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Sample records for genome reveals insights

  1. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  2. Correction: Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel K; James, Elle D; Bis, Dana M; Karty, Jonathan A; Lane, Amy L; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2015-09-21

    Correction for 'Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis' by Norah Alqahtani et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 7177-7192.

  3. Genome Neighborhood Network Reveals Insights into Enediyne Biosynthesis and Facilitates Prediction and Prioritization for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Yan, Xiaohui; Shen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The enediynes are one of the most fascinating families of bacterial natural products given their unprecedented molecular architecture and extraordinary cytotoxicity. Enediynes are rare with only 11 structurally characterized members and four additional members isolated in their cycloaromatized form. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have resulted in an explosion of microbial genomes. A virtual survey of the GenBank and JGI genome databases revealed 87 enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters from 78 bacteria strains, implying enediynes are more common than previously thought. Here we report the construction and analysis of an enediyne genome neighborhood network (GNN) as a high-throughput approach to analyze secondary metabolite gene clusters. Analysis of the enediyne GNN facilitated rapid gene cluster annotation, revealed genetic trends in enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters resulting in a simple prediction scheme to determine 9- vs 10-membered enediyne gene clusters, and supported a genomic-based strain prioritization method for enediyne discovery. PMID:26318027

  4. The Physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensing, Stefan A.; Lang, Daniel; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Nishiyama, Tomaoki; Perroud, Pierre-Francois; Lindquist, Erika A.; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Tanahashi, Takako; Sakakibara, Keiko; Fujita, Tomomichi; Oishi, Kazuko; Shin, Tadasu; Kuroki, Yoko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Sugano, Sumio; Kohara, Yuji; Fujiyama, Asao; Anterola, Aldwin; Aoki, Setsuyuki; Ashton, Neil; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Barker, Elizabeth; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Blankenship, Robert; Cho, Sung Hyun; Dutcher, Susan K.; Estelle, Mark; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Gundlach, Heidrum; Hanada, Kousuke; Melkozernov, Alexander; Murata, Takashi; Nelson, David R.; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Reiss, Bernd; Renner, Tanya; Rombauts, Stephane; Rushton, Paul J.; Sanderfoot, Anton; Schween, Gabriele; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stueber, Kurt; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Tu, Hank; Van de Peer, Yves; Verrier, Paul J.; Waters, Elizabeth; Wood, Andrew; Yang, Lixing; Cove, David; Cuming, Andrew C.; Hasebe, Mitsayasu; Lucas, Susan; Mishler, Brent D.; Reski, Ralf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Quatrano, Rakph S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2007-09-18

    We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family complexity; loss of genes associated with aquatic environments (e.g., flagellar arms); acquisition of genes for tolerating terrestrial stresses (e.g., variation in temperature and water availability); and the development of the auxin and abscisic acid signaling pathways for coordinating multicellular growth and dehydration response. The Physcomitrella genome provides a resource for phylogenetic inferences about gene function and for experimental analysis of plant processes through this plant's unique facility for reverse genetics.

  5. A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain J; Elkins, James G.; Podar, Mircea; Graham, David E.; Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri; Randau, Lennart; Hedlund, Brian P.; Brochier-Armanet, Celine; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Barry, Kerrie; Koonin, Eugene V.; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Keller, Martin; Stetter, Karl O.

    2008-06-05

    The candidate division Korarchaeota comprises a group of uncultivated microorganisms that, by their small subunit rRNA phylogeny, may have diverged early from the major archaeal phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Here, we report the initial characterization of a member of the Korarchaeota with the proposed name,"Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum," which exhibits an ultrathin filamentous morphology. To investigate possible ancestral relationships between deep-branching Korarchaeota and other phyla, we used whole-genome shotgun sequencing to construct a complete composite korarchaeal genome from enriched cells. The genome was assembled into a single contig 1.59 Mb in length with a G + C content of 49percent. Of the 1,617 predicted protein-coding genes, 1,382 (85percent) could be assigned to a revised set of archaeal Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs). The predicted gene functions suggest that the organism relies on a simple mode of peptide fermentation for carbon and energy and lacks the ability to synthesize de novo purines, CoA, and several other cofactors. Phylogenetic analyses based on conserved single genes and concatenated protein sequences positioned the korarchaeote as a deep archaeal lineage with an apparent affinity to the Crenarchaeota. However, the predicted gene content revealed that several conserved cellular systems, such as cell division, DNA replication, and tRNA maturation, resemble the counterparts in the Euryarchaeota. In light of the known composition of archaeal genomes, the Korarchaeota might have retained a set of cellular features that represents the ancestral archaeal form.

  6. A Korarchael Genome Reveals Insights into the Evolution of the Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Elkins, James G.; Podar, Mircea; Graham, David E.; Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri; Randau, Lennart; Hedlund, Brian P.; Brochier-Armanet, Celine; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Barry, Kerrie; Koonin, Eugene V.; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Keller, Martin; Stetter, Karl O.

    2008-01-07

    The candidate division Korarchaeota comprises a group of uncultivated microorganisms that, by their small subunit rRNA phylogeny, may have diverged early from the major archaeal phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Here, we report the initial characterization of a member of the Korarchaeota with the proposed name, ?Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum,? which exhibits an ultrathin filamentous morphology. To investigate possible ancestral relationships between deep-branching Korarchaeota and other phyla, we used whole-genome shotgun sequencing to construct a complete composite korarchaeal genome from enriched cells. The genome was assembled into a single contig 1.59 Mb in length with a G + C content of 49percent. Of the 1,617 predicted protein-coding genes, 1,382 (85percent) could be assigned to a revised set of archaeal Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs). The predicted gene functions suggest that the organism relies on a simple mode of peptide fermentation for carbon and energy and lacks the ability to synthesize de novo purines, CoA, and several other cofactors. Phylogenetic analyses based on conserved single genes and concatenated protein sequences positioned the korarchaeote as a deep archaeal lineage with an apparent affinity to the Crenarchaeota. However, the predicted gene content revealed that several conserved cellular systems, such as cell division, DNA replication, and tRNA maturation, resemble the counterparts in the Euryarchaeota. In light of the known composition of archaeal genomes, the Korarchaeota might have retained a set of cellular features that represents the ancestral archaeal form.

  7. Functional Genomic and Advanced Genetic Studies Reveal Novel Insights into the Metabolism, Regulation, and Biology of Haloferax volcanii

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    Jörg Soppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions–from replication to posttranslational modification—and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future.

  8. Insights into the genome of large sulfur bacteria revealed by analysis of single filaments.

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    Marc Mussmann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediments are frequently covered by mats of the filamentous Beggiatoa and other large nitrate-storing bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide using either oxygen or nitrate, which they store in intracellular vacuoles. Despite their conspicuous metabolic properties and their biogeochemical importance, little is known about their genetic repertoire because of the lack of pure cultures. Here, we present a unique approach to access the genome of single filaments of Beggiatoa by combining whole genome amplification, pyrosequencing, and optical genome mapping. Sequence assemblies were incomplete and yielded average contig sizes of approximately 1 kb. Pathways for sulfur oxidation, nitrate and oxygen respiration, and CO2 fixation confirm the chemolithoautotrophic physiology of Beggiatoa. In addition, Beggiatoa potentially utilize inorganic sulfur compounds and dimethyl sulfoxide as electron acceptors. We propose a mechanism of vacuolar nitrate accumulation that is linked to proton translocation by vacuolar-type ATPases. Comparative genomics indicates substantial horizontal gene transfer of storage, metabolic, and gliding capabilities between Beggiatoa and cyanobacteria. These capabilities enable Beggiatoa to overcome non-overlapping availabilities of electron donors and acceptors while gliding between oxic and sulfidic zones. The first look into the genome of these filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria substantially deepens the understanding of their evolution and their contribution to sulfur and nitrogen cycling in marine sediments.

  9. Genomic Characterization Reveals Insights Into Patulin Biosynthesis and Pathogenicity in Penicillium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boqiang; Zong, Yuanyuan; Du, Zhenglin; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhanquan; Qin, Guozheng; Zhao, Wenming; Tian, Shiping

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium species are fungal pathogens that infect crop plants worldwide. P. expansum differs from P. italicum and P. digitatum, all major postharvest pathogens of pome and citrus, in that the former is able to produce the mycotoxin patulin and has a broader host range. The molecular basis of host-specificity of fungal pathogens has now become the focus of recent research. The present report provides the whole genome sequence of P. expansum (33.52 Mb) and P. italicum (28.99 Mb) and identifies differences in genome structure, important pathogenic characters, and secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters in Penicillium species. We identified a total of 55 gene clusters potentially related to secondary metabolism, including a cluster of 15 genes (named PePatA to PePatO), that may be involved in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum. Functional studies confirmed that PePatL and PePatK play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of patulin and that patulin production is not related to virulence of P. expansum. Collectively, P. expansum contains more pathogenic genes and SM gene clusters, in particular, an intact patulin cluster, than P. italicum or P. digitatum. These findings provide important information relevant to understanding the molecular network of patulin biosynthesis and mechanisms of host-specificity in Penicillium species.

  10. Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis genomic landscape: comparative genomics reveals variations in ploidy and nutrient utilisation potential amongst wine isolates.

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    Anthony R Borneman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92% of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S

  11. Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis genomic landscape: comparative genomics reveals variations in ploidy and nutrient utilisation potential amongst wine isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Anthony R; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J; Curtin, Chris D

    2014-02-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae.

  12. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

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    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  14. The genome sequence of the leaf-cutter ant Atta cephalotes reveals insights into its obligate symbiotic lifestyle.

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    Garret Suen

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the formation of their massive colonies. Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in size from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the most complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of Atta cephalotes using 454 pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ant's lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients. Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases (which are likely unnecessary because proteolysis is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungus, a loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis (suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungus, and the absence of a hexamerin (which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects. Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the A. cephalotes genome provides new insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of this ant and advances our understanding of host-microbe symbioses.

  15. Genomic Insights and Its Comparative Analysis with Yersinia enterocolitica Reveals the Potential Virulence Determinants and Further Pathogenicity for Foodborne Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Na, Eun Jung; Chung, Han Young; Kim, Suyeon; Kim, You-Tae; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2017-02-28

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain Y. enterocolitica FORC_002 was isolated from the gill of flatfish (plaice) and its genome was sequenced. The genomic DNA consists of 4,837,317 bp with a GC content of 47.1%, and is predicted to contain 4,221 open reading frames, 81 tRNA genes, and 26 rRNA genes. Interestingly, genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasion-associated genes encoding guanylate cyclase (Yst), invasin (Ail and Inv), outer membrane protein (Yops), autotransporter adhesin A (YadA), RTX-like toxins, and a type III secretion system. In particular, guanylate cyclase is a heat-stable enterotoxin causing Yersinia-associated diarrhea, and RTX-like toxins are responsible for attachment to integrin on the target cell for cytotoxic action. This genome can be used to identify virulence factors that can be applied for the development of novel biomarkers for the rapid detection of this pathogen in foods.

  16. Genomic Analysis of Clavibacter michiganensis Reveals Insight Into Virulence Strategies and Genetic Diversity of a Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shree P; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Gilbertson, Robert L; Coaker, Gitta

    2017-10-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen that proliferates in the xylem vessels of tomato, causing bacterial canker disease. In this study, we sequenced and assembled genomes of 11 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated from infected tomato fields in California as well as five Clavibacter strains that colonize tomato endophytically but are not pathogenic in this host. The analysis of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genomes supported the monophyletic nature of this pathogen but revealed genetic diversity among strains, consistent with multiple introduction events. Two tomato endophytes that clustered phylogenetically with C. michiganensis strains capable of infecting wheat and pepper and were also able to cause disease in these plants. Plasmid profiles of the California strains were variable and supported the essential role of the pCM1-like plasmid and the CelA cellulase in virulence, whereas the absence of the pCM2-like plasmid in some pathogenic C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains revealed it is not essential. A large number of secreted C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis proteins were carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Glycome profiling revealed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis but not endophytic Clavibacter strains is able to extensively alter tomato cell-wall composition. Two secreted CAZymes found in all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains, CelA and PelA1, enhanced pathogenicity on tomato. Collectively, these results provide a deeper understanding of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis diversity and virulence strategies.

  17. Insights from genome of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 reveal mechanisms to convert complex sugars for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Thiago; Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Miranda, Milene; Thompson, Cristiane C; Pereira, Nei; Faber, Mariana; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium butyricum is widely used to produce organic solvents such as ethanol, butanol and acetone. We sequenced the entire genome of C. butyricum INCQS635 by using Ion Torrent technology. We found a high contribution of sequences assigned for carbohydrate subsystems (15-20 % of known sequences). Annotation based on protein-conserved domains revealed a higher diversity of glycoside hydrolases than previously found in C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 strain. More than 30 glycoside hydrolases (GH) families were found; families of GH involved in degradation of galactan, cellulose, starch and chitin were identified as most abundant (close to 50 % of all sequences assigned as GH) in C. butyricum INCQS635. KEGG metabolic pathways reconstruction allowed us to verify possible routes in the C. butyricum INCQS635 and C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 genomes. Metabolic pathways for ethanol synthesis are similar for both species, but alcohol dehydrogenase of C. butyricum INCQS635 and C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 was different. The genomic repertoire of C. butyricum is an important resource to underpin future studies towards improved solvents production.

  18. Comparative genomics reveals two novel RNAi factors in Trypanosoma brucei and provides insight into the core machinery.

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    Rebecca L Barnes

    Full Text Available The introduction ten years ago of RNA interference (RNAi as a tool for molecular exploration in Trypanosoma brucei has led to a surge in our understanding of the pathogenesis and biology of this human parasite. In particular, a genome-wide RNAi screen has recently been combined with next-generation Illumina sequencing to expose catalogues of genes associated with loss of fitness in distinct developmental stages. At present, this technology is restricted to RNAi-positive protozoan parasites, which excludes T. cruzi, Leishmania major, and Plasmodium falciparum. Therefore, elucidating the mechanism of RNAi and identifying the essential components of the pathway is fundamental for improving RNAi efficiency in T. brucei and for transferring the RNAi tool to RNAi-deficient pathogens. Here we used comparative genomics of RNAi-positive and -negative trypanosomatid protozoans to identify the repertoire of factors in T. brucei. In addition to the previously characterized Argonaute 1 (AGO1 protein and the cytoplasmic and nuclear Dicers, TbDCL1 and TbDCL2, respectively, we identified the RNA Interference Factors 4 and 5 (TbRIF4 and TbRIF5. TbRIF4 is a 3'-5' exonuclease of the DnaQ superfamily and plays a critical role in the conversion of duplex siRNAs to the single-stranded form, thus generating a TbAGO1-siRNA complex required for target-specific cleavage. TbRIF5 is essential for cytoplasmic RNAi and appears to act as a TbDCL1 cofactor. The availability of the core RNAi machinery in T. brucei provides a platform to gain mechanistic insights in this ancient eukaryote and to identify the minimal set of components required to reconstitute RNAi in RNAi-deficient parasites.

  19. A genome-wide analysis of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in coffee reveals insights into its regulatory mechanisms.

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    Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Christiane; Marinho Rezende, Pâmela; Cherubino Ribeiro, Thales Henrique; Ricon de Oliveira, Raphael; Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Thaís; Rodrigues do Amaral, Laurence; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover. We aimed to unravel the components and functions of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in a non-model plant species of worldwide economic relevance. The sRNA-guided silencing complex members have been identified in the Coffea canephora genome, and they have been characterized at the structural, functional, and evolutionary levels by computational analyses. Eleven AGO proteins, nine DCL proteins (which include a DCL1-like protein that was not previously annotated), and eight RDR proteins were identified. Another 48 proteins implicated in smallRNA (sRNA) pathways were also identified. Furthermore, we identified 235 miRNA precursors and 317 mature miRNAs from 113 MIR families, and we characterized ccp-MIR156, ccp-MIR172, and ccp-MIR390. Target prediction and gene ontology analyses of 2239 putative targets showed that significant pathways in coffee are targeted by miRNAs. We provide evidence of the expansion of the loci related to sRNA pathways, insights into the activities of these proteins by domain and catalytic site analyses, and gene expression analysis. The number of MIR loci and their targeted pathways highlight the importance of miRNAs in coffee. We identified several roles of sRNAs in C. canephora, which offers substantial insight into better understanding the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of this major crop.

  20. Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel K; James, Elle D; Bis, Dana M; Karty, Jonathan A; Lane, Amy L; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2015-07-14

    Marine actinomycete-derived natural products continue to inspire chemical and biological investigations. Nocardioazines A and B (3 and 4), from Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232, are structurally unique alkaloids featuring a 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) core functionalized with indole C3-prenyl as well as indole C3- and N-methyl groups. The logic of their assembly remains cryptic. Bioinformatics analyses of the Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 draft genome afforded the noz cluster, split across two regions of the genome, and encoding putative open reading frames with roles in nocardioazine biosynthesis, including cyclodipeptide synthase (CDPS), prenyltransferase, methyltransferase, and cytochrome P450 homologs. Heterologous expression of a twelve gene contig from the noz cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor resulted in accumulation of cyclo-l-Trp-l-Trp DKP (5). This experimentally connected the noz cluster to indole alkaloid natural product biosynthesis. Results from bioinformatics analyses of the noz pathway along with challenges in actinomycete genetics prompted us to use asymmetric synthesis and mass spectrometry to determine biosynthetic intermediates in the noz pathway. The structures of hypothesized biosynthetic intermediates 5 and 12-17 were firmly established through chemical synthesis. LC-MS and MS-MS comparison of these synthetic compounds with metabolites present in chemical extracts from Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 revealed which of these hypothesized intermediates were relevant in the nocardioazine biosynthetic pathway. This established the early and mid-stages of the biosynthetic pathway, demonstrating that Nocardiopsis performs indole C3-methylation prior to indole C3-normal prenylation and indole N1'-methylation in nocardioazine B assembly. These results highlight the utility of merging bioinformatics analyses, asymmetric synthetic approaches, and mass spectrometric metabolite profiling in probing natural product biosynthesis.

  1. Genome sequence of the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, reveals insights into its biology, genetics, and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chena, X.G.; Jiang, X.; Gu, J.; Xu, M.; Wu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Zhang, C.; Bonizzoni, M.; Dermauw, W.; Vontas, J.; Armbruster, P.; Huang, X.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, H.; He, W.; Peng, H.; Liu, Y.; Wu, K.; Chen, J.; Lirakis, M.; Topalis, P.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Hall, B.A.; Thorpe, C.; Mueller, R.L.; Sun, C.; Waterhouse, R.M.; Yan, G.; Tu, Z.J.; Fang, X.; James, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly successful invasive species that transmits a number of human viral diseases, including dengue and Chikungunya fevers. This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. The complete genome sequence was determined

  2. Genome sequence of the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, reveals insights into its biology, genetics, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Guang; Jiang, Xuanting; Gu, Jinbao; Xu, Meng; Wu, Yang; Deng, Yuhua; Zhang, Chi; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dermauw, Wannes; Vontas, John; Armbruster, Peter; Huang, Xin; Yang, Yulan; Zhang, Hao; He, Weiming; Peng, Hongjuan; Liu, Yongfeng; Wu, Kun; Chen, Jiahua; Lirakis, Manolis; Topalis, Pantelis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Jiang, Xiaofang; Thorpe, Chevon; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Sun, Cheng; Waterhouse, Robert Michael; Yan, Guiyun; Tu, Zhijian Jake; Fang, Xiaodong; James, Anthony A

    2015-11-03

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly successful invasive species that transmits a number of human viral diseases, including dengue and Chikungunya fevers. This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. The complete genome sequence was determined for the Foshan strain, an established laboratory colony derived from wild mosquitoes from southeastern China, a region within the historical range of the origin of the species. The genome comprises 1,967 Mb, the largest mosquito genome sequenced to date, and its size results principally from an abundance of repetitive DNA classes. In addition, expansions of the numbers of members in gene families involved in insecticide-resistance mechanisms, diapause, sex determination, immunity, and olfaction also contribute to the larger size. Portions of integrated flavivirus-like genomes support a shared evolutionary history of association of these viruses with their vector. The large genome repertory may contribute to the adaptability and success of Ae. albopictus as an invasive species.

  3. Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoux, A-C; Hendrix, R W; Lander, G C; Bailly, X; Podell, S; Paillard, C; Johnson, J E; Potter, C S; Carragher, B; Azam, F

    2012-08-01

    We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V.harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V.campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies.

  4. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Wang; Lijuan Zhou; Dazhi Li; Liangying Dai; Amy Lawton-Rauh; Pradip K. Srimani; Yongping Duan; Feng Luo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif anal...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community in fermented grape marc reveals that Lactobacillus fabifermentans is one of the dominant species: insights into its genome structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Vendramin, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    . The results revealed that it is one of the largest genomes among the Lactobacillus sequenced and is characterized by a large number of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and in the regulation of gene expression. The genome was shaped through a large number of gene duplication events, while lateral...... gene transfer contributed to a lesser extent with respect to other Lactobacillus species. According to genomic analysis, its carbohydrate utilization pattern and ability to form biofilm are the main genetic traits linked to the adaptation the species underwent permitting it to grow in fermenting grape...

  6. Genome sequence of the deep-rooted Yersinia pestis strain Angola reveals new insights into the evolution and pangenome of the plague bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Worsham, Patricia L; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Riley, David R; Sebastian, Yinong; Mou, Sherry; Achtman, Mark; Lindler, Luther E; Ravel, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    To gain insights into the origin and genome evolution of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, we have sequenced the deep-rooted strain Angola, a virulent Pestoides isolate. Its ancient nature makes this atypical isolate of particular importance in understanding the evolution of plague pathogenicity. Its chromosome features a unique genetic make-up intermediate between modern Y. pestis isolates and its evolutionary ancestor, Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our genotypic and phenotypic analyses led us to conclude that Angola belongs to one of the most ancient Y. pestis lineages thus far sequenced. The mobilome carries the first reported chimeric plasmid combining the two species-specific virulence plasmids. Genomic findings were validated in virulence assays demonstrating that its pathogenic potential is distinct from modern Y. pestis isolates. Human infection with this particular isolate would not be diagnosed by the standard clinical tests, as Angola lacks the plasmid-borne capsule, and a possible emergence of this genotype raises major public health concerns. To assess the genomic plasticity in Y. pestis, we investigated the global gene reservoir and estimated the pangenome at 4,844 unique protein-coding genes. As shown by the genomic analysis of this evolutionary key isolate, we found that the genomic plasticity within Y. pestis clearly was not as limited as previously thought, which is strengthened by the detection of the largest number of isolate-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) currently reported in the species. This study identified numerous novel genetic signatures, some of which seem to be intimately associated with plague virulence. These markers are valuable in the development of a robust typing system critical for forensic, diagnostic, and epidemiological studies.

  7. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hemichordata comprises solitary-living Enteropneusta and colonial-living Pterobranchia, sharing morphological features with both Chordata and Echinodermata. Despite their key role for understanding deuterostome evolution, hemichordate phylogeny is controversial and only few molecular data are available for phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, mitochondrial sequences are completely lacking for pterobranchs. Therefore, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the pterobranch Rhabdopleura compacta to elucidate deuterostome evolution. Thereby, we also gained important insights in mitochondrial tRNA evolution. Results The mitochondrial DNA of Rhabdopleura compacta corresponds in size and gene content to typical mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, but shows the strongest known strand-specific mutational bias in the nucleotide composition among deuterostomes with a very GT-rich main-coding strand. The order of the protein-coding genes in R. compacta is similar to that of the deuterostome ground pattern. However, the protein-coding genes have been highly affected by a strand-specific mutational pressure showing unusual codon frequency and amino acid composition. This composition caused extremely long branches in phylogenetic analyses. The unusual codon frequency points to a selection pressure on the tRNA translation system to codon-anticodon sequences of highest versatility instead of showing adaptations in anticodon sequences to the most frequent codons. Furthermore, an assignment of the codon AGG to Lysine has been detected in the mitochondrial genome of R. compacta, which is otherwise observed only in the mitogenomes of some arthropods. The genomes of these arthropods do not have such a strong strand-specific bias as found in R. compacta but possess an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys. Conclusion A strong reversed asymmetrical mutational constraint in the mitochondrial genome of

  8. Involvement of two latex-clearing proteins during rubber degradation and insights into the subsequent degradation pathway revealed by the genome sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Bröker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search.

  9. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  10. The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), reveals insights into the biology and adaptive evolution of a highly invasive pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Alexie; Schetelig, Marc F; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter W; Benoit, Joshua B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Castañera, Pedro; Cavanaugh, John P; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Christopher; Curril, Ingrid; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Gasperi, Giuliano; Geib, Scott; Georgakilas, Georgios; Gibbs, Richard A; Giers, Sarah D; Gomulski, Ludvik M; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Guillem-Amat, Ana; Han, Yi; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jones, Jeffery W; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Koskinioti, Panagiota; Lee, Sandra L; Malacrida, Anna R; Manni, Mosè; Mathiopoulos, Kostas; Meccariello, Angela; Murali, Shwetha C; Murphy, Terence D; Muzny, Donna M; Oberhofer, Georg; Ortego, Félix; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Poelchau, Monica; Qu, Jiaxin; Reczko, Martin; Robertson, Hugh M; Rosendale, Andrew J; Rosselot, Andrew E; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Savini, Grazia; Schreiner, Patrick; Scolari, Francesca; Siciliano, Paolo; Sim, Sheina B; Tsiamis, George; Ureña, Enric; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Werren, John H; Wimmer, Ernst A; Worley, Kim C; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Richards, Stephen; Handler, Alfred M

    2016-09-22

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a major destructive insect pest due to its broad host range, which includes hundreds of fruits and vegetables. It exhibits a unique ability to invade and adapt to ecological niches throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, though medfly infestations have been prevented and controlled by the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated pest management programs (IPMs). The genetic analysis and manipulation of medfly has been subject to intensive study in an effort to improve SIT efficacy and other aspects of IPM control. The 479 Mb medfly genome is sequenced from adult flies from lines inbred for 20 generations. A high-quality assembly is achieved having a contig N50 of 45.7 kb and scaffold N50 of 4.06 Mb. In-depth curation of more than 1800 messenger RNAs shows specific gene expansions that can be related to invasiveness and host adaptation, including gene families for chemoreception, toxin and insecticide metabolism, cuticle proteins, opsins, and aquaporins. We identify genes relevant to IPM control, including those required to improve SIT. The medfly genome sequence provides critical insights into the biology of one of the most serious and widespread agricultural pests. This knowledge should significantly advance the means of controlling the size and invasive potential of medfly populations. Its close relationship to Drosophila, and other insect species important to agriculture and human health, will further comparative functional and structural studies of insect genomes that should broaden our understanding of gene family evolution.

  11. Comparative Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Reveals Insights into the Infection Process of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, a quarantinable pathogen in several areas worldwide, including the European Union. In order to develop efficient control methods for this disease, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the key determinants associated with host restriction, colonization and the development of pathogenesis. After an initial characterization, by multilocus sequence analysis, of 15 strains of X. arboricola isolated from Prunus, one strain did not group into the pathovar pruni or into other pathovars of this species and therefore it was identified and defined as a X. arboricola pv. pruni look-a-like. This non-pathogenic strain and two typical strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni were selected for a whole genome and phenotype comparative analysis in features associated with the pathogenesis process in Xanthomonas. Comparative analysis among these bacterial strains isolated from Prunus spp. and the inclusion of 15 publicly available genome sequences from other pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of X. arboricola revealed variations in the phenotype associated with variations in the profiles of TonB-dependent transporters, sensors of the two-component regulatory system, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, components of the flagella and the type IV pilus, as well as in the repertoire of cell-wall degrading enzymes and the components of the type III secretion system and related effectors. These variations provide a global overview of those mechanisms that could be associated with the development of bacterial spot disease. Additionally, it pointed out some features that might influence the host specificity and the variable virulence observed in X. arboricola.

  12. Depiction of carbohydrate-active enzyme diversity in Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32 at the genome level reveals insights into distinct polysaccharide degradation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong-Dong; Ying, Yu; Zhang, Kun-Di; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-11-01

    Thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32 can utilize cellulose-, hemicellulose-containing biomass, including unpretreated wheat straw. We have conducted a bioinformatics analysis of the carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) in the genome of Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32, which reveals a broad substrate range of the strain. Among 2285 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 73 (3.2%) CAZyme encoding genes, including 44 glycoside hydrolases (GHs) distributing in 22 GH families, 6 carbohydrate esterases (CEs), 3 polysaccharide lyases (PLs), 21 glycosyl transferases (GTs), and 25 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) were found. An in-depth bioinformatics analysis of CAZyme families that target cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, pectin, starch, and β-1,3-1,4-glucan degradation were performed to highlight specialized polysaccharide degrading abilities of strain F32. A great number of orthologous multimodular CAZymes of Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32 were found in other strains of genus Caldicellulosiruptor. While, a portion of the CAZymes of Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32 showed sequence identity with proteins from strains of genus Clostridium. A thermostable β-glucosidase BlgA synergistically facilitated the enzymatic degradation of Avicel by endo-1,4-β-glucanase CelB, which indicated that the synchronous action of synergism between CAZymes enhanced the lignocellulose degradation by Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32.

  13. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  14. Insights into structural variations and genome rearrangements in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vinita; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Structural variations (SVs) are genomic rearrangements that affect fairly large fragments of DNA. Most of the SVs such as inversions, deletions and translocations have been largely studied in context of genetic diseases in eukaryotes. However, recent studies demonstrate that genome rearrangements can also have profound impact on prokaryotic genomes, leading to altered cell phenotype. In contrast to single-nucleotide variations, SVs provide a much deeper insight into organization of bacterial genomes at a much better resolution. SVs can confer change in gene copy number, creation of new genes, altered gene expression and many other functional consequences. High-throughput technologies have now made it possible to explore SVs at a much refined resolution in bacterial genomes. Through this review, we aim to highlight the importance of the less explored field of SVs in prokaryotic genomes and their impact. We also discuss its potential applicability in the emerging fields of synthetic biology and genome engineering where targeted SVs could serve to create sophisticated and accurate genome editing.

  15. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...... misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan-and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity...

  16. Human-mouse comparative genomics: successes and failures to reveal functional regions of the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Baroukh, Nadine; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-05-15

    Deciphering the genetic code embedded within the human genome remains a significant challenge despite the human genome consortium's recent success at defining its linear sequence (Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001). While useful strategies exist to identify a large percentage of protein encoding regions, efforts to accurately define functional sequences in the remaining {approx}97 percent of the genome lag. Our primary interest has been to utilize the evolutionary relationship and the universal nature of genomic sequence information in vertebrates to reveal functional elements in the human genome. This has been achieved through the combined use of vertebrate comparative genomics to pinpoint highly conserved sequences as candidates for biological activity and transgenic mouse studies to address the functionality of defined human DNA fragments. Accordingly, we describe strategies and insights into functional sequences in the human genome through the use of comparative genomics coupled wit h functional studies in the mouse.

  17. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  18. Single nucleotide variant discovery of highly inbred Leghorn and Fayoumi chicken breeds using pooled whole genome resequencing data reveals insights into phenotype differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D S; Koltes, J E; Fritz-Waters, E R; Rothschild, M F; Schmidt, C J; Ashwell, C M; Persia, M E; Reecy, J M; Lamont, S J

    2016-10-19

    Analyses of sequence variants of two distinct and highly inbred chicken lines allowed characterization of genomic variation that may be associated with phenotypic differences between breeds. These lines were the Leghorn, the major contributing breed to commercial white-egg production lines, and the Fayoumi, representative of an outbred indigenous and robust breed. Unique within- and between-line genetic diversity was used to define the genetic differences of the two breeds through the use of variant discovery and functional annotation. Downstream fixation test (F ST ) analysis and subsequent gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis elucidated major differences between the two lines. The genes with high F ST values for both breeds were used to identify enriched gene ontology terms. Over-enriched GO annotations were uncovered for functions indicative of breed-related traits of pathogen resistance and reproductive ability for Fayoumi and Leghorn, respectively. Variant analysis elucidated GO functions indicative of breed-predominant phenotypes related to genomic variation in the lines, showing a possible link between the genetic variants and breed traits.

  19. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Clark, Richard M.; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Grbić, Vojislava; Osborne, Edward J.; Dermauw, Wannes; Ngoc, Phuong Cao Thi; Ortego, Félix; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Navajas, Maria; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara; Nagy, Lisa; Pace, Ryan M.; Djuranović, Sergej; Smagghe, Guy; Iga, Masatoshi; Christiaens, Olivier; Veenstra, Jan A.; Ewer, John; Villalobos, Rodrigo Mancilla; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Hudson, Stephen D.; Velez, Marisela; Yi, Soojin V.; Zeng, Jia; Pires-daSilva, Andre; Roch, Fernando; Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Zhurov, Vladimir; Acevedo, Gustavo; Bjelica, Anica; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Bonnet, Eric; Martens, Cindy; Baele, Guy; Wissler, Lothar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Tirry, Luc; Blais, Catherine; Demeestere, Kristof; Henz, Stefan R.; Gregory, T. Ryan; Mathieu, Johannes; Verdon, Lou; Farinelli, Laurent; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Feyereisen, René; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant–herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies. PMID:22113690

  20. Analysis of pigmented villonodular synovitis with genome-wide complementary DNA microarray and tissue array technology reveals insight into potential novel therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finis, Katharina; Sültmann, Holger; Ruschhaupt, Markus; Buness, Andreas; Helmchen, Birgit; Kuner, Ruprecht; Gross, Marie-Luise; Fink, Bernd; Schirmacher, Peter; Poustka, Annemarie; Berger, Irina

    2006-03-01

    To characterize the gene expression profile and determine potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). Gene expression patterns in 11 patients with PVNS, 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were investigated using genome-wide complementary DNA microarrays. Validation of differentially expressed genes was performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis on tissue arrays (80 patients with PVNS, 51 patients with RA, and 20 patients with OA). The gene expression profile in PVNS was clearly distinct from those in RA and OA. One hundred forty-one up-regulated genes and 47 down-regulated genes were found in PVNS compared with RA, and 153 up-regulated genes and 89 down-regulated genes were found in PVNS compared with OA (fold change > or = 1.5; Q PVNS were involved in apoptosis regulation, matrix degradation, and inflammation (ALOX5AP, ATP6V1B2, CD53, CHI3L1, CTSL, CXCR4, HSPA8, HSPCA, LAPTM5, MMP9, MOAP1, and SPP1). The gene expression signature in PVNS is similar to that of activated macrophages and is consistent with the local destructive course of the disease. The gene and protein expression patterns suggest that the ongoing proliferation in PVNS is sustained by apoptosis resistance. This result suggests the possibility of a potential novel therapeutic intervention against PVNS.

  1. Insights from genomics into bacterial pathogen populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens impose a heavy burden of disease on human populations worldwide. The gravest threats are posed by highly virulent respiratory pathogens, enteric pathogens, and HIV-associated infections. Tuberculosis alone is responsible for the deaths of 1.5 million people annually. Treatment options for bacterial pathogens are being steadily eroded by the evolution and spread of drug resistance. However, population-level whole genome sequencing offers new hope in the fight against pathogenic bacteria. By providing insights into bacterial evolution and disease etiology, these approaches pave the way for novel interventions and therapeutic targets. Sequencing populations of bacteria across the whole genome provides unprecedented resolution to investigate (i within-host evolution, (ii transmission history, and (iii population structure. Moreover, advances in rapid benchtop sequencing herald a new era of real-time genomics in which sequencing and analysis can be deployed within hours in response to rapidly changing public health emergencies. The purpose of this review is to highlight the transformative effect of population genomics on bacteriology, and to consider the prospects for answering abiding questions such as why bacteria cause disease.

