which may extend to enhancing their capacity to adapt to climate change.

  19. Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance in reef-building corals

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin; Howells, Emily J.; Wang, Xin; Michell, Craig; Burt, John A.; Idaghdour, Youssef; Aranda, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The notion that intergenerational or transgenerational inheritance operates solely through genetic means is slowly being eroded: epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to induce heritable changes in gene activity in plants and metazoans. Inheritance of DNA methylation provides a potential pathway for environmentally induced phenotypes to contribute to evolution of species and populations. However, in basal metazoans, it is unknown whether inheritance of CpG methylation patterns occurs across the genome (as in plants) or as rare exceptions (as in mammals). Here, we demonstrate genome-wide intergenerational transmission of CpG methylation patterns from parents to sperm and larvae in a reef-building coral. We also show variation in hypermethylated genes in corals from distinct environments, indicative of responses to variations in temperature and salinity. These findings support a role of DNA methylation in the transgenerational inheritance of traits in corals, which may extend to enhancing their capacity to adapt to climate change.

  20. Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind; Martin, Darren Patrick; Navas-Castillo, Jesú s; Moriones, Enrique; Herná ndez-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Murilo Zerbini, F.; Brown, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are important pathogens of many wild and cultivated plant species. Until recently, relatively few full curtovirus genomes have been characterised. However, with the 19 full genome sequences now available in public databases, we revisit the proposed curtovirus species and strain classification criteria. Using pairwise identities coupled with phylogenetic evidence, revised species and strain demarcation guidelines have been instituted. Specifically, we have established 77% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold and 94% genome-wide pairwise identity as a strain demarcation threshold. Hence, whereas curtovirus sequences with >77% genome-wide pairwise identity would be classified as belonging to the same species, those sharing >94% identity would be classified as belonging to the same strain. We provide step-by-step guidelines to facilitate the classification of newly discovered curtovirus full genome sequences and a set of defined criteria for naming new species and strains. The revision yields three curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), Spinach severe surly top virus (SpSCTV) and Horseradish curly top virus (HrCTV). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  1. Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind

    2014-01-25

    Members of the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are important pathogens of many wild and cultivated plant species. Until recently, relatively few full curtovirus genomes have been characterised. However, with the 19 full genome sequences now available in public databases, we revisit the proposed curtovirus species and strain classification criteria. Using pairwise identities coupled with phylogenetic evidence, revised species and strain demarcation guidelines have been instituted. Specifically, we have established 77% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold and 94% genome-wide pairwise identity as a strain demarcation threshold. Hence, whereas curtovirus sequences with >77% genome-wide pairwise identity would be classified as belonging to the same species, those sharing >94% identity would be classified as belonging to the same strain. We provide step-by-step guidelines to facilitate the classification of newly discovered curtovirus full genome sequences and a set of defined criteria for naming new species and strains. The revision yields three curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), Spinach severe surly top virus (SpSCTV) and Horseradish curly top virus (HrCTV). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  2. The Role of Epigenetic Change in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Yuk Jing; Hannan, Anthony John; Craig, Jeffrey Mark

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by problems with social communication, social interaction, and repetitive or restricted behaviors. ASD are comorbid with other disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Rett syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome. Neither the genetic nor the environmental components have been characterized well enough to aid diagnosis or treatment of non-syndromic ASD. However, genome-wide association studies have amassed evidence suggesting involvement of hundreds of genes and a variety of associated genetic pathways. Recently, investigators have turned to epigenetics, a prime mediator of environmental effects on genomes and phenotype, to characterize changes in ASD that constitute a molecular level on top of DNA sequence. Though in their infancy, such studies have the potential to increase our understanding of the etiology of ASD and may assist in the development of biomarkers for its prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and eventually in its prevention and intervention. This review focuses on the first few epigenome-wide association studies of ASD and discusses future directions.

  3. The role of epigenetic change in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Jin eLoke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by problems with social communication, social interaction and repetitive or restricted behaviours. ASD is comorbid with other disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Rett syndrome and Fragile X syndrome. Neither the genetic nor the environmental components have been characterised well enough to aid diagnosis or treatment of non-syndromic ASD. However, genome-wide association studies have amassed evidence suggesting involvement of hundreds of genes and a variety of associated genetic pathways. Recently, investigators have turned to epigenetics, a prime mediator of environmental effects on genomes and phenotype, to characterise changes in ASD that constitute a molecular level on top of DNA sequence. Though in their infancy, such studies have the potential to increase our understanding of the aetiology of ASD and may assist in the development of biomarkers for its prediction, diagnosis, prognosis and eventually in its prevention and intervention. This review focuses on the first few epigenome-wide association studies of ASD and discusses future directions.