  2. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eTavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 151.5 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi. In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1,800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp. Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94 %. The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7,000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  3. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Core and Accessory Genomes of Streptomyces Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Nu; Kim, Yeonbum; Jeong, Yujin; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Byung-Gee; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2015-10-01

    The development of rapid and efficient genome sequencing methods has enabled us to study the evolutionary background of bacterial genetic information. Here, we present comparative genomic analysis of 17 Streptomyces species, for which the genome has been completely sequenced, using the pan-genome approach. The analysis revealed that 34,592 ortholog clusters constituted the pan-genome of these Streptomyces species, including 2,018 in the core genome, 11,743 in the dispensable genome, and 20,831 in the unique genome. The core genome was converged to a smaller number of genes than reported previously, with 3,096 gene families. Functional enrichment analysis showed that genes involved in transcription were most abundant in the Streptomyces pan-genome. Finally, we investigated core genes for the sigma factors, mycothiol biosynthesis pathway, and secondary metabolism pathways; our data showed that many genes involved in stress response and morphological differentiation were commonly expressed in Streptomyces species. Elucidation of the core genome offers a basis for understanding the functional evolution of Streptomyces species and provides insights into target selection for the construction of industrial strains.

  4. Evolutionary insights from Erwinia amylovora genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion

    2011-08-20

    Evolutionary genomics is coming into focus with the recent availability of complete sequences for many bacterial species. A hypothesis on the evolution of virulence factors in the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight, was generated using comparative genomics with the genomes E. amylovora, Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia tasmaniensis. Putative virulence factors were mapped to the proposed genealogy of the genus Erwinia that is based on phylogenetic and genomic data. Ancestral origin of several virulence factors was identified, including levan biosynthesis, sorbitol metabolism, three T3SS and two T6SS. Other factors appeared to have been acquired after divergence of pathogenic species, including a second flagellar gene and two glycosyltransferases involved in amylovoran biosynthesis. E. amylovora singletons include 3 unique T3SS effectors that may explain differential virulence/host ranges. E. amylovora also has a unique T1SS export system, and a unique third T6SS gene cluster. Genetic analysis revealed signatures of foreign DNA suggesting that horizontal gene transfer is responsible for some of these differential features between the three species.

  5. The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jun; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Qing-Le; Liu, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Rui; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ping; Dai, Li; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Wen-Jiang; Li, Xian-Song; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yu-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Lin, Min-Juan; Xiao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Ying; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Bin; Ma, Yong; Jian, Jian-Bo; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Zan; Sun, Xue-Chao; Wei, Yan-Li; Yu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chi; Liao, Sheng-Guang; He, Rong-Jun; Guang, Xuan-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue-Yang; Luo, Long-Hai

    2014-10-28

    The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.

  6. Genome digging: insight into the mitochondrial genome of Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V Ovchinnikov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fraction of the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome sequence has a similarity with a 5,839-bp nuclear DNA sequence of mitochondrial origin (numt on the human chromosome 1. This fact has never been interpreted. Although this phenomenon may be attributed to contamination and mosaic assembly of Neanderthal mtDNA from short sequencing reads, we explain the mysterious similarity by integration of this numt (mtAncestor-1 into the nuclear genome of the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans not long before their reproductive split. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exploiting bioinformatics, we uncovered an additional numt (mtAncestor-2 with a high similarity to the Neanderthal mtDNA and indicated that both numts represent almost identical replicas of the mtDNA sequences ancestral to the mitochondrial genomes of Neanderthals and modern humans. In the proteins, encoded by mtDNA, the majority of amino acids distinguishing chimpanzees from humans and Neanderthals were acquired by the ancestral hominins. The overall rate of nonsynonymous evolution in Neanderthal mitochondrial protein-coding genes is not higher than in other lineages. The model incorporating the ancestral hominin mtDNA sequences estimates the average divergence age of the mtDNAs of Neanderthals and modern humans to be 450,000-485,000 years. The mtAncestor-1 and mtAncestor-2 sequences were incorporated into the nuclear genome approximately 620,000 years and 2,885,000 years ago, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first insight into the evolution of the mitochondrial DNA in hominins ancestral to Neanderthals and humans. We hypothesize that mtAncestor-1 and mtAncestor-2 are likely to be molecular fossils of the mtDNAs of Homo heidelbergensis and a stem Homo lineage. The d(N/d(S dynamics suggests that the effective population size of extinct hominins was low. However, the hominin lineage ancestral to humans, Neanderthals and H. heidelbergensis, had a larger effective

  7. Targeted isolation, sequence assembly and characterization of two white spruce (Picea glauca BAC clones for terpenoid synthase and cytochrome P450 genes involved in conifer defence reveal insights into a conifer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritland Carol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers are a large group of gymnosperm trees which are separated from the angiosperms by more than 300 million years of independent evolution. Conifer genomes are extremely large and contain considerable amounts of repetitive DNA. Currently, conifer sequence resources exist predominantly as expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length (FLcDNAs. There is no genome sequence available for a conifer or any other gymnosperm. Conifer defence-related genes often group into large families with closely related members. The goals of this study are to assess the feasibility of targeted isolation and sequence assembly of conifer BAC clones containing specific genes from two large gene families, and to characterize large segments of genomic DNA sequence for the first time from a conifer. Results We used a PCR-based approach to identify BAC clones for two target genes, a terpene synthase (3-carene synthase; 3CAR and a cytochrome P450 (CYP720B4 from a non-arrayed genomic BAC library of white spruce (Picea glauca. Shotgun genomic fragments isolated from the BAC clones were sequenced to a depth of 15.6- and 16.0-fold coverage, respectively. Assembly and manual curation yielded sequence scaffolds of 172 kbp (3CAR and 94 kbp (CYP720B4 long. Inspection of the genomic sequences revealed the intron-exon structures, the putative promoter regions and putative cis-regulatory elements of these genes. Sequences related to transposable elements (TEs, high complexity repeats and simple repeats were prevalent and comprised approximately 40% of the sequenced genomic DNA. An in silico simulation of the effect of sequencing depth on the quality of the sequence assembly provides direction for future efforts of conifer genome sequencing. Conclusion We report the first targeted cloning, sequencing, assembly, and annotation of large segments of genomic DNA from a conifer. We demonstrate that genomic BAC clones for individual members of multi-member gene

  8. A genome wide dosage suppressor network reveals genomic robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Biranchi; Kon, Yoshiko; Yadav, Gitanjali; Sevold, Anthony W.; Frumkin, Jesse P.; Vallabhajosyula, Ravishankar R.; Hintze, Arend; Østman, Bjørn; Schossau, Jory; Bhan, Ashish; Marzolf, Bruz; Tamashiro, Jenna K.; Kaur, Amardeep; Baliga, Nitin S.; Grayhack, Elizabeth J.; Adami, Christoph; Galas, David J.; Raval, Alpan; Phizicky, Eric M.; Ray, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Genomic robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of genomic robustness in budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor interactions of which 642 are novel. This collection has several distinctive features, including high co-occurrence of mutant-suppressor pairs within protein modules, highly correlated functions between the pairs and higher diversity of functions among the co-suppressors than previously observed. Dosage suppression of essential genes encoding RNA polymerase subunits and chromosome cohesion complex suggests a surprising degree of functional plasticity of macromolecular complexes, and the existence of numerous degenerate pathways for circumventing the effects of potentially lethal mutations. These results imply that organisms and cancer are likely able to exploit the genomic robustness properties, due the persistence of cryptic gene and pathway functions, to generate variation and adapt to selective pressures. PMID:27899637

  9. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-12-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content.

  10. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E. Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D.; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell–cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content. PMID:26627241

  11. Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jun, Se-Ran

    2015-01-01

    the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative...... (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident...

  12. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  13. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebnik Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv strain 1111 (ATCC 35937, X. perforans (Xp strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg strain 101 (ATCC 19865. The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the

  14. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Machado; Lone Gram

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationship...

  15. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jun, Se Ran [ORNL; Nookaew, Intawat [ORNL; Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Lund, Ole [Technical University of Denmark; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Wassenaar, Trudy [Molecular Microbiology & Genomics Consultants, Zotzenheim, Germany; Poudel, Suresh [ORNL; Ussery, David W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome

  16. Marsupial Genome Sequences: Providing Insight into Evolution and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Deakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials (metatherians, with their position in vertebrate phylogeny and their unique biological features, have been studied for many years by a dedicated group of researchers, but it has only been since the sequencing of the first marsupial genome that their value has been more widely recognised. We now have genome sequences for three distantly related marsupial species (the grey short-tailed opossum, the tammar wallaby, and Tasmanian devil, with the promise of many more genomes to be sequenced in the near future, making this a particularly exciting time in marsupial genomics. The emergence of a transmissible cancer, which is obliterating the Tasmanian devil population, has increased the importance of obtaining and analysing marsupial genome sequence for understanding such diseases as well as for conservation efforts. In addition, these genome sequences have facilitated studies aimed at answering questions regarding gene and genome evolution and provided insight into the evolution of epigenetic mechanisms. Here I highlight the major advances in our understanding of evolution and disease, facilitated by marsupial genome projects, and speculate on the future contributions to be made by such sequences.

  17. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guangtao; Zhang, Junhong; Xu, Xiangyang; Yu, Qinghui; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lun, Yaoyao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zejun; Li, Junming; Zhang, Chunzhi; Wang, Taotao; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Yancong; Lin, Kui; Li, Chuanyou; Xiong, Guosheng; Xue, Yongbiao; Mazzucato, Andrea; Causse, Mathilde; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J; Chetelat, Roger T; Zamir, Dani; Städler, Thomas; Li, Jingfu; Ye, Zhibiao; Du, Yongchen; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-01

    The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that domestication and improvement focused on two independent sets of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), resulting in modern tomato fruit ∼100 times larger than its ancestor. Furthermore, we discovered a major genomic signature for modern processing tomatoes, identified the causative variants that confer pink fruit color and precisely visualized the linkage drag associated with wild introgressions. This study outlines the accomplishments as well as the costs of historical selection and provides molecular insights toward further improvement.

  18. Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Pathogenicity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Espejo, Romilio

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a fish pathogen in salmonid aquaculture worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Comparative genome analyses of 11 F. psychrophilum isolates representing temporally and geographically distant populations were used to describe the F. psychrophilum pan-genome and to examine virulence factors, prophages, CRISPR arrays, and genomic islands present in the genomes. Analysis of the genomic DNA sequences were complemented with selected phenotypic characteristics of the strains. The pan genome analysis showed that F. psychrophilum could hold at least 3373 genes, while the core genome contained 1743 genes. On average, 67 new genes were detected for every new genome added to the analysis, indicating that F. psychrophilum possesses an open pan genome. The putative virulence factors were equally distributed among isolates, independent of geographic location, year of isolation and source of isolates. Only one prophage-related sequence was found which corresponded to the previously described prophage 6H, and appeared in 5 out of 11 isolates. CRISPR array analysis revealed two different loci with dissimilar spacer content, which only matched one sequence in the database, the temperate bacteriophage 6H. Genomic Islands (GIs) were identified in F. psychrophilum isolates 950106-1/1 and CSF 259–93, associated with toxins and antibiotic resistance. Finally, phenotypic characterization revealed a high degree of similarity among the strains with respect to biofilm formation and secretion of extracellular enzymes. Global scale dispersion of virulence factors in the genomes and the abilities for biofilm formation, hemolytic activity and secretion of extracellular enzymes among the strains suggested that F. psychrophilum isolates have a similar mode of action on adhesion, colonization and destruction of fish tissues across large spatial and temporal scales of occurrence. Overall, the genomic characterization and

  19. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  20. Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: cytogenomics reveals conservation of Eucalyptus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mousinho Resina Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S locus while the AT-rich het pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich het, along with genome sizes estimations, supports the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich het was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1 previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10 was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus.

  1. Understanding Spatial Genome Organization:Methods and Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Ramani; Jay Shendure; Zhijun Duan

    2016-01-01

    The manner by which eukaryotic genomes are packaged into nuclei while maintaining crucial nuclear functions remains one of the fundamental mysteries in biology. Over the last ten years, we have witnessed rapid advances in both microscopic and nucleic acid-based approaches to map genome architecture, and the application of these approaches to the dissection of higher-order chromosomal structures has yielded much new information. It is becoming increasingly clear, for example, that interphase chromosomes form stable, multilevel hierarchical structures. Among them, self-associating domains like so-called topologically associating domains (TADs) appear to be building blocks for large-scale genomic organization. This review describes features of these broadly-defined hierarchical structures, insights into the mechanisms underlying their formation, our current understanding of how interactions in the nuclear space are linked to gene regulation, and important future directions for the field.

  2. Genome Polymorphisms Between Indica and Japonica Revealed by RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Song-wen; LIU Xia; XU Cai-guo; SHI Li-li; ZHANG Xin; DING De-liang; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Revealing the genome polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies; RFLP markers, which are located across 12 chromosomes of rice, were used to analyze indica-japonica differentiation in different rice varieties. At the same time, genome sequence variations of screened loci were analyzed by bioinformatics method. Twenty-eight RFLP probes, which can classify indica-japonica rice, were confirmed. Subspecies genome polymorphisms of screened loci were found by analyzing the publication of the genome sequences data of rice. The study indicated that these screened markers can be used for classifying indica-japonica subspecies. With the publication of the genome sequences of rice, marker polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies can be revealed by genome differentiation.

  3. Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Bechsgaard, Jesper S; Fang, Xiaodong; Duan, Jinjie; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Gupta, Vikas; Jiang, Xuanting; Cheng, Ling; Fan, Dingding; Feng, Yue; Han, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Wu, Zongze; Liao, Li; Settepani, Virginia; Thøgersen, Ida B; Vanthournout, Bram; Wang, Tobias; Zhu, Yabing; Funch, Peter; Enghild, Jan J; Schauser, Leif; Andersen, Stig U; Villesen, Palle; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bilde, Trine; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-06

    Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk.

  4. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhou, Jizhong; Oren, Aharon; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Genomic information has already been applied to prokaryotic species definition and classification. However, the contribution of the genome sequence to prokaryotic genus delimitation has been less studied. To gain insights into genus definition for the prokaryotes, we attempted to reveal the genus-level genomic differences in the current prokaryotic classification system and to delineate the boundary of a genus on the basis of genomic information. The average nucleotide sequence identity between two genomes can be used for prokaryotic species delineation, but it is not suitable for genus demarcation. We used the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance. A comprehensive genomic survey indicated that the POCP can serve as a robust genomic index for establishing the genus boundary for prokaryotic groups. Basically, two species belonging to the same genus would share at least half of their proteins. In a specific lineage, the genus and family/order ranks showed slight or no overlap in terms of POCP values. A prokaryotic genus can be defined as a group of species with all pairwise POCP values higher than 50%. Integration of whole-genome data into the current taxonomy system can provide comprehensive information for prokaryotic genus definition and delimitation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Genes but not genomes reveal bacterial domestication of Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between "environmental" strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and "domesticated" strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the "domesticated" strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable

  6. Genomic and epigenetic insights into the molecular bases of heterosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis.

  7. The sacred lotus genome provides insights into the evolution of flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36,385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis.

  8. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  9. Genomic and epigenomic insights into nutrition and brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, Margaret Joy

    2013-03-15

    Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1) recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2) the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3) novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4) gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  10. Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology.

  11. Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Joy Dauncey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1 recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2 the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3 novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4 gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  12. Next generation sequencing reveals the antibiotic resistant variants in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Babu; Jindal, Hassan Mahmood; Le, Cheng Foh; Gudimella, Ranganath; Anwar, Arif; Razali, Rozaimi; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2017-01-01

    Rapid progress in next generation sequencing and allied computational tools have aided in identification of single nucleotide variants in genomes of several organisms. In the present study, we have investigated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ten multi-antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. All the draft genomes were submitted to Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) web server and the predicted protein sequences were used for comparison. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) found in the clinical isolates compared to the reference genome (PAO1), and the comparison of nsSNPs between antibiotic resistant and susceptible clinical isolates revealed insights into the genome variation. These nsSNPs identified in the multi-drug resistant clinical isolates were found to be altering a single amino acid in several antibiotic resistant genes. We found mutations in genes encoding efflux pump systems, cell wall, DNA replication and genes involved in repair mechanism. In addition, nucleotide deletions in the genome and mutations leading to generation of stop codons were also observed in the antibiotic resistant clinical isolates. Next generation sequencing is a powerful tool to compare the whole genomes and analyse the single base pair variations found within the antibiotic resistant genes. We identified specific mutations within antibiotic resistant genes compared to the susceptible strain of the same bacterial species and these findings may provide insights to understand the role of single nucleotide variants in antibiotic resistance.

  13. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

  14. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

  15. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains.

  17. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-08-19

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains.

  18. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  19. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F [UMR, France; Aerts, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ahren, D [Lund University, Sweden; Brun, A [UMR, France; Danchin, E [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Duchaussoy, F [UMR, France; Gibon, J [UMR, France; Kohler, A [UMR, France; Lindquist, E [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pereda, V [UMR, France; Salamov, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Shapiro, HJ [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wuyts, J [UMR, France; Blaudez, D. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France; Buee, M [UMR, France; Brokstein, P [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Canbeck, B [Lund University, Sweden; Cohen, D [UMR, France; Courty, PE [UMR, France; Coutinho, PM [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Delaruelle, C [UMR, France; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deveau, A [UMR, France; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Duplessis, S [UMR, France; Fraissinet-Tachet, L [Universite de Lyon, France; Lucic, E [UMR, France; Frey-Klett, P [UMR, France; Fourrey, C [UMR, France; Feussner, I [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Gay, G [Universite de Lyon, France; Grimwood, Jane [Stanford University; Hoegger, P J [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Jain, P [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Kilaru, S [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Labbe, J [UMR, France; Lin, Y C [Ghent University, Belgium; Legue, V [UMR, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Marmeisse, R [Universite de Lyon, France; Melayah, D [Universite de Lyon, France; Montanini, B [UMR, France; Muratet, M [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Nehls, U [Eberhard-Karls-Universitat, Tubingen, Germany; Niculita-Hirzel, H [University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Oudot-Le Secq, M P [UMR, France; Peter, M [UMR, France; Quesneville, H [Unite de Recherches en Genomique-Info,Evry Cedex; Rajashekar, B [Lund University, Sweden; Reich, M [UMR, France; Rouhler, N [UMR, France; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Chalot, M [UMR, France; Henrissat, B [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Kues, U [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Lucas, S [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Van de Peer, Y [Ghent University, Belgium; Podila, G [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Polle, A [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Pukkila, P J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rouze, P [Ghent University, Belgium; Sanders, I R [University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Stajich, J E [University of California, Berkeley; Tunlid, A [Lund University, Sweden; Grigoriev, I. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants1,2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  20. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  1. Evolutionary insights from suffix array-based genome sequence analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindya Poddar; Nagasuma Chandra; Madhavi Ganapathiraju; K Sekar; Judith Klein-Seetharaman; Raj Reddy; N Balakrishnan

    2007-08-01

    Gene and protein sequence analyses, central components of studies in modern biology are easily amenable to string matching and pattern recognition algorithms. The growing need of analysing whole genome sequences more efficiently and thoroughly, has led to the emergence of new computational methods. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are data structures, well known in many other areas and are highly suited for sequence analysis too. Here we report an improvement to the design of construction of suffix arrays. Enhancement in versatility and scalability, enabled by this approach, is demonstrated through the use of real-life examples. The scalability of the algorithm to whole genomes renders it suitable to address many biologically interesting problems. One example is the evolutionary insight gained by analysing unigrams, bi-grams and higher n-grams, indicating that the genetic code has a direct influence on the overall composition of the genome. Further, different proteomes have been analysed for the coverage of the possible peptide space, which indicate that as much as a quarter of the total space at the tetra-peptide level is left un-sampled in prokaryotic organisms, although almost all tri-peptides can be seen in one protein or another in a proteome. Besides, distinct patterns begin to emerge for the counts of particular tetra and higher peptides, indicative of a ‘meaning’ for tetra and higher n-grams. The toolkit has also been used to demonstrate the usefulness of identifying repeats in whole proteomes efficiently. As an example, 16 members of one COG, coded by the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv have been found to contain a repeating sequence of 300 amino acids.

  2. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for economically important traits. A linkage map of turkey is essential not only for the mapping of quantitative trait loci, but also as a framework to enable the assignment of sequence contigs to specific chromosomes. Comparative genomics with chicken provides insight into mechanisms of genome evolution and helps in identifying rare genomic events such as genomic rearrangements and duplications/deletions. Results Eighteen full sib families, comprising 1008 (35 F1 and 973 F2 birds, were genotyped for 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Of the 775 SNPs, 570 were informative and used to construct a linkage map in turkey. The final map contains 531 markers in 28 linkage groups. The total genetic distance covered by these linkage groups is 2,324 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (81 loci measuring 326 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 28 linkage groups is 4.6 cM. Comparative mapping of turkey and chicken revealed two inter-, and 57 intrachromosomal rearrangements between these two species. Conclusion Our turkey genetic map of 531 markers reveals a genome length of 2,324 cM. Our linkage map provides an improvement of previously published maps because of the more even distribution of the markers and because the map is completely based on SNP markers enabling easier and faster genotyping assays than the microsatellitemarkers used in previous linkage maps. Turkey and chicken are shown to have a highly conserved genomic structure with a relatively low number of inter-, and intrachromosomal rearrangements.

  3. Evolutionary insights into scleractinian corals using comparative genomic hybridizations.

    KAUST Repository

    Aranda, Manuel

    2012-09-21

    Coral reefs belong to the most ecologically and economically important ecosystems on our planet. Yet, they are under steady decline worldwide due to rising sea surface temperatures, disease, and pollution. Understanding the molecular impact of these stressors on different coral species is imperative in order to predict how coral populations will respond to this continued disturbance. The use of molecular tools such as microarrays has provided deep insight into the molecular stress response of corals. Here, we have performed comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH) with different coral species to an Acropora palmata microarray platform containing 13,546 cDNA clones in order to identify potentially rapidly evolving genes and to determine the suitability of existing microarray platforms for use in gene expression studies (via heterologous hybridization).

  4. Comparative Genome Analyses of Vibrio anguillarum Strains Reveal a Link with Pathogenicity Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Alvise, Paul D.; Xu, Ruiqi; Zhang, Faxing; Middelboe, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in many fish and shellfish species, leading to high mortalities and economic losses in aquaculture. Although putative virulence factors have been identified, the mechanism of pathogenesis of V. anguillarum is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequences of a collection of V. anguillarum strains and compared them to virulence of the strains as determined in larval challenge assays. Previously identified virulence factors were globally distributed among the strains, with some genetic diversity. However, the pan-genome revealed that six out of nine high-virulence strains possessed a unique accessory genome that was attributed to pathogenic genomic islands, prophage-like elements, virulence factors, and a new set of gene clusters involved in biosynthesis, modification, and transport of polysaccharides. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had a high degree of genomic homogeneity. Finally, we found that a phylogeny based on the core genomes clustered the strains with moderate to no virulence, while six out of nine high-virulence strains represented phylogenetically separate clusters. Hence, we suggest a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum, which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. IMPORTANCE Comparative genome analysis of strains of a pathogenic bacterial species can be a powerful tool to discover acquisition of mobile genetic elements related to virulence. Here, we compared 28 V. anguillarum strains that differed in virulence in fish larval models. By pan-genome analyses, we found that six of nine highly virulent strains had a unique core and accessory genome. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had low genomic diversity. Integration of genomic and phenotypic features provides

  5. Comparative Genome Analyses of Vibrio anguillarum Strains Reveal a Link with Pathogenicity Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Alvise, Paul D; Xu, Ruiqi; Zhang, Faxing; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in many fish and shellfish species, leading to high mortalities and economic losses in aquaculture. Although putative virulence factors have been identified, the mechanism of pathogenesis of V. anguillarum is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequences of a collection of V. anguillarum strains and compared them to virulence of the strains as determined in larval challenge assays. Previously identified virulence factors were globally distributed among the strains, with some genetic diversity. However, the pan-genome revealed that six out of nine high-virulence strains possessed a unique accessory genome that was attributed to pathogenic genomic islands, prophage-like elements, virulence factors, and a new set of gene clusters involved in biosynthesis, modification, and transport of polysaccharides. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had a high degree of genomic homogeneity. Finally, we found that a phylogeny based on the core genomes clustered the strains with moderate to no virulence, while six out of nine high-virulence strains represented phylogenetically separate clusters. Hence, we suggest a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum, which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. IMPORTANCE Comparative genome analysis of strains of a pathogenic bacterial species can be a powerful tool to discover acquisition of mobile genetic elements related to virulence. Here, we compared 28 V. anguillarum strains that differed in virulence in fish larval models. By pan-genome analyses, we found that six of nine highly virulent strains had a unique core and accessory genome. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had low genomic diversity. Integration of genomic and phenotypic features provides insights

  6. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  7. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Q R S T U V W X Y Z We want to hear from you You are here: News & Events 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 (historical) Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A team of ...

  8. Integrated genomics of Mucorales reveals novel therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. We sequenced 30 fungal genomes and performed transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing ...

  9. Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-12-19

    Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution.

  10. Genomic insights into the physiology and ecology of the marine filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam C; Monroe, Emily A; Podell, Sheila; Hess, Wolfgang R; Klages, Sven; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Rothmann, Michael; Lasken, Roger S; Yates, John R; Reinhardt, Richard; Kube, Michael; Burkart, Michael D; Allen, Eric E; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, William H; Gerwick, Lena

    2011-05-24

    Filamentous cyanobacteria of the genus Lyngbya are important contributors to coral reef ecosystems, occasionally forming dominant cover and impacting the health of many other co-occurring organisms. Moreover, they are extraordinarily rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, with 35% of all reported cyanobacterial natural products deriving from this single pantropical genus. However, the true natural product potential and life strategies of Lyngbya strains are poorly understood because of phylogenetic ambiguity, lack of genomic information, and their close associations with heterotrophic bacteria and other cyanobacteria. To gauge the natural product potential of Lyngbya and gain insights into potential microbial interactions, we sequenced the genome of Lyngbya majuscula 3L, a Caribbean strain that produces the tubulin polymerization inhibitor curacin A and the molluscicide barbamide, using a combination of Sanger and 454 sequencing approaches. Whereas ∼ 293,000 nucleotides of the draft genome are putatively dedicated to secondary metabolism, this is far too few to encode a large suite of Lyngbya metabolites, suggesting Lyngbya metabolites are strain specific and may be useful in species delineation. Our analysis revealed a complex gene regulatory network, including a large number of sigma factors and other regulatory proteins, indicating an enhanced ability for environmental adaptation or microbial associations. Although Lyngbya species are reported to fix nitrogen, nitrogenase genes were not found in the genome or by PCR of genomic DNA. Subsequent growth experiments confirmed that L. majuscula 3L is unable to fix atmospheric nitrogen. These unanticipated life history characteristics challenge current views of the genus Lyngbya.

  11. Insights into the Genetic Basis of the Renal Cell Carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Scott M; Weyandt, Jamie D; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2016-07-01

    The renal cell carcinomas (RCC), clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe, have recently undergone an unmatched genomic characterization by The Cancer Genome Atlas. This analysis has revealed new insights into each of these malignancies and underscores the unique biology of clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCC. Themes that have emerged include distinct mechanisms of metabolic dysregulation and common mutations in chromatin modifier genes. Importantly, the papillary RCC classification encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases, each with highly distinct genetic and molecular features. In conclusion, this review summarizes RCCs that represent a diverse set of malignancies, each with novel biologic programs that define new paradigms for cancer biology. Mol Cancer Res; 14(7); 589-98. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic......The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans....

  13. Evolutionary insights into scleractinian corals using comparative genomic hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reefs belong to the most ecologically and economically important ecosystems on our planet. Yet, they are under steady decline worldwide due to rising sea surface temperatures, disease, and pollution. Understanding the molecular impact of these stressors on different coral species is imperative in order to predict how coral populations will respond to this continued disturbance. The use of molecular tools such as microarrays has provided deep insight into the molecular stress response of corals. Here, we have performed comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH with different coral species to an Acropora palmata microarray platform containing 13,546 cDNA clones in order to identify potentially rapidly evolving genes and to determine the suitability of existing microarray platforms for use in gene expression studies (via heterologous hybridization. Results Our results showed that the current microarray platform for A. palmata is able to provide biological relevant information for a wide variety of coral species covering both the complex clade as well the robust clade. Analysis of the fraction of highly diverged genes showed a significantly higher amount of genes without annotation corroborating previous findings that point towards a higher rate of divergence for taxonomically restricted genes. Among the genes with annotation, we found many mitochondrial genes to be highly diverged in M. faveolata when compared to A. palmata, while the majority of nuclear encoded genes maintained an average divergence rate. Conclusions The use of present microarray platforms for transcriptional analyses in different coral species will greatly enhance the understanding of the molecular basis of stress and health and highlight evolutionary differences between scleractinian coral species. On a genomic basis, we show that cDNA arrays can be used to identify patterns of divergence. Mitochondrion-encoded genes seem to have diverged faster than

  14. Genomic composition and evolution of Aedes aegypti chromosomes revealed by the analysis of physically mapped supercontigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposable elements between the two species. However, the chromosome arms homology between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, as well as the distribution of genes and repetitive elements in chromosomes of Ae. aegypti, remained largely unexplored because of the lack of a detailed physical genome map for the yellow fever mosquito. Results Using a molecular landmark-guided fluorescent in situ hybridization approach, we mapped 624 Mb of the Ae. aegypti genome to mitotic chromosomes. We used this map to analyze the distribution of genes, tandem repeats and transposable elements along the chromosomes and to explore the patterns of chromosome homology and rearrangements between Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. The study demonstrated that the q arm of the sex-determining chromosome 1 had the lowest gene content and the highest density of minisatellites. A comparative genomic analysis with An. gambiae determined that the previously proposed whole-arm synteny is not fully preserved; a number of pericentric inversions have occurred between the two species. The sex-determining chromosome 1 had a higher rate of genome rearrangements than observed in autosomes 2 and 3 of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions The study developed a physical map of 45% of the Ae. aegypti genome and provided new insights into genomic composition and evolution of Ae. aegypti chromosomes. Our data suggest that minisatellites rather than transposable elements played a major role in rapid evolution of chromosome 1 in the Aedes lineage. The research tools and information generated by this study contribute to a more complete understanding of the genome organization and evolution in mosquitoes. PMID:24731704

  15. Reduction and expansion in microsporidian genome evolution: new insights from comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakjang, Sirintra; Williams, Tom A; Heinz, Eva; Watson, Andrew K; Foster, Peter G; Sendra, Kacper M; Heaps, Sarah E; Hirt, Robert P; Martin Embley, T

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia are an abundant group of obligate intracellular parasites of other eukaryotes, including immunocompromised humans, but the molecular basis of their intracellular lifestyle and pathobiology are poorly understood. New genomes from a taxonomically broad range of microsporidians, complemented by published expression data, provide an opportunity for comparative analyses to identify conserved and lineage-specific patterns of microsporidian genome evolution that have underpinned this success. In this study, we infer that a dramatic bottleneck in the last common microsporidian ancestor (LCMA) left a small conserved core of genes that was subsequently embellished by gene family expansion driven by gene acquisition in different lineages. Novel expressed protein families represent a substantial fraction of sequenced microsporidian genomes and are significantly enriched for signals consistent with secretion or membrane location. Further evidence of selection is inferred from the gain and reciprocal loss of functional domains between paralogous genes, for example, affecting transport proteins. Gene expansions among transporter families preferentially affect those that are located on the plasma membrane of model organisms, consistent with recruitment to plug conserved gaps in microsporidian biosynthesis and metabolism. Core microsporidian genes shared with other eukaryotes are enriched in orthologs that, in yeast, are highly expressed, highly connected, and often essential, consistent with strong negative selection against further reduction of the conserved gene set since the LCMA. Our study reveals that microsporidian genome evolution is a highly dynamic process that has balanced constraint, reductive evolution, and genome expansion during adaptation to an extraordinarily successful obligate intracellular lifestyle.

  16. Sequencing and Analysis of a Genomic Fragment Provide an Insight into the Dunaliella viridis Genomic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming SUN; Yuan-Ping TANG; Xiang-Zong MENG; Wen-Wen ZHANG; Shan LI; Zhi-Rui DENG; Zheng-Kai XU; Ren-Tao SONG

    2006-01-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)n type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features.

  17. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Gavin G.; Böhme, Ulrike; Sanders, Mandy; Reid, Adam J.; Cotton, James A.; Maiga-Ascofare, Oumou; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Apinjoh, Tobias O.; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Manske, Magnus; Barnwell, John W.; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Prugnolle, Franck; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N.; McCarthy, James S.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew; Otto, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Elucidation of the evolutionary history and interrelatedness of Plasmodium species that infect humans has been hampered by a lack of genetic information for three human-infective species: P. malariae and two P. ovale species (P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri)1. These species are prevalent across most regions in which malaria is endemic2,3 and are often undetectable by light microscopy4, rendering their study in human populations difficult5. The exact evolutionary relationship of these species to the other human-infective species has been contested6,7. Using a new reference genome for P. malariae and a manually curated draft P. o. curtisi genome, we are now able to accurately place these species within the Plasmodium phylogeny. Sequencing of a P. malariae relative that infects chimpanzees reveals similar signatures of selection in the P. malariae lineage to another Plasmodium lineage shown to be capable of colonization of both human and chimpanzee hosts. Molecular dating suggests that these host adaptations occurred over similar evolutionary timescales. In addition to the core genome that is conserved between species, differences in gene content can be linked to their specific biology. The genome suggests that P. malariae expresses a family of heterodimeric proteins on its surface that have structural similarities to a protein crucial for invasion of red blood cells. The data presented here provide insight into the evolution of the Plasmodium genus as a whole. PMID:28117441

  18. Archaeal Genome Guardians Give Insights into Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Damage Response Proteins

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    David S. Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the third domain of life, archaea, like the eukarya and bacteria, must have robust DNA replication and repair complexes to ensure genome fidelity. Archaea moreover display a breadth of unique habitats and characteristics, and structural biologists increasingly appreciate these features. As archaea include extremophiles that can withstand diverse environmental stresses, they provide fundamental systems for understanding enzymes and pathways critical to genome integrity and stress responses. Such archaeal extremophiles provide critical data on the periodic table for life as well as on the biochemical, geochemical, and physical limitations to adaptive strategies allowing organisms to thrive under environmental stress relevant to determining the boundaries for life as we know it. Specifically, archaeal enzyme structures have informed the architecture and mechanisms of key DNA repair proteins and complexes. With added abilities to temperature-trap flexible complexes and reveal core domains of transient and dynamic complexes, these structures provide insights into mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity despite extreme environmental stress. The DNA damage response protein structures noted in this review therefore inform the basis for genome integrity in the face of environmental stress, with implications for all domains of life as well as for biomanufacturing, astrobiology, and medicine.

  19. Genomic insights into the fungal lignocellulolytic system of Myceliophthora thermophila

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    Anthi eKarnaouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial conversion of solid cellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels may provide a renewable energy source for transportation fuels. Cellulolytic fungi represent a promising group of organisms, as they have evolved complex systems for adaptation to their natural habitat. The filamentous fungus Myceliophthora thermophila constitutes an exceptionally powerful cellulolytic microorganism that synthesizes a complete set of enzymes necessary for the breakdown of plant cell wall. The genome of this fungus has been recently sequenced and annotated, allowing systematic examination and identification of enzymes required for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. The genomic analysis revealed the existence of an expanded enzymatic repertoire including numerous cellulases, hemicellulases and enzymes with auxiliary activities, covering the most of the recognized CAZy families. Most of them were predicted to possess a secretion signal and undergo through post translational glycosylation modifications. These data offer a better understanding of activities embedded in fungal lignocellulose decomposition mechanisms and suggest that M. thermophila could be made usable as an industrial production host for cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes.

  20. Genomic insights that advance the species definition for prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Tiedje, James M

    2005-02-15

    To help advance the species definition for prokaryotes, we have compared the gene content of 70 closely related and fully sequenced bacterial genomes to identify whether species boundaries exist, and to determine the role of the organism's ecology on its shared gene content. We found the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the shared genes between two strains to be a robust means to compare genetic relatedness among strains, and that ANI values of approximately 94% corresponded to the traditional 70% DNA-DNA reassociation standard of the current species definition. At the 94% ANI cutoff, current species includes only moderately homogeneous strains, e.g., most of the >4-Mb genomes share only 65-90% of their genes, apparently as a result of the strains having evolved in different ecological settings. Furthermore, diagnostic genetic signatures (boundaries) are evident between groups of strains of the same species, and the intergroup genetic similarity can be as high as 98-99% ANI, indicating that justifiable species might be found even among organisms that are nearly identical at the nucleotide level. Notably, a large fraction, e.g., up to 65%, of the differences in gene content within species is associated with bacteriophage and transposase elements, revealing an important role of these elements during bacterial speciation. Our findings are consistent with a definition for species that would include a more homogeneous set of strains than provided by the current definition and one that considers the ecology of the strains in addition to their evolutionary distance.

  1. Sequence analysis reveals mosaic genome of Aichi virus

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    Han Xiaohong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aichi virus is a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus, which demonstrated to be related to diarrhea of Children. In the present study, phylogenetic and recombination analysis based on the Aichi virus complete genomes available in GenBank reveal a mosaic genome sequence [GenBank: FJ890523], of which the nt 261-852 region (the nt position was based on the aligned sequence file shows close relationship with AB010145/Japan with 97.9% sequence identity, while the other genomic regions show close relationship with AY747174/German with 90.1% sequence identity. Our results will provide valuable hints for future research on Aichi virus diversity. Aichi virus is a member of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family 12 and belongs to a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus. Its presence in fecal specimens of children suffering from diarrhea has been demonstrated in several Asian countries 3456, in Brazil and German 7, in France 8 and in Tunisia 9. Some reports showed the high level of seroprevalence in adults 710, suggesting the widespread exposure to Aichi virus during childhood. The genome of Aichi virus contains 8,280 nucleotides and a poly(A tail. The single large open reading frame (nt 713-8014 according to the strain AB010145 encodes a polyprotein of 2,432 amino acids that is cleaved into the typical picornavirus structural proteins VP0, VP3, VP1, and nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D 211. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 519-bp sequences at the 3C-3D (3CD junction, Aichi viruses can be divided into two genotypes A and B with approximately 90% sequence homology 12. Although only six complete genomes of Aichi virus were deposited in GenBank at present, mosaic genomes can be found in strains from different countries.

  2. Differential metabolism of Mycoplasma species as revealed by their genomes

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    Fabricio B.M. Arraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The annotation and comparative analyses of the genomes of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumonie, as well as of other Mollicutes (a group of bacteria devoid of a rigid cell wall, has set the grounds for a global understanding of their metabolism and infection mechanisms. According to the annotation data, M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are able to perform glycolytic metabolism, but do not possess the enzymatic machinery for citrate and glyoxylate cycles, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Both can synthesize ATP by lactic fermentation, but only M. synoviae can convert acetaldehyde to acetate. Also, our genome analysis revealed that M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are not expected to synthesize polysaccharides, but they can take up a variety of carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS. Our data showed that these two organisms are unable to synthesize purine and pyrimidine de novo, since they only possess the sequences which encode salvage pathway enzymes. Comparative analyses of M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae with other Mollicutes have revealed differential genes in the former two genomes coding for enzymes that participate in carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and host-pathogen interaction. The identification of these metabolic pathways will provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of these organisms.

  3. Genomics and Comparative Genomic Analyses Provide Insight into the Taxonomy and Pathogenic Potential of Novel Emmonsia Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Ye, Qiang; Li, Kang; Li, Zongwei; Bo, Xiaochen; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yingchun; Wang, Shengqi; Wang, Peng; Chen, Huipeng; Wang, Junzhi

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, newly described species of Emmonsia-like fungi have been implicated globally as sources of systemic human mycosis (emmonsiosis). Their ability to convert into yeast-like cells capable of replication and extra-pulmonary dissemination during the course of infection differentiates them from classical Emmonsia species. Immunocompromised patients are at highest risk of emmonsiosis and exhibit high mortality rates. In order to investigate the molecular basis for pathogenicity of the newly described Emmonsia species, genomic sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of Emmonsia sp. 5z489, which was isolated from a non-deliberately immunosuppressed diabetic patient in China and represents a novel seventh isolate of Emmonsia-like fungi, was performed. The genome size of 5z489 was 35.5 Mbp in length, which is ~5 Mbp larger than other Emmonsia strains. Further, 9,188 protein genes were predicted in the 5z489 genome and 16% of the assembly was identified as repetitive elements, which is the largest abundance in Emmonsia species. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome data classified 5z489 and CAC-2015a, another novel isolate, as members of the genus Emmonsia. Our analyses showed that divergences among Emmonsia occurred much earlier than other genera within the family Ajellomycetaceae, suggesting relatively distant evolutionary relationships among the genus. Through comparisons of Emmonsia species, we discovered significant pathogenicity characteristics within the genus as well as putative virulence factors that may play a role in the infection and pathogenicity of the novel Emmonsia strains. Moreover, our analyses revealed a novel distribution mode of DNA methylation patterns across the genome of 5z489, with >50% of methylated bases located in intergenic regions. These methylation patterns differ considerably from other reported fungi, where most methylation occurs in repetitive loci. It is unclear if this difference is related to physiological

  4. Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath.

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    Naomi Ward

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath, obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for

  5. Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Aerts, Andrea

    2012-01-07

    Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1, 2, 3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome.

  6. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  7. Analysis of BAC end sequences in oak, a keystone forest tree species, providing insight into the composition of its genome

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    Le Provost Grégoire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key goals of oak genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of forests to increase their health and productivity. Deep-coverage large-insert genomic libraries are a crucial tool for attaining this objective. We report herein the construction of a BAC library for Quercus robur, its characterization and an analysis of BAC end sequences. Results The EcoRI library generated consisted of 92,160 clones, 7% of which had no insert. Levels of chloroplast and mitochondrial contamination were below 3% and 1%, respectively. Mean clone insert size was estimated at 135 kb. The library represents 12 haploid genome equivalents and, the likelihood of finding a particular oak sequence of interest is greater than 99%. Genome coverage was confirmed by PCR screening of the library with 60 unique genetic loci sampled from the genetic linkage map. In total, about 20,000 high-quality BAC end sequences (BESs were generated by sequencing 15,000 clones. Roughly 5.88% of the combined BAC end sequence length corresponded to known retroelements while ab initio repeat detection methods identified 41 additional repeats. Collectively, characterized and novel repeats account for roughly 8.94% of the genome. Further analysis of the BESs revealed 1,823 putative genes suggesting at least 29,340 genes in the oak genome. BESs were aligned with the genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Populus trichocarpa. One putative collinear microsyntenic region encoding an alcohol acyl transferase protein was observed between oak and chromosome 2 of V. vinifera. Conclusions This BAC library provides a new resource for genomic studies, including SSR marker development, physical mapping, comparative genomics and genome sequencing. BES analysis provided insight into the structure of the oak genome. These sequences will be

  8. Chlamydia genomics: providing novel insights into chlamydial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host-pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the 'post-genomics' era.

  9. Insights into the genome evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, B; Stoutland, P; Derbise, A; Georgescu, A; Elliott, J; Land, M; Marceau, M; Motin, V; Hinnebusch, J; Simonet, M; Medigue, C; Dacheux, D; Chenal-Francisque, V; Regala, W; Brubaker, R R; Carniel, E; Chain, P; Verguez, L; Fowler, J; Garcia, E; Lamerdin, J; Hauser, L; Larimer, F

    2004-01-24

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons to available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveals 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 new pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive IS-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of pre-existing gene expression pathways appear to be more important than acquisition of new genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  10. Insights into three whole-genome duplications gleaned from the Paramecium caudatum genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Casey L; Gout, Jean-Francois; Doak, Thomas G; Yanagi, Akira; Lynch, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Paramecium has long been a model eukaryote. The sequence of the Paramecium tetraurelia genome reveals a history of three successive whole-genome duplications (WGDs), and the sequences of P. biaurelia and P. sexaurelia suggest that these WGDs are shared by all members of the aurelia species complex. Here, we present the genome sequence of P. caudatum, a species closely related to the P. aurelia species group. P. caudatum shares only the most ancient of the three WGDs with the aurelia complex. We found that P. caudatum maintains twice as many paralogs from this early event as the P. aurelia species, suggesting that post-WGD gene retention is influenced by subsequent WGDs and supporting the importance of selection for dosage in gene retention. The availability of P. caudatum as an outgroup allows an expanded analysis of the aurelia intermediate and recent WGD events. Both the Guanine+Cytosine (GC) content and the expression level of preduplication genes are significant predictors of duplicate retention. We find widespread asymmetrical evolution among aurelia paralogs, which is likely caused by gradual pseudogenization rather than by neofunctionalization. Finally, cases of divergent resolution of intermediate WGD duplicates between aurelia species implicate this process acts as an ongoing reinforcement mechanism of reproductive isolation long after a WGD event.

  11. Exploring relationships between host genome and microbiome: new insights from genome-wide association studies.

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    Muslihudeen Abdul-Razaq Abdul-Aziz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the human microbiome expands, impacts on health and disease continue to be revealed. Alterations in the microbiome can result in dysbiosis, which has now been linked to subsequent autoimmune and metabolic diseases, highlighting the need to identify factors that shape the microbiome. Research has identified that the composition and functions of the human microbiome can be influenced by diet, age, gender, and environment. More recently, studies have explored how human genetic variation may also influence the microbiome. Here, we review several recent analytical advances in this new research area, including those that use genome-wide association studies to examine host genome-microbiome interactions, while controlling for the influence of other factors. We find that current research is limited by small sample sizes, lack of cohort replication, and insufficient confirmatory mechanistic studies. In addition, we discuss the importance of understanding long-term interactions between the host genome and microbiome, as well as the potential impacts of disrupting this relationship, and explore new research avenues that may provide information about the co-evolutionary history of humans and their microorganisms.

  12. Chasing the elusive Euryarchaeota class WSA2: genomes reveal a uniquely fastidious methyl-reducing methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobu, Masaru Konishi; Narihiro, Takashi; Kuroda, Kyohei; Mei, Ran; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-10-01

    The ecophysiology of one candidate methanogen class WSA2 (or Arc I) remains largely uncharacterized, despite the long history of research on Euryarchaeota methanogenesis. To expand our understanding of methanogen diversity and evolution, we metagenomically recover eight draft genomes for four WSA2 populations. Taxonomic analyses indicate that WSA2 is a distinct class from other Euryarchaeota. None of genomes harbor pathways for CO2-reducing and aceticlastic methanogenesis, but all possess H2 and CO oxidation and energy conservation through H2-oxidizing electron confurcation and internal H2 cycling. As the only discernible methanogenic outlet, they consistently encode a methylated thiol coenzyme M methyltransferase. Although incomplete, all draft genomes point to the proposition that WSA2 is the first discovered methanogen restricted to methanogenesis through methylated thiol reduction. In addition, the genomes lack pathways for carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and biosynthesis of many amino acids. Acetate, malonate and propionate may serve as carbon sources. Using methylated thiol reduction, WSA2 may not only bridge the carbon and sulfur cycles in eutrophic methanogenic environments, but also potentially compete with CO2-reducing methanogens and even sulfate reducers. These findings reveal a remarkably unique methanogen 'Candidatus Methanofastidiosum methylthiophilus' as the first insight into the sixth class of methanogens 'Candidatus Methanofastidiosa'.

  13. Single nucleus genome sequencing reveals high similarity among nuclei of an endomycorrhizal fungus.

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    Kui Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is only based on studying a few loci, including 45S rDNA. To provide a more comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi, we applied de novo genome sequencing of individual nuclei of Rhizophagus irregularis. This revealed a surprisingly low level of polymorphism between nuclei. In contrast, within a nucleus, the 45S rDNA repeat unit turned out to be highly diverged. This finding demystifies a long-lasting hypothesis on the complex genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi. Subsequent genome assembly resulted in the first draft reference genome sequence of an arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus. Its length is 141 Mbps, representing over 27,000 protein-coding gene models. We used the genomic sequence to reinvestigate the phylogenetic relationships of Rhizophagus irregularis with other fungal phyla. This unambiguously demonstrated that Glomeromycota are more closely related to Mucoromycotina than to its postulated sister Dikarya.

  14. Single Nucleus Genome Sequencing Reveals High Similarity among Nuclei of an Endomycorrhizal Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Ivanov, Sergey; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Mu, Desheng; Pang, Erli; Cao, Huifen; Cha, Hwangho; Lin, Tao; Zhou, Qian; Shang, Yi; Li, Ying; Sharma, Trupti; van Velzen, Robin; de Ruijter, Norbert; Aanen, Duur K.; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is only based on studying a few loci, including 45S rDNA. To provide a more comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi, we applied de novo genome sequencing of individual nuclei of Rhizophagus irregularis. This revealed a surprisingly low level of polymorphism between nuclei. In contrast, within a nucleus, the 45S rDNA repeat unit turned out to be highly diverged. This finding demystifies a long-lasting hypothesis on the complex genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi. Subsequent genome assembly resulted in the first draft reference genome sequence of an arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus. Its length is 141 Mbps, representing over 27,000 protein-coding gene models. We used the genomic sequence to reinvestigate the phylogenetic relationships of Rhizophagus irregularis with other fungal phyla. This unambiguously demonstrated that Glomeromycota are more closely related to Mucoromycotina than to its postulated sister Dikarya. PMID:24415955

  15. Insights and inferences about integron evolution from genomic data

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    Martin Andrew P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrons are mechanisms that facilitate horizontal gene transfer, allowing bacteria to integrate and express foreign DNA. These are important in the exchange of antibiotic resistance determinants, but can also transfer a diverse suite of genes unrelated to pathogenicity. Here, we provide a systematic analysis of the distribution and diversity of integron intI genes and integron-containing bacteria. Results We found integrons in 103 different pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, in six major phyla. Integrons were widely scattered, and their presence was not confined to specific clades within bacterial orders. Nearly 1/3 of the intI genes that we identified were pseudogenes, containing either an internal stop codon or a frameshift mutation that would render the protein product non-functional. Additionally, 20% of bacteria contained more than one integrase gene. dN/dS ratios revealed mutational hotspots in clades of Vibrio and Shewanella intI genes. Finally, we characterized the gene cassettes associated with integrons in Methylobacillus flagellatus KT and Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, and found a heavy metal efflux gene as well as genes involved in protein folding and stability. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that the present distribution of integrons is due to multiple losses and gene transfer events. While, in some cases, the ability to integrate and excise foreign DNA may be selectively advantageous, the gain, loss, or rearrangment of gene cassettes could also be deleterious, selecting against functional integrases. Thus, such a high fraction of pseudogenes may suggest that the selective impact of integrons on genomes is variable, oscillating between beneficial and deleterious, possibly depending on environmental conditions.

  16. Flexibility and symmetry of prokaryotic genome rearrangement reveal lineage-associated core-gene-defined genome organizational frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Gu, Chaohao; Yuan, Lina; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Yanmin; Li, Xinna; Luo, Qibin; Xiao, Jingfa; Jiang, Daquan; Qian, Minping; Ahmed Khan, Aftab; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun

    2014-11-25

    among isolates but also functionally essential for a given species and to further evaluate the stability or flexibility of such genome structures across lineages are of importance. Based on a large number of multi-isolate pangenomic data, our analysis reveals that a subset of core genes is organized into a core-gene-defined genome organizational framework, or cGOF. Furthermore, the lineage-associated cGOFs among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria behave differently: the former, composed of 2 to 4 segments, have their fragments symmetrically rearranged around the origin-terminus axis, whereas the latter show more complex segmentation and are partitioned asymmetrically into chromosomal structures. The definition of cGOFs provides new insights into prokaryotic genome organization and efficient guidance for genome assembly and analysis. Copyright © 2014 Kang et al.

  17. Single-Cell (Meta-Genomics of a Dimorphic Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii Reveals Genomic Plasticity

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    Beverly E. Flood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Thiomargarita includes the world’s largest bacteria. But as uncultured organisms, their physiology, metabolism, and basis for their gigantism are not well understood. Thus a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic potential of one of these enigmatic giant bacteria. The Thiomargarita cell was obtained from an assemblage of budding Ca. T. nelsonii attached to a provannid gastropod shell from Hydrate Ridge, a methane seep offshore of Oregon, USA. Here we present a manually curated genome of Bud S10 resulting from a hybrid assembly of long Pacific Biosciences and short Illumina sequencing reads. With respect to inorganic carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways, the Ca. T. nelsonii Hydrate Ridge Bud S10 genome was similar to marine sister taxa within the family Beggiatoaceae. However, the Bud S10 genome contains genes suggestive of the genetic potential for lithotrophic growth on arsenite and perhaps hydrogen. The genome also revealed that Bud S10 likely respires nitrate via two pathways: a complete denitrification pathway and a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia pathway. Both pathways have been predicted, but not previously fully elucidated, in the genomes of other large, vacuolated, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.Surprisingly, the genome also had a high number of unusual features for a bacterium to include the largest number of metacaspases and introns ever reported in a bacterium. Also present, are a large number of other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequence transposable elements and miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs. In some cases, mobile genetic elements disrupted key genes in metabolic pathways. For example, a MITE interrupts hupL, which encodes the large subunit of the hydrogenase in hydrogen oxidation. Moreover, we detected a group I intron in one of the most critical genes in the sulfur oxidation pathway, dsr

  18. Single-Cell (Meta-)Genomics of a Dimorphic Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii Reveals Genomic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Beverly E.; Fliss, Palmer; Jones, Daniel S.; Dick, Gregory J.; Jain, Sunit; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Winkel, Matthias; Mußmann, Marc; Bailey, Jake

    2016-01-01

    The genus Thiomargarita includes the world's largest bacteria. But as uncultured organisms, their physiology, metabolism, and basis for their gigantism are not well understood. Thus, a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic potential of one of these enigmatic giant bacteria. The Thiomargarita cell was obtained from an assemblage of budding Ca. T. nelsonii attached to a provannid gastropod shell from Hydrate Ridge, a methane seep offshore of Oregon, USA. Here we present a manually curated genome of Bud S10 resulting from a hybrid assembly of long Pacific Biosciences and short Illumina sequencing reads. With respect to inorganic carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways, the Ca. T. nelsonii Hydrate Ridge Bud S10 genome was similar to marine sister taxa within the family Beggiatoaceae. However, the Bud S10 genome contains genes suggestive of the genetic potential for lithotrophic growth on arsenite and perhaps hydrogen. The genome also revealed that Bud S10 likely respires nitrate via two pathways: a complete denitrification pathway and a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia pathway. Both pathways have been predicted, but not previously fully elucidated, in the genomes of other large, vacuolated, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Surprisingly, the genome also had a high number of unusual features for a bacterium to include the largest number of metacaspases and introns ever reported in a bacterium. Also present, are a large number of other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequence (IS) transposable elements and miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In some cases, mobile genetic elements disrupted key genes in metabolic pathways. For example, a MITE interrupts hupL, which encodes the large subunit of the hydrogenase in hydrogen oxidation. Moreover, we detected a group I intron in one of the most critical genes in the sulfur oxidation pathway, dsrA. The dsrA group

  19. Single-Cell (Meta-)Genomics of a Dimorphic Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii Reveals Genomic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Beverly E; Fliss, Palmer; Jones, Daniel S; Dick, Gregory J; Jain, Sunit; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Winkel, Matthias; Mußmann, Marc; Bailey, Jake

    2016-01-01

    The genus Thiomargarita includes the world's largest bacteria. But as uncultured organisms, their physiology, metabolism, and basis for their gigantism are not well understood. Thus, a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic potential of one of these enigmatic giant bacteria. The Thiomargarita cell was obtained from an assemblage of budding Ca. T. nelsonii attached to a provannid gastropod shell from Hydrate Ridge, a methane seep offshore of Oregon, USA. Here we present a manually curated genome of Bud S10 resulting from a hybrid assembly of long Pacific Biosciences and short Illumina sequencing reads. With respect to inorganic carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways, the Ca. T. nelsonii Hydrate Ridge Bud S10 genome was similar to marine sister taxa within the family Beggiatoaceae. However, the Bud S10 genome contains genes suggestive of the genetic potential for lithotrophic growth on arsenite and perhaps hydrogen. The genome also revealed that Bud S10 likely respires nitrate via two pathways: a complete denitrification pathway and a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia pathway. Both pathways have been predicted, but not previously fully elucidated, in the genomes of other large, vacuolated, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Surprisingly, the genome also had a high number of unusual features for a bacterium to include the largest number of metacaspases and introns ever reported in a bacterium. Also present, are a large number of other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequence (IS) transposable elements and miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In some cases, mobile genetic elements disrupted key genes in metabolic pathways. For example, a MITE interrupts hupL, which encodes the large subunit of the hydrogenase in hydrogen oxidation. Moreover, we detected a group I intron in one of the most critical genes in the sulfur oxidation pathway, dsrA. The dsrA group

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Ecological Differentiation in the Genus Carnobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Christelle F.; Borges, Frédéric; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Zagorec, Monique; Remenant, Benoît; Leisner, Jørgen J.; Hansen, Martin A.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Mangavel, Cécile; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) differ in their ability to colonize food and animal-associated habitats: while some species are specialized and colonize a limited number of habitats, other are generalist and are able to colonize multiple animal-linked habitats. In the current study, Carnobacterium was used as a model genus to elucidate the genetic basis of these colonization differences. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene meta-barcoding data showed that C. maltaromaticum followed by C. divergens are the most prevalent species in foods derived from animals (meat, fish, dairy products), and in the gut. According to phylogenetic analyses, these two animal-adapted species belong to one of two deeply branched lineages. The second lineage contains species isolated from habitats where contact with animal is rare. Genome analyses revealed that members of the animal-adapted lineage harbor a larger secretome than members of the other lineage. The predicted cell-surface proteome is highly diversified in C. maltaromaticum and C. divergens with genes involved in adaptation to the animal milieu such as those encoding biopolymer hydrolytic enzymes, a heme uptake system, and biopolymer-binding adhesins. These species also exhibit genes for gut adaptation and respiration. In contrast, Carnobacterium species belonging to the second lineage encode a poorly diversified cell-surface proteome, lack genes for gut adaptation and are unable to respire. These results shed light on the important genomics traits required for adaptation to animal-linked habitats in generalist Carnobacterium. PMID:28337181

  1. Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Bruce A.; Tanifuji, Goro; Burki, Fabien; Gruber, Ansgar; Irimia, Manuuel; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Arias, Maria C.; Ball, Steven G.; Gile, Gillian H.; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hopkins, Julia F.; Kuo, Alan; Rensing, Stefan A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Elias, Marek; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Nakayama, Takuro; Obornik, Miroslav; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Aves, Stephen J.; Beiko, Robert G.; Coutinho, Pedro; Dacks, Joel B.; Durnford, Dion G.; Fast, Naomi M.; Green, Beverley R.; Grisdale, Cameron J.; Hempel, Franziska; Henrissat, Bernard; Hoppner, Marc P.; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Eunsoo; Koreny, Ludek; Kroth, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Maier, Uwe G.; McRose, Darcy; Mock, Thomas; Neilson, Jonathan A. D.; Onodera, Naoko T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Richards, Thomas A.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Roy, Scott W.; Sarai, Chihiro; Schaack, Sarah; Shirato, Shu; Slamovits, Claudio H.; Spencer, Davie F.; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Zauner, Stefan; Barry, Kerrie; Bell, Callum; Bharti, Arvind K.; Crow, John A.; Grimwood, Jane; Kramer, Robin; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Lane, Christopher E.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Gray, Michael W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Archibald, John M.

    2012-08-10

    Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.

  2. Genomic analysis of primordial dwarfism reveals novel disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Ansari, Shinu; Abdel-Salam, Ghada; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Shidi, Tarfa; Alomar, Rana; Sogaty, Sameera; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a disease in which severely impaired fetal growth persists throughout postnatal development and results in stunted adult size. The condition is highly heterogeneous clinically, but the use of certain phenotypic aspects such as head circumference and facial appearance has proven helpful in defining clinical subgroups. In this study, we present the results of clinical and genomic characterization of 16 new patients in whom a broad definition of PD was used (e.g., 3M syndrome was included). We report a novel PD syndrome with distinct facies in two unrelated patients, each with a different homozygous truncating mutation in CRIPT. Our analysis also reveals, in addition to mutations in known PD disease genes, the first instance of biallelic truncating BRCA2 mutation causing PD with normal bone marrow analysis. In addition, we have identified a novel locus for Seckel syndrome based on a consanguineous multiplex family and identified a homozygous truncating mutation in DNA2 as the likely cause. An additional novel PD disease candidate gene XRCC4 was identified by autozygome/exome analysis, and the knockout mouse phenotype is highly compatible with PD. Thus, we add a number of novel genes to the growing list of PD-linked genes, including one which we show to be linked to a novel PD syndrome with a distinct facial appearance. PD is extremely heterogeneous genetically and clinically, and genomic tools are often required to reach a molecular diagnosis.

  3. Functional Insights into Sponge Microbiology by Single Cell Genomics

    KAUST Repository

    Hentschel, Ute

    2011-04-09

    Marine Sponges (Porifera) are known to harbor enormous amounts of microorganisms with members belonging to at least 30 different bacterial phyla including several candidate phyla and both archaeal lineages. Here, we applied single cell genomics to the mic

  4. The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Sigbjørn; Koop, Ben F; Sandve, Simen R; Miller, Jason R; Kent, Matthew P; Nome, Torfinn; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Leong, Jong S; Minkley, David R; Zimin, Aleksey; Grammes, Fabian; Grove, Harald; Gjuvsland, Arne; Walenz, Brian; Hermansen, Russell A; von Schalburg, Kris; Rondeau, Eric B; Di Genova, Alex; Samy, Jeevan K A; Olav Vik, Jon; Vigeland, Magnus D; Caler, Lis; Grimholt, Unni; Jentoft, Sissel; Våge, Dag Inge; de Jong, Pieter; Moen, Thomas; Baranski, Matthew; Palti, Yniv; Smith, Douglas R; Yorke, James A; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jiang, Xuanting; Fan, Dingding; Hu, Yan; Liberles, David A; Vidal, Rodrigo; Iturra, Patricia; Jones, Steven J M; Jonassen, Inge; Maass, Alejandro; Omholt, Stig W; Davidson, William S

    2016-04-18

    The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find that genes that were retained as duplicates after the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320 million years ago were not more likely to be retained after the Ss4R, and that the duplicate retention was not influenced to a great extent by the nature of the predicted protein interactions of the gene products. Finally, we demonstrate that the Atlantic salmon assembly can serve as a reference sequence for the study of other salmonids for a range of purposes.

  5. Chromosomal imbalances revealed in primary rhabdomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-xin; LIU Chun-xia; CHUN Cai-pu; QI Yan; CHANG Bin; LI Xin-xia; CHEN Yun-zhao; NONG Wei-xia; LI Hong-an; LI Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous cytogenetic studies revealed aberrations varied among the throe subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma. We profiled chromosomal imbalances in the different subtypes and investigated the relationships between clinical parameters and genomic aberrations.Methods Comparative genomic hybridization was used to investigate genomic imbalances in 25 cases of primary rhabdomyosarcomas and two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Specimens were reviewed to determine histological type, pathological grading and clinical staging.Results Changes involving one or more regions of the genome were seen in all rhabdomyosarcomal patients. For rhabdomyosarcoma, DNA sequence gains were most frequently (>30%) seen in chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p,2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q; losses from 3p, 11p and 6p. In aggressive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were seen on chromosomes 12q, 2p, 6p, 2q, 4q, 10q and 15q; losses from 3p, 6p, 1q and 5q. For embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were on 7p, 9q, 2p, 18q, 1p and 8q; losses only from 11p. Frequently gained chromosome arms of translocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 12q, 2, 6, 10q, 4q and 15q; losses from 3p,6p and 5q. The frequently gained chromosome arms of nontranslocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 2p,9q and 18q, while 11p and 14q were the frequently lost chromosome arms. Gains on chromosome 12q were significantly correlated with translocation type. Gains on chromosome 9q were significantly correlated with clinical staging. Conclusions Gains on chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p, 2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q and losses on chromosomes 3p, 11p and 6p may be related to rhabdomyosarcomal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, gains on chromosome 12q may be correlated with translocation and gains on chromosome 9q with the early stages of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  6. Exploring Relationships between Host Genome and Microbiome: New Insights from Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Muslihudeen A.; Cooper, Alan; Weyrich, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    As our understanding of the human microbiome expands, impacts on health and disease continue to be revealed. Alterations in the microbiome can result in dysbiosis, which has now been linked to subsequent autoimmune and metabolic diseases, highlighting the need to identify factors that shape the microbiome. Research has identified that the composition and functions of the human microbiome can be influenced by diet, age, sex, and environment. More recently, studies have explored how human genetic variation may also influence the microbiome. Here, we review several recent analytical advances in this new research area, including those that use genome-wide association studies to examine host genome–microbiome interactions, while controlling for the influence of other factors. We find that current research is limited by small sample sizes, lack of cohort replication, and insufficient confirmatory mechanistic studies. In addition, we discuss the importance of understanding long-term interactions between the host genome and microbiome, as well as the potential impacts of disrupting this relationship, and explore new research avenues that may provide information about the co-evolutionary history of humans and their microorganisms. PMID:27785127

  7. Genome sequence of Thermofilum pendens reveals an exceptional loss of biosynthetic pathways without genome reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Anderson, Iain; Rodriguez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S.; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Detter, Chris; Zhulin, Igor B.; Olsen, Gary J.; Whitman, William; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching, hyperthermophilic member of the order Thermoproteales within the archaeal kingdom Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It is an extracellular commensal, requiring an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. In fact T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than obligate intracellular parasites, although it does not display other features common among obligate parasites and thus does not appear to be in the process of becoming a parasite. It appears that T. pendens has adapted to life in an environment rich in nutrients. T. pendens was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have a transporter of the phosphotransferase system. In addition to fermentation, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein. Predicted highly expressed proteins do not include housekeeping genes, and instead include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins.

  8. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. Results The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb. The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%, followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. Conclusion The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable

  9. Genomic analysis of the basal lineage fungus Rhizopus oryzae reveals a whole-genome duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Ma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus oryzae is the primary cause of mucormycosis, an emerging, life-threatening infection characterized by rapid angioinvasive growth with an overall mortality rate that exceeds 50%. As a representative of the paraphyletic basal group of the fungal kingdom called "zygomycetes," R. oryzae is also used as a model to study fungal evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of R. oryzae strain 99-880, isolated from a fatal case of mucormycosis. The highly repetitive 45.3 Mb genome assembly contains abundant transposable elements (TEs, comprising approximately 20% of the genome. We predicted 13,895 protein-coding genes not overlapping TEs, many of which are paralogous gene pairs. The order and genomic arrangement of the duplicated gene pairs and their common phylogenetic origin provide evidence for an ancestral whole-genome duplication (WGD event. The WGD resulted in the duplication of nearly all subunits of the protein complexes associated with respiratory electron transport chains, the V-ATPase, and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. The WGD, together with recent gene duplications, resulted in the expansion of multiple gene families related to cell growth and signal transduction, as well as secreted aspartic protease and subtilase protein families, which are known fungal virulence factors. The duplication of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, especially the major azole target, lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (ERG11, could contribute to the variable responses of R. oryzae to different azole drugs, including voriconazole and posaconazole. Expanded families of cell-wall synthesis enzymes, essential for fungal cell integrity but absent in mammalian hosts, reveal potential targets for novel and R. oryzae-specific diagnostic and therapeutic treatments.

  10. Genome duplication in early vertebrates: insights from agnathan cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo Barucchi, V; Giovannotti, M; Nisi Cerioni, P; Splendiani, A

    2013-01-01

    Agnathans represent a remnant of a primitive offshoot of the vertebrates, and the long evolutionary separation between their 2 living groups, namely hagfishes and lampreys, could explain profound biological differences, also in karyotypes and genome sizes. Here, cytogenetic studies available on these vertebrates were summarized and data discussed with reference to the recently demonstrated monophyly of this group and to the 2 events of whole genome duplication (1R and 2R) characterizing the evolution of vertebrates. The comparison of cytogenetic data and phylogenetic relationships among agnathans and gnathostomes seems to support the hypothesis that 1R and 2R occurred before the evolutionary divergence between jawless and jawed vertebrates.