  4. Hacking cell differentiation: transcriptional rerouting in reprogramming, lineage infidelity and metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalo, Gonçalo; Leutz, Achim

    2013-08-01

    Initiating neoplastic cell transformation events are of paramount importance for the comprehension of regeneration and vanguard oncogenic processes but are difficult to characterize and frequently clinically overlooked. In epithelia, pre-neoplastic transformation stages are often distinguished by the appearance of phenotypic features of another differentiated tissue, termed metaplasia. In haemato/lymphopoietic malignancies, cell lineage ambiguity is increasingly recorded. Both, metaplasia and biphenotypic leukaemia/lymphoma represent examples of dysregulated cell differentiation that reflect a history of trans-differentiation and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Here we compare the similarity between molecular events of experimental cell trans-differentiation as an emerging therapeutic concept, with lineage confusion, as in metaplasia and dysplasia forecasting tumour development. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  5. Pervasive, Genome-Wide Transcription in the Organelle Genomes of Diverse Plastid-Bearing Protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitá Lima, Matheus; Smith, David Roy

    2017-11-06

    Organelle genomes are among the most sequenced kinds of chromosome. This is largely because they are small and widely used in molecular studies, but also because next-generation sequencing technologies made sequencing easier, faster, and cheaper. However, studies of organelle RNA have not kept pace with those of DNA, despite huge amounts of freely available eukaryotic RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Little is known about organelle transcription in nonmodel species, and most of the available eukaryotic RNA-seq data have not been mined for organelle transcripts. Here, we use publicly available RNA-seq experiments to investigate organelle transcription in 30 diverse plastid-bearing protists with varying organelle genomic architectures. Mapping RNA-seq data to organelle genomes revealed pervasive, genome-wide transcription, regardless of the taxonomic grouping, gene organization, or noncoding content. For every species analyzed, transcripts covered ≥85% of the mitochondrial and/or plastid genomes (all of which were ≤105 kb), indicating that most of the organelle DNA-coding and noncoding-is transcriptionally active. These results follow earlier studies of model species showing that organellar transcription is coupled and ubiquitous across the genome, requiring significant downstream processing of polycistronic transcripts. Our findings suggest that noncoding organelle DNA can be transcriptionally active, raising questions about the underlying function of these transcripts and underscoring the utility of publicly available RNA-seq data for recovering complete genome sequences. If pervasive transcription is also found in bigger organelle genomes (>105 kb) and across a broader range of eukaryotes, this could indicate that noncoding organelle RNAs are regulating fundamental processes within eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2017 Sanitá Lima and Smith.

  6. a potential source of spurious associations in genome-wide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examine the entire human genome with the goal of identifying genetic variants. (usually single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) that are associated with phenotypic traits such as disease status and drug response. The discordance of significantly associated ...

  7. Genome-wide association study of smoking initiation and current smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Smit, August B; de Geus, Eco J C

    2009-01-01

    For the identification of genes associated with smoking initiation and current smoking, genome-wide association analyses were carried out in 3497 subjects. Significant genes that replicated in three independent samples (n = 405, 5810, and 1648) were visualized into a biologically meaningful network......) and cell-adhesion molecules (e.g., CDH23). We conclude that a network-based genome-wide association approach can identify genes influencing smoking behavior....

  8. System-Wide Hypersensitive Response-Associated Transcriptome and Metabolome Reprogramming in Tomato1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etalo, Desalegn W.; Stulemeijer, Iris J.E.; Peter van Esse, H.; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the matching avirulence gene of this pathogen. In these plants, massive reprogramming occurred, and we found that the HR and associated processes are highly energy demanding. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, hydrolysis of sugars, and lipid catabolism are used as alternative sources of amino acids, energy, and carbon skeletons, respectively. We observed strong accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Coregulated expression of WRKY transcription factors and genes known to be involved in the HR, in addition to a strong enrichment of the W-box WRKY-binding motif in the promoter sequences of the coregulated genes, point to WRKYs as the most prominent orchestrators of the HR. Our study has revealed several novel HR-related genes, and reverse genetics tools will allow us to understand the role of each individual component in the HR. PMID:23719893

  9. SMRT Sequencing Revealed Mitogenome Characteristics and Mitogenome-Wide DNA Modification Pattern in Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xincong; Hu, Liqin; Shen, Pengyuan; Li, Rui; Liu, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing was used to characterize mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and to analyze the mt genome-wide pattern of epigenetic DNA modification. The complete mt genome of O. sinensis , with a size of 157,539 bp, is the fourth largest Ascomycota mt genome sequenced to date. It contained 14 conserved protein-coding genes (PCGs), 1 intronic protein rps3 , 27 tRNAs and 2 rRNA subunits, which are common characteristics of the known mt genomes in Hypocreales. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 14 PCGs in Pezizomycotina fungi supports O. sinensis as most closely related to Hirsutella rhossiliensis in Ophiocordycipitaceae. A total of 36 sequence sites in rps3 were under positive selection, with dN/dS >1 in the 20 compared fungi. Among them, 16 sites were statistically significant. In addition, the mt genome-wide base modification pattern of O. sinensis was determined in this study, especially DNA methylation. The methylations were located in coding and uncoding regions of mt PCGs in O. sinensis , and might be closely related to the expression of PCGs or the binding affinity of transcription factor A to mtDNA. Consequently, these methylations may affect the enzymatic activity of oxidative phosphorylation and then the mt respiratory rate; or they may influence mt biogenesis. Therefore, methylations in the mitogenome of O. sinensis might be a genetic feature to adapt to the cold and low PO 2 environment at high altitude, where O. sinensis is endemic. This is the first report on epigenetic modifications in a fungal mt genome.

  10. CRISPR/Cas9 for Human Genome Engineering and Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Chen, Meng; Lim, Wendell A; Zhao, Dehua; Qi, Lei S

    2016-08-31

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system, a versatile RNA-guided DNA targeting platform, has been revolutionizing our ability to modify, manipulate, and visualize the human genome, which greatly advances both biological research and therapeutics development. Here, we review the current development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for gene editing, transcription regulation, genome imaging, and epigenetic modification. We discuss the broad application of this system to the study of functional genomics, especially genome-wide genetic screening, and to therapeutics development, including establishing disease models, correcting defective genetic mutations, and treating diseases.

  11. Epigenetic regulation in the inner ear and its potential roles in development, protection, and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eZuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning field of epigenetics is beginning to make a significant impact on our understanding of tissue development, maintenance, and function. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues that direct cell-type specific gene networks. The inner ear is comprised of highly specialized cell types with identical genomes that originate from a single totipotent zygote. During inner ear development specific combinations of transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers must function in a coordinated manner to establish and maintain cellular identity. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of distinct chromatin states and cell-type specific gene expression patterns. In this review, we highlight emerging paradigms for epigenetic modifications related to inner ear development, and how epigenetics may have a significant role in hearing loss, protection, and regeneration.

  12. A genome-wide association study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Atzmon, Gil; Demerath, Ellen W; Garcia, Melissa E; Kaplan, Robert C; Kumari, Meena; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J; Völker, Uwe; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Alice; Benjamin, Emelia J; Biffar, Reiner; Buchman, Aron S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Couper, David; De Jager, Philip L; Evans, Denis A; Harris, Tamara B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Kocher, Thomas; Kuningas, Maris; Launer, Lenore J; Lohman, Kurt K; Lutsey, Pamela L; Mackenbach, Johan; Marciante, Kristin; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiman, Eric M; Rotter, Jerome I; Seshadri, Sudha; Shardell, Michelle D; Smith, Albert V; van Duijn, Cornelia; Walston, Jeremy; Zillikens, M Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Bennett, David A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Liu, Yongmei; Murabito, Joanne M; Newman, Anne B; Tiemeier, Henning; Franceschini, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Human longevity and healthy aging show moderate heritability (20%-50%). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from 9 studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium for 2 outcomes: (1) all-cause mortality, and (2) survival free of major disease or death. No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a genome-wide significant predictor of either outcome (p < 5 × 10(-8)). We found 14 independent SNPs that predicted risk of death, and 8 SNPs that predicted event-free survival (p < 10(-5)). These SNPs are in or near genes that are highly expressed in the brain (HECW2, HIP1, BIN2, GRIA1), genes involved in neural development and function (KCNQ4, LMO4, GRIA1, NETO1) and autophagy (ATG4C), and genes that are associated with risk of various diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to considerable overlap between the traits, pathway and network analysis corroborated these findings. These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gigwa-Genotype investigator for genome-wide analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempéré, Guilhem; Philippe, Florian; Dereeper, Alexis; Ruiz, Manuel; Sarah, Gautier; Larmande, Pierre