  11. Comparative genome analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains reveals adaptations to their lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załuga, Joanna; Stragier, Pieter; Baeyen, Steve; Haegeman, Annelies; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; De Vos, Paul

    2014-05-22

    The genus Clavibacter harbors economically important plant pathogens infecting agricultural crops such as potato and tomato. Although the vast majority of Clavibacter strains are pathogenic, there is an increasing number of non-pathogenic isolates reported. Non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains isolated from tomato seeds are particularly problematic because they affect the current detection and identification tests for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which is regulated with a zero tolerance in tomato seed. Their misidentification as pathogenic Cmm hampers a clear judgment on the seed quality and health. To get more insight in the genetic features linked to the lifestyle of these bacteria, a whole-genome sequence of the tomato seed-borne non-pathogenic Clavibacter LMG 26808 was determined. To gain a better understanding of the molecular determinants of pathogenicity, the genome sequence of LMG 26808 was compared with that of the pathogenic Cmm strain (NCPPB 382). The comparative analysis revealed that LMG 26808 does not contain plasmids pCM1 and pCM2 and also lacks the majority of important virulence factors described so far for pathogenic Cmm. This explains its apparent non-pathogenic nature in tomato plants. Moreover, the genome analysis of LMG 26808 detected sequences from a plasmid originating from a member of Enterobacteriaceae/Klebsiella relative. Genes received that way and coding for antibiotic resistance may provide a competitive advantage for survival of LMG 26808 in its ecological niche. Genetically, LMG 26808 was the most similar to the pathogenic Cmm NCPPB 382 but contained more mobile genetic elements. The genome of this non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain contained also a high number of transporters and regulatory genes. The genome sequence of the non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain LMG 26808 and the comparative analyses with other pathogenic Clavibacter strains provided a better understanding of the genetic bases of virulence and

  12. Genetic Diversity of Marine Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria as Revealed by Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of 'Candidatus Scalindua japonica'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Mizuto, Keisuke; Kimura, Zenichiro; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-09-11

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria affiliated with the genus 'Candidatus Scalindua' are responsible for significant nitrogen loss in oceans, and thus their ecophysiology is of great interest. Here, we enriched a marine anammox bacterium, 'Ca. S. japonica' from a Hiroshima bay sediment in Japan, and comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of 'Ca. S. japonica' were conducted. Sequence of the 4.81-Mb genome containing 4,019 coding regions of genes (CDSs) composed of 47 contigs was determined. In the proteome, 1,762 out of 4,019 CDSs in the 'Ca. S. japonica' genome were detected. Based on the genomic and proteomic data, the core anammox process and carbon fixation of 'Ca. S. japonica' were further investigated. Additionally, the present study provides the first detailed insights into the genetic background responsible for iron acquisition and menaquinone biosynthesis in anammox bacterial cells. Comparative analysis of the 'Ca. Scalindua' genomes revealed that the 1,502 genes found in the 'Ca. S. japonica' genome were not present in the 'Ca. S. profunda' and 'Ca. S. rubra' genomes, showing a high genomic diversity. This result may reflect a high phylogenetic diversity of the genus 'Ca. Scalindua'. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparative whole-genome analysis of clinical isolates reveals characteristic architecture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pangenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vinita; Patowary, Ashok; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Gupta, Anju; Singh, Meghna; Mittal, Ashish; Jeyapaul, Shamini; Chauhan, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Garg, Parul; Katoch, Viswa Mohan; Katoch, Kiran; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The tubercle complex consists of closely related mycobacterium species which appear to be variants of a single species. Comparative genome analysis of different strains could provide useful clues and insights into the genetic diversity of the species. We integrated genome assemblies of 96 strains from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which included 8 Indian clinical isolates sequenced and assembled in this study, to understand its pangenome architecture. We predicted genes for all the 96 strains and clustered their respective CDSs into homologous gene clusters (HGCs) to reveal a hard-core, soft-core and accessory genome component of MTBC. The hard-core (HGCs shared amongst 100% of the strains) was comprised of 2,066 gene clusters whereas the soft-core (HGCs shared amongst at least 95% of the strains) comprised of 3,374 gene clusters. The change in the core and accessory genome components when observed as a function of their size revealed that MTBC has an open pangenome. We identified 74 HGCs that were absent from reference strains H37Rv and H37Ra but were present in most of clinical isolates. We report PCR validation on 9 candidate genes depicting 7 genes completely absent from H37Rv and H37Ra whereas 2 genes shared partial homology with them accounting to probable insertion and deletion events. The pangenome approach is a promising tool for studying strain specific genetic differences occurring within species. We also suggest that since selecting appropriate target genes for typing purposes requires the expected target gene be present in all isolates being typed, therefore estimating the core-component of the species becomes a subject of prime importance.

  14. Comparative whole-genome analysis of clinical isolates reveals characteristic architecture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pangenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Periwal

    Full Text Available The tubercle complex consists of closely related mycobacterium species which appear to be variants of a single species. Comparative genome analysis of different strains could provide useful clues and insights into the genetic diversity of the species. We integrated genome assemblies of 96 strains from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which included 8 Indian clinical isolates sequenced and assembled in this study, to understand its pangenome architecture. We predicted genes for all the 96 strains and clustered their respective CDSs into homologous gene clusters (HGCs to reveal a hard-core, soft-core and accessory genome component of MTBC. The hard-core (HGCs shared amongst 100% of the strains was comprised of 2,066 gene clusters whereas the soft-core (HGCs shared amongst at least 95% of the strains comprised of 3,374 gene clusters. The change in the core and accessory genome components when observed as a function of their size revealed that MTBC has an open pangenome. We identified 74 HGCs that were absent from reference strains H37Rv and H37Ra but were present in most of clinical isolates. We report PCR validation on 9 candidate genes depicting 7 genes completely absent from H37Rv and H37Ra whereas 2 genes shared partial homology with them accounting to probable insertion and deletion events. The pangenome approach is a promising tool for studying strain specific genetic differences occurring within species. We also suggest that since selecting appropriate target genes for typing purposes requires the expected target gene be present in all isolates being typed, therefore estimating the core-component of the species becomes a subject of prime importance.

  15. Genome mining reveals the biosynthetic potential of the marine-derived strain Streptomyces marokkonensis M10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine streptomycetes are rich sources of natural products with novel structures and interesting biological activities, and genome mining of marine streptomycetes facilitates rapid discovery of their useful products. In this study, a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. M10 was revealed to share a 99.02% 16S rDNA sequence identity with that of Streptomyces marokkonensis Ap1T, and was thus named S. marokkonensis M10. To further evaluate its biosynthetic potential, the 7,207,169 bps of S. marokkonensis M10 genome was sequenced. Genomic sequence analysis for potential secondary metabolite-associated gene clusters led to the identification of at least three polyketide synthases (PKSs, six non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs, one hybrid NRPS-PKS, two lantibiotic and five terpene biosynthetic gene clusters. One type I PKS gene cluster was revealed to share high nucleotide similarity with the candicidin/FR008 gene cluster, indicating the capacity of this microorganism to produce polyene macrolides. This assumption was further verified by isolation of two polyene family compounds PF1 and PF2, which have the characteristic UV adsorption at 269, 278, 290 nm (PF1 and 363, 386 and 408 nm (PF2, respectively. S. marokkonensis M10 is therefore a new source of polyene metabolites. Further studies on S. marokkonensis M10 will provide more insights into natural product biosynthesis potential of related streptomycetes. This is also the first report to describe the genome sequence of S. marokkonensis-related strain.

  16. The complete genome sequence of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 reveals a cellulolytic and metabolic specialist.

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    Garret Suen

    Full Text Available Fibrobacter succinogenes is an important member of the rumen microbial community that converts plant biomass into nutrients usable by its host. This bacterium, which is also one of only two cultivated species in its phylum, is an efficient and prolific degrader of cellulose. Specifically, it has a particularly high activity against crystalline cellulose that requires close physical contact with this substrate. However, unlike other known cellulolytic microbes, it does not degrade cellulose using a cellulosome or by producing high extracellular titers of cellulase enzymes. To better understand the biology of F. succinogenes, we sequenced the genome of the type strain S85 to completion. A total of 3,085 open reading frames were predicted from its 3.84 Mbp genome. Analysis of sequences predicted to encode for carbohydrate-degrading enzymes revealed an unusually high number of genes that were classified into 49 different families of glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs, carbohydrate esterases, and polysaccharide lyases. Of the 31 identified cellulases, none contain CBMs in families 1, 2, and 3, typically associated with crystalline cellulose degradation. Polysaccharide hydrolysis and utilization assays showed that F. succinogenes was able to hydrolyze a number of polysaccharides, but could only utilize the hydrolytic products of cellulose. This suggests that F. succinogenes uses its array of hemicellulose-degrading enzymes to remove hemicelluloses to gain access to cellulose. This is reflected in its genome, as F. succinogenes lacks many of the genes necessary to transport and metabolize the hydrolytic products of non-cellulose polysaccharides. The F. succinogenes genome reveals a bacterium that specializes in cellulose as its sole energy source, and provides insight into a novel strategy for cellulose degradation.

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Flag Leaves Reveals New Insight into Wheat Heat Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunze Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop but it is vulnerable to heat. The heat-responsive proteome of wheat remains to be fully elucidated because of previous technical and genomic limitations, and this has hindered our understanding of the mechanisms of wheat heat adaptation and advances in improving thermotolerance. Here, flag leaves of wheat during grain filling stage were subjected to high daytime temperature stress, and 258 heat-responsive proteins (HRPs were identified with iTRAQ analysis. Enrichment analysis revealed that chlorophyll synthesis, carbon fixation, protein turnover, and redox regulation were the most remarkable heat-responsive processes. The HRPs involved in chlorophyll synthesis and carbon fixation were significantly decreased, together with severe membrane damage, demonstrating the specific effects of heat on photosynthesis of wheat leaves. In addition, the decrease in chlorophyll content may result from the decrease in HRPs involved in chlorophyll precursor synthesis. Further analysis showed that the accumulated effect of heat stress played a critical role in photosynthesis reduction, suggested that improvement in heat tolerance of photosynthesis, and extending heat tolerant period would be major research targets. The significantly accumulation of GSTs and Trxs in response to heat suggested their important roles in redox regulation, and they could be the promising candidates for improving wheat thermotolerance. In summary, our results provide new insight into wheat heat adaption and provide new perspectives on thermotolerance improvement.

  18. Comparative genomics reveals evidence of marine adaptation in Salinispora species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Actinobacteria represent a consistent component of most marine bacterial communities yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these Gram-positive bacteria adapt to life in the marine environment. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach to identify marine adaptation genes in marine Actinobacteria. The focus was on the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora and the identification of marine adaptation genes that have been acquired from other marine bacteria. Results Functional annotation, comparative genomics, and evidence of a shared evolutionary history with bacteria from hyperosmotic environments were used to identify a pool of more than 50 marine adaptation genes. An Actinobacterial species tree was used to infer the likelihood of gene gain or loss in accounting for the distribution of each gene. Acquired marine adaptation genes were associated with electron transport, sodium and ABC transporters, and channels and pores. In addition, the loss of a mechanosensitive channel gene appears to have played a major role in the inability of Salinispora strains to grow following transfer to low osmotic strength media. Conclusions The marine Actinobacteria for which genome sequences are available are broadly distributed throughout the Actinobacterial phylogenetic tree and closely related to non-marine forms suggesting they have been independently introduced relatively recently into the marine environment. It appears that the acquisition of transporters in Salinispora spp. represents a major marine adaptation while gene loss is proposed to play a role in the inability of this genus to survive outside of the marine environment. This study reveals fundamental differences between marine adaptations in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and no common genetic basis for marine adaptation among the Actinobacteria analyzed. PMID:22401625

  19. Comparative genomics reveals evidence of marine adaptation in Salinispora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kevin; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-03-08

    Actinobacteria represent a consistent component of most marine bacterial communities yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these Gram-positive bacteria adapt to life in the marine environment. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach to identify marine adaptation genes in marine Actinobacteria. The focus was on the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora and the identification of marine adaptation genes that have been acquired from other marine bacteria. Functional annotation, comparative genomics, and evidence of a shared evolutionary history with bacteria from hyperosmotic environments were used to identify a pool of more than 50 marine adaptation genes. An Actinobacterial species tree was used to infer the likelihood of gene gain or loss in accounting for the distribution of each gene. Acquired marine adaptation genes were associated with electron transport, sodium and ABC transporters, and channels and pores. In addition, the loss of a mechanosensitive channel gene appears to have played a major role in the inability of Salinispora strains to grow following transfer to low osmotic strength media. The marine Actinobacteria for which genome sequences are available are broadly distributed throughout the Actinobacterial phylogenetic tree and closely related to non-marine forms suggesting they have been independently introduced relatively recently into the marine environment. It appears that the acquisition of transporters in Salinispora spp. represents a major marine adaptation while gene loss is proposed to play a role in the inability of this genus to survive outside of the marine environment. This study reveals fundamental differences between marine adaptations in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and no common genetic basis for marine adaptation among the Actinobacteria analyzed.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals evidence of marine adaptation in Salinispora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penn Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacteria represent a consistent component of most marine bacterial communities yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these Gram-positive bacteria adapt to life in the marine environment. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach to identify marine adaptation genes in marine Actinobacteria. The focus was on the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora and the identification of marine adaptation genes that have been acquired from other marine bacteria. Results Functional annotation, comparative genomics, and evidence of a shared evolutionary history with bacteria from hyperosmotic environments were used to identify a pool of more than 50 marine adaptation genes. An Actinobacterial species tree was used to infer the likelihood of gene gain or loss in accounting for the distribution of each gene. Acquired marine adaptation genes were associated with electron transport, sodium and ABC transporters, and channels and pores. In addition, the loss of a mechanosensitive channel gene appears to have played a major role in the inability of Salinispora strains to grow following transfer to low osmotic strength media. Conclusions The marine Actinobacteria for which genome sequences are available are broadly distributed throughout the Actinobacterial phylogenetic tree and closely related to non-marine forms suggesting they have been independently introduced relatively recently into the marine environment. It appears that the acquisition of transporters in Salinispora spp. represents a major marine adaptation while gene loss is proposed to play a role in the inability of this genus to survive outside of the marine environment. This study reveals fundamental differences between marine adaptations in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and no common genetic basis for marine adaptation among the Actinobacteria analyzed.

  1. A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haitjema, Charles H.; Gilmore, Sean P.; Henske, John K.; Solomon, Kevin V.; de Groot, Randall; Kuo, Alan; Mondo, Stephen J.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt; Zhao, Zhiying; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Barry, Kerrie; Brewer, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wright, Aaron T.; Hainaut, Matthieu; Boxma, Brigitte; van Alen, Theo; Hackstein, Johannes H. P.; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; O' Malley, Michelle A.

    2017-05-26

    Cellulosomes are large, multi-protein complexes that tether plant biomass degrading enzymes together for improved hydrolysis1. These complexes were first described in anaerobic bacteria where species specific dockerin domains mediate assembly of enzymes onto complementary cohesin motifs interspersed within non-catalytic protein scaffolds1. The versatile protein assembly mechanism conferred by the bacterial cohesin-dockerin interaction is now a standard design principle for synthetic protein-scale pathways2,3. For decades, analogous structures have been reported in the early branching anaerobic fungi, which are known to assemble by sequence divergent non-catalytic dockerin domains (NCDD)4. However, the enzyme components, modular assembly mechanism, and functional role of fungal cellulosomes remain unknown5,6. Here, we describe the comprehensive set of proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, including novel, conserved scaffolding proteins unique to the Neocallimastigomycota. High quality genomes of the anaerobic fungi Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallimastix californiae and Piromyces finnis were assembled with long-read, single molecule technology to overcome their repeat-richness and extremely low GC content. Genomic analysis coupled with proteomic validation revealed an average 320 NCDD-containing proteins per fungal strain that were overwhelmingly carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), with 95 large fungal scaffoldins identified across 4 genera that contain a conserved amino acid sequence repeat that binds to NCDDs. Fungal dockerin and scaffoldin domains have no similarity to their bacterial counterparts, yet several catalytic domains originated via horizontal gene transfer with gut bacteria. Though many catalytic domains are shared with bacteria, the biocatalytic activity of anaerobic fungi is expanded by the inclusion of GH3, GH6, and GH45 enzymes in the enzyme complexes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the fungal cellulosome is an evolutionarily

  2. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng-Jiau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea, Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea. All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome

  3. Structural Genomics Reveals EVE as a New ASCH/PUA-Related Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertonati, C.; Punta, M; Fischer, M; Yachdav, G; Forouhar, F; Hunt, J; Tong, L; Montelione, G; Rost, B; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links.

  4. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanine L; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-02-18

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.

  5. ‘Candidatus Competibacter'-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Simon J; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva K; Saunders, Aaron M; Kristiansen, Rikke; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kåre L; Nielsen, Per H

    2014-01-01

    The glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) ‘Candidatus Competibacter' (Competibacter) uses aerobically stored glycogen to enable anaerobic carbon uptake, which is subsequently stored as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This biphasic metabolism is key for the Competibacter to survive under the cyclic anaerobic-‘feast': aerobic-‘famine' regime of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. As they do not contribute to phosphorus (P) removal, but compete for resources with the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), thought responsible for P removal, their proliferation theoretically reduces the EBPR capacity. In this study, two complete genomes from Competibacter were obtained from laboratory-scale enrichment reactors through metagenomics. Phylogenetic analysis identified the two genomes, ‘Candidatus Competibacter denitrificans' and ‘Candidatus Contendobacter odensis', as being affiliated with Competibacter-lineage subgroups 1 and 5, respectively. Both have genes for glycogen and PHA cycling and for the metabolism of volatile fatty acids. Marked differences were found in their potential for the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas and Entner–Doudoroff glycolytic pathways, as well as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes—identifying a key metabolic difference with the PAO physiology. These genomes are the first from any GAO organism and provide new insights into the complex interaction and niche competition between PAOs and GAOs in EBPR systems. PMID:24173461

  6. Genome comparison of Candida orthopsilosis clinical strains reveals the existence of hybrids between two distinct subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryszcz, Leszek P; Németh, Tibor; Gácser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis species complex comprises a group of emerging human pathogens of varying virulence. This complex was recently subdivided into three different species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis. Within the latter, at least two clearly distinct subspecies seem to be present among clinical isolates (Type 1 and Type 2). To gain insight into the genomic differences between these subspecies, we undertook the sequencing of a clinical isolate classified as Type 1 and compared it with the available sequence of a Type 2 clinical strain. Unexpectedly, the analysis of the newly sequenced strain revealed a highly heterozygous genome, which we show to be the consequence of a hybridization event between both identified subspecies. This implicitly suggests that C. orthopsilosis is able to mate, a so-far unanswered question. The resulting hybrid shows a chimeric genome that maintains a similar gene dosage from both parental lineages and displays ongoing loss of heterozygosity. Several of the differences found between the gene content in both strains relate to virulent-related families, with the hybrid strain presenting a higher copy number of genes coding for efflux pumps or secreted lipases. Remarkably, two clinical strains isolated from distant geographical locations (Texas and Singapore) are descendants of the same hybrid line, raising the intriguing possibility of a relationship between the hybridization event and the global spread of a virulent clone.

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Organization, Function and Evolution of ars Genes in Pantoea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Wang, Jin; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-01-01

    Numerous genes are involved in various strategies to resist toxic arsenic (As). However, the As resistance strategy in genus Pantoea is poorly understood. In this study, a comparative genome analysis of 23 Pantoea genomes was conducted. Two vertical genetic arsC-like genes without any contribution to As resistance were found to exist in the 23 Pantoea strains. Besides the two arsC-like genes, As resistance gene clusters arsRBC or arsRBCH were found in 15 Pantoea genomes. These ars clusters were found to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from sources related to Franconibacter helveticus, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii. During the history of evolution, the ars clusters were acquired more than once in some species, and were lost in some strains, producing strains without As resistance capability. This study revealed the organization, distribution and the complex evolutionary history of As resistance genes in Pantoea spp.. The insights gained in this study improved our understanding on the As resistance strategy of Pantoea spp. and its roles in the biogeochemical cycling of As. PMID:28377759

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Organization, Function and Evolution of ars Genes in Pantoea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Wang, Jin; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-01-01

    Numerous genes are involved in various strategies to resist toxic arsenic (As). However, the As resistance strategy in genus Pantoea is poorly understood. In this study, a comparative genome analysis of 23 Pantoea genomes was conducted. Two vertical genetic arsC-like genes without any contribution to As resistance were found to exist in the 23 Pantoea strains. Besides the two arsC-like genes, As resistance gene clusters arsRBC or arsRBCH were found in 15 Pantoea genomes. These ars clusters were found to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from sources related to Franconibacter helveticus, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii. During the history of evolution, the ars clusters were acquired more than once in some species, and were lost in some strains, producing strains without As resistance capability. This study revealed the organization, distribution and the complex evolutionary history of As resistance genes in Pantoea spp.. The insights gained in this study improved our understanding on the As resistance strategy of Pantoea spp. and its roles in the biogeochemical cycling of As.

  9. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2016-01-27

    Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  10. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  11. Genomic view of bipolar disorder revealed by whole genome sequencing in a genetic isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Georgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a common, heritable mental illness characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Despite considerable effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, causative genetic risk factors remain elusive. We conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of bipolar disorder in a large Old Order Amish pedigree. Microsatellite genotypes and high-density SNP-array genotypes of 388 family members were combined with whole genome sequence data for 50 of these subjects, comprising 18 parent-child trios. This study design permitted evaluation of candidate variants within the context of haplotype structure by resolving the phase in sequenced parent-child trios and by imputation of variants into multiple unsequenced siblings. Non-parametric and parametric linkage analysis of the entire pedigree as well as on smaller clusters of families identified several nominally significant linkage peaks, each of which included dozens of predicted deleterious variants. Close inspection of exonic and regulatory variants in genes under the linkage peaks using family-based association tests revealed additional credible candidate genes for functional studies and further replication in population-based cohorts. However, despite the in-depth genomic characterization of this unique, large and multigenerational pedigree from a genetic isolate, there was no convergence of evidence implicating a particular set of risk loci or common pathways. The striking haplotype and locus heterogeneity we observed has profound implications for the design of studies of bipolar and other related disorders.

  12. Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Pathogenicity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2016-01-01

    . psychrophilum could hold at least 3373 genes, while the core genome contained 1743 genes. On average, 67 new genes were detected for every new genome added to the analysis, indicating that F. psychrophilum possesses an open pan genome. The putative virulence factors were equally distributed among isolates......, independent of geographic location, year of isolation and source of isolates. Only one prophage-related sequence was found which corresponded to the previously described prophage 6H, and appeared in 5 out of 11 isolates. CRISPR array analysis revealed two different loci with dissimilar spacer content, which...... to describe the F. psychrophilum pan-genome and to examine virulence factors, prophages, CRISPR arrays, and genomic islands present in the genomes. Analysis of the genomic DNA sequences were complemented with selected phenotypic characteristics of the strains. The pan genome analysis showed that F...

  13. Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Joy Dauncey

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype...

  14. The genomic environment around the Aromatase gene: evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Henriques Maria A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19, catalyses the aromatisation of androgens to estrogens, a key mechanism in vertebrate reproductive physiology. A current evolutionary hypothesis suggests that CYP19 gene arose at the origin of vertebrates, given that it has not been found outside this clade. The human CYP19 gene is located in one of the proposed MHC-paralogon regions (HSA15q. At present it is unclear whether this genomic location is ancestral (which would suggest an invertebrate origin for CYP19 or derived (genomic location with no evolutionary meaning. The distinction between these possibilities should help to clarify the timing of the CYP19 emergence and which taxa should be investigated. Results Here we determine the "genomic environment" around CYP19 in three vertebrate species Homo sapiens, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Xenopus tropicalis. Paralogy studies and phylogenetic analysis of six gene families suggests that the CYP19 gene region was structured through "en bloc" genomic duplication (as part of the MHC-paralogon formation. Four gene families have specifically duplicated in the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, the mapping location of the different paralogues is consistent with a model of "en bloc" duplication. Furthermore, we also determine that this region has retained the same gene content since the divergence of Actinopterygii and Tetrapods. A single inversion in gene order has taken place, probably in the mammalian lineage. Finally, we describe the first invertebrate CYP19 sequence, from Branchiostoma floridae. Conclusion Contrary to previous suggestions, our data indicates an invertebrate origin for the aromatase gene, given the striking conservation pattern in both gene order and gene content, and the presence of aromatase in amphioxus. We propose that CYP19 duplicated in the vertebrate lineage to yield four paralogues, followed by the subsequent loss of all but one gene in vertebrate evolution. Finally, we

  15. ‘Candidatus Competibacter’-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva Kammer;

    2014-01-01

    anaerobic-‘feast’: aerobic-‘famine’ regime of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. As they do not contribute to phosphorus (P) removal, but compete for resources with the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), thought responsible for P removal, their proliferation...... as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes—identifying a key metabolic difference...... with the PAO physiology. These genomes are the first from any GAO organism and provide new insights into the complex interaction and niche competition between PAOs and GAOs in EBPR systems....

  16. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica. PMID:27653464

  17. Genome-wide association and functional follow-up reveals new loci for kidney function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pattaro

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an important public health problem with a genetic component. We performed genome-wide association studies in up to 130,600 European ancestry participants overall, and stratified for key CKD risk factors. We uncovered 6 new loci in association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, the primary clinical measure of CKD, in or near MPPED2, DDX1, SLC47A1, CDK12, CASP9, and INO80. Morpholino knockdown of mpped2 and casp9 in zebrafish embryos revealed podocyte and tubular abnormalities with altered dextran clearance, suggesting a role for these genes in renal function. By providing new insights into genes that regulate renal function, these results could further our understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD.

  18. Genome size evolution in pufferfish: an insight from BAC clone-based Diodon holocanthus genome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in genome size within and between species have been observed since the 1950 s in diverse taxonomic groups. Serving as model organisms, smooth pufferfish possess the smallest vertebrate genomes. Interestingly, spiny pufferfish from its sister family have genome twice as large as smooth pufferfish. Therefore, comparative genomic analysis between smooth pufferfish and spiny pufferfish is useful for our understanding of genome size evolution in pufferfish. Results Ten BAC clones of a spiny pufferfish Diodon holocanthus were randomly selected and shotgun sequenced. In total, 776 kb of non-redundant sequences without gap representing 0.1% of the D. holocanthus genome were identified, and 77 distinct genes were predicted. In the sequenced D. holocanthus genome, 364 kb is homologous with 265 kb of the Takifugu rubripes genome, and 223 kb is homologous with 148 kb of the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome. The repetitive DNA accounts for 8% of the sequenced D. holocanthus genome, which is higher than that in the T. rubripes genome (6.89% and that in the Te. nigroviridis genome (4.66%. In the repetitive DNA, 76% is retroelements which account for 6% of the sequenced D. holocanthus genome and belong to known families of transposable elements. More than half of retroelements were distributed within genes. In the non-homologous regions, repeat element proportion in D. holocanthus genome increased to 10.6% compared with T. rubripes and increased to 9.19% compared with Te. nigroviridis. A comparison of 10 well-defined orthologous genes showed that the average intron size (566 bp in D. holocanthus genome is significantly longer than that in the smooth pufferfish genome (435 bp. Conclusion Compared with the smooth pufferfish, D. holocanthus has a low gene density and repeat elements rich genome. Genome size variation between D. holocanthus and the smooth pufferfish exhibits as length variation between homologous region and different

  19. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eLink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina.

  20. The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Chris T; Alföldi, Jessica; Lee, Alison P; Fan, Shaohua; Philippe, Hervé; Maccallum, Iain; Braasch, Ingo; Manousaki, Tereza; Schneider, Igor; Rohner, Nicolas; Organ, Chris; Chalopin, Domitille; Smith, Jeramiah J; Robinson, Mark; Dorrington, Rosemary A; Gerdol, Marco; Aken, Bronwen; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco; Baurain, Denis; Berlin, Aaron M; Blatch, Gregory L; Buonocore, Francesco; Burmester, Thorsten; Campbell, Michael S; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John P; Christoffels, Alan; De Moro, Gianluca; Edkins, Adrienne L; Fan, Lin; Fausto, Anna Maria; Feiner, Nathalie; Forconi, Mariko; Gamieldien, Junaid; Gnerre, Sante; Gnirke, Andreas; Goldstone, Jared V; Haerty, Wilfried; Hahn, Mark E; Hesse, Uljana; Hoffmann, Steve; Johnson, Jeremy; Karchner, Sibel I; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Lara, Marcia; Levin, Joshua Z; Litman, Gary W; Mauceli, Evan; Miyake, Tsutomu; Mueller, M Gail; Nelson, David R; Nitsche, Anne; Olmo, Ettore; Ota, Tatsuya; Pallavicini, Alberto; Panji, Sumir; Picone, Barbara; Ponting, Chris P; Prohaska, Sonja J; Przybylski, Dariusz; Saha, Nil Ratan; Ravi, Vydianathan; Ribeiro, Filipe J; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Searle, Stephen M J; Sharpe, Ted; Simakov, Oleg; Stadler, Peter F; Stegeman, John J; Sumiyama, Kenta; Tabbaa, Diana; Tafer, Hakim; Turner-Maier, Jason; van Heusden, Peter; White, Simon; Williams, Louise; Yandell, Mark; Brinkmann, Henner; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Tabin, Clifford J; Shubin, Neil; Schartl, Manfred; Jaffe, David B; Postlethwait, John H; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Di Palma, Federica; Lander, Eric S; Meyer, Axel; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2013-04-18

    The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.

  1. Genomic insights into the etiology of Alzheimer's disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitz C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Reitz1–3 1Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain, 2Gertrude H Sergievsky Center, 3Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Over the past decade, studies capitalizing on high-throughput genome technologies have significantly advanced the knowledge on the genetic underpinnings of Alzheimer's disease (AD by identifying a wide set of pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the disease in addition to amyloid precursor protein (APP metabolism. These include: innate immune response and inflammation, lipid metabolism, endocytosis, cell migration, tau pathology, hippocampal synaptic function and axonal transport, regulation of gene expression and posttranslational modification of proteins, and microglial and myeloid cell function. The cumulative population attributable fraction associated with known genetic variants amounts now to ~80%. High-throughput sequencing studies have started to map specific causative variants in these genes and have provided invaluable evidence for an involvement of rare variants in AD, overturning the “common disease–common variant” hypothesis. The ongoing and future large-scale translational studies and next generation whole genome or whole exome sequencing efforts hold the promise of mapping the specific causative variants in these genes; of identifying additional risk variants, including rare and structural variants; and of identifying novel targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. Keywords: genetics, gene, variation, polymorphism, genome-wide association study, sequencing

  2. Comparative genomic hybridizations reveal absence of large Streptomyces coelicolor genomic islands in Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman David H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans bear a considerable degree of synteny. While S. coelicolor is the model streptomycete for studying antibiotic synthesis and differentiation, S. lividans is almost exclusively considered as the preferred host, among actinomycetes, for cloning and expression of exogenous DNA. We used whole genome microarrays as a comparative genomics tool for identifying the subtle differences between these two chromosomes. Results We identified five large S. coelicolor genomic islands (larger than 25 kb and 18 smaller islets absent in S. lividans chromosome. Many of these regions show anomalous GC bias and codon usage patterns. Six of them are in close vicinity of tRNA genes while nine are flanked with near perfect repeat sequences indicating that these are probable recent evolutionary acquisitions into S. coelicolor. Embedded within these segments are at least four DNA methylases and two probable methyl-sensing restriction endonucleases. Comparison with S. coelicolor transcriptome and proteome data revealed that some of the missing genes are active during the course of growth and differentiation in S. coelicolor. In particular, a pair of methylmalonyl CoA mutase (mcm genes involved in polyketide precursor biosynthesis, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase implicated in timing of actinorhodin synthesis and bldB, a developmentally significant regulator whose mutation causes complete abrogation of antibiotic synthesis belong to this category. Conclusion Our findings provide tangible hints for elucidating the genetic basis of important phenotypic differences between these two streptomycetes. Importantly, absence of certain genes in S. lividans identified here could potentially explain the relative ease of DNA transformations and the conditional lack of actinorhodin synthesis in S. lividans.

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correl...

  4. Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Pathogenicity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2016-01-01

    to describe the F. psychrophilum pan-genome and to examine virulence factors, prophages, CRISPR arrays, and genomic islands present in the genomes. Analysis of the genomic DNA sequences were complemented with selected phenotypic characteristics of the strains. The pan genome analysis showed that F......, independent of geographic location, year of isolation and source of isolates. Only one prophage-related sequence was found which corresponded to the previously described prophage 6H, and appeared in 5 out of 11 isolates. CRISPR array analysis revealed two different loci with dissimilar spacer content, which...

  5. Phylogenetic- and genome-derived insight into the evolution of N-glycosylation in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lina; Lurie-Weinberger, Mor N; Allers, Thorsten; Gophna, Uri; Eichler, Jerry

    2013-08-01

    N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of oligosaccharides to target protein Asn residues, is a post-translational modification that occurs in all three domains of life. In Archaea, the N-linked glycans that decorate experimentally characterized glycoproteins reveal a diversity in composition and content unequaled by their bacterial or eukaryal counterparts. At the same time, relatively little is known of archaeal N-glycosylation pathways outside of a handful of model strains. To gain insight into the distribution and evolutionary history of the archaeal version of this universal protein-processing event, 168 archaeal genome sequences were scanned for the presence of aglB, encoding the known archaeal oligosaccharyltransferase, an enzyme key to N-glycosylation. Such analysis predicts the presence of AglB in 166 species, with some species seemingly containing multiple versions of the protein. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the events leading to aglB duplication occurred at various points during archaeal evolution. In many cases, aglB is found as part of a cluster of putative N-glycosylation genes. The presence, arrangement and nucleotide composition of genes in aglB-based clusters in five species of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax points to lateral gene transfer as contributing to the evolution of archaeal N-glycosylation.

  6. Symbiodinium genomes reveal adaptive evolution of functions related to symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huanle

    2017-10-06

    Symbiosis between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals forms the trophic foundation of the world\\'s coral reef ecosystems. Here we present the first draft genome of Symbiodinium goreaui (Clade C, type C1: 1.03 Gbp), one of the most ubiquitous endosymbionts associated with corals, and an improved draft genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii (Clade F, strain CS-156: 1.05 Gbp), previously sequenced as strain CCMP2468, to further elucidate genomic signatures of this symbiosis. Comparative analysis of four available Symbiodinium genomes against other dinoflagellate genomes led to the identification of 2460 nuclear gene families that show evidence of positive selection, including genes involved in photosynthesis, transmembrane ion transport, synthesis and modification of amino acids and glycoproteins, and stress response. Further, we identified extensive sets of genes for meiosis and response to light stress. These draft genomes provide a foundational resource for advancing our understanding Symbiodinium biology and the coral-algal symbiosis.

  7. Reconstruction of the lipid metabolism for the microalga Monoraphidium neglectum from its genome sequence reveals characteristics suitable for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Christian; Al-Dilaimi, Arwa; Albersmeier, Andreas; Wichmann, Julian; Grundmann, Michael; Rupp, Oliver; Lauersen, Kyle J; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Kalinowski, Jörn; Goesmann, Alexander; Mussgnug, Jan H; Kruse, Olaf

    2013-12-28

    Microalgae are gaining importance as sustainable production hosts in the fields of biotechnology and bioenergy. A robust biomass accumulating strain of the genus Monoraphidium (SAG 48.87) was investigated in this work as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The genome was sequenced, annotated, and key enzymes for triacylglycerol formation were elucidated. Monoraphidium neglectum was identified as an oleaginous species with favourable growth characteristics as well as a high potential for crude oil production, based on neutral lipid contents of approximately 21% (dry weight) under nitrogen starvation, composed of predominantly C18:1 and C16:0 fatty acids. Further characterization revealed growth in a relatively wide pH range and salt concentrations of up to 1.0% NaCl, in which the cells exhibited larger structures. This first full genome sequencing of a member of the Selenastraceae revealed a diploid, approximately 68 Mbp genome with a G + C content of 64.7%. The circular chloroplast genome was assembled to a 135,362 bp single contig, containing 67 protein-coding genes. The assembly of the mitochondrial genome resulted in two contigs with an approximate total size of 94 kb, the largest known mitochondrial genome within algae. 16,761 protein-coding genes were assigned to the nuclear genome. Comparison of gene sets with respect to functional categories revealed a higher gene number assigned to the category "carbohydrate metabolic process" and in "fatty acid biosynthetic process" in M. neglectum when compared to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Nannochloropsis gaditana, indicating a higher metabolic diversity for applications in carbohydrate conversions of biotechnological relevance. The genome of M. neglectum, as well as the metabolic reconstruction of crucial lipid pathways, provides new insights into the diversity of the lipid metabolism in microalgae. The results of this work provide a platform to encourage the development of this strain for

  8. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591. PMID:28149676

  9. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  10. Genomic and comparative genomic analyses of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis provide insight into its evolution and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Changsong; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Gong, Wenping; Jiao, Jun; Wen, Bohai

    2014-08-01

    Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, the causative agent of far eastern spotted fever, is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the spotted fever group rickettsiae. To understand the evolution and pathogenesis of R. heilongjiangensis, we analyzed its genome and compared it with other rickettsial genomes available in GenBank. The R. heilongjiangensis chromosome contains 1333 genes, including 1297 protein coding genes and 36 RNA coding genes. The genome also contains 121 pseudogenes, 54 insertion sequences, and 39 tandem repeats. Sixteen genes encoding the major components of the type IV secretion systems were identified in the R. heilongjiangensis genome. In total, 37 β-barrel outer membrane proteins were predicted in the genome, eight of which have been previously confirmed to be outer membrane proteins. In addition, 266 potential virulence factor genes, seven partially deleted antibiotic resistance genes, and a genomic island were identified in the genome. The codon usage in the genome is compatible with its low GC content, and the amino acid usage shows apparent bias. A comparative genomic analysis showed that R. heilongjiangensis and R. japonica share one unique fragment that may be a target sequence for a diagnostic assay. The orthologs of 37 genes of R. heilongjiangensis were found in pathogenic R. rickettsii str. Sheila Smith but not in non-pathogenic R. rickettsii str. Iowa, which may explain why R. heilongjiangensis is pathogenic. Pan-genome analysis showed that R. heilongjiangensis and 42 other rickettsiae strains share 693 core genes with a pan-genome size of 4837 genes. The pan-genome-based phylogeny showed that R. heilongjiangensis was closely related to R. japonica.