    2016-06-06

    Exploring the structure of genomes and analyzing their evolution is essential to understanding the ecological adaptation of organisms. However, with the large amounts of data being produced by next-generation sequencing, computational challenges arise in terms of storage, search, sharing, analysis and visualization. This is particularly true with regards to studies of genomic variation, which are currently lacking scalable and user-friendly data exploration solutions. Here we present Gigwa, a web-based tool that provides an easy and intuitive way to explore large amounts of genotyping data by filtering it not only on the basis of variant features, including functional annotations, but also on genotype patterns. The data storage relies on MongoDB, which offers good scalability properties. Gigwa can handle multiple databases and may be deployed in either single- or multi-user mode. In addition, it provides a wide range of popular export formats. The Gigwa application is suitable for managing large amounts of genomic variation data. Its user-friendly web interface makes such processing widely accessible. It can either be simply deployed on a workstation or be used to provide a shared data portal for a given community of researchers.

  14. Lamarck rises from his grave: parental environment-induced epigenetic inheritance in model organisms and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Huijie; Sun, Zhongsheng

    2017-11-01

    Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism. In certain circumstances, these effects can be transmitted across several generations through epigenetic (i.e. non-DNA sequence-based rather than mutational) modifications. In this review, we summarize recent evidence on epigenetic inheritance from parental environment-induced developmental and physiological alterations in nematodes, fruit flies, zebrafish, rodents, and humans. The epigenetic modifications demonstrated to be both susceptible to modulation by environmental cues and heritable, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs, are also summarized. We particularly focus on evidence that parental environment-induced epigenetic alterations are transmitted through both the maternal and paternal germlines and exert sex-specific effects. The thought-provoking data presented here raise fundamental questions about the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena. In particular, the means that define the specificity of the response to parental experience in the gamete epigenome and that direct the establishment of the specific epigenetic change in the developing embryos, as well as in specific tissues in the descendants, remain obscure and require elucidation. More precise epigenetic assessment at both the genome-wide level and single-cell resolution as well as strategies for breeding at relatively sensitive periods of development and manipulation aimed at specific epigenetic modification are imperative for identifying parental

  15. Epigenetic repression of male gametophyte-specific genes in the Arabidopsis sporophyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Robert D; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2013-01-01

    Tissue formation, the identity of cells, and the functions they fulfill, are results of gene regulation. The male gametophyte of plants, pollen, is outstanding in this respect as several hundred genes expressed in pollen are not expressed in the sporophyte. How pollen-specific genes are down......-regulated in the sporophyte has yet to be established. In this study, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of publicly available genome-wide epigenetics data of several sporophytic tissues. By combining this analysis with DNase I footprinting data, we assessed means by which the repression of pollen-specific genes...

  16. Twin methodology in epigenetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    of diseases to molecular phenotypes in functional genomics especially in epigenetics, a thriving field of research that concerns the environmental regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA and long non-coding RNA expression, etc. The application of the twin method...

  17. Epigenetic variability in the genetically uniform forest tree species Pinus pinea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees.

  18. Epigenetic variability in the genetically uniform forest tree species Pinus pinea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Sáez-Laguna

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments. Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees.

  19. Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark Early Preparatory Events Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin N Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dissection of apomixis - an asexual reproductive mode - is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these events, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might hint as (epigenetic regulators of early development prior apomictic initiation. To identify these signatures during vegetative stages, we compared seedling RNA-seq transcriptomes of an obligate triploid apomict and a diploid sexual, both isolated from a drought-prone habitat. Uncovered were several genes differentially expressed between sexual and apomictic seedlings, including homologues of meiotic genes ASYNAPTIC 1 (ASY1 and MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1 that were down-regulated in apomicts. An intriguing class of apomict-specific deregulated genes included several NAC transcription factors, homologues of which are known to be transcriptionally reprogrammed during abiotic stress in other plants. Deregulation of both meiotic and stress-response genes during seedling stages might possibly be important in preparation for meiotic circumvention, as similar transcriptional alteration was discernible in apomeiotic floral buds too. Furthermore, we noted that the apomict showed better tolerance to osmotic stress in vitro than the sexual, in conjunction with significant upregulation of a subset of NAC genes. In support of the current model that DNA methylation epigenetically regulates stress, ploidy, hybridization and apomixis, we noted that ASY1, MPS1 and NAC019 homologues were deregulated in Boechera seedlings upon DNA demethylation, and ASY1 in particular seems to be repressed by

  20. Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Joy Dauncey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1 recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2 the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3 novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4 gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  1. Genome-wide association study of Tourette's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, J. M.; Yu, D.; Mathews, C. A.; Neale, B. M.; Stewart, S. E.; Fagerness, J. A.; Evans, P.; Gamazon, E.; Edlund, C. K.; Service, S. K.; Tikhomirov, A.; Osiecki, L.; Illmann, C.; Pluzhnikov, A.; Konkashbaev, A.; Davis, L. K.; Han, B.; Crane, J.; Moorjani, P.; Crenshaw, A. T.; Parkin, M. A.; Reus, V. I.; Lowe, T. L.; Rangel-Lugo, M.; Chouinard, S.; Dion, Y.; Girard, S.; Cath, D. C.; Smit, J. H.; King, R. A.; Fernandez, T. V.; Leckman, J. F.; Kidd, K. K.; Kidd, J. R.; Pakstis, A. J.; State, M. W.; Herrera, L. D.; Romero, R.; Fournier, E.; Sandor, P.; Barr, C. L.; Phan, N.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Benarroch, F.; Pollak, Y.; Budman, C. L.; Bruun, R. D.; Erenberg, G.; Naarden, A. L.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder that has one of the highest familial recurrence rates among neuropsychiatric diseases with complex inheritance. However, the identification of definitive TS susceptibility genes remains elusive. Here, we report the first genome-wide association

  2. Epigenetic effects of methoxychlor and vinclozolin on male gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Imprinting is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that mediates a parent-of-origin-dependent expression of the alleles of a number of genes. Imprinting, which occurs at specific sites within or surrounding the gene, called differentially methylated domains, consists in a methylation of CpGs. The appropriate transmission of genomics imprints is essential for the control of embryonic development and fetal growth. A number of endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect male reproductive tract development and spermatogenesis. It was postulated that the genetic effects of EDs might be induced by alterations in gene imprinting. We tested two EDs: methoxychlor and vinclozolin. Their administration during gestation induced in the offspring a decrease in sperm counts and significant modifications in the methylation pattern of a selection of paternally and maternally expressed canonical imprinted genes. The observation that imprinting was largely untouched in somatic cells suggests that EDs exert their damaging effects via the process of reprogramming that is unique to gamete development. Interestingly, the effects were transgenerational, although disappearing gradually from F1 to F3. A systematic analysis showed a heterogeneity in the CpG sensitivity to EDs. We propose that the deleterious effects of EDs on the male reproductive system are mediated by imprinting defects in the sperm. The reported effects of EDs on human male spermatogenesis might be mediated by analogous imprinting alterations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to "read" genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivocounterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies.

  4. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Malik, Vikas; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs) has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to "read" genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivocounterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies.

  5. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Malik, Vikas; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs) has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to “read” genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivo counterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies. PMID:25652623

  6. The Art of Interpreting Epigenetic Activity | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though all the cells of the human body share a common genomic blueprint, epigenetic activity such as DNA methylation, introduces molecular diversity that results in functionally and biologically different cellular constituents. In cancers, this ability of epigenetic activity to introduce molecular diversity is emerging as a powerful classifier of biological aggressiveness.

  7. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian...

  8. Epigenetic Editing : On the Verge of Reprogramming Gene Expression at Will

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano-Rodriguez, David; Rots, Marianne G

    2016-01-01

    Genome targeting has quickly developed as one of the most promising fields in science. By using programmable DNA-binding platforms and nucleases, scientists are now able to accurately edit the genome. These DNA-binding tools have recently also been applied to engineer the epigenome for gene

  9. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Laura S; Dolinoy, Dana C; Sartor, Maureen A; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention.

  10. Integrating evolutionary game theory into epigenetic study of embryonic development. Comment on ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoheng

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation is an essential component in the epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including repression of gene transcription, parent-of-origin genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation [1-5]. Understanding the epigenetic processes in different stages of embryo development has become an important research topic in the field. It has potential to offer new insight into reproductive medicine and contribute to the improvement of long-term health outcomes.