  11. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grbić, M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Clark, R.M.; Rombauts, S.; Grbić, V.; Osborne, E.J.; Dermauw, W.; Phuong, C.T.N.; Ortego, F.; Hernández-Crespo, P.; Diaz, I.; Martinez, M.; Navajas, M.; Sucena, E.; Magalhães, S.; Nagy, L.; Pace, R.M.; Djuranović, S.; Smagghe, G.; Iga, M.; Christiaens, O.; Veenstra, J.A.; Ewer, J.; Villalobos, R.M.; Hutter, J.L.; Hudson, S.D.; Velez, M.; Yi, S.V.; Zeng, J.; Pires-dasilva, A.; Roch, F.; Cazaux, M.; Navarro, M.; Zhurov, V.; Acevedo, G.; Bjelica, A.; Fawcett, J.A.; Bonnet, E.; Martens, C.; Baele, G.; Wissler, L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Tirry, L.; Blais, C.; Demeestere, K.; Henz, S.R.; Gregory, T.R.; Mathieu, J.; Verdon, L.; Farinelli, L.; Schmutz, J.; Lindquist, E.; Feyereisen, R.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T.

  12. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grbić, M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Clark, R.M.; Rombauts, S.; Grbić, V.; Osborne, E.J.; Dermauw, W.; Phuong, C.T.N.; Ortego, F.; Hernández-Crespo, P.; Diaz, I.; Martinez, M.; Navajas, M.; Sucena, E.; Magalhães, S.; Nagy, L.; Pace, R.M.; Djuranović, S.; Smagghe, G.; Iga, M.; Christiaens, O.; Veenstra, J.A.; Ewer, J.; Villalobos, R.M.; Hutter, J.L.; Hudson, S.D.; Velez, M.; Yi, S.V.; Zeng, J.; Pires-dasilva, A.; Roch, F.; Cazaux, M.; Navarro, M.; Zhurov, V.; Acevedo, G.; Bjelica, A.; Fawcett, J.A.; Bonnet, E.; Martens, C.; Baele, G.; Wissler, L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Tirry, L.; Blais, C.; Demeestere, K.; Henz, S.R.; Gregory, T.R.; Mathieu, J.; Verdon, L.; Farinelli, L.; Schmutz, J.; Lindquist, E.; Feyereisen, R.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T.

  13. CONTIGuator: a bacterial genomes finishing tool for structural insights on draft genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzicalupo Marco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent developments in sequencing technologies have given the opportunity to sequence many bacterial genomes with limited cost and labor, compared to previous techniques. However, a limiting step of genome sequencing is the finishing process, needed to infer the relative position of each contig and close sequencing gaps. An additional degree of complexity is given by bacterial species harboring more than one replicon, which are not contemplated by the currently available programs. The availability of a large number of bacterial genomes allows geneticists to use complete genomes (possibly from the same species as templates for contigs mapping. Here we present CONTIGuator, a software tool for contigs mapping over a reference genome which allows the visualization of a map of contigs, underlining loss and/or gain of genetic elements and permitting to finish multipartite genomes. The functionality of CONTIGuator was tested using four genomes, demonstrating its improved performances compared to currently available programs. Our approach appears efficient, with a clear visualization, allowing the user to perform comparative structural genomics analysis on draft genomes. CONTIGuator is a Python script for Linux environments and can be used on normal desktop machines and can be downloaded from http://contiguator.sourceforge.net.

  14. Pathogenicity determinants in smut fungi revealed by genome comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirawski, Jan; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Münch, Karin; Brefort, Thomas; Schipper, Kerstin; Doehlemann, Gunther; Di Stasio, Maurizio; Rössel, Nicole; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Pester, Doris; Müller, Olaf; Winterberg, Britta; Meyer, Elmar; Ghareeb, Hassan; Wollenberg, Theresa; Münsterkötter, Martin; Wong, Philip; Walter, Mathias; Stukenbrock, Eva; Güldener, Ulrich; Kahmann, Regine

    2010-12-10

    Biotrophic pathogens, such as the related maize pathogenic fungi Ustilago maydis and Sporisorium reilianum, establish an intimate relationship with their hosts by secreting protein effectors. Because secreted effectors interacting with plant proteins should rapidly evolve, we identified variable genomic regions by sequencing the genome of S. reilianum and comparing it with the U. maydis genome. We detected 43 regions of low sequence conservation in otherwise well-conserved syntenic genomes. These regions primarily encode secreted effectors and include previously identified virulence clusters. By deletion analysis in U. maydis, we demonstrate a role in virulence for four previously unknown diversity regions. This highlights the power of comparative genomics of closely related species for identification of virulence determinants.

  15. DNA Break Mapping Reveals Topoisomerase II Activity Genome-Wide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baranello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA is under constant assault by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. DNA breakage can represent a major threat to genome integrity but can also be necessary for genome function. Here we present approaches to map DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and single-strand breaks (SSBs at the genome-wide scale by two methods called DSB- and SSB-Seq, respectively. We tested these methods in human colon cancer cells and validated the results using the Topoisomerase II (Top2-poisoning agent etoposide (ETO. Our results show that the combination of ETO treatment with break-mapping techniques is a powerful method to elaborate the pattern of Top2 enzymatic activity across the genome.

  16. The Capsaspora genome reveals a complex unicellular prehistory of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hiroshi; Chen, Zehua; de Mendoza, Alex; Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Brown, Matthew W; Kramer, Eric; Carr, Martin; Kerner, Pierre; Vervoort, Michel; Sánchez-Pons, Núria; Torruella, Guifré; Derelle, Romain; Manning, Gerard; Lang, B Franz; Russ, Carsten; Haas, Brian J; Roger, Andrew J; Nusbaum, Chad; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    To reconstruct the evolutionary origin of multicellular animals from their unicellular ancestors, the genome sequences of diverse unicellular relatives are essential. However, only the genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis has been reported to date. Here we completely sequence the genome of the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, the closest known unicellular relative of metazoans besides choanoflagellates. Analyses of this genome alter our understanding of the molecular complexity of metazoans' unicellular ancestors showing that they had a richer repertoire of proteins involved in cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation than previously inferred only with the choanoflagellate genome. Some of these proteins were secondarily lost in choanoflagellates. In contrast, most intercellular signalling systems controlling development evolved later concomitant with the emergence of the first metazoans. We propose that the acquisition of these metazoan-specific developmental systems and the co-option of pre-existing genes drove the evolutionary transition from unicellular protists to metazoans.

  17. Biofilm function and variability in a hydrothermal ecosystem: insights from environmental genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Raymond, J.; Shock, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to adapt to variable environmental conditions is key to survival for all organisms, but may be especially crucial to microorganisms in extreme environments such as hydrothermal systems. Streamer biofilm communities (SBCs) made up of thermophilic chemotrophic microorganisms are common in alkaline-chloride geothermal environments worldwide, but the in situ physiochemical growth parameters and requirements of SBCs are largely unknown [1]. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park's alkaline geyser basins support SBC growth. However, despite the relative geochemical homogeneity of source pools and widespread ecosystem suitability in these regions (as indicated by energetic profiling [2]), SBCs are not ubiquitous in these ecosystems. The ability of hydrothermal systems to support the growth of SBCs, the relationship between these geochemically driven environments and the microbes that live there, and the function of individuals in these communities are aspects that are adressed here by applying environmental genomics. Analysis of 16S rRNA and total membrane lipid extracts have revealed that community composition of SBCs in "Bison Pool" varies as a function of changing environmental conditions along the outflow channel. In addition, a significant crenarchaeal component was discovered in the "Bison Pool" SBCs. In general, the SBC bacterial diversity triples while the archaeal component varies little (from 3 to 2 genera) in a 5-10°C gradient with distance from the source. While these SBCs are low in overall diversity, the majority of the taxa identified represent uncultured groups of Bacteria and Archaea. As a result, the community function of these taxa and their role in the formation of the biofilms is unknown. However, recent genomic analysis from environmental DNA affords insight into the roles of specific organisms within SBCs at "Bison Pool," and integration of these data with an extensive corresponding geochemical dataset may indicate shifting community

  18. Probing the pan-genome of Listeria monocytogenes: new insights into intraspecific niche expansion and genomic diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzberg Steven L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial pathogens often show significant intraspecific variations in ecological fitness, host preference and pathogenic potential to cause infectious disease. The species of Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of human listeriosis, consists of at least three distinct genetic lineages. Two of these lineages predominantly cause human sporadic and epidemic infections, whereas the third lineage has never been implicated in human disease outbreaks despite its overall conservation of many known virulence factors. Results Here we compare the genomes of 26 L. monocytogenes strains representing the three lineages based on both in silico comparative genomic analysis and high-density, pan-genomic DNA array hybridizations. We uncover 86 genes and 8 small regulatory RNAs that likely make L. monocytogenes lineages differ in carbohydrate utilization and stress resistance during their residence in natural habitats and passage through the host gastrointestinal tract. We also identify 2,330 to 2,456 core genes that define this species along with an open pan-genome pool that contains more than 4,052 genes. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,560 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among L. monocytogenes strains. Conclusions Our pan-genome approach enables accurate co-analysis of DNA sequence and hybridization array data for both core gene estimation and phylogenomics. Application of our method to the pan-genome of L. monocytogenes sheds new insights into the intraspecific niche expansion and evolution of this important foodborne pathogen.

  19. Probing the pan-genome of Listeria monocytogenes: new insights into intraspecific niche expansion and genomic diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Phillippy, Adam M; Li, Zengxin; Salzberg, Steven L; Zhang, Wei

    2010-09-16

    Bacterial pathogens often show significant intraspecific variations in ecological fitness, host preference and pathogenic potential to cause infectious disease. The species of Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of human listeriosis, consists of at least three distinct genetic lineages. Two of these lineages predominantly cause human sporadic and epidemic infections, whereas the third lineage has never been implicated in human disease outbreaks despite its overall conservation of many known virulence factors. Here we compare the genomes of 26 L. monocytogenes strains representing the three lineages based on both in silico comparative genomic analysis and high-density, pan-genomic DNA array hybridizations. We uncover 86 genes and 8 small regulatory RNAs that likely make L. monocytogenes lineages differ in carbohydrate utilization and stress resistance during their residence in natural habitats and passage through the host gastrointestinal tract. We also identify 2,330 to 2,456 core genes that define this species along with an open pan-genome pool that contains more than 4,052 genes. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,560 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among L. monocytogenes strains. Our pan-genome approach enables accurate co-analysis of DNA sequence and hybridization array data for both core gene estimation and phylogenomics. Application of our method to the pan-genome of L. monocytogenes sheds new insights into the intraspecific niche expansion and evolution of this important foodborne pathogen.

  20. Coelacanth genome sequence reveals the evolutionary history of vertebrate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, James P; Grimwood, Jane; Danke, Joshua; Schmutz, Jeremy; Dickson, Mark; Amemiya, Chris T; Myers, Richard M

    2004-12-01

    The coelacanth is one of the nearest living relatives of tetrapods. However, a teleost species such as zebrafish or Fugu is typically used as the outgroup in current tetrapod comparative sequence analyses. Such studies are complicated by the fact that teleost genomes have undergone a whole-genome duplication event, as well as individual gene-duplication events. Here, we demonstrate the value of coelacanth genome sequence by complete sequencing and analysis of the protocadherin gene cluster of the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis. We found that coelacanth has 49 protocadherin cluster genes organized in the same three ordered subclusters, alpha, beta, and gamma, as the 54 protocadherin cluster genes in human. In contrast, whole-genome and tandem duplications have generated two zebrafish protocadherin clusters comprised of at least 97 genes. Additionally, zebrafish protocadherins are far more prone to homogenizing gene conversion events than coelacanth protocadherins, suggesting that recombination- and duplication-driven plasticity may be a feature of teleost genomes. Our results indicate that coelacanth provides the ideal outgroup sequence against which tetrapod genomes can be measured. We therefore present L. menadoensis as a candidate for whole-genome sequencing.

  1. Nannochloropsis genomes reveal evolution of microalgal oleaginous traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuels, yet the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of oleaginous traits remain largely unknown. Here we present a detailed phylogenomic analysis of five oleaginous Nannochloropsis species (a total of six strains and one time-series transcriptome dataset for triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis on one representative strain. Despite small genome sizes, high coding potential and relative paucity of mobile elements, the genomes feature small cores of ca. 2,700 protein-coding genes and a large pan-genome of >38,000 genes. The six genomes share key oleaginous traits, such as the enrichment of selected lipid biosynthesis genes and certain glycoside hydrolase genes that potentially shift carbon flux from chrysolaminaran to TAG synthesis. The eleven type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes (DGAT-2 in every strain, each expressed during TAG synthesis, likely originated from three ancient genomes, including the secondary endosymbiosis host and the engulfed green and red algae. Horizontal gene transfers were inferred in most lipid synthesis nodes with expanded gene doses and many glycoside hydrolase genes. Thus multiple genome pooling and horizontal genetic exchange, together with selective inheritance of lipid synthesis genes and species-specific gene loss, have led to the enormous genetic apparatus for oleaginousness and the wide genomic divergence among present-day Nannochloropsis. These findings have important implications in the screening and genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels.

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N.; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J. P.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups—rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats—freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a

  3. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J P; Gilbert, Jack A; Lal, Rup

    2017-01-01

    Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups-rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats-freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a key role in

  4. Integrated analysis of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing reveals diverse transcriptomic aberrations driven by somatic genomic changes in liver cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Recent studies applying high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified several recurrently mutated genes and pathways in multiple cancer genomes. However, transcriptional consequences from these genomic alterations in cancer genome remain unclear. In this study, we performed integrated and comparative analyses of whole genomes and transcriptomes of 22 hepatitis B virus (HBV-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs and their matched controls. Comparison of whole genome sequence (WGS and RNA-Seq revealed much evidence that various types of genomic mutations triggered diverse transcriptional changes. Not only splice-site mutations, but also silent mutations in coding regions, deep intronic mutations and structural changes caused splicing aberrations. HBV integrations generated diverse patterns of virus-human fusion transcripts depending on affected gene, such as TERT, CDK15, FN1 and MLL4. Structural variations could drive over-expression of genes such as WNT ligands, with/without creating gene fusions. Furthermore, by taking account of genomic mutations causing transcriptional aberrations, we could improve the sensitivity of deleterious mutation detection in known cancer driver genes (TP53, AXIN1, ARID2, RPS6KA3, and identified recurrent disruptions in putative cancer driver genes such as HNF4A, CPS1, TSC1 and THRAP3 in HCCs. These findings indicate genomic alterations in cancer genome have diverse transcriptomic effects, and integrated analysis of WGS and RNA-Seq can facilitate the interpretation of a large number of genomic alterations detected in cancer genome.

  5. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Human NPHP1 Locus Reveal Complex Genomic Architecture and Its Regional Evolution in Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many loci in the human genome harbor complex genomic structures that can result in susceptibility to genomic rearrangements leading to various genomic disorders. Nephronophthisis 1 (NPHP1, MIM# 256100 is an autosomal recessive disorder that can be caused by defects of NPHP1; the gene maps within the human 2q13 region where low copy repeats (LCRs are abundant. Loss of function of NPHP1 is responsible for approximately 85% of the NPHP1 cases-about 80% of such individuals carry a large recurrent homozygous NPHP1 deletion that occurs via nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between two flanking directly oriented ~45 kb LCRs. Published data revealed a non-pathogenic inversion polymorphism involving the NPHP1 gene flanked by two inverted ~358 kb LCRs. Using optical mapping and array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified three potential novel structural variant (SV haplotypes at the NPHP1 locus that may protect a haploid genome from the NPHP1 deletion. Inter-species comparative genomic analyses among primate genomes revealed massive genomic changes during evolution. The aggregated data suggest that dynamic genomic rearrangements occurred historically within the NPHP1 locus and generated SV haplotypes observed in the human population today, which may confer differential susceptibility to genomic instability and the NPHP1 deletion within a personal genome. Our study documents diverse SV haplotypes at a complex LCR-laden human genomic region. Comparative analyses provide a model for how this complex region arose during primate evolution, and studies among humans suggest that intra-species polymorphism may potentially modulate an individual's susceptibility to acquiring disease-associated alleles.

  6. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Gross, Joshua B.; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R.; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O’Quin, Kelly E.; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M. J.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  7. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.-J.; van der Does, H.C.; Borkovich, K.A.; Coleman, J.J.; Daboussi, M.J.; Di Pietro, A.; Dufresne, M.; Freitag, M.; Grabherr, M.; Henrissat, B.; Houterman, P.M.; Kang, S.; Shim, W.B.; Woloshuk, C.; Xie, X.; Xu, J.-R; Antoniw, J.; Baker, S.E.; Bluhm, B.H.; Breakspear, A.; Brown, D.W.; Butchko, R.A.E.; Chapman, S.; Coulson, R.; Coutinho, P.M.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Diener, A.; Gale, L.R.; Gardiner, D.M.; Goff, S.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Hilburn, K.; Hua-Van, A.; Jonkers, W.; Kazan, K.; Kodira, C.D.; Koehrsen, M.; Kumar, L.; Lee, Y.H.; Li, L.; Manners, J.M.; Miranda-Saavedra, D.; Mukherjee, M.; Park, G.; Park, J.; Park, S.Y.; Proctor, R.H.; Regev, A.; Ruiz-Roldan, M.C.; Sain, D.; Sakthikumar, S.; Sykes, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Gillian Turgeon, B.; Wapinski, I.; Yoder, O.; Young, S.; Zeng, Q.; Zhou, S.; Galagan, J.; Cuomo, C.A.; Kistler, H.C.; Rep, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum

  8. Phylogenetic clusters of rhizobia revealed by genome structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Junfang; LIU Guirong; ZHU Wanfu; ZHOU Yuguang; LIU Shulin

    2004-01-01

    Rhizobia, bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen, are important agricultural resources. In order to establish the evolutionary relationships among rhizobia isolated from different geographic regions and different plant hosts for systematic studies, we evaluated the use of physical structure of the rhizobial genomes as a phylogenetic marker to categorize these bacteria. In this work, we analyzed the features of genome structures of 64 rhizobial strains. These rhizobial strains were divided into 21 phylogenetic clusters according to the features of genome structures evaluated by the endonuclease I-CeuI. These clusters were supported by 16S rRNA comparisons and genomic sequences of four rhizobial strains, but they are largely different from those based on the current taxonomic scheme (except 16S rRNA).

  9. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Different Sources Reveals Candidate Virulence Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is a major pathogen for fish. Two complete (ATCC 49156 and Lg2 and three draft (UNIUD074, 8831, and 21881 genome sequences of L. garvieae have recently been released. We here present the results of a comparative genomic analysis of these fish and human isolates of L. garvieae. The pangenome comprised 1,542 core and 1,378 dispensable genes. The sequenced L. garvieae strains shared most of the possible virulence genes, but the capsule gene cluster was found only in fish-pathogenic strain Lg2. The absence of the capsule gene cluster in other nonpathogenic strains isolated from mastitis and vegetable was also confirmed by PCR. The fish and human isolates of L. garvieae contained the specific two and four adhesin genes, respectively, indicating that these adhesion proteins may be involved in the host specificity differences of L. garvieae. The discoveries revealed by the pangenomic analysis may provide significant insights into the biology of L. garvieae.

  10. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  11. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  12. Genomic analysis of clonal eosinophils by CGH arrays reveals new genetic regions involved in chronic eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Maryam; Robledo, Cristina; Peñarrubia, María J; García de Coca, Alfonso; Cordero, Miguel; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; García, Juan Luis

    2014-11-01

    To assess the presence of genetic imbalances in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), 38 patients with chronic eosinophilia were studied by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH): seven had chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), BCR-ABL1 positive, nine patients had myeloproliferative neoplasia Ph- (MPN-Ph-), three had a myeloid neoplasm associated with a PDGFRA rearrangement, and the remaining two cases were Lymphoproliferative T neoplasms associated with eosinophilia. In addition, 17 patients had a secondary eosinophilia and were used as controls. Eosinophilic enrichment was carried out in all cases. Genomic imbalances were found in 76% of all MPN patients. Losses on 20q were the most frequent genetic abnormality in MPNs (32%), affected the three types of MPN studied. This study also found losses at 11q13.3 in 26% of patients with MPN-Ph- and in 19p13.11 in two of the three patients with an MPN associated with a PDGFRA rearrangement. In addition, 29% of patients with CML had losses on 8q24. In summary, aCGH revealed clonality in eosinophils in most MPNs, suggesting that it could be a useful technique for defining clonality in these diseases. The presence of genetic losses in new regions could provide new insights into the knowledge of these MPN associated with eosinophilia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes from Mesobuthus martensii reveals Hox gene duplication in scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhiyong; Yu, Yao; Wu, Yingliang; Hao, Pei; He, Yawen; Zhao, Huabin; Li, Yixue; Zhao, Guoping; Li, Xuan; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-06-01

    Homeobox genes belong to a large gene group, which encodes the famous DNA-binding homeodomain that plays a key role in development and cellular differentiation during embryogenesis in animals. Here, one hundred forty-nine homeobox genes were identified from the Asian scorpion, Mesobuthus martensii (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Scorpiones: Buthidae) based on our newly assembled genome sequence with approximately 248 × coverage. The identified homeobox genes were categorized into eight classes including 82 families: 67 ANTP class genes, 33 PRD genes, 11 LIM genes, five POU genes, six SINE genes, 14 TALE genes, five CUT genes, two ZF genes and six unclassified genes. Transcriptome data confirmed that more than half of the genes were expressed in adults. The homeobox gene diversity of the eight classes is similar to the previously analyzed Mandibulata arthropods. Interestingly, it is hypothesized that the scorpion M. martensii may have two Hox clusters. The first complete genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes in Chelicerata not only reveals the repertoire of scorpion, arachnid and chelicerate homeobox genes, but also shows some insights into the evolution of arthropod homeobox genes.

  14. Genomic profiling of DNA methyltransferases reveals a role for DNMT3B in genic methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baubec, Tuncay; Colombo, Daniele F; Wirbelauer, Christiane; Schmidt, Juliane; Burger, Lukas; Krebs, Arnaud R; Akalin, Altuna; Schübeler, Dirk

    2015-04-09

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional repression of promoters and is essential for mammalian development. Establishment of DNA methylation is mediated by the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, whereas DNMT1 ensures maintenance of methylation through replication. Absence of these enzymes is lethal, and somatic mutations in these genes have been associated with several human diseases. How genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated remains poorly understood, as the mechanisms that guide recruitment and activity of DNMTs in vivo are largely unknown. To gain insights into this matter we determined genomic binding and site-specific activity of the mammalian de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. We show that both enzymes localize to methylated, CpG-dense regions in mouse stem cells, yet are excluded from active promoters and enhancers. By specifically measuring sites of de novo methylation, we observe that enzymatic activity reflects binding. De novo methylation increases with CpG density, yet is excluded from nucleosomes. Notably, we observed selective binding of DNMT3B to the bodies of transcribed genes, which leads to their preferential methylation. This targeting to transcribed sequences requires SETD2-mediated methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and a functional PWWP domain of DNMT3B. Together these findings reveal how sequence and chromatin cues guide de novo methyltransferase activity to ensure methylome integrity.

  15. Genomic insights into ayurvedic and western approaches to personalized medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavana Prasher; Greg Gibson; Mitali Mukerji

    2016-03-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine documented and practised since 1500 B.C., follows a systems approach that has interesting parallels with contemporary personalized genomic medicine approaches to the understanding and management of health and disease. It is based on the trisutra, which are the three aspects of causes, features and therapeutics that are interconnected through a common organizing principle termed ‘tridosha’. Tridosha comprise three ascertainable physiological entities; vata (kinetic), pitta (metabolic) and kapha (potential) that are pervasive across systems, work in conjunction with each other, respond to the external environment and maintain homeostasis. Each individual is born with a specific proportion of tridosha that are not only genetically determined but also influenced by the environment during foetal development. Jointly they determine a person’s basic constitution, which is termed their ‘prakriti’. Development and progression of different diseases with their subtypes are thought to depend on the origin and mechanism of perturbation of the doshas, and the aim of therapeutic practice is to ensure that the doshas retain their homeostatic state. Similarly, western systems biology epitomized by translational P4 medicine envisages the integration of multiscalar genetic, cellular, physiological and environmental networks to predict phenotypic outcomes of perturbations. In this perspective article, we aim to outline the shape of a unifying scaffold that may allow the two intellectual traditions to enhance one another. Specifically, we illustrate how a unique integrative ‘Ayurgenomics’ approach can be used to integrate the trisutra concept of Ayurveda with genomics. We observe biochemical and molecular correlates of prakriti and show how these differ significantly in processes that are linked to intermediate patho-phenotypes, known to take different course in diseases. We also observe a significant enrichment of the highly

  16. Genomic insights into ayurvedic and western approaches to personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, Bhavana; Gibson, Greg; Mukerji, Mitali

    2016-03-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine documented and practised since 1500 B.C., follows a systems approach that has interesting parallels with contemporary personalized genomic medicine approaches to the understanding and management of health and disease. It is based on the trisutra, which are the three aspects of causes, features and therapeutics that are interconnected through a common organizing principle termed 'tridosha'. Tridosha comprise three ascertainable physiological entities; vata (kinetic), pitta (metabolic) and kapha (potential) that are pervasive across systems, work in conjunction with each other, respond to the external environment and maintain homeostasis. Each individual is born with a specific proportion of tridosha that are not only genetically determined but also influenced by the environment during foetal development. Jointly they determine a person's basic constitution, which is termed their 'prakriti'. Development and progressi on of different diseases with their subtypes are thought to depend on the origin and mechanism of perturbation of the doshas, and the aim of therapeutic practice is to ensure that the doshas retain their homeostatic state. Similarly, western systems biology epitomized by translational P4 medicine envisages the integration of multiscalar genetic, cellular, physiological and environmental networks to predict phenotypic outcomes of perturbations. In this perspective article, we aim to outline the shape of a unifying scaffold that may allow the two intellectual traditions to enhance one another. Specifically, we illustrate how a unique integrative 'Ayurgenomics' approach can be used to integrate the trisutra concept of Ayurveda with genomics. We observe biochemical and molecular correlates of prakriti and show how these differ significantly in processes that are linked to intermediate patho-phenotypes, known to take different course in diseases. We also observe a significant enr ichment of the highly connected

  17. Evolutionary genetics of host shifts in herbivorous insects: insights from the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertacnik, Kim L; Linnen, Catherine R

    2017-02-01

    Adaptation to different host taxa is a key driver of insect diversification. Herbivorous insects are classic models for ecological and evolutionary research, but it is recent advances in sequencing, statistics, and molecular technologies that have cleared the way for investigations into the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying host shifts. In this review, we discuss how genome-scale data are revealing-at resolutions previously unimaginable-the genetic architecture of host-use traits, the causal loci underlying host shifts, and the predictability of host-use evolution. Collectively, these studies are providing novel insights into longstanding questions about host-use evolution. On the basis of this synthesis, we suggest that different host-use traits are likely to differ in their genetic architecture (number of causal loci and the nature of their genetic correlations) and genetic predictability (extent of gene or mutation reuse), indicating that any conclusions about the causes and consequences of host-use evolution will depend heavily on which host-use traits are investigated. To draw robust conclusions and identify general patterns in host-use evolution, we argue that investigation of diverse host-use traits and identification of causal genes and mutations should be the top priorities for future studies on the evolutionary genetics of host shifts. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Insights into a dinoflagellate genome through expressed sequence tag analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaldo Maria F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are important marine primary producers and grazers and cause toxic "red tides". These taxa are characterized by many unique features such as immense genomes, the absence of nucleosomes, and photosynthetic organelles (plastids that have been gained and lost multiple times. We generated EST sequences from non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries from a culture of the toxic species Alexandrium tamarense to elucidate dinoflagellate evolution. Previous analyses of these data have clarified plastid origin and here we study the gene content, annotate the ESTs, and analyze the genes that are putatively involved in DNA packaging. Results Approximately 20% of the 6,723 unique (11,171 total 3'-reads ESTs data could be annotated using Blast searches against GenBank. Several putative dinoflagellate-specific mRNAs were identified, including one novel plastid protein. Dinoflagellate genes, similar to other eukaryotes, have a high GC-content that is reflected in the amino acid codon usage. Highly represented transcripts include histone-like (HLP and luciferin binding proteins and several genes occur in families that encode nearly identical proteins. We also identified rare transcripts encoding a predicted protein highly similar to histone H2A.X. We speculate this histone may be retained for its role in DNA double-strand break repair. Conclusion This is the most extensive collection to date of ESTs from a toxic dinoflagellate. These data will be instrumental to future research to understand the unique and complex cell biology of these organisms and for potentially identifying the genes involved in toxin production.

  19. Follicular cell thyroid neoplasia: insights from genomics and The Cancer Genome Atlas research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The present review is focused on the recently published study on the genomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma performed by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network and its implications for the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The Cancer Genome Atlas study of papillary thyroid carcinoma comprehensively examined the cancer genome of nearly 500 primary tumors. Using a highly integrated bioinformatic analysis, papillary carcinoma was shown at the genomic level to consist of two highly distinct classes that reflected both tumor histology and underlying genotype. Tumors with true papillary architecture were dominated by BRAF(V600E) mutations and RET kinase fusions and were designated as BRAF(V600E)-like. Tumors with follicular architecture were conversely dominated by RAS mutations and were designated as RAS-like. Given the strong genotype:phenotype correlation known to be present in thyroid cancer, the separation of BRAF(V600E)-like and RAS-like tumors has profound implications for its classification, especially the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The recent genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma is challenging the established pathological classification of thyroid cancer with significance for the care of patients.

  20. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2014-12-12

    To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs--the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Signatures of selection in tilapia revealed by whole genome resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Bai, Zhiyi; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Le; Liu, Feng; Jing, Wu; Wan, Zi Yi; Li, Jiale; Lin, Haoran; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-09-16

    Natural selection and selective breeding for genetic improvement have left detectable signatures within the genome of a species. Identification of selection signatures is important in evolutionary biology and for detecting genes that facilitate to accelerate genetic improvement. However, selection signatures, including artificial selection and natural selection, have only been identified at the whole genome level in several genetically improved fish species. Tilapia is one of the most important genetically improved fish species in the world. Using next-generation sequencing, we sequenced the genomes of 47 tilapia individuals. We identified a total of 1.43 million high-quality SNPs and found that the LD block sizes ranged from 10-100 kb in tilapia. We detected over a hundred putative selective sweep regions in each line of tilapia. Most selection signatures were located in non-coding regions of the tilapia genome. The Wnt signaling, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and integrin signaling pathways were under positive selection in all improved tilapia lines. Our study provides a genome-wide map of genetic variation and selection footprints in tilapia, which could be important for genetic studies and accelerating genetic improvement of tilapia.

  2. The Lingula genome provides insights into brachiopod evolution and the origin of phosphate biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Jyun; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Yamada, Lixy; Kanda, Miyuki; Khalturina, Mariia; Fujie, Manabu; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Satoh, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of lingulid brachiopods and their calcium phosphate shells have been obscure. Here we decode the 425-Mb genome of Lingula anatina to gain insights into brachiopod evolution. Comprehensive phylogenomic analyses place Lingula close to molluscs, but distant from annelids. The Lingula gene number has increased to ∼34,000 by extensive expansion of gene families. Although Lingula and vertebrates have superficially similar hard tissue components, our genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses show that Lingula lacks genes involved in bone formation, indicating an independent origin of their phosphate biominerals. Several genes involved in Lingula shell formation are shared by molluscs. However, Lingula has independently undergone domain combinations to produce shell matrix collagens with EGF domains and carries lineage-specific shell matrix proteins. Gene family expansion, domain shuffling and co-option of genes appear to be the genomic background of Lingula's unique biomineralization. This Lingula genome provides resources for further studies of lophotrochozoan evolution. PMID:26383154

  3. Genome analysis of crude oil degrading Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34 revealed its genetic basis for hydrocarbon degradation and survival in oil contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Siddhartha; Kundu, Anirban; Banerjee, Tirtha Das; Mohapatra, Balaram; Roy, Ajoy; Manna, Riddha; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K

    2017-06-15

    Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34, isolated from Duliajan oil fields, Assam, was characterized in terms of its taxonomic, metabolic and genomic properties. The bacterium showed utilization of diverse petroleum hydrocarbons and electron acceptors, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. The genome (4,856,096bp) of this strain contained different genes related to the degradation of various petroleum hydrocarbons, metal transport and resistance, dissimilatory nitrate, nitrite and sulfite reduction, chemotaxy, biosurfactant synthesis, etc. Genomic comparison with other Franconibacter spp. revealed higher abundance of genes for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, transcription and translation in DJ34 genome. Detailed COG analysis provides deeper insights into the genomic potential of this organism for degradation and survival in oil-contaminated complex habitat. This is the first report on ecophysiology and genomic inventory of Franconibacter sp. inhabiting crude oil rich environment, which might be useful for designing the strategy for bioremediation of oil contaminated environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wesley C; Hillier, LaDeana W; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Eichler, Evan E; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Wakefield, Matthew J; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A; Smit, Arian F A; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Konkel, Miriam K; Harris, Robert S; Whittington, Camilla M; Wong, Emily S W; Gemmell, Neil J; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R; Ray, David A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N; Pohl, Craig S; Smith, Scott M; Hou, Shunfeng; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Renfree, Marilyn B; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-05-08

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation.

  5. Evolution of cancer suppression as revealed by mammalian comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, Marc; Schiffman, Joshua D; Boddy, Amy M

    2017-02-02

    Cancer suppression is an important feature in the evolution of large and long-lived animals. While some tumor suppression pathways are conserved among all multicellular organisms, others mechanisms of cancer resistance are uniquely lineage specific. Comparative genomics has become a powerful tool to discover these unique and shared molecular adaptations in respect to cancer suppression. These findings may one day be translated to human patients through evolutionary medicine. Here, we will review theory and methods of comparative cancer genomics and highlight major findings of cancer suppression across mammals. Our current knowledge of cancer genomics suggests that more efficient DNA repair and higher sensitivity to DNA damage may be the key to tumor suppression in large or long-lived mammals.

  6. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.;

    2014-01-01

    The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania......,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic...

  7. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  8. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...

  9. Culture Independent Genomic Comparisons Reveal Environmental Adaptations for Altiarchaeales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jordan T; Baker, Brett J; Probst, Alexander J; Podar, Mircea; Lloyd, Karen G

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, USA, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG), WOR_SM1_SCG, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_SM1_79 and WOR_SM1_86-2, from the same site. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group, which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, caused the protein to be encoded as two subunits at non-adjacent loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contained a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identified two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which was more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome suggested Alti-1 is adapted for the stream environment with lipopolysaccharide production capacity and extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome suggested members of this clade are free-living with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These data

  10. Culture independent genomic comparisons reveal environmental adaptations for Altiarchaeales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan T Bird

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus (Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG, WOR_SCG_SM1, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_79 and WOR_86-2, from the same site in a different year. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, causes the protein to be encoded as two subunits at distant loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contain a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identify two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which is more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome supports Alti-1 as adapted for the stream environment, with lipopolysaccharide production capacity, extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome members of this clade are free-living, with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These

  11. Genomic analysis reveals extensive gene duplication within the bovine TRB locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Andy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse TR and IG repertoires are generated by V(DJ somatic recombination. Genomic studies have been pivotal in cataloguing the V, D, J and C genes present in the various TR/IG loci and describing how duplication events have expanded the number of these genes. Such studies have also provided insights into the evolution of these loci and the complex mechanisms that regulate TR/IG expression. In this study we analyze the sequence of the third bovine genome assembly to characterize the germline repertoire of bovine TRB genes and compare the organization, evolution and regulatory structure of the bovine TRB locus with that of humans and mice. Results The TRB locus in the third bovine genome assembly is distributed over 5 scaffolds, extending to ~730 Kb. The available sequence contains 134 TRBV genes, assigned to 24 subgroups, and 3 clusters of DJC genes, each comprising a single TRBD gene, 5–7 TRBJ genes and a single TRBC gene. Seventy-nine of the TRBV genes are predicted to be functional. Comparison with the human and murine TRB loci shows that the gene order, as well as the sequences of non-coding elements that regulate TRB expression, are highly conserved in the bovine. Dot-plot analyses demonstrate that expansion of the genomic TRBV repertoire has occurred via a complex and extensive series of duplications, predominantly involving DNA blocks containing multiple genes. These duplication events have resulted in massive expansion of several TRBV subgroups, most notably TRBV6, 9 and 21 which contain 40, 35 and 16 members respectively. Similarly, duplication has lead to the generation of a third DJC cluster. Analyses of cDNA data confirms the diversity of the TRBV genes and, in addition, identifies a substantial number of TRBV genes, predominantly from the larger subgroups, which are still absent from the genome assembly. The observed gene duplication within the bovine TRB locus has created a repertoire of phylogenetically

  12. Seventeen new complete mtDNA sequences reveal extensive mitochondrial genome evolution within the Demospongiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Wang

    Full Text Available Two major transitions in animal evolution--the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality--correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13-15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2-27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida. Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements

  13. Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2008-01-01

    Two major transitions in animal evolution–the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality–correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13–15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2–27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida). Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida) including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements, occurred in

  14. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-22

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  15. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  16. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Manoel da Silva

    Full Text Available High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production.

  17. Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Manuel, Marc; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Frandsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have a complex demographic history. We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimpanzees and bonobos from 10 countries in Africa. We found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor o...

  18. Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes: Principles and Insights into Pathogenesis and Development of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Donkor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of bacterial diseases on public health has become enormous, and is partly due to the increasing trend of antibiotic resistance displayed by bacterial pathogens. Sequencing of bacterial genomes has significantly improved our understanding about the biology of many bacterial pathogens as well as identification of novel antibiotic targets. Since the advent of genome sequencing two decades ago, about 1,800 bacterial genomes have been fully sequenced and these include important aetiological agents such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. Very recently, there has been an explosion of bacterial genome data and is due to the development of next generation sequencing technologies, which are evolving so rapidly. Indeed, the field of microbial genomics is advancing at a very fast rate and it is difficult for researchers to be abreast with the new developments. This highlights the need for regular updates in microbial genomics through comprehensive reviews. This review paper seeks to provide an update on bacterial genome sequencing generally, and to analyze insights gained from sequencing in two areas, including bacterial pathogenesis and the development of antibiotics.

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardy, Jennifer L; Naus, Monika; Amlani, Ashraf; Chung, Walter; Kim, Hochan; Tan, Malcolm; Severini, Alberto; Krajden, Mel; Puddicombe, David; Sahni, Vanita; Hayden, Althea S; Gustafson, Reka; Henry, Bonnie; Tang, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate a dual-genotype outbreak of measles occurring after the XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. By sequencing 27 complete genomes from H1 and D8 genotype measles viruses isolated from outbreak cases, we estimated the virus mutation rate, determined that person-to-person transmission is typically associated with 0 mutations between isolates, and established that a single introduction of H1 virus led to the expansion of the outbreak beyond Vancouver. This is the largest measles genomics project to date, revealing novel aspects of measles virus genetics and providing new insights into transmission of this reemerging viral pathogen.

  20. Negative regulators of insulin signaling revealed in a genome-wide functional screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min A Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes develops due to a combination of insulin resistance and beta-cell failure and current therapeutics aim at both of these underlying causes. Several negative regulators of insulin signaling are known and are the subject of drug discovery efforts. We sought to identify novel contributors to insulin resistance and hence potentially novel targets for therapeutic intervention. METHODOLOGY: An arrayed cDNA library encoding 18,441 human transcripts was screened for inhibitors of insulin signaling and revealed known inhibitors and numerous potential novel regulators. The novel hits included proteins of various functional classes such as kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, and GTPase associated proteins. A series of secondary assays confirmed the relevance of the primary screen hits to insulin signaling and provided further insight into their modes of action. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among the novel hits was PALD (KIAA1274, paladin, a previously uncharacterized protein that when overexpressed led to inhibition of insulin's ability to down regulate a FOXO1A-driven reporter gene, reduced upstream insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, and decreased insulin receptor (IR abundance. Conversely, knockdown of PALD gene expression resulted in increased IR abundance, enhanced insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, and an improvement in insulin's ability to suppress FOXO1A-driven reporter gene activity. The present data demonstrate that the application of arrayed genome-wide screening technologies to insulin signaling is fruitful and is likely to reveal novel drug targets for insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Comparative genomic paleontology across plant kingdom reveals the dynamics of TE-driven genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baidouri, Moaine; Panaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function, and evolution of their host genome, and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in eight plant genomes for which a high-quality sequence is available (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum, and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these eight plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size, and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in the recent past, and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage specific. These new findings lead us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants.

  2. Phylogenomic, Pan-genomic, Pathogenomic and Evolutionary Genomic Insights into the Agronomically Relevant Enterobacteria Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maayer, Pieter; Aliyu, Habibu; Vikram, Surendra; Blom, Jochen; Duffy, Brion; Cowan, Don A.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Venter, Stephanus N.; Coutinho, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is ubiquitously found in the environment and causes disease on a wide range of plant hosts. By contrast, its sister species, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the host-specific causative agent of the devastating maize disease Stewart’s wilt. This pathogen has a restricted lifecycle, overwintering in an insect vector before being introduced into susceptible maize cultivars, causing disease and returning to overwinter in its vector. The other subspecies of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes, has been isolated from different plant hosts and is predicted to proliferate in different environmental niches. Here we have, by the use of comparative genomics and a comprehensive suite of bioinformatic tools, analyzed the genomes of ten P. stewartii and nineteen P. ananatis strains. Our phylogenomic analyses have revealed that there are two distinct clades within P. ananatis while far less phylogenetic diversity was observed among the P. stewartii subspecies. Pan-genome analyses revealed a large core genome comprising of 3,571 protein coding sequences is shared among the twenty-nine compared strains. Furthermore, we showed that an extensive accessory genome made up largely by a mobilome of plasmids, integrated prophages, integrative and conjugative elements and insertion elements has resulted in extensive diversification of P. stewartii and P. ananatis. While these organisms share many pathogenicity determinants, our comparative genomic analyses show that they differ in terms of the secretion systems they encode. The genomic differences identified in this study have allowed us to postulate on the divergent evolutionary histories of the analyzed P. ananatis and P. stewartii strains and on the molecular basis underlying their ecological success and host range. PMID:28959245

  3. A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing t...

  4. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, M.

    2015-10-09

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

  5. The complete chloroplast genome provides insight into the evolution and polymorphism of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing eZhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng is an important medicinal plant and is often used in traditional Chinese medicine. With next generation sequencing (NGS technology, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Chinese P. ginseng strains, which are Damaya (DMY, Ermaya (EMY, Gaolishen (GLS and Yeshanshen (YSS. The total chloroplast genome sequence length for DMY, EMY and GLS was 156,354 bp, while that for YSS was 156,355 bp. Comparative genomic analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences indicate that gene content, GC content, and gene order in DMY are quite similar to its relative species, and nucleotide sequence diversity of inverted repeat region (IR is lower than that of its counterparts, large single copy region (LSC and small single copy region (SSC. A comparison among these four P. ginseng strains revealed that the chloroplast genome sequences of DMY, EMY, and GLS were identical and YSS had a 1-bp insertion at base 5472. To further study the heterogeneity in chloroplast genome during domestication, high-resolution reads were mapped to the genome sequences to investigate the differences at the minor allele level; 208 minor allele sites with minor allele frequencies (MAF of ≥ 0.05 were identified. The polymorphism site numbers per kb of chloroplast genome sequence for DMY, EMY, GLS, and YSS were 0.74, 0.59, 0.97, and 1.23, respectively. All the minor allele sites located in LSC and IR regions, and the four strains showed the same variation types (substitution base or indel at all identified polymorphism sites. Comparison results of heterogeneity in the chloroplast genome sequences showed that the minor allele sites on the chloroplast genome were undergoing purifying selection to adapt to changing environment during domestication process. A study of P. ginseng chloroplast genome with particular focus on minor allele sites would aid in investigating the dynamics on the chloroplast genomes and different P. ginseng

  6. Registered Report: Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Denise Chroscinski, Darryl Sampey, Alex Hewitt, The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology† ### Abstract The [Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology](https://osf.io/e81xl/wiki/home/) seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from “Melanoma genome sequenci...

  7. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  8. Analysis of Complete Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes Reveals a Novel Plasmid and Increased Pseudogenes in an Acne Associated Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kasimatis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains.

  9. Complete genome sequence and transcriptomics analyses reveal pigment biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms in an industrial strain, Monascus purpureus YY-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Liu, Bin; Du, Xinjun; Li, Ping; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Xiaozhen; Du, Liangcheng; Huang, Di; Wang, Lei; Wang, Shuo

    2015-02-09

    Monascus has been used to produce natural colorants and food supplements for more than one thousand years, and approximately more than one billion people eat Monascus-fermented products during their daily life. In this study, using next-generation sequencing and optical mapping approaches, a 24.1-Mb complete genome of an industrial strain, Monascus purpureus YY-1, was obtained. This genome consists of eight chromosomes and 7,491 genes. Phylogenetic analysis at the genome level provides convincing evidence for the evolutionary position of M. purpureus. We provide the first comprehensive prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for Monascus pigment. Comparative genomic analyses show that the genome of M. purpureus is 13.6-40% smaller than those of closely related filamentous fungi and has undergone significant gene losses, most of which likely occurred during its specialized adaptation to starch-based foods. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals that carbon starvation stress, resulting from the use of relatively low-quality carbon sources, contributes to the high yield of pigments by repressing central carbon metabolism and augmenting the acetyl-CoA pool. Our work provides important insights into the evolution of this economically important fungus and lays a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of this strain.

  10. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  11. Genomic approaches for understanding dengue: insights from the virus, vector, and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Shuzhen; Hibberd, Martin L

    2016-03-02

    The incidence and geographic range of dengue have increased dramatically in recent decades. Climate change, rapid urbanization and increased global travel have facilitated the spread of both efficient mosquito vectors and the four dengue virus serotypes between population centers. At the same time, significant advances in genomics approaches have provided insights into host-pathogen interactions, immunogenetics, and viral evolution in both humans and mosquitoes. Here, we review these advances and the innovative treatment and control strategies that they are inspiring.

  12. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal a Conserved Core Genome Shared by Estuarine and Oceanic Cyanopodoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sijun; Zhang, Si; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Podoviruses are among the major viral groups that infect marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Here, we reported the genome sequences of five Synechococcus podoviruses isolated from the estuarine environment, and performed comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses based on a total of 20 cyanopodovirus genomes. The genomes of all the known marine cyanopodoviruses are highly syntenic. A pan-genome of 349 clustered orthologous groups was determined, among which 15 were core genes. These core genes make up nearly half of each genome in length, reflecting the high level of genome conservation among this cyanophage type. The whole genome phylogenies based on concatenated core genes and gene content were highly consistent and confirmed the separation of two discrete marine cyanopodovirus clusters MPP-A and MPP-B. The genomes within cluster MPP-B grouped into subclusters mainly corresponding to Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus host types. Auxiliary metabolic genes tend to occur in a specific phylogenetic group of these cyanopodoviruses. All the MPP-B phages analyzed here encode the photosynthesis gene psbA, which are absent in all the MPP-A genomes thus far. Interestingly, all the MPP-B and two MPP-A Synechococcus podoviruses encode the thymidylate synthase gene thyX, while at the same genome locus all the MPP-B Prochlorococcus podoviruses encode the transaldolase gene talC. Both genes are hypothesized to have the potential to facilitate the biosynthesis of deoxynucleotide for phage replication. Inheritance of specific functional genes could be important to the evolution and ecological fitness of certain cyanophage genotypes. Our analyses demonstrate that cyanopodoviruses of estuarine and oceanic origins share a conserved core genome and suggest that accessory genes may be related to environmental adaptation. PMID:26569403

  13. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal a Conserved Core Genome Shared by Estuarine and Oceanic Cyanopodoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Huang

    Full Text Available Podoviruses are among the major viral groups that infect marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Here, we reported the genome sequences of five Synechococcus podoviruses isolated from the estuarine environment, and performed comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses based on a total of 20 cyanopodovirus genomes. The genomes of all the known marine cyanopodoviruses are highly syntenic. A pan-genome of 349 clustered orthologous groups was determined, among which 15 were core genes. These core genes make up nearly half of each genome in length, reflecting the high level of genome conservation among this cyanophage type. The whole genome phylogenies based on concatenated core genes and gene content were highly consistent and confirmed the separation of two discrete marine cyanopodovirus clusters MPP-A and MPP-B. The genomes within cluster MPP-B grouped into subclusters mainly corresponding to Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus host types. Auxiliary metabolic genes tend to occur in a specific phylogenetic group of these cyanopodoviruses. All the MPP-B phages analyzed here encode the photosynthesis gene psbA, which are absent in all the MPP-A genomes thus far. Interestingly, all the MPP-B and two MPP-A Synechococcus podoviruses encode the thymidylate synthase gene thyX, while at the same genome locus all the MPP-B Prochlorococcus podoviruses encode the transaldolase gene talC. Both genes are hypothesized to have the potential to facilitate the biosynthesis of deoxynucleotide for phage replication. Inheritance of specific functional genes could be important to the evolution and ecological fitness of certain cyanophage genotypes. Our analyses demonstrate that cyanopodoviruses of estuarine and oceanic origins share a conserved core genome and suggest that accessory genes may be related to environmental adaptation.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Coating of the Mitochondrial Genome by TFAM

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yun E.; Marinov, Georgi K.; Wold, Barbara J.; Chan, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria contain a 16.6 kb circular genome encoding 13 proteins as well as mitochondrial tRNAs and rRNAs. Copies of the genome are organized into nucleoids containing both DNA and proteins, including the machinery required for mtDNA replication and transcription. The transcription factor TFAM is critical for initiation of transcription and replication of the genome, and is also thought to perform a packaging function. Although specific binding sites required for initiation of transcriptio...

  15. Comparative genomics of eukaryotic small nucleolar RNAs reveals deep evolutionary ancestry amidst ongoing intragenomic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeppner Marc P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small nucleolar (snoRNAs are required for posttranscriptional processing and modification of ribosomal, spliceosomal and messenger RNAs. Their presence in both eukaryotes and archaea indicates that snoRNAs are evolutionarily ancient. The location of some snoRNAs within the introns of ribosomal protein genes has been suggested to belie an RNA world origin, with the exons of the earliest protein-coding genes having evolved around snoRNAs after the advent of templated protein synthesis. Alternatively, this intronic location may reflect more recent selection for coexpression of snoRNAs and ribosomal components, ensuring rRNA modification by snoRNAs during ribosome synthesis. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of this genetic organization, we examined the antiquity of snoRNA families and the stability of their genomic location across 44 eukaryote genomes. Results We report that dozens of snoRNA families are traceable to the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA, but find only weak similarities between the oldest eukaryotic snoRNAs and archaeal snoRNA-like genes. Moreover, many of these LECA snoRNAs are located within the introns of host genes independently traceable to the LECA. Comparative genomic analyses reveal the intronic location of LECA snoRNAs is not ancestral however, suggesting the pattern we observe is the result of ongoing intragenomic mobility. Analysis of human transcriptome data indicates that the primary requirement for hosting intronic snoRNAs is a broad expression profile. Consistent with ongoing mobility across broadly-expressed genes, we report a case of recent migration of a non-LECA snoRNA from the intron of a ubiquitously expressed non-LECA host gene into the introns of two LECA genes during the evolution of primates. Conclusions Our analyses show that snoRNAs were a well-established family of RNAs at the time when eukaryotes began to diversify. While many are intronic, this association is not

  16. Genome sequencing of normal cells reveals developmental lineages and mutational processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behjati, Sam; Huch, Meritxell; van Boxtel, Ruben; Karthaus, Wouter; Wedge, David C; Tamuri, Asif U; Martincorena, Iñigo; Petljak, Mia; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gundem, Gunes; Tarpey, Patrick S; Roerink, Sophie; Blokker, Joyce; Maddison, Mark; Mudie, Laura; Robinson, Ben; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Campbell, Peter; Goldman, Nick; van de Wetering, Marc; Cuppen, Edwin; Clevers, Hans; Stratton, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The somatic mutations present in the genome of a cell accumulate over the lifetime of a multicellular organism. These mutations can provide insights into the developmental lineage tree, the number of divisions that each cell has undergone and the mutational processes that have been operative. Here w

  17. Genome Sequencing Reveals Loci under Artificial Selection that Underlie Disease Phenotypes in the Laboratory Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, Santosh S.; Diaz, Ana Garcia; Maratou, Klio; Sarkis, Allison; Rotival, Maxime; Game, Laurence; Tschannen, Michael R.; Kaisaki, Pamela J.; Otto, Georg W.; Ma, Man Chun John; Keane, Thomas M.; Hummel, Oliver; Saar, Kathrin; Chen, Wei; Guryev, Victor; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Garrett, Michael R.; Joe, Bina; Citterio, Lorena; Bianchi, Giuseppe; McBride, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Adams, David J.; Serikawa, Tadao; Flicek, Paul; Cuppen, Edwin; Hubner, Norbert; Petretto, Enrico; Gauguier, Dominique; Kwitek, Anne; Jacob, Howard; Aitman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and ins

  18. Genome sequencing reveals loci under artificial selection that underlie disease phenotypes in the laboratory rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, S.S.; Diaz, A.G.; Maratou, K.; Sarkis, A.; Rotival, M.; Game, L.; Tschannen, M.R.; Kaisaki, P.J.; Otto, G.W.; Ma, M.C.; Keane, T.M.; Hummel, O.; Saar, K.; Chen, W.; Guryev, V.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Garrett, M.R.; Joe, B.; Citterio, L.; Bianchi, G.; McBride, M.; Dominiczak, A.; Adams, D.J.; Serikawa, T.; Flicek, P.; Cuppen, E.; Hubner, N.; Petretto, E.; Gauguier, D.; Kwitek, A.; Jacob, H.; Aitman, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and ins

  19. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J;

    2016-01-01

    polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries...... with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic...

  20. Genomics of the Genus Bifidobacterium Reveals Species-Specific Adaptation to the Glycan-Rich Gut Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Ferrario, Chiara; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that occur in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling period of humans and other mammals. Their ability to compete with other gut bacteria is largely attributed to their saccharolytic features. Comparative and functional genomic as well as transcriptomic analyses have revealed the genetic background that underpins the overall saccharolytic phenotype for each of the 47 bifidobacterial (sub)species representing the genus Bifidobacterium, while also generating insightful information regarding carbohydrate resource sharing and cross-feeding among bifidobacteria. The abundance of bifidobacterial saccharolytic features in human microbiomes supports the notion that metabolic accessibility to dietary and/or host-derived glycans is a potent evolutionary force that has shaped the bifidobacterial genome. PMID:26590291

  1. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgarella, Maria; Puiu, Daniela; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Posada, David; Canchaya, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage) on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libraries with different insert sizes. The large number of contigs obtained pointed out a highly complex genome of 1.6 Gb where repeated elements seem to be widespread (~30% of the genome), a feature that is also shared with other marine molluscs. Notwithstanding the limitations of our genome sequencing, we were able to reconstruct two mitochondrial genomes and predict 10,891 putative genes. A comparative analysis with other molluscs revealed a gene enrichment of gene ontology categories related to multixenobiotic resistance, glutamate biosynthetic process, and the maintenance of ciliary structures.

  2. Parasitism drives host genome evolution: Insights from the Pasteuria ramosa-Daphnia magna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Yann; Roulin, Anne C; Müller, Kristina; Ebert, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    Because parasitism is thought to play a major role in shaping host genomes, it has been predicted that genomic regions associated with resistance to parasites should stand out in genome scans, revealing signals of selection above the genomic background. To test whether parasitism is indeed such a major factor in host evolution and to better understand host-parasite interaction at the molecular level, we studied genome-wide polymorphisms in 97 genotypes of the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna originating from three localities across Europe. Daphnia magna is known to coevolve with the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa for which host genotypes (clonal lines) are either resistant or susceptible. Using association mapping, we identified two genomic regions involved in resistance to P. ramosa, one of which was already known from a previous QTL analysis. We then performed a naïve genome scan to test for signatures of positive selection and found that the two regions identified with the association mapping further stood out as outliers. Several other regions with evidence for selection were also found, but no link between these regions and phenotypic variation could be established. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that parasitism is driving host genome evolution. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Murgarella

    Full Text Available Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis. We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libraries with different insert sizes. The large number of contigs obtained pointed out a highly complex genome of 1.6 Gb where repeated elements seem to be widespread (~30% of the genome, a feature that is also shared with other marine molluscs. Notwithstanding the limitations of our genome sequencing, we were able to reconstruct two mitochondrial genomes and predict 10,891 putative genes. A comparative analysis with other molluscs revealed a gene enrichment of gene ontology categories related to multixenobiotic resistance, glutamate biosynthetic process, and the maintenance of ciliary structures.

  4. Deciphering the cryptic genome: genome-wide analyses of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi reveal complex regulation of secondary metabolism and novel metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Wiemann

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes "bakanae" disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs, but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19 and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31 are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary

  5. Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studt, Lena; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Espino, Jose J.; Huß, Kathleen; Michielse, Caroline B.; Albermann, Sabine; Wagner, Dominik; Bergner, Sonja V.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Fischer, Andreas; Reuter, Gunter; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bald, Till; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Ophir, Ron; Freeman, Stanley; Hippler, Michael; Smith, Kristina M.; Brown, Daren W.; Proctor, Robert H.; Münsterkötter, Martin; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Güldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes “bakanae” disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F

  6. Whole Genome Analysis of Leptospira licerasiae Provides Insight into Leptospiral Evolution and Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selengut, Jeremy D.; Harkins, Derek M.; Patra, Kailash P.; Moreno, Angelo; Lehmann, Jason S.; Purushe, Janaki; Sanka, Ravi; Torres, Michael; Webster, Nicholas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Matthias, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The whole genome analysis of two strains of the first intermediately pathogenic leptospiral species to be sequenced (Leptospira licerasiae strains VAR010 and MMD0835) provides insight into their pathogenic potential and deepens our understanding of leptospiral evolution. Comparative analysis of eight leptospiral genomes shows the existence of a core leptospiral genome comprising 1547 genes and 452 conserved genes restricted to infectious species (including L. licerasiae) that are likely to be pathogenicity-related. Comparisons of the functional content of the genomes suggests that L. licerasiae retains several proteins related to nitrogen, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism which might help to explain why these Leptospira grow well in artificial media compared with pathogenic species. L. licerasiae strains VAR010T and MMD0835 possess two prophage elements. While one element is circular and shares homology with LE1 of L. biflexa, the second is cryptic and homologous to a previously identified but unnamed region in L. interrogans serovars Copenhageni and Lai. We also report a unique O-antigen locus in L. licerasiae comprised of a 6-gene cluster that is unexpectedly short compared with L. interrogans in which analogous regions may include >90 such genes. Sequence homology searches suggest that these genes were acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Furthermore, seven putative genomic islands ranging in size from 5 to 36 kb are present also suggestive of antecedent LGT. How Leptospira become naturally competent remains to be determined, but considering the phylogenetic origins of the genes comprising the O-antigen cluster and other putative laterally transferred genes, L. licerasiae must be able to exchange genetic material with non-invasive environmental bacteria. The data presented here demonstrate that L. licerasiae is genetically more closely related to pathogenic than to saprophytic Leptospira and provide insight into the genomic bases for its infectiousness

  7. Post-genomic analyses of fungal lignocellulosic biomass degradation reveal the unexpected potential of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are potent biomass degraders due to their ability to thrive in ligno(hemicellulose-rich environments. During the last decade, fungal genome sequencing initiatives have yielded abundant information on the genes that are putatively involved in lignocellulose degradation. At present, additional experimental studies are essential to provide insights into the fungal secreted enzymatic pools involved in lignocellulose degradation. Results In this study, we performed a wide analysis of 20 filamentous fungi for which genomic data are available to investigate their biomass-hydrolysis potential. A comparison of fungal genomes and secretomes using enzyme activity profiling revealed discrepancies in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes sets dedicated to plant cell wall. Investigation of the contribution made by each secretome to the saccharification of wheat straw demonstrated that most of them individually supplemented the industrial Trichoderma reesei CL847 enzymatic cocktail. Unexpectedly, the most striking effect was obtained with the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis that improved the release of total sugars by 57% and of glucose by 22%. Proteomic analyses of the best-performing secretomes indicated a specific enzymatic mechanism of U. maydis that is likely to involve oxido-reductases and hemicellulases. Conclusion This study provides insight into the lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms by filamentous fungi and allows for the identification of a number of enzymes that are potentially useful to further improve the industrial lignocellulose bioconversion process.

  8. High resolution genetic mapping by genome sequencing reveals genome duplication and tetraploid genetic structure of the diploid Miscanthus sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Ma

    Full Text Available We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7, presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus.

  9. Genomic species are ecological species as revealed by comparative genomics in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Florent; Campillo, Tony; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Costechareyre, Denis; Chapulliot, David; Shams, Malek; Abrouk, Danis; Lavire, Céline; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hommais, Florence; Guéguen, Laurent; Daubin, Vincent; Muller, Daniel; Nesme, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The definition of bacterial species is based on genomic similarities, giving rise to the operational concept of genomic species, but the reasons of the occurrence of differentiated genomic species remain largely unknown. We used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex and particularly the genomic species presently called genomovar G8, which includes the sequenced strain C58, to test the hypothesis of genomic species having specific ecological adaptations possibly involved in the speciation process. We analyzed the gene repertoire specific to G8 to identify potential adaptive genes. By hybridizing 25 strains of A. tumefaciens on DNA microarrays spanning the C58 genome, we highlighted the presence and absence of genes homologous to C58 in the taxon. We found 196 genes specific to genomovar G8 that were mostly clustered into seven genomic islands on the C58 genome-one on the circular chromosome and six on the linear chromosome-suggesting higher plasticity and a major adaptive role of the latter. Clusters encoded putative functional units, four of which had been verified experimentally. The combination of G8-specific functions defines a hypothetical species primary niche for G8 related to commensal interaction with a host plant. This supports that the G8 ancestor was able to exploit a new ecological niche, maybe initiating ecological isolation and thus speciation. Searching genomic data for synapomorphic traits is a powerful way to describe bacterial species. This procedure allowed us to find such phenotypic traits specific to genomovar G8 and thus propose a Latin binomial, Agrobacterium fabrum, for this bona fide genomic species.

  10. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci.

  11. Mitochondrial Genome and Nuclear Markers Provide New Insight into the Evolutionary History of Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juan; Yu, Jianqiu; Li, Jing; Li, Peng; Fan, Zhenxin; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history of macaques, genus Macaca, has been under debate due to the short times of divergence. In this study, maternal, paternal, and biparental genetic systems were applied to infer phylogenetic relationships among macaques and to trace ancient hybridization events in their evolutionary history. Using a PCR display method, 17 newly phylogenetically informative Alu insertions were identified from M. assamensis. We combined presence/absence analysis of 84 Alu elements with mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear sequences (five autosomal genes, two Y chromosomal genes, and one X chromosomal fragment) to reconstruct a robust macaque phylogeny. Topologies generated from different inherited markers were similar supporting six well defined species groups and a close relationship of M. assamensis and M. thibetana, but differed in the placing of M. arctoides. Both Alu elements and nuclear genes supported that M. arctoides was close to the sinica group, whereas the mitochondrial data clustered it into the fascicularis/mulatta lineage. Our results reveal that a sex-biased hybridization most likely occurred in the evolutionary history of M. arctoides, and suggest an introgressive pattern of male-mediated gene flow from the ancestors of M. arctoides to the M. mulatta population followed by nuclear swamping. According to the estimation of divergence dates, the hybridization occurred around 0.88~1.77 mya (nuclear data) or 1.38~2.56 mya (mitochondrial data). In general, our study indicates that a combination of various molecular markers could help explain complicated evolutionary relationships. Our results have provided new insights into the evolutionary history of macaques and emphasize that hybridization might play an important role in macaque evolution.

  12. Unravelling the Complete Genome of Archangium gephyra DSM 2261T and Evolutionary Insights into Myxobacterial Chitinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    Family Cystobacteraceae is a group of eubacteria within order Myxococcales and class Deltaproteobacteria that includes more than 20 species belonging to 6 genera, that is, Angiococcus, Archangium, Cystobacter, Hyalangium, Melittangium, and Stigmatella. Earlier these members have been classified based on chitin degrading efficiency such as Cystobacter fuscus and Stigmatella aurantiaca, which are efficient chitin degraders, C. violaceus a partial chitin degrader and Archangium gephyra a chitin nondegrader. Here we report the 12.5 Mbp complete genome of A. gephyra DSM 2261T and compare it with four available genomes within the family Cystobacteraceae. Phylogeny and DNA–DNA hybridization studies reveal that A. gephyra is closest to Angiococcus disciformis, C. violaceus and C. ferrugineus, which are partial chitin degraders of the family Cystobacteraceae. Homology studies reveal the conservation of approximately half of the proteins in these genomes, with about 15% unique proteins in each genome. The total carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZome) analysis reveals the presence of one GH18 chitinase in the A. gephyra genome whereas eight copies are present in C. fuscus and S. aurantiaca. Evolutionary studies of myxobacterial GH18 chitinases reveal that most of them are likely related to Terrabacteria and Proteobacteria whereas the Archangium GH18 homolog shares maximum similarity with those of chitin nondegrading Acidobacteria. PMID:28379546

  13. Extensive Hidden Genomic Mosaicism Revealed in Normal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2016-03-03

    Genomic mosaicism arising from post-zygotic mutation has recently been demonstrated to occur in normal tissue of individuals ascertained with varied phenotypes, indicating that detectable mosaicism may be less an exception than a rule in the general population. A challenge to comprehensive cataloging of mosaic mutations and their consequences is the presence of heterogeneous mixtures of cells, rendering low-frequency clones difficult to discern. Here we applied a computational method using estimated haplotypes to characterize mosaic megabase-scale structural mutations in 31,100 GWA study subjects. We provide in silico validation of 293 previously identified somatic mutations and identify an additional 794 novel mutations, most of which exist at lower aberrant cell fractions than have been demonstrated in previous surveys. These mutations occurred across the genome but in a nonrandom manner, and several chromosomes and loci showed unusual levels of mutation. Our analysis supports recent findings about the relationship between clonal mosaicism and old age. Finally, our results, in which we demonstrate a nearly 3-fold higher rate of clonal mosaicism, suggest that SNP-based population surveys of mosaic structural mutations should be conducted with haplotypes for optimal discovery.

  14. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  15. Extensive Hidden Genomic Mosaicism Revealed in Normal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Genomic mosaicism arising from post-zygotic mutation has recently been demonstrated to occur in normal tissue of individuals ascertained with varied phenotypes, indicating that detectable mosaicism may be less an exception than a rule in the general population. A challenge to comprehensive cataloging of mosaic mutations and their consequences is the presence of heterogeneous mixtures of cells, rendering low-frequency clones difficult to discern. Here we applied a computational method using estimated haplotypes to characterize mosaic megabase-scale structural mutations in 31,100 GWA study subjects. We provide in silico validation of 293 previously identified somatic mutations and identify an additional 794 novel mutations, most of which exist at lower aberrant cell fractions than have been demonstrated in previous surveys. These mutations occurred across the genome but in a nonrandom manner, and several chromosomes and loci showed unusual levels of mutation. Our analysis supports recent findings about the relationship between clonal mosaicism and old age. Finally, our results, in which we demonstrate a nearly 3-fold higher rate of clonal mosaicism, suggest that SNP-based population surveys of mosaic structural mutations should be conducted with haplotypes for optimal discovery. PMID:26942289

  16. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ulrich, Luke [ORNL; Lupa, Boguslaw [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Susanti, Dwi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Porat, I. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Hooper, Sean [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Whitman, William [ORNL; Woese, Carl [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  17. Genomic characterization of methanomicrobiales reveals three classes of methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-06-04

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  18. Genomic characterization of methanomicrobiales reveals three classes of methanogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II, and the Methanosarcinales (Class III.

  19. High-resolution genomic profiling of chronic lymphocytic leukemia reveals new recurrent genomic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Jennifer; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Miller, Florian; Winkler, Dirk; Bühler, Andreas; Zenz, Thorsten; Bullinger, Lars; Kühn, Michael W M; Gerhardinger, Andreas; Bloehdorn, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Su, Xiaoping; Ma, Jing; Pounds, Stanley; Hallek, Michael; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan; Busch, Raymonde; Mertens, Daniel; Downing, James R; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Döhner, Hartmut

    2012-12-06

    To identify genomic alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism-array analysis using Affymetrix Version 6.0 on 353 samples from untreated patients entered in the CLL8 treatment trial. Based on paired-sample analysis (n = 144), a mean of 1.8 copy number alterations per patient were identified; approximately 60% of patients carried no copy number alterations other than those detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity was detected in 6% of CLL patients and was found most frequently on 13q, 17p, and 11q. Minimally deleted regions were refined on 13q14 (deleted in 61% of patients) to the DLEU1 and DLEU2 genes, on 11q22.3 (27% of patients) to ATM, on 2p16.1-2p15 (gained in 7% of patients) to a 1.9-Mb fragment containing 9 genes, and on 8q24.21 (5% of patients) to a segment 486 kb proximal to the MYC locus. 13q deletions exhibited proximal and distal breakpoint cluster regions. Among the most common novel lesions were deletions at 15q15.1 (4% of patients), with the smallest deletion (70.48 kb) found in the MGA locus. Sequence analysis of MGA in 59 samples revealed a truncating mutation in one CLL patient lacking a 15q deletion. MNT at 17p13.3, which in addition to MGA and MYC encodes for the network of MAX-interacting proteins, was also deleted recurrently.