  11. Generation of human β-thalassemia induced pluripotent cell lines by reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ioanna; Karagiannidou, Angeliki; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Tzetis, Maria; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Siapati, Elena-Konstantina; Vassilopoulos, George; Graphakos, Stelios; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Goussetis, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modified mRNA molecules encoding pluripotency transcription factors have been used successfully in reprogramming human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have applied this method on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) obtained from a patient with β-thalassemia (β-thal) with the aim to generate trangene-free β-thal-iPSCs. Transfection of 10(4) BM-MSCs by lipofection with mRNA encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, cMyc, and Lin28 resulted in formation of five iPSC colonies, from which three were picked up and expanded in β-thal-iPSC lines. After 10 serial passages in vitro, β-thal-iPSCs maintain genetic stability as shown by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and are capable of forming embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Their gene expression profile compared to human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and BM-MSCs seems to be similar to that of ESCs, whereas it differs from the profile of the parental BM-MSCs. Differentiation cultures toward a hematopoietic lineage showed the generation of CD34(+) progenitors up to 10%, but with a decreased hematopoietic colony-forming capability. In conclusion, we report herein the generation of transgene-free β-thal-iPSCs that could be widely used for disease modeling and gene therapy applications. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the mRNA-based reprogramming method, used mainly in fibroblasts, is also suitable for reprogramming of human BM-MSCs.

  12. Optical reprogramming of human somatic cells using ultrashort Bessel-shaped near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-11-01

    We report a virus-free optical approach to human cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells with low-power nanoporation using ultrashort Bessel-shaped laser pulses. Picojoule near-infrared sub-20 fs laser pulses at a high 85 MHz repetition frequency are employed to generate transient nanopores in the membrane of dermal fibroblasts for the introduction of four transcription factors to induce the reprogramming process. In contrast to conventional approaches which utilize retro- or lentiviruses to deliver genes or transcription factors into the host genome, the laser method is virus-free; hence, the risk of virus-induced cancer generation limiting clinical application is avoided.

  13. Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine H Kresse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30% cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between

  14. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  15. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Ingelsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity is strongly heritable and one of the leading risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature death. In the past 8 years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have greatly increased our understanding of the genes and biological pathways that regulate...

  16. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  17. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Extraversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verweij, K. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report on a large meta-analysis of GWA studies for extraversion in 63,030 subjects in 29 cohorts. Extraversion item data from multiple personality inventories were harmonized across inventories and cohorts. No genome-wide significant associations were found...... at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level but there was one significant hit at the gene level for a long non-coding RNA site (LOC101928162). Genome-wide complex trait analysis in two large cohorts showed that the additive variance explained by common SNPs was not significantly different from zero...

  18. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics and athleticogenomics: a brief look at a rapidly changing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2008-09-01

    Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.

  19. Genome-wide screening identifies Plasmodium chabaudi-induced modifications of DNA methylation status of Tlr1 and Tlr6 gene promoters in liver, but not spleen, of female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Santourlidis, Simeon; Wunderlich, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of host genes via DNA methylation is increasingly recognized as critical for the outcome of diverse infectious diseases, but information for malaria is not yet available. Here, we investigate the effect of blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi on the DNA methylation status of host gene promoters on a genome-wide scale using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and Nimblegen microarrays containing 2,000 bp oligonucleotide features that were split into -1,500 to -500 bp Ups promoters and -500 to +500 bp Cor promoters, relative to the transcription site, for evaluation of differential DNA methylation. Gene expression was analyzed by Agilent and Affymetrix microarray technology. Challenging of female C57BL/6 mice with 10(6) P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes resulted in a self-healing outcome of infections with peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i. These infections induced organ-specific modifications of DNA methylation of gene promoters. Among the 17,354 features on Nimblegen arrays, only seven gene promoters were identified to be hypermethylated in the spleen, whereas the liver exhibited 109 hyper- and 67 hypomethylated promoters at peak parasitemia in comparison with non-infected mice. Among the identified genes with differentially methylated Cor-promoters, only the 7 genes Pigr, Ncf1, Klkb1, Emr1, Ndufb11, and Tlr6 in the liver and Apol6 in the spleen were detected to have significantly changed their expression. Remarkably, the Cor promoter of the toll-like receptor Tlr6 became hypomethylated and Tlr6 expression increased by 3.4-fold during infection. Concomitantly, the Ups promoter of the Tlr1 was hypermethylated, but Tlr1 expression also increased by 11.3-fold. TLR6 and TLR1 are known as auxillary receptors to form heterodimers with TLR2 in plasma membranes of macrophages, which recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as, e.g., intact 3-acyl and sn-2-lyso-acyl glycosylphosphatidylinositols of P. falciparum

  20. The Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Roundup Does not Elevate Genome-Wide Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincher, Clayton; Long, Hongan; Behringer, Megan; Walker, Noah; Lynch, Michael

    2017-10-05

    Mutations induced by pollutants may promote pathogen evolution, for example by accelerating mutations conferring antibiotic resistance. Generally, evaluating the genome-wide mutagenic effects of long-term sublethal pollutant exposure at single-nucleotide resolution is extremely difficult. To overcome this technical barrier, we use the mutation accumulation/whole-genome sequencing (MA/WGS) method as a mutagenicity test, to quantitatively evaluate genome-wide mutagenesis of Escherichia coli after long-term exposure to a wide gradient of the glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) Roundup Concentrate Plus. The genome-wide mutation rate decreases as GBH concentration increases, suggesting that even long-term GBH exposure does not compromise the genome stability of bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Tincher et al.