  20. Insight in genome-wide association of metabolite quantitative traits by exome sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Henneman, Peter; Verhoeven, Aswin; Dharuri, Harish; Amin, Najaf; van Klinken, Jan Bert; Karssen, Lennart C; de Vries, Boukje; Meissner, Axel; Göraler, Sibel; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Deelder, André M; C 't Hoen, Peter A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2015-01-01

    Metabolite quantitative traits carry great promise for epidemiological studies, and their genetic background has been addressed using Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Thus far, the role of less common variants has not been exhaustively studied. Here, we set out a GWAS for metabolite quantitative traits in serum, followed by exome sequence analysis to zoom in on putative causal variants in the associated genes. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy experiments yielded successful quantification of 42 unique metabolites in 2,482 individuals from The Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study. Heritability of metabolites were estimated by SOLAR. GWAS was performed by linear mixed models, using HapMap imputations. Based on physical vicinity and pathway analyses, candidate genes were screened for coding region variation using exome sequence data. Heritability estimates for metabolites ranged between 10% and 52%. GWAS replicated three known loci in the metabolome wide significance: CPS1 with glycine (P-value  = 1.27×10-32), PRODH with proline (P-value  = 1.11×10-19), SLC16A9 with carnitine level (P-value  = 4.81×10-14) and uncovered a novel association between DMGDH and dimethyl-glycine (P-value  = 1.65×10-19) level. In addition, we found three novel, suggestively significant loci: TNP1 with pyruvate (P-value  = 1.26×10-8), KCNJ16 with 3-hydroxybutyrate (P-value  = 1.65×10-8) and 2p12 locus with valine (P-value  = 3.49×10-8). Exome sequence analysis identified potentially causal coding and regulatory variants located in the genes CPS1, KCNJ2 and PRODH, and revealed allelic heterogeneity for CPS1 and PRODH. Combined GWAS and exome analyses of metabolites detected by high-resolution 1H-NMR is a robust approach to uncover metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL), and the likely causative variants in these loci. It is anticipated that insight in the genetics of intermediate phenotypes will provide additional insight into the

  1. Insight in genome-wide association of metabolite quantitative traits by exome sequence analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Demirkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite quantitative traits carry great promise for epidemiological studies, and their genetic background has been addressed using Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS. Thus far, the role of less common variants has not been exhaustively studied. Here, we set out a GWAS for metabolite quantitative traits in serum, followed by exome sequence analysis to zoom in on putative causal variants in the associated genes. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy experiments yielded successful quantification of 42 unique metabolites in 2,482 individuals from The Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF study. Heritability of metabolites were estimated by SOLAR. GWAS was performed by linear mixed models, using HapMap imputations. Based on physical vicinity and pathway analyses, candidate genes were screened for coding region variation using exome sequence data. Heritability estimates for metabolites ranged between 10% and 52%. GWAS replicated three known loci in the metabolome wide significance: CPS1 with glycine (P-value  = 1.27×10-32, PRODH with proline (P-value  = 1.11×10-19, SLC16A9 with carnitine level (P-value  = 4.81×10-14 and uncovered a novel association between DMGDH and dimethyl-glycine (P-value  = 1.65×10-19 level. In addition, we found three novel, suggestively significant loci: TNP1 with pyruvate (P-value  = 1.26×10-8, KCNJ16 with 3-hydroxybutyrate (P-value  = 1.65×10-8 and 2p12 locus with valine (P-value  = 3.49×10-8. Exome sequence analysis identified potentially causal coding and regulatory variants located in the genes CPS1, KCNJ2 and PRODH, and revealed allelic heterogeneity for CPS1 and PRODH. Combined GWAS and exome analyses of metabolites detected by high-resolution 1H-NMR is a robust approach to uncover metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL, and the likely causative variants in these loci. It is anticipated that insight in the genetics of intermediate phenotypes will provide additional insight

  2. The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Steve

    2010-03-24

    Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  3. RNA splicing. The human splicing code reveals new insights into the genetic determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui Y; Alipanahi, Babak; Lee, Leo J; Bretschneider, Hannes; Merico, Daniele; Yuen, Ryan K C; Hua, Yimin; Gueroussov, Serge; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Hughes, Timothy R; Morris, Quaid; Barash, Yoseph; Krainer, Adrian R; Jojic, Nebojsa; Scherer, Stephen W; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate precision medicine and whole-genome annotation, we developed a machine-learning technique that scores how strongly genetic variants affect RNA splicing, whose alteration contributes to many diseases. Analysis of more than 650,000 intronic and exonic variants revealed widespread patterns of mutation-driven aberrant splicing. Intronic disease mutations that are more than 30 nucleotides from any splice site alter splicing nine times as often as common variants, and missense exonic disease mutations that have the least impact on protein function are five times as likely as others to alter splicing. We detected tens of thousands of disease-causing mutations, including those involved in cancers and spinal muscular atrophy. Examination of intronic and exonic variants found using whole-genome sequencing of individuals with autism revealed misspliced genes with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Our approach provides evidence for causal variants and should enable new discoveries in precision medicine.

  4. A New Chicken Genome Assembly Provides Insight into Avian Genome Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Warren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3, built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb, including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized. Of the 1.21 Gb genome, we include three previously missing autosomes, GGA30, 31, and 33, and improve sequence contig length 10-fold over the previous Gallus_gallus-4.0. Despite the significant base representation improvements made, 138 Mb of sequence is not yet located to chromosomes. When annotated for gene content, Gallus_gallus-5.0 shows an increase of 4679 annotated genes (2768 noncoding and 1911 protein-coding over those in Gallus_gallus-4.0. We also revisited the question of what genes are missing in the avian lineage, as assessed by the highest quality avian genome assembly to date, and found that a large fraction of the original set of missing genes are still absent in sequenced bird species. Finally, our new data support a detailed map of MHC-B, encompassing two segments: one with a highly stable gene copy number and another in which the gene copy number is highly variable. The chicken model has been a critical resource for many other fields of study, and this new reference assembly will substantially further these efforts.

  5. Population-Genomic Insights into Variation in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens Isolates and Its Association with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has helped to reveal the close relationship between Prevotella and periodontal disease, but the roles of subspecies diversity and genomic variation within this genus in periodontal diseases still need to be investigated. We performed a comparative genome analysis of 48 Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates that from the same cohort of subjects to identify the main drivers of their pathogenicity and adaptation to different environments. The comparisons were done between two species and between disease and health based on pooled sequences. The results showed that both P. intermedia and P. nigrescens have highly dynamic genomes and can take up various exogenous factors through horizontal gene transfer. The major differences between disease-derived and health-derived samples of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens were factors related to genome modification and recombination, indicating that the Prevotella isolates from disease sites may be more capable of genomic reconstruction. We also identified genetic elements specific to each sample, and found that disease groups had more unique virulence factors related to capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis, secretion systems, proteinases, and toxins, suggesting that strains from disease sites may have more specific virulence, particularly for P. intermedia. The differentially represented pathways between samples from disease and health were related to energy metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, consistent with data from the whole subgingival microbiome in periodontal disease and health. Disease-derived samples had gained or lost several metabolic genes compared to healthy-derived samples, which could be linked with the difference in virulence performance between diseased and healthy sample groups. Our findings suggest that P. intermedia and P. nigrescens may serve as “crucial substances” in subgingival plaque, which may

  6. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea’s genetic data sources. PMID:27446038

  7. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea's genetic data sources.

  8. Plasmodium knowlesi genome sequences from clinical isolates reveal extensive genomic dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Plasmodium knowlesi is a newly described zoonosis that causes malaria in the human population that can be severe and fatal. The study of P. knowlesi parasites from human clinical isolates is relatively new and, in order to obtain maximum information from patient sample collections, we explored the possibility of generating P. knowlesi genome sequences from archived clinical isolates. Our patient sample collection consisted of frozen whole blood samples that contained excessive human DNA contamination and, in that form, were not suitable for parasite genome sequencing. We developed a method to reduce the amount of human DNA in the thawed blood samples in preparation for high throughput parasite genome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing platforms. Seven of fifteen samples processed had sufficiently pure P. knowlesi DNA for whole genome sequencing. The reads were mapped to the P. knowlesi H strain reference genome and an average mapping of 90% was obtained. Genes with low coverage were removed leaving 4623 genes for subsequent analyses. Previously we identified a DNA sequence dimorphism on a small fragment of the P. knowlesi normocyte binding protein xa gene on chromosome 14. We used the genome data to assemble full-length Pknbpxa sequences and discovered that the dimorphism extended along the gene. An in-house algorithm was developed to detect SNP sites co-associating with the dimorphism. More than half of the P. knowlesi genome was dimorphic, involving genes on all chromosomes and suggesting that two distinct types of P. knowlesi infect the human population in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We use P. knowlesi clinical samples to demonstrate that Plasmodium DNA from archived patient samples can produce high quality genome data. We show that analyses, of even small numbers of difficult clinical malaria isolates, can generate comprehensive genomic information that will improve our understanding of malaria parasite diversity and

  9. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  10. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Soumya; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens.

  11. Expanding the diversity of mycobacteriophages: insights into genome architecture and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welkin H Pope

    Full Text Available Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and comparatively analyzed, these likely represent only a small portion of the diversity of the mycobacteriophage population at large. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 18 new mycobacteriophages isolated from geographically distinct locations within the United States. Although no clear correlation between location and genome type can be discerned, these genomes expand our knowledge of mycobacteriophage diversity and enhance our understanding of the roles of mobile elements in viral evolution. Expansion of the number of mycobacteriophages grouped within Cluster A provides insights into the basis of immune specificity in these temperate phages, and we also describe a novel example of apparent immunity theft. The isolation and genomic analysis of bacteriophages by freshman college students provides an example of an authentic research experience for novice scientists.

  12. The genome of Ganoderma lucidum provides insights into triterpenes biosynthesis and wood degradation [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi is one of the most famous Traditional Chinese Medicines and has been widely used in the treatment of various human diseases in Asia countries. It is also a fungus with strong wood degradation ability with potential in bioenergy production. However, genes, pathways and mechanisms of these functions are still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome of G. lucidum was sequenced and assembled into a 39.9 megabases (Mb draft genome, which encoded 12,080 protein-coding genes and ∼83% of them were similar to public sequences. We performed comprehensive annotation for G. lucidum genes and made comparisons with genes in other fungi genomes. Genes in the biosynthesis of the main G. lucidum active ingredients, ganoderic acids (GAs, were characterized. Among the GAs synthases, we identified a fusion gene, the N and C terminal of which are homologous to two different enzymes. Moreover, the fusion gene was only found in basidiomycetes. As a white rot fungus with wood degradation ability, abundant carbohydrate-active enzymes and ligninolytic enzymes were identified in the G. lucidum genome and were compared with other fungi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome sequence and well annotation of G. lucidum will provide new insights in function analyses including its medicinal mechanism. The characterization of genes in the triterpene biosynthesis and wood degradation will facilitate bio-engineering research in the production of its active ingredients and bioenergy.

  13. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been st...... of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production....... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  14. Genome-wide analysis reveals coating of the mitochondrial genome by TFAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun E Wang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria contain a 16.6 kb circular genome encoding 13 proteins as well as mitochondrial tRNAs and rRNAs. Copies of the genome are organized into nucleoids containing both DNA and proteins, including the machinery required for mtDNA replication and transcription. The transcription factor TFAM is critical for initiation of transcription and replication of the genome, and is also thought to perform a packaging function. Although specific binding sites required for initiation of transcription have been identified in the D-loop, little is known about the characteristics of TFAM binding in its nonspecific packaging state. In addition, it is unclear whether TFAM also plays a role in the regulation of nuclear gene expression. Here we investigate these questions by using ChIP-seq to directly localize TFAM binding to DNA in human cells. Our results demonstrate that TFAM uniformly coats the whole mitochondrial genome, with no evidence of robust TFAM binding to the nuclear genome. Our study represents the first high-resolution assessment of TFAM binding on a genome-wide scale in human cells.

  15. Comparative genomics of Geobacter chemotaxis genes reveals diverse signaling function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antommattei Frances M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter species are δ-Proteobacteria and are often the predominant species in a variety of sedimentary environments where Fe(III reduction is important. Their ability to remediate contaminated environments and produce electricity makes them attractive for further study. Cell motility, biofilm formation, and type IV pili all appear important for the growth of Geobacter in changing environments and for electricity production. Recent studies in other bacteria have demonstrated that signaling pathways homologous to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli chemotaxis can regulate type IV pili-dependent motility, the synthesis of flagella and type IV pili, the production of extracellular matrix material, and biofilm formation. The classification of these pathways by comparative genomics improves the ability to understand how Geobacter thrives in natural environments and better their use in microbial fuel cells. Results The genomes of G. sulfurreducens, G. metallireducens, and G. uraniireducens contain multiple (~70 homologs of chemotaxis genes arranged in several major clusters (six, seven, and seven, respectively. Unlike the single gene cluster of E. coli, the Geobacter clusters are not all located near the flagellar genes. The probable functions of some Geobacter clusters are assignable by homology to known pathways; others appear to be unique to the Geobacter sp. and contain genes of unknown function. We identified large numbers of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP homologs that have diverse sensing domain architectures and generate a potential for sensing a great variety of environmental signals. We discuss mechanisms for class-specific segregation of the MCPs in the cell membrane, which serve to maintain pathway specificity and diminish crosstalk. Finally, the regulation of gene expression in Geobacter differs from E. coli. The sequences of predicted promoter elements suggest that the alternative sigma factors

  16. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  17. Diversity of Pseudomonas Genomes, Including Populus-Associated Isolates, as Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam; Timm, Collin M; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Schadt, Christopher W; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Pelletier, Dale A; Ussery, David W

    2015-10-30

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches, including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants. Their diversity influences the phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity of these communities. On the basis of average amino acid identity, comparative genome analysis of >1,000 Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) trees resulted in consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomes clustered together, and these were clearly distinct from other Pseudomonas species groups on the basis of pangenome and core genome analyses. In contrast, the genomes of Pseudomonas fluorescens were organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. Most of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the major P. fluorescens group, supported by pathway profile analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas putida. Genes specific to Populus-associated subgroups were identified. Genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems that act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor. Genes specific to subgroup 2 contain hypothetical genes, and genes specific to subgroup 3 were annotated with hydrolase activity. This study justifies the need to sequence multiple isolates, especially from P. fluorescens, which displays the most genetic variation, in order to study functional capabilities from a pangenomic perspective. This information will prove useful when choosing Pseudomonas strains for use to promote growth and increase disease resistance in plants.

  18. Insights in metabolism and toxin production from the complete genome sequence of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2004-04-01

    insight into the metabolic strategy of C. tetani with regard to its pathogenic phenotype will be presented. The information from other clostridial genomes by means of comparative analysis will also be explored.

  19. Whole genome sequencing reveals genomic heterogeneity and antibiotic purification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Black, PA

    2015-10-24

    Background Whole genome sequencing has revolutionised the interrogation of mycobacterial genomes. Recent studies have reported conflicting findings on the genomic stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the evolution of drug resistance. In an age where whole genome sequencing is increasingly relied upon for defining the structure of bacterial genomes, it is important to investigate the reliability of next generation sequencing to identify clonal variants present in a minor percentage of the population. This study aimed to define a reliable cut-off for identification of low frequency sequence variants and to subsequently investigate genetic heterogeneity and the evolution of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from single colonies from 14 rifampicin mono-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, as well as the primary cultures and follow up MDR cultures from two of these patients. The whole genomes of the M. tuberculosis isolates were sequenced using either the Illumina MiSeq or Illumina HiSeq platforms. Sequences were analysed with an in-house pipeline. Results Using next-generation sequencing in combination with Sanger sequencing and statistical analysis we defined a read frequency cut-off of 30 % to identify low frequency M. tuberculosis variants with high confidence. Using this cut-off we demonstrated a high rate of genetic diversity between single colonies isolated from one population, showing that by using the current sequencing technology, single colonies are not a true reflection of the genetic diversity within a whole population and vice versa. We further showed that numerous heterogeneous variants emerge and then disappear during the evolution of isoniazid resistance within individual patients. Our findings allowed us to formulate a model for the selective bottleneck which occurs during the course of infection, acting as a genomic purification event. Conclusions Our study demonstrated true levels of genetic diversity

  20. Supplementary Material for: Whole genome sequencing reveals genomic heterogeneity and antibiotic purification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Black, PA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing has revolutionised the interrogation of mycobacterial genomes. Recent studies have reported conflicting findings on the genomic stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the evolution of drug resistance. In an age where whole genome sequencing is increasingly relied upon for defining the structure of bacterial genomes, it is important to investigate the reliability of next generation sequencing to identify clonal variants present in a minor percentage of the population. This study aimed to define a reliable cut-off for identification of low frequency sequence variants and to subsequently investigate genetic heterogeneity and the evolution of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from single colonies from 14 rifampicin mono-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, as well as the primary cultures and follow up MDR cultures from two of these patients. The whole genomes of the M. tuberculosis isolates were sequenced using either the Illumina MiSeq or Illumina HiSeq platforms. Sequences were analysed with an in-house pipeline. Results Using next-generation sequencing in combination with Sanger sequencing and statistical analysis we defined a read frequency cut-off of 30 % to identify low frequency M. tuberculosis variants with high confidence. Using this cut-off we demonstrated a high rate of genetic diversity between single colonies isolated from one population, showing that by using the current sequencing technology, single colonies are not a true reflection of the genetic diversity within a whole population and vice versa. We further showed that numerous heterogeneous variants emerge and then disappear during the evolution of isoniazid resistance within individual patients. Our findings allowed us to formulate a model for the selective bottleneck which occurs during the course of infection, acting as a genomic purification event. Conclusions Our study demonstrated true levels of genetic

  1. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  2. Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

  3. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been...... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages....... This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details...

  4. Comparative genomics of flatworms (platyhelminthes) reveals shared genomic features of ecto- and endoparastic neodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore, the shared loss of functional fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and the absence of peroxisomes, the latter organelles presumed ubiquitous in eukaryotes except for parasitic protozoans, were inferred. The draft genome of G. salaris opens for future in-depth analyses of pathogenicity and host specificity of poorly characterized G. salaris strains, and will enhance studies addressing the genomics of host-parasite interactions and speciation in the highly diverse monogenean flatworms.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) Reveals Shared Genomic Features of Ecto- and Endoparastic Neodermata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore, the shared loss of functional fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and the absence of peroxisomes, the latter organelles presumed ubiquitous in eukaryotes except for parasitic protozoans, were inferred. The draft genome of G. salaris opens for future in-depth analyses of pathogenicity and host specificity of poorly characterized G. salaris strains, and will enhance studies addressing the genomics of host–parasite interactions and speciation in the highly diverse monogenean flatworms. PMID:24732282

  6. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M; Clarke, David F; Dittmer, Neal T; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R; Kuwar, Suyog S; Lee, Sandy L; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H; McCulloch, Kyle J; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K; Worley, Kim C; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Hansson, Bill S; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J; Scherer, Steven E; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

  7. Genomic analyses of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus provide insights into asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Zhang, Siqi; Cao, Li; Huang, Yue; Cheng, Junfeng; Wu, Guizhi; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Yu, Huiwen; Yang, Xiaoming; Lan, Hong; Wang, Nan; Wang, Lun; Xu, Jidi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Xie, Zongzhou; Tan, Meilian; Larkin, Robert M; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ma, Bin-Guang; Ruan, Yijun; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of apomixis-the transition from sexual to asexual reproduction-is a prominent feature of modern citrus. Here we de novo sequenced and comprehensively studied the genomes of four representative citrus species. Additionally, we sequenced 100 accessions of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus. Comparative population analysis suggested that genomic regions harboring energy- and reproduction-associated genes are probably under selection in cultivated citrus. We also narrowed the genetic locus responsible for citrus polyembryony, a form of apomixis, to an 80-kb region containing 11 candidate genes. One of these, CitRWP, is expressed at higher levels in ovules of polyembryonic cultivars. We found a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion in the promoter region of CitRWP that cosegregated with polyembryony. This study provides new insights into citrus apomixis and constitutes a promising resource for the mining of agriculturally important genes.

  8. Comparative analysis of bat genomes provides insight into the evolution of flight and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Cowled, Christopher; Shi, Zhengli; Huang, Zhiyong; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Fang, Xiaodong; Wynne, James W; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Baker, Michelle L; Zhao, Wei; Tachedjian, Mary; Zhu, Yabing; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Xuanting; Ng, Justin; Yang, Lan; Wu, Lijun; Xiao, Jin; Feng, Yue; Chen, Yuanxin; Sun, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yong; Marsh, Glenn A; Crameri, Gary; Broder, Christopher C; Frey, Kenneth G; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-25

    Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific traits, we performed whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses of two distantly related species, fruit bat Pteropus alecto and insectivorous bat Myotis davidii. We discovered an unexpected concentration of positively selected genes in the DNA damage checkpoint and nuclear factor κB pathways that may be related to the origin of flight, as well as expansion and contraction of important gene families. Comparison of bat genomes with other mammalian species has provided new insights into bat biology and evolution.

  9. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  10. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Native Sheep Provides Insights into Rapid Adaptations to Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Li, Wen-Rong; Lv, Feng-Hua; He, San-Gang; Tian, Shi-Lin; Peng, Wei-Feng; Sun, Ya-Wei; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Tu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Min; Xie, Xing-Long; Wang, Yu-Tao; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Yong-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Guang-Jian; Lu, Hong-Feng; Kantanen, Juha; Han, Jian-Lin; Li, Meng-Hua; Liu, Ming-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Global climate change has a significant effect on extreme environments and a profound influence on species survival. However, little is known of the genome-wide pattern of livestock adaptations to extreme environments over a short time frame following domestication. Sheep (Ovis aries) have become well adapted to a diverse range of agroecological zones, including certain extreme environments (e.g., plateaus and deserts), during their post-domestication (approximately 8-9 kya) migration and differentiation. Here, we generated whole-genome sequences from 77 native sheep, with an average effective sequencing depth of ∼5× for 75 samples and ∼42× for 2 samples. Comparative genomic analyses among sheep in contrasting environments, that is, plateau (>4,000 m above sea level) versus lowland (1500 m) versus low-altitude region (600 mm), and arid zone (400 mm), detected a novel set of candidate genes as well as pathways and GO categories that are putatively associated with hypoxia responses at high altitudes and water reabsorption in arid environments. In addition, candidate genes and GO terms functionally related to energy metabolism and body size variations were identified. This study offers novel insights into rapid genomic adaptations to extreme environments in sheep and other animals, and provides a valuable resource for future research on livestock breeding in response to climate change.

  11. Genomic and transcriptomic insights into the efficient entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Peng, Donghai; Wang, Yueying; Ye, Weixing; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Changming; Han, Dongmei; Geng, Ce; Ruan, Lifang; He, Jin; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been globally used as a microbial pesticide for over 70 years. However, information regarding its various adaptions and virulence factors and their roles in the entomopathogenic process remains limited. In this work, we present the complete genomes of two industrially patented Bacillus thuringiensis strains (HD-1 and YBT-1520). A comparative genomic analysis showed a larger and more complicated genome constitution that included novel insecticidal toxicity-related genes (ITRGs). All of the putative ITRGs were summarized according to the steps of infection. A comparative genomic analysis showed that highly toxic strains contained significantly more ITRGs, thereby providing additional strategies for infection, immune evasion, and cadaver utilization. Furthermore, a comparative transcriptomic analysis suggested that a high expression of these ITRGs was a key factor in efficient entomopathogenicity. We identified an active extra urease synthesis system in the highly toxic strains that may aid B. thuringiensis survival in insects (similar to previous results with well-known pathogens). Taken together, these results explain the efficient entomopathogenicity of B. thuringiensis. It provides novel insights into the strategies used by B. thuringiensis to resist and overcome host immune defenses and helps identify novel toxicity factors. PMID:26411888

  12. Genomic and transcriptomic insights into the efficient entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Peng, Donghai; Wang, Yueying; Ye, Weixing; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Changming; Han, Dongmei; Geng, Ce; Ruan, Lifang; He, Jin; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2015-09-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been globally used as a microbial pesticide for over 70 years. However, information regarding its various adaptions and virulence factors and their roles in the entomopathogenic process remains limited. In this work, we present the complete genomes of two industrially patented Bacillus thuringiensis strains (HD-1 and YBT-1520). A comparative genomic analysis showed a larger and more complicated genome constitution that included novel insecticidal toxicity-related genes (ITRGs). All of the putative ITRGs were summarized according to the steps of infection. A comparative genomic analysis showed that highly toxic strains contained significantly more ITRGs, thereby providing additional strategies for infection, immune evasion, and cadaver utilization. Furthermore, a comparative transcriptomic analysis suggested that a high expression of these ITRGs was a key factor in efficient entomopathogenicity. We identified an active extra urease synthesis system in the highly toxic strains that may aid B. thuringiensis survival in insects (similar to previous results with well-known pathogens). Taken together, these results explain the efficient entomopathogenicity of B. thuringiensis. It provides novel insights into the strategies used by B. thuringiensis to resist and overcome host immune defenses and helps identify novel toxicity factors.

  13. Supplementary Material for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Methods To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents. A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Results The analysis revealed that mutations in the genes rpoB (rifampicin), katG (isoniazid), inhA-promoter (isoniazid), rpsL (streptomycin) and embB (ethambutol) were responsible for the majority of resistance observed. A subset of the mutations identified in rpoB and katG were predicted to affect protein stability. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of rpoB and katG to their respective drugs binding sites. Conclusions Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance. Further, protein structural modelling could provide a means of predicting the impact of polymorphisms on drug efficacy in the absence of phenotypic data. These approaches could ultimately lead to novel

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-03-23

    Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Methods To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents. A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Results The analysis revealed that mutations in the genes rpoB (rifampicin), katG (isoniazid), inhA-promoter (isoniazid), rpsL (streptomycin) and embB (ethambutol) were responsible for the majority of resistance observed. A subset of the mutations identified in rpoB and katG were predicted to affect protein stability. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of rpoB and katG to their respective drugs binding sites. Conclusions Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance. Further, protein structural modelling could provide a means of predicting the impact of polymorphisms on drug efficacy in the absence of phenotypic data. These approaches could ultimately lead to novel resistance

  15. Comparative genomics of 274 Vibrio cholerae genomes reveals mobile functions structuring three niche dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, Bas E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Vicente, Ana C P; Marin, Michel A; Lee, Clarence; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Schmieder, Robert; Andrade, Bruno G N; Chimetto, Luciane; Cuevas, Daniel; Garza, Daniel R; Okeke, Iruka N; Aboderin, Aaron Oladipo; Spangler, Jessica; Ross, Tristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Fabiano L; Harkins, Timothy T; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae is a globally dispersed pathogen that has evolved with humans for centuries, but also includes non-pathogenic environmental strains. Here, we identify the genomic variability underlying this remarkable persistence across the three major niche dimensions space, time, and h

  16. Comparative genomics of 274 Vibrio cholerae genomes reveals mobile functions structuring three niche dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, B.E.; Thompson, C.C.; Vicente, A.C.; Marin, M.A.; Lee, C.; Silva, G.G.; Schmieder, R.; Andrade, B.G.; Chimetto, L.; Cuevas, D.; Garza, D.R.; Okeke, I.N.; Aboderin, A.O.; Spangler, J.; Ross, T.; Dinsdale, E.A.; Thompson, F.L.; Harkins, T.T.; Edwards, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae is a globally dispersed pathogen that has evolved with humans for centuries, but also includes non-pathogenic environmental strains. Here, we identify the genomic variability underlying this remarkable persistence across the three major niche dimensions space, time, and

  17. Sequencing the CHO DXB11 genome reveals regional variations in genomic stability and haploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Kristensen, Claus; Betenbaugh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The DHFR negative CHO DXB11 cell line (also known as DUX-B11 and DUKX) was historically the first CHO cell line to be used for large scale production of heterologous proteins and is still used for production of a number of complex proteins.  Results: Here we present the genomic sequen...

  18. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang; Nagarajan, Harish; Yerganian, George; O'Brien, Edward; Bordbar, Aarash; Roth, Anne M; Rosenbloom, Jeffrey; Bian, Chao; Xie, Min; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Ning; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Latif, Haythem; Forster, Jochen; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Famili, Iman; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2013-08-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages. This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production.

  19. Structure-function insights of membrane and soluble proteins revealed by electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreaden, Tina M; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Barry, Bridgette A; Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Electron crystallography is emerging as an important method in solving protein structures. While it has found extensive applications in the understanding of membrane protein structure and function at a wide range of resolutions, from revealing oligomeric arrangements to atomic models, electron crystallography has also provided invaluable information on the soluble α/β-tubulin which could not be obtained by any other method to date. Examples of critical insights from selected structures of membrane proteins as well as α/β-tubulin are described here, demonstrating the vast potential of electron crystallography that is first beginning to unfold.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal neolithic expansion into Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Fu

    Full Text Available The Neolithic transition from hunting and gathering to farming and cattle breeding marks one of the most drastic cultural changes in European prehistory. Short stretches of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA from skeletons of pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers as well as early Neolithic farmers support the demic diffusion model where a migration of early farmers from the Near East and a replacement of pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers are largely responsible for cultural innovation and changes in subsistence strategies during the Neolithic revolution in Europe. In order to test if a signal of population expansion is still present in modern European mitochondrial DNA, we analyzed a comprehensive dataset of 1,151 complete mtDNAs from present-day Europeans. Relying upon ancient DNA data from previous investigations, we identified mtDNA haplogroups that are typical for early farmers and hunter-gatherers, namely H and U respectively. Bayesian skyline coalescence estimates were then used on subsets of complete mtDNAs from modern populations to look for signals of past population expansions. Our analyses revealed a population expansion between 15,000 and 10,000 years before present (YBP in mtDNAs typical for hunters and gatherers, with a decline between 10,000 and 5,000 YBP. These corresponded to an analogous population increase approximately 9,000 YBP for mtDNAs typical of early farmers. The observed changes over time suggest that the spread of agriculture in Europe involved the expansion of farming populations into Europe followed by the eventual assimilation of resident hunter-gatherers. Our data show that contemporary mtDNA datasets can be used to study ancient population history if only limited ancient genetic data is available.

  1. Insights from the genome annotation of Elizabethkingia anophelis from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Phanidhar Kukutla

    Full Text Available Elizabethkingia anophelis is a dominant bacterial species in the gut ecosystem of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. We recently sequenced the genomes of two strains of E. anophelis, R26T and Ag1, isolated from different strains of A. gambiae. The two bacterial strains are identical with a few exceptions. Phylogenetically, Elizabethkingia is closer to Chryseobacterium and Riemerella than to Flavobacterium. In line with other Bacteroidetes known to utilize various polymers in their ecological niches, the E. anophelis genome contains numerous TonB dependent transporters with various substrate specificities. In addition, several genes belonging to the polysaccharide utilization system and the glycoside hydrolase family were identified that could potentially be of benefit for the mosquito carbohydrate metabolism. In agreement with previous reports of broad antibiotic resistance in E. anophelis, a large number of genes encoding efflux pumps and β-lactamases are present in the genome. The component genes of resistance-nodulation-division type efflux pumps were found to be syntenic and conserved in different taxa of Bacteroidetes. The bacterium also displays hemolytic activity and encodes several hemolysins that may participate in the digestion of erythrocytes in the mosquito gut. At the same time, the OxyR regulon and antioxidant genes could provide defense against the oxidative stress that is associated with blood digestion. The genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis revealed functional characteristics associated with the symbiotic relationship with the mosquito host.

  2. Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sikora; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Andres Moreno-Estrada; Henn, Brenna M.; Underhill, Peter A.; Federico Sánchez-Quinto; Ilenia Zara; Maristella Pitzalis; Carlo Sidore; Fabio Busonero; Andrea Maschio; Andrea Angius; Chris Jones; Javier Mendoza-Revilla; Georgi Nekhrizov

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, incl...

  3. Structure of Human GIVD Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Reveals Insights into Substrate Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Klein, Michael G.; Snell, Gyorgy; Lane, Weston; Zou, Hua; Levin, Irena; Li, Ke; Sang, Bi-Ching (Takeda Cali)

    2016-07-01

    Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) consist of a family of calcium-sensitive enzymes that function to generate lipid second messengers through hydrolysis of membrane-associated glycerophospholipids. The GIVD cPLA2 (cPLA2δ) is a potential drug target for developing a selective therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Here, we present two X-ray structures of human cPLA2δ, capturing an apo state, and in complex with a substrate-like inhibitor. Comparison of the apo and inhibitor-bound structures reveals conformational changes in a flexible cap that allows the substrate to access the relatively buried active site, providing new insight into the mechanism for substrate recognition. The cPLA2δ structure reveals an unexpected second C2 domain that was previously unrecognized from sequence alignments, placing cPLA2δ into the class of membrane-associated proteins that contain a tandem pair of C2 domains. Furthermore, our structures elucidate novel inter-domain interactions and define three potential calcium-binding sites that are likely important for regulation and activation of enzymatic activity. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing cPLA2's function in signal transduction.

  4. Genomic Comparison of Indigenous African and Northern European Chickens Reveals Putative Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance Related to Environmental Selection Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Weigend, Steffen; Simianer, Henner; Weigend, Annett; Rothschild, Max; Schmidt, Carl; Ashwell, Chris; Persia, Mike; Reecy, James; Lamont, Susan J

    2017-05-05

    Global climate change is increasing the magnitude of environmental stressors, such as temperature, pathogens, and drought, that limit the survivability and sustainability of livestock production. Poultry production and its expansion is dependent upon robust animals that are able to cope with stressors in multiple environments. Understanding the genetic strategies that indigenous, noncommercial breeds have evolved to survive in their environment could help to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying biological traits of environmental adaptation. We examined poultry from diverse breeds and climates of Africa and Northern Europe for selection signatures that have allowed them to adapt to their indigenous environments. Selection signatures were studied using a combination of population genomic methods that employed FST , integrated haplotype score (iHS), and runs of homozygosity (ROH) procedures. All the analyses indicated differences in environment as a driver of selective pressure in both groups of populations. The analyses revealed unique differences in the genomic regions under selection pressure from the environment for each population. The African chickens showed stronger selection toward stress signaling and angiogenesis, while the Northern European chickens showed more selection pressure toward processes related to energy homeostasis. The results suggest that chromosomes 2 and 27 are the most diverged between populations and the most selected upon within the African (chromosome 27) and Northern European (chromosome 2) birds. Examination of the divergent populations has provided new insight into genes under possible selection related to tolerance of a population's indigenous environment that may be baselines for examining the genomic contribution to tolerance adaptions. Copyright © 2017 Fleming et al.

  5. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp. and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis, with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi. We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the

  6. Genome-wide analysis reveals a complex pattern of genomic imprinting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Wolf

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression resulting from genomic imprinting plays an important role in modulating complex traits ranging from developmental processes to cognitive abilities and associated disorders. However, while gene-targeting techniques have allowed for the identification of imprinted loci, very little is known about the contribution of imprinting to quantitative variation in complex traits. Most studies, furthermore, assume a simple pattern of imprinting, resulting in either paternal or maternal gene expression; yet, more complex patterns of effects also exist. As a result, the distribution and number of different imprinting patterns across the genome remain largely unexplored. We address these unresolved issues using a genome-wide scan for imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTL affecting body weight and growth in mice using a novel three-generation design. We identified ten iQTL that display much more complex and diverse effect patterns than previously assumed, including four loci with effects similar to the callipyge mutation found in sheep. Three loci display a new phenotypic pattern that we refer to as bipolar dominance, where the two heterozygotes are different from each other while the two homozygotes are identical to each other. Our study furthermore detected a paternally expressed iQTL on Chromosome 7 in a region containing a known imprinting cluster with many paternally expressed genes. Surprisingly, the effects of the iQTL were mostly restricted to traits expressed after weaning. Our results imply that the quantitative effects of an imprinted allele at a locus depend both on its parent of origin and the allele it is paired with. Our findings also show that the imprinting pattern of a locus can be variable over ontogenetic time and, in contrast to current views, may often be stronger at later stages in life.