  1. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Østrup, Olga; Villemoes, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic modification is supposed to be one of factors accounting for inefficient reprogramming of the donor cell nuclei in ooplasm after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, potentially enhancing cloning efficiency. The aim...... transferred to 2 recipients resulting in one pregnancy and birth of one live and five dead piglets. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after HMC in pigs may affect reprogramming of the somatic genome resulting in higher in vitro embryo development, and enable full-term in vivo development....

  2. Epigenome-Wide Association Study Identifies Cardiac Gene Patterning and a Novel Class of Biomarkers for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, Benjamin; Haas, Jan; Sedaghat-Hamedani, Farbod; Kayvanpour, Elham; Frese, Karen; Lai, Alan; Nietsch, Rouven; Scheiner, Christina; Mester, Stefan; Bordalo, Diana Martins; Amr, Ali; Dietrich, Carsten; Pils, Dietmar; Siede, Dominik; Hund, Hauke; Bauer, Andrea; Holzer, Daniel Benjamin; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Mueller-Hennessen, Matthias; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph; Weis, Tanja; Backs, Johannes; Wuerstle, Maximilian; Keller, Andreas; Katus, Hugo A; Posch, Andreas E

    2017-10-17

    Biochemical DNA modification resembles a crucial regulatory layer among genetic information, environmental factors, and the transcriptome. To identify epigenetic susceptibility regions and novel biomarkers linked to myocardial dysfunction and heart failure, we performed the first multi-omics study in myocardial tissue and blood of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and controls. Infinium human methylation 450 was used for high-density epigenome-wide mapping of DNA methylation in left-ventricular biopsies and whole peripheral blood of living probands. RNA deep sequencing was performed on the same samples in parallel. Whole-genome sequencing of all patients allowed exclusion of promiscuous genotype-induced methylation calls. In the screening stage, we detected 59 epigenetic loci that are significantly associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (false discovery corrected P ≤0.05), with 3 of them reaching epigenome-wide significance at P ≤5×10 -8 . Twenty-seven (46%) of these loci could be replicated in independent cohorts, underlining the role of epigenetic regulation of key cardiac transcription regulators. Using a staged multi-omics study design, we link a subset of 517 epigenetic loci with dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac gene expression. Furthermore, we identified distinct epigenetic methylation patterns that are conserved across tissues, rendering these CpGs novel epigenetic biomarkers for heart failure. The present study provides to our knowledge the first epigenome-wide association study in living patients with heart failure using a multi-omics approach. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Epigenetics of dominance for enzyme activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and produce qualitatively different allozymes and the two alleles are expressed equally within and across all three genotypes and and play an equal role in the epigenetics of dominance. Subunit interaction in the heterodimer over a wide range of H+ concentrations accounts for the epigenetics of dominance for ...

  4. Assessing the risks of genotoxicity in the therapeutic development of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Winkler, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential for regenerative medicine as well as for basic and translational research. However, following the initial excitement over the enormous prospects of this technology, several reports uncovered serious concerns regarding its safety for clinical applications and reproducibility for laboratory applications such as disease modeling or drug screening. In particular, the genomic integrity of iPSCs is the focus of extensive research. Epigenetic remodeling, aberrant expression of reprogramming factors, clonal selection, and prolonged in vitro culture are potential pathways for acquiring genomic alterations. In this review, we will critically discuss current reprogramming technologies particularly in the context of genotoxicity, and the consequences of these alternations for the potential applications of reprogrammed cells. In addition, current strategies of genetic modification of iPSCs, as well as applicable suicide strategies to control the risk of iPSC-based therapies will be introduced.

  5. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Marie N. [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States); University Hospital of Würzburg, Department of Pediatrics, 2 Josef-Schneiderstrasse, 97080 Würzburg (Germany); Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States); Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, King' s College London, 28th Floor, Tower Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London (United Kingdom); Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: belmonte@salk.edu [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Despite the profound and rapid advancements in reprogramming technologies since the generation of the first induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006[1], the molecular basics of the process and its implications are still not fully understood. Recent work has suggested that a subset of TFs, so called “Pioneer TFs”, play an important role during the stochastic phase of iPSC reprogramming [2–6]. Pioneer TFs activities differ from conventional transcription factors in their mechanism of action. They bind directly to condensed chromatin and elicit a series of chromatin remodeling events that lead to opening of the chromatin. Chromatin decondensation by pioneer factors progressively occurs during cell division and in turn exposes specific gene promoters in the DNA to which TFs can now directly bind to promoters that are readily accessible[2, 6]. Here, we will summarize recent advancements on our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying reprogramming to iPSC as well as the implications that pioneer Transcription Factor activities might play during different lineage conversion processes. - Highlights: • Pioneer transcription factor activity underlies the initial steps of iPSC generation. • Reprogramming can occur by cis- and/or trans- reprogramming events. • Cis-reprogramming implies remodeling of the chromatin for enabling TF accessibility. • Trans-reprogramming encompasses direct binding of Tfs to their target gene promoters.

  6. Optimal ROS Signaling Is Critical for Nuclear Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency requires activation of innate immunity. Because innate immune activation triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS signaling, we sought to determine whether there was a role of ROS signaling in nuclear reprogramming. We examined ROS production during the reprogramming of doxycycline (dox-inducible mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs carrying the Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc [OSKM] into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. ROS generation was substantially increased with the onset of reprogramming. Depletion of ROS via antioxidants or Nox inhibitors substantially decreased reprogramming efficiency. Similarly, both knockdown and knockout of p22phox—a critical subunit of the Nox (1–4 complex—decreased reprogramming efficiency. However, excessive ROS generation using genetic and pharmacological approaches also impaired reprogramming. Overall, our data indicate that ROS signaling is activated early with nuclear reprogramming, and optimal levels of ROS signaling are essential to induce pluripotency.

  7. Epigenetic remodelling and dysregulation of DLGAP4 is linked with early-onset cerebellar ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Hansen, Claus; Kim, Hyung-Goo

    2014-01-01

    Genome instability, epigenetic remodelling and structural chromosomal rearrangements are hallmarks of cancer. However, the coordinated epigenetic effects of constitutional chromosomal rearrangements that disrupt genes associated with congenital neurodevelopmental diseases are poorly understood. T...

  8. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing

  9. Nanos promotes epigenetic reprograming of the germline by down-regulation of the THAP transcription factor LIN-15B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Yung Sean; Lu, Tu; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2017-11-07

    Nanos RNA-binding proteins are required for germline development in metazoans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have profiled the transcriptome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) lacking the nanos homologs nos-1 and nos-2 in C. elegans. nos-1nos-2 PGCs fail to silence hundreds of transcripts normally expressed in oocytes. We find that this misregulation is due to both delayed turnover of maternal transcripts and inappropriate transcriptional activation. The latter appears to be an indirect consequence of delayed turnover of the maternally-inherited transcription factor LIN-15B, a synMuvB class transcription factor known to antagonize PRC2 activity. PRC2 is required for chromatin reprogramming in the germline, and the transcriptome of PGCs lacking PRC2 resembles that of nos-1nos-2 PGCs. Loss of maternal LIN-15B restores fertility to nos-1nos-2 mutants. These findings suggest that Nanos promotes germ cell fate by downregulating maternal RNAs and proteins that would otherwise interfere with PRC2-dependent reprogramming of PGC chromatin.

  10. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  11. Epigenetics and obesity cardiomyopathy: From pathophysiology to prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Uncorrected obesity has been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several mechanisms for this cardiomyopathy have been identified, including oxidative stress, autophagy, adrenergic and renin-angiotensin aldosterone overflow. Another process that may regulate effects of obesity is epigenetics, which refers to the heritable alterations in gene expression or cellular phenotype that are not encoded on the DNA sequence. Advances in epigenome profiling have greatly improved the understanding of the epigenome in obesity, where environmental exposures during early life result in an increased health risk later on in life. Several mechanisms, including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, have been reported in obesity and can cause transcriptional suppression or activation, depending on the location within the gene, contributing to obesity-induced complications. Through epigenetic modifications, the fetus may be prone to detrimental insults, leading to cardiac sequelae later in life. Important links between epigenetics and obesity include nutrition, exercise, adiposity, inflammation, insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide studies have identified altered DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic islets, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues from obese subjects compared with non-obese controls. In addition, aging and intrauterine environment