  7. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Grassa, Christopher J; Moyers, Brook T; Kane, Nolan C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-10-25

    Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs) in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis), with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha) and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The "response to biotic stimulus" category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio) and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi). We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the determinants of

  8. Genomic insights into intrinsic and acquired drug resistance mechanisms in Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongfei; Zhu, Yuying; Ma, Yanan; Liu, Fei; Lu, Na; Yang, Xi; Luan, Chunguang; Yi, Yong; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-02-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an opportunistic pathogen known to be resistant to a wide range of antibiotics; however, the knowledge about the drug resistance mechanisms is limited. We used a high-throughput sequencing approach to sequence the genomes of the A. xylosoxidans type strain ATCC 27061 and a clinical isolate, A. xylosoxidans X02736, and then we used different bioinformatics tools to analyze the drug resistance genes in these bacteria. We obtained the complete genome sequence for A. xylosoxidans ATCC 27061 and the draft sequence for X02736. We predicted a total of 50 drug resistance-associated genes in the type strain, including 5 genes for β-lactamases and 17 genes for efflux pump systems; these genes are also conserved among other A. xylosoxidans genomes. In the clinical isolate, except for the conserved resistance genes, we also identified several acquired resistance genes carried by a new transposon embedded in a novel integrative and conjugative element. Our study provides new insights into the intrinsic and acquired drug resistance mechanisms in A. xylosoxidans, which will be helpful for better understanding the physiology of A. xylosoxidans and the evolution of antibiotic resistance in this bacterium.

  9. Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment and Longevity Revealed by the Analysis of Mole Rat Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Fang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments that are rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber. Comparative genome analyses, along with the transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, revealed candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, an aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and unique processing of 28S rRNA. Together, these genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance, and longevity.

  10. Whole-genome sequencing of uropathogenic Escherichia coli reveals long evolutionary history of diversity and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yancy; Zhang, Lixin; Foxman, Betsy; Zöllner, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are phenotypically and genotypically very diverse. This diversity makes it challenging to understand the evolution of UPEC adaptations responsible for causing urinary tract infections (UTI). To gain insight into the relationship between evolutionary divergence and adaptive paths to uropathogenicity, we sequenced at deep coverage (190×) the genomes of 19 E. coli strains from urinary tract infection patients from the same geographic area. Our sample consisted of 14 UPEC isolates and 5 non-UTI-causing (commensal) rectal E. coli isolates. After identifying strain variants using de novo assembly-based methods, we clustered the strains based on pairwise sequence differences using a neighbor-joining algorithm. We examined evolutionary signals on the whole-genome phylogeny and contrasted these signals with those found on gene trees constructed based on specific uropathogenic virulence factors. The whole-genome phylogeny showed that the divergence between UPEC and commensal E. coli strains without known UPEC virulence factors happened over 32 million generations ago. Pairwise diversity between any two strains was also high, suggesting multiple genetic origins of uropathogenic strains in a small geographic region. Contrasting the whole-genome phylogeny with three gene trees constructed from common uropathogenic virulence factors, we detected no selective advantage of these virulence genes over other genomic regions. These results suggest that UPEC acquired uropathogenicity long time ago and used it opportunistically to cause extraintestinal infections.

  11. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa

  12. RNA-Seq Analyses for Two Silkworm Strains Reveals Insight into Their Susceptibility and Resistance to Beauveria bassiana Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Liang; Li, Qingrong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-02-10

    The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana) and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana) using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between treated samples and untreated controls, and between the two silkworm strains, were identified. DEGs and the enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the two strains exhibited an obvious difference. Several genes encoding cuticle proteins, serine proteinase inhibitors (SPI) and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and the drug metabolism pathway involved in toxin detoxification were considered to be related to the resistance of K8 to B. bassiana. These results revealed insight into the resistance and susceptibility of two silkworm strains against B. bassiana infection and provided a roadmap for silkworm molecular breeding to enhance its resistance to B. bassiana.

  13. The Genome of Laccaria Bi color Provides Insights into Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F [UMR, France; Aerts, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ahren, D [Lund University, Sweden; Brun, A [UMR, France; Duchaussoy, F [UMR, France; Gibon, J [UMR, France; Kohler, A [UMR, France; Lindquist, E [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pereda, V [UMR, France; Salamov, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Shapiro, HJ [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wuyts, J [UMR, France; Blaudez, D [UMR, France; Buee, M [UMR, France; Brokstein, P [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Canbeck, B [Lund University, Sweden; Cohen, D [UMR, France; Courty, PE [UMR, France; Coutinho, PM [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Danchin, E [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Delaruelle, C [UMR, France; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deveau, A [UMR, France; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Duplessis, S [UMR, France; Fraissinet-Tachet, L [Universite de Lyon, France; Lucic, E [UMR, France; Frey-Klett, P [UMR, France; Fourrey, C [UMR, France; Feussner, I [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Gay, G [Universite de Lyon, France; Grimwood, Jane [Stanford University; Hoegger, P J [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Jain, P [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Kilaru, S [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Labbe, J [UMR, France; Lin, Y C [Ghent University, Belgium; Legue, V [UMR, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Marmeisse, R [Universite de Lyon, France; Melayah, D [Universite de Lyon, France; Montanini, B [UMR, France; Muratet, M [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Nehls, U [Eberhard-Karls-Universitat, Tubingen, Germany; Niculita-Hirzel, H [University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Oudot-Le Secq, M P [UMR, France; Peter, M [UMR, France; Quesneville, H [Unite de Recherches en Genomique-Info,Evry Cedex; Rajashekar, B [Lund University, Sweden; Reich, M [UMR, France; Rouhler, N [UMR, France; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Chalot, M [UMR, France; Henrissat, B [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Kues, U [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Lucas, S [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Van de Peer, Y [Ghent University, Belgium; Podila, G [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Polle, A [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Pukkila, P J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rouze, P [Ghent University, Belgium; Sanders, I R [University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Stajich, J E [University of California, Berkeley; Tunlid, A [Lund University, Sweden; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Grigoriev, I. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants1,2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and

  14. The Complete Genome Sequences, Unique Mutational Spectra, and Developmental Potency of Adult Neurons Revealed by Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Jennifer L; Faust, Gregory G; Rodriguez, Alberto R; Ferguson, William C; Shumilina, Svetlana; Clark, Royden A; Boland, Michael J; Martin, Greg; Chubukov, Pavel; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Torkamani, Ali; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Hall, Ira M; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2016-03-16

    Somatic mutation in neurons is linked to neurologic disease and implicated in cell-type diversification. However, the origin, extent, and patterns of genomic mutation in neurons remain unknown. We established a nuclear transfer method to clonally amplify the genomes of neurons from adult mice for whole-genome sequencing. Comprehensive mutation detection and independent validation revealed that individual neurons harbor ∼100 unique mutations from all classes but lack recurrent rearrangements. Most neurons contain at least one gene-disrupting mutation and rare (0-2) mobile element insertions. The frequency and gene bias of neuronal mutations differ from other lineages, potentially due to novel mechanisms governing postmitotic mutation. Fertile mice were cloned from several neurons, establishing the compatibility of mutated adult neuronal genomes with reprogramming to pluripotency and development.

  15. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  16. CTCF-Mediated Human 3D Genome Architecture Reveals Chromatin Topology for Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonghui; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Jacqueline Jufen; Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Magalska, Adriana; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Michalski, Paul; Piecuch, Emaly; Wang, Ping; Wang, Danjuan; Tian, Simon Zhongyuan; Penrad-Mobayed, May; Sachs, Laurent M.; Ruan, Xiaoan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T.; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced ChIA-PET strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CTCF and RNAPII with haplotype specificity and nucleotide resolution in different human cell lineages. We find that CTCF/cohesin-mediated interaction anchors serve as structural foci for spatial organization of constitutive genes concordant with CTCF-motif orientation, whereas RNAPII interacts within these structures by selectively drawing cell-type-specific genes towards CTCF-foci for coordinated transcription. Furthermore, we show that haplotype-variants and allelic-interactions have differential effects on chromosome configuration influencing gene expression and may provide mechanistic insights into functions associated with disease susceptibility. 3D-genome simulation suggests a model of chromatin folding around chromosomal axes, where CTCF is involved in defining the interface between condensed and open compartments for structural regulation. Our 3D-genome strategy thus provides unique insights in the topological mechanism of human variations and diseases. PMID:26686651

  17. CTCF-Mediated Human 3D Genome Architecture Reveals Chromatin Topology for Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonghui; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Jacqueline Jufen; Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Magalska, Adriana; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Michalski, Paul; Piecuch, Emaly; Wang, Ping; Wang, Danjuan; Tian, Simon Zhongyuan; Penrad-Mobayed, May; Sachs, Laurent M; Ruan, Xiaoan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Yijun

    2015-12-17

    Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with haplotype specificity and nucleotide resolution in different human cell lineages. We find that CTCF/cohesin-mediated interaction anchors serve as structural foci for spatial organization of constitutive genes concordant with CTCF-motif orientation, whereas RNAPII interacts within these structures by selectively drawing cell-type-specific genes toward CTCF foci for coordinated transcription. Furthermore, we show that haplotype variants and allelic interactions have differential effects on chromosome configuration, influencing gene expression, and may provide mechanistic insights into functions associated with disease susceptibility. 3D genome simulation suggests a model of chromatin folding around chromosomal axes, where CTCF is involved in defining the interface between condensed and open compartments for structural regulation. Our 3D genome strategy thus provides unique insights in the topological mechanism of human variations and diseases.

  18. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  19. Insights into the dynamics of genome size and chromosome evolution in the early diverging angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water lilies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, J; Kelly, L J; Magdalena, C; Leitch, I J

    2013-08-01

    Nymphaeales are the most species-rich lineage of the earliest diverging angiosperms known as the ANA grade (Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales), and they have received considerable attention from morphological, physiological, and ecological perspectives. Although phylogenetic relationships between these three lineages of angiosperms are mainly well resolved, insights at the whole genome level are still limited because of a dearth of information. To address this, genome sizes and chromosome numbers in 34 taxa, comprising 28 species were estimated and analysed together with previously published data to provide an overview of genome size and chromosome diversity in Nymphaeales. Overall, genome sizes were shown to vary 10-fold and chromosome numbers and ploidy levels ranged from 2n = 2x = 18 to 2n = 16x = ∼224. Distinct patterns of genome diversity were apparent, reflecting the differential incidence of polyploidy, changes in repetitive DNA content, and chromosome rearrangements within and between genera. Using model-based approaches, ancestral genome size and basic chromosome numbers were reconstructed to provide insights into the dynamics of genome size and chromosome number evolution. Finally, by combining additional data from Amborellales and Austrobaileyales, a comprehensive overview of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in these early diverging angiosperms is presented.

  20. Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization and indeterminate flowering in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Min; Kim, Seungill; Koo, Namjin; Shin, Ah-Young; Yeom, Seon-In; Seo, Eunyoung; Park, Seong-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Myung-Shin; Park, Jieun; Jang, Insu; Kim, Pan-Gyu; Byeon, Iksu; Kim, Min-Seo; Choi, JinHyuk; Ko, Gunhwan; Hwang, JiHye; Yang, Tae-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Lee, Je Min; Lim, Ki-Byung; Lee, Jungho; Choi, Ik-Young; Park, Beom-Seok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao. Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology. PMID:28011721

  1. Comparative genomics of two jute species and insight into fibre biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Saito, Jennifer A; Emdad, Emdadul Mannan; Ahmed, Borhan; Islam, Mohammad Moinul; Halim, Abdul; Hossen, Quazi Md Mosaddeque; Hossain, Md Zakir; Ahmed, Rasel; Hossain, Md Sabbir; Kabir, Shah Md Tamim; Khan, Md Sarwar Alam; Khan, Md Mursalin; Hasan, Rajnee; Aktar, Nasima; Honi, Ummay; Islam, Rahin; Rashid, Md Mamunur; Wan, Xuehua; Hou, Shaobin; Haque, Taslima; Azam, Muhammad Shafiul; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Elias, Sabrina M; Hasan, A M Mahedi; Mahmood, Niaz; Shafiuddin, Md; Shahid, Saima; Shommu, Nusrat Sharmeen; Jahan, Sharmin; Roy, Saroj; Chowdhury, Amlan; Akhand, Ashikul Islam; Nisho, Golam Morshad; Uddin, Khaled Salah; Rabeya, Taposhi; Hoque, S M Ekramul; Snigdha, Afsana Rahman; Mortoza, Sarowar; Matin, Syed Abdul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Lashkar, M Z H; Zaman, Mahboob; Yuryev, Anton; Uddin, Md Kamal; Rahman, Md Sharifur; Haque, Md Samiul; Alam, Md Monjurul; Khan, Haseena; Alam, Maqsudul

    2017-01-30

    Jute (Corchorus sp.) is one of the most important sources of natural fibre, covering ∼80% of global bast fibre production(1). Only Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis are commercially cultivated, though there are more than 100 Corchorus species(2) in the Malvaceae family. Here we describe high-quality draft genomes of these two species and their comparisons at the functional genomics level to support tailor-designed breeding. The assemblies cover 91.6% and 82.2% of the estimated genome sizes for C. olitorius and C. capsularis, respectively. In total, 37,031 C. olitorius and 30,096 C. capsularis genes are identified, and most of the genes are validated by cDNA and RNA-seq data. Analyses of clustered gene families and gene collinearity show that jute underwent shared whole-genome duplication ∼18.66 million years (Myr) ago prior to speciation. RNA expression analysis from isolated fibre cells reveals the key regulatory and structural genes involved in fibre formation. This work expands our understanding of the molecular basis of fibre formation laying the foundation for the genetic improvement of jute.

  2. Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenen, Martien A. M.; Archibald, Alan L.; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M.; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L.; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W.; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara; Bujie, Zhan; Bystrom, Megan; Capitanu, Boris; Silva, Denise Carvalho; Chardon, Patrick; Chen, Celine; Cheng, Ryan; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Chow, William; Clark, Richard C.; Clee, Christopher; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Dawson, Harry D.; Dehais, Patrice; De Sapio, Fioravante; Dibbits, Bert; Drou, Nizar; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Eversole, Kellye; Fadista, João; Fairley, Susan; Faraut, Thomas; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Fowler, Katie E.; Fredholm, Merete; Fritz, Eric; Gilbert, James G. R.; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Gorodkin, Jan; Griffin, Darren K.; Harrow, Jennifer L.; Hayward, Alexander; Howe, Kerstin; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Humphray, Sean J.; Hunt, Toby; Hornshøj, Henrik; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Jern, Patric; Jones, Matthew; Jurka, Jerzy; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Larson, Greger; Lee, Kyooyeol; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Leggett, Richard; Lewin, Harris A.; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Wansheng; Loveland, Jane E.; Lu, Yao; Lunney, Joan K.; Ma, Jian; Madsen, Ole; Mann, Katherine; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Morozumi, Takeya; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Narayan, Jitendra; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Ni, Peixiang; Oh, Song-Jung; Onteru, Suneel; Panitz, Frank; Park, Eung-Woo; Park, Hong-Seog; Pascal, Geraldine; Paudel, Yogesh; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Reecy, James M.; Zas, Sandra Rodriguez; Rohrer, Gary A.; Rund, Lauretta; Sang, Yongming; Schachtschneider, Kyle; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Schwartz, John; Scobie, Linda; Scott, Carol; Searle, Stephen; Servin, Bertrand; Southey, Bruce R.; Sperber, Goran; Stadler, Peter; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Tafer, Hakim; Thomsen, Bo; Wali, Rashmi; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; White, Simon; Xu, Xun; Yerle, Martine; Zhang, Guojie; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Shuhong; Rogers, Jane; Churcher, Carol; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2013-01-01

    For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model. PMID:23151582

  3. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The P. ultimum DAOM BR144 (=CBS 805.95 = ATCC200006) genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes, and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora spp., including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86 % o...

  4. Genome-wide transcript profiling reveals novel breast cancer-associated intronic sense RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Fishilevich, Elane; Arango-Argoty, Gustavo; Lin, Yuefeng; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhihua; Monaghan, A Paula; Nichols, Mark; John, Bino

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play major roles in development and cancer progression. To identify novel ncRNAs that may identify key pathways in breast cancer development, we performed high-throughput transcript profiling of tumor and normal matched-pair tissue samples. Initial transcriptome profiling using high-density genome-wide tiling arrays revealed changes in over 200 novel candidate genomic regions that map to intronic regions. Sixteen genomic loci were identified that map to the long introns of five key protein-coding genes, CRIM1, EPAS1, ZEB2, RBMS1, and RFX2. Consistent with the known role of the tumor suppressor ZEB2 in the cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), in situ hybridization reveals that the intronic regions deriving from ZEB2 as well as those from RFX2 and EPAS1 are down-regulated in cells of epithelial morphology, suggesting that these regions may be important for maintaining normal epithelial cell morphology. Paired-end deep sequencing analysis reveals a large number of distinct genomic clusters with no coding potential within the introns of these genes. These novel transcripts are only transcribed from the coding strand. A comprehensive search for breast cancer associated genes reveals enrichment for transcribed intronic regions from these loci, pointing to an underappreciated role of introns or mechanisms relating to their biology in EMT and breast cancer.

  5. Genome-wide transcript profiling reveals novel breast cancer-associated intronic sense RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs play major roles in development and cancer progression. To identify novel ncRNAs that may identify key pathways in breast cancer development, we performed high-throughput transcript profiling of tumor and normal matched-pair tissue samples. Initial transcriptome profiling using high-density genome-wide tiling arrays revealed changes in over 200 novel candidate genomic regions that map to intronic regions. Sixteen genomic loci were identified that map to the long introns of five key protein-coding genes, CRIM1, EPAS1, ZEB2, RBMS1, and RFX2. Consistent with the known role of the tumor suppressor ZEB2 in the cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, in situ hybridization reveals that the intronic regions deriving from ZEB2 as well as those from RFX2 and EPAS1 are down-regulated in cells of epithelial morphology, suggesting that these regions may be important for maintaining normal epithelial cell morphology. Paired-end deep sequencing analysis reveals a large number of distinct genomic clusters with no coding potential within the introns of these genes. These novel transcripts are only transcribed from the coding strand. A comprehensive search for breast cancer associated genes reveals enrichment for transcribed intronic regions from these loci, pointing to an underappreciated role of introns or mechanisms relating to their biology in EMT and breast cancer.

  6. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Jeanine; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals u

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio Vulnificus Isolates Revealed Biotype 3 Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eKotton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59% and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 kbp to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C and environmental (E, all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3 and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and

  8. Genome evolution predicts genetic interactions in protein complexes and reveals cancer drug targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Kensche, P.R.; Huynen, M.A.; Notebaart, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic interactions reveal insights into cellular function and can be used to identify drug targets. Here we construct a new model to predict negative genetic interactions in protein complexes by exploiting the evolutionary history of genes in parallel converging pathways in metabolism. We evaluate

  9. Population-genomic insights into emergence, crop adaptation and dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, Caroline L.; Yahara, Koji; Studholme, David J.; Mageiros, Leonardos; Méric, Guillaume; Swingle, Bryan; Morris, Cindy E.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens are well characterized but, in some cases, little is known about the populations from which they emerged. This limits understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. The crop pathogen Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato has been widely isolated from the environment, including wild plants and components of the water cycle, and causes disease in several economically important crops. Here, we compared genome sequences of 45 P. syringae crop pathogen outbreak strains with 69 closely related environmental isolates. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that crop pathogens emerged many times independently from environmental populations. Unexpectedly, differences in gene content between environmental populations and outbreak strains were minimal with most virulence genes present in both. However, a genome-wide association study identified a small number of genes, including the type III effector genes hopQ1 and hopD1, to be associated with crop pathogens, but not with environmental populations, suggesting that this small group of genes may play an important role in crop disease emergence. Intriguingly, genome-wide analysis of homologous recombination revealed that the locus Psyr 0346, predicted to encode a protein that confers antibiotic resistance, has been frequently exchanged among lineages and thus may contribute to pathogen fitness. Finally, we found that isolates from diseased crops and from components of the water cycle, collected during the same crop disease epidemic, form a single population. This provides the strongest evidence yet that precipitation and irrigation water are an overlooked inoculum source for disease epidemics caused by P. syringae. PMID:28348830

  10. The Methanosarcina barkeri genome: comparative analysis withMethanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina mazei reveals extensiverearrangement within methanosarcinal genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, Dennis L.; Anderson, Iain; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce,David C.; Gilna, Paul; Han, Cliff S.; Lapidus, Alla; Metcalf, William W.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2006-05-19

    We report here a comparative analysis of the genome sequence of Methanosarcina barkeri with those of Methanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina mazei. All three genomes share a conserved double origin of replication and many gene clusters. M. barkeri is distinguished by having an organization that is well conserved with respect to the other Methanosarcinae in the region proximal to the origin of replication with interspecies gene similarities as high as 95%. However it is disordered and marked by increased transposase frequency and decreased gene synteny and gene density in the proximal semi-genome. Of the 3680 open reading frames in M. barkeri, 678 had paralogs with better than 80% similarity to both M. acetivorans and M. mazei while 128 nonhypothetical orfs were unique (non-paralogous) amongst these species including a complete formate dehydrogenase operon, two genes required for N-acetylmuramic acid synthesis, a 14 gene gas vesicle cluster and a bacterial P450-specific ferredoxin reductase cluster not previously observed or characterized in this genus. A cryptic 36 kbp plasmid sequence was detected in M. barkeri that contains an orc1 gene flanked by a presumptive origin of replication consisting of 38 tandem repeats of a 143 nt motif. Three-way comparison of these genomes reveals differing mechanisms for the accrual of changes. Elongation of the large M. acetivorans is the result of multiple gene-scale insertions and duplications uniformly distributed in that genome, while M. barkeri is characterized by localized inversions associated with the loss of gene content. In contrast, the relatively short M. mazei most closely approximates the ancestral organizational state.

  11. Genomic and Biochemical Insights into the Specificity of ETS Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenhorst, Peter C.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Graves, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    ETS proteins are a group of evolutionarily related, DNA-binding transcriptional factors. These proteins direct gene expression in diverse normal and disease states by binding to specific promoters and enhancers and facilitating assembly of other components of the transcriptional machinery. The highly conserved DNA-binding ETS domain defines the family and is responsible for specific recognition of a common sequence motif, 5′-GGA(A/T)-3′. Attaining specificity for biological regulation in such a family is thus a conundrum. We present the current knowledge of routes to functional diversity and DNA binding specificity, including divergent properties of the conserved ETS and PNT domains, the involvement of flanking structured and unstructured regions appended to these dynamic domains, posttranslational modifications, and protein partnerships with other DNA-binding proteins and coregulators. The review emphasizes recent advances from biochemical and biophysical approaches, as well as insights from genomic studies that detect ETS-factor occupancy in living cells. PMID:21548782

  12. Comparative Analysis of Bat Genomes Provides Insight into the Evolution of Flight and Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Cowled, Christopher; Shi, Zhengli

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific......Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat...... that may be related to the origin of flight, as well as expansion and contraction of important gene families. Comparison of bat genomes with other mammalian species has provided new insights into bat biology and evolution....

  13. Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D; Zach S Liechty; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium ra...

  14. First insight into the genome of an uncultivated crenarchaeote from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaiser, Achim; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    we have initiated a genomic approach for the characterization of uncultivated microorganisms from soil. We have developed a procedure based on a two-phase electrophoresis technique that allows the fast and reliable purification of concentrated and clonable, high molecular weight DNA. From this DNA we......Molecular phylogenetic surveys based on the characterization of 16S rRNA genes have revealed that soil is an environment particularly rich in microbial diversity. A clade of crenarchaeota (archaea) has frequently been detected among many other novel lineages of uncultivated bacteria. In this study...... have constructed complex large-insert genomic libraries. Using archaea-specific 16S rRNA probes we have isolated a 34 kbp fragment from a 900 Mbp fosmid library of soil DNA. The clone contained a complete 16S/23S rRNA operon and 17 genes encoding putative proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of the r...

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of aspartic proteases in eight parasitic platyhelminths: insights into functions and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Sen; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-03-15

    We performed genome-wide identifications and comparative genomic analyses of the predicted aspartic proteases (APs) from eight parasitic flatworms, focusing on their evolution, potentials as drug targets and expression patterns. The results revealed that: i) More members of family A01 were identified from the schistosomes than from the cestodes; some evidence implied gene loss events along the class Cestoda, which may be related to the different ways to ingest host nutrition; ii) members in family A22 were evolutionarily highly conserved among all the parasites; iii) one retroviral-like AP in family A28 shared a highly similar predicted 3D structure with the HIV protease, implying its potential to be inhibited by HIV inhibitor-like molecules; and iiii) retrotransposon-associated APs were extensively expanded among these parasites. These results implied that the evolutionary histories of some APs in these parasites might relate to adaptations to their parasitism and some APs might have potential serving as intervention targets.

  16. Lineage-specific biology revealed by a finished genome assembly of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deanna M; Goodstadt, Leo; Hillier, Ladeana W; Zody, Michael C; Goldstein, Steve; She, Xinwe; Bult, Carol J; Agarwala, Richa; Cherry, Joshua L; DiCuccio, Michael; Hlavina, Wratko; Kapustin, Yuri; Meric, Peter; Maglott, Donna; Birtle, Zoë; Marques, Ana C; Graves, Tina; Zhou, Shiguo; Teague, Brian; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Churas, Christopher; Place, Michael; Herschleb, Jill; Runnheim, Ron; Forrest, Daniel; Amos-Landgraf, James; Schwartz, David C; Cheng, Ze; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Eichler, Evan E; Ponting, Chris P

    2009-05-05

    The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not.

  17. Lineage-specific biology revealed by a finished genome assembly of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M Church

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mouse (Mus musculus is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes. In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not.

  18. Genomics reveals historic and contemporary transmission dynamics of a bacterial disease among wildlife and livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Drees, Kevin P.; Luikart, Gordon; Quance, Christine; Anderson, Neil J.; Clarke, P. Ryan; Cole, Eric K.; Drew, Mark L.; Edwards, William H.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Treanor, John J.; Wallen, Rick L.; White, Patrick J.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing has provided fundamental insights into infectious disease epidemiology, but has rarely been used for examining transmission dynamics of a bacterial pathogen in wildlife. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), outbreaks of brucellosis have increased in cattle along with rising seroprevalence in elk. Here we use a genomic approach to examine Brucella abortus evolution, cross-species transmission and spatial spread in the GYE. We find that brucellosis was introduced into wildlife in this region at least five times. The diffusion rate varies among Brucella lineages (B3 to 8 km per year) and over time. We also estimate 12 host transitions from bison to elk, and 5 from elk to bison. Our results support the notion that free-ranging elk are currently a self-sustaining brucellosis reservoir and the source of livestock infections, and that control measures in bison are unlikely to affect the dynamics of unrelated strains circulating in nearby elk populations.

  19. Methane metabolism in the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota revealed by genome-centric metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paul N; Parks, Donovan H; Chadwick, Grayson L; Robbins, Steven J; Orphan, Victoria J; Golding, Suzanne D; Tyson, Gene W

    2015-10-23

    Methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea play important roles in the global flux of methane. Culture-independent approaches are providing deeper insight into the diversity and evolution of methane-metabolizing microorganisms, but, until now, no compelling evidence has existed for methane metabolism in archaea outside the phylum Euryarchaeota. We performed metagenomic sequencing of a deep aquifer, recovering two near-complete genomes belonging to the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota (formerly known as the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group). These genomes contain divergent homologs of the genes necessary for methane metabolism, including those that encode the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) complex. Additional non-euryarchaeotal MCR-encoding genes identified in a range of environments suggest that unrecognized archaeal lineages may also contribute to global methane cycling. These findings indicate that methane metabolism arose before the last common ancestor of the Euryarchaeota and Bathyarchaeota.

  20. A biometrical genome search in rats reveals the multigenic basis of blood pressure variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, N J; Krieger, J E; Trolliet, M R; Franchini, K G; Koike, G; Krieger, E M; Lander, E S; Dzau, V J; Jacob, H J

    1995-09-01

    A genome-wide search for multiple loci influencing salt-loaded systolic blood pressure (NaSBP) variation among 188 F2 progeny from a cross between the Brown-Norway and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains was pursued in an effort to gain insight into the polygenic basis of blood pressure regulation. The results suggest that loci within five to six genomic regions collectively explain approximately 43% of the total NaSBP variation exhibited among the 188 F2 progeny. Many of these loci are in regions that previous studies have not implicated in blood pressure regulation. Ultimately, however, this study not only sheds light on the multigenic basis of blood pressure but provides further evidence that the identification of the genetic determinants of polygenic traits in mammals is possible with modern biometrical and molecular genetic tools in controlled settings (i.e., breeding paradigm and model organism).

  1. The Genome of Syntrophomonas Wolfei: New Insights into Syntrophic Metabolism and Biohydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieber, Jessica R; Sims, David R; Han, Cliff F; Kim, E; Lykidis, Athanasios; Lapidus, Alla; McDonald, Erin; Rohlin, Lars; Culley, David E; Gunsalus, Robert; McInerney, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Syntrophomonas wolfei is a specialist, evolutionarily adapted for syntrophic growth with methanogens and other hydrogen- and/or formate-using microorganisms. This slow growing anaerobe has three putative ribosome RNA operons, each of which has 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes of different length and multiple 5S rRNA genes. The genome also contains ten RNA-directed, DNA polymerase genes. Genomic analysis shows that S. wolfei relies solely on the reduction of protons, bicarbonate, or unsaturated fatty acids to re-oxidize reduced cofactors. S. wolfei lacks the genes needed for aerobic or anaerobic respiration and has an exceptionally limited ability to create ion gradients. An ATP synthase and a pyrophosphatase were the only systems detected capable of creating an ion gradient. Multiple homologs for β-oxidation genes were present even though S. wolfei uses a limited range of fatty acids from 4 to 8 carbons in length. S. wolfei, other syntrophic metabolizers with completed genomic sequences, and thermophilic anaerobes known to produce high molar ratios of hydrogen from glucose have genes to produce H2 from NADH by an electron bifurcation mechanism. Comparative genomic analysis also suggests that formate production from NADH may involve electron bifurcation. A membrane-bound, iron-sulfur oxidoreductase found in S. wolfei and Syntrophus aciditrophicus may be uniquely involved in reverse electron transport during syntrophic fatty acid metabolism. The genome sequence of S. wolfei reveals several core reactions that may be characteristic of syntrophic fatty acid metabolism and illustrates how biological systems produce hydrogen from thermodynamically difficult reactions.

  2. Comparison of assembled Clostridium botulinum A1 genomes revealed their evolutionary relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Virginia; Lin, Wei-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum encompasses bacteria that produce at least one of the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A-G). The availability of genome sequences of four closely related Type A1 or A1(B) strains, as well as the A1-specific microarray, allowed the analysis of their genomic organizations and evolutionary relationship. The four genomes share >90% core genes and >96% functional groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on COG shows closer relations of the A1(B) strain, NCTC 2916, to B1 and F1 than A1 strains. Alignment of the genomes of the three A1 strains revealed a highly similar chromosomal structure with three small gaps in the genome of ATCC 19397 and one additional gap in the genome of Hall A, suggesting ATCC 19379 as an evolutionary intermediate between Hall A and ATCC 3502. Analyses of the four gap regions indicated potential horizontal gene transfer and recombination events important for the evolution of A1 strains.

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Genetic Variation in the Asian House Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajing Teng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing of wild-derived rat species can provide novel genomic resources, which may help decipher the genetics underlying complex phenotypes. As a notorious pest, reservoir of human pathogens, and colonizer, the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, is successfully adapted to its habitat. However, little is known regarding genetic variation in this species. In this study, we identified over 41,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plus insertions and deletions, through whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. Moreover, we identified over 12,000 structural variants, including 143 chromosomal inversions. Further functional analyses revealed several fixed nonsense mutations associated with infection and immunity-related adaptations, and a number of fixed missense mutations that may be related to anticoagulant resistance. A genome-wide scan for loci under selection identified various genes related to neural activity. Our whole-genome sequencing data provide a genomic resource for future genetic studies of the Asian house rat species and have the potential to facilitate understanding of the molecular adaptations of rats to their ecological niches.

  4. The Douglas-Fir Genome Sequence Reveals Specialization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Neale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb. Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50 = 340,704 bp. Incremental improvements in sequencing and assembly technologies are in part responsible for the higher quality reference genome, but it may also be due to a slightly lower exact repeat content in Douglas-fir vs. pine and spruce. Comparative genome annotation with angiosperm species reveals gene-family expansion and contraction in Douglas-fir and other conifers which may account for some of the major morphological and physiological differences between the two major plant groups. Notable differences in the size of the NDH-complex gene family and genes underlying the functional basis of shade tolerance/intolerance were observed. This reference genome sequence not only provides an important resource for Douglas-fir breeders and geneticists but also sheds additional light on the evolutionary processes that have led to the divergence of modern angiosperms from the more ancient gymnosperms.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Genetic Variation in the Asian House Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Yaohua; Shi, Chengmin; Mao, Fengbiao; Hou, Lingling; Guo, Hongling; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Jianxu

    2016-07-07

    Whole-genome sequencing of wild-derived rat species can provide novel genomic resources, which may help decipher the genetics underlying complex phenotypes. As a notorious pest, reservoir of human pathogens, and colonizer, the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, is successfully adapted to its habitat. However, little is known regarding genetic variation in this species. In this study, we identified over 41,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plus insertions and deletions, through whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. Moreover, we identified over 12,000 structural variants, including 143 chromosomal inversions. Further functional analyses revealed several fixed nonsense mutations associated with infection and immunity-related adaptations, and a number of fixed missense mutations that may be related to anticoagulant resistance. A genome-wide scan for loci under selection identified various genes related to neural activity. Our whole-genome sequencing data provide a genomic resource for future genetic studies of the Asian house rat species and have the potential to facilitate understanding of the molecular adaptations of rats to their ecological niches.

  6. Genome divergence during evolutionary diversification as revealed in replicate lake-stream stickleback population pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesti, Marius; Hendry, Andrew P; Salzburger, Walter; Berner, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Evolutionary diversification is often initiated by adaptive divergence between populations occupying ecologically distinct environments while still exchanging genes. The genetic foundations of this divergence process are largely unknown and are here explored through genome scans in multiple independent lake-stream population pairs of threespine stickleback. We find that across the pairs, overall genomic divergence is associated with the magnitude of divergence in phenotypes known to be under divergent selection. Along this same axis of increasing diversification, genomic divergence becomes increasingly biased towards the centre of chromosomes as opposed to the peripheries. We explain this pattern by within-chromosome variation in the physical extent of hitchhiking, as recombination is greatly reduced in chromosome centres. Correcting for this effect suggests that a great number of genes distributed widely across the genome are involved in the divergence into lake vs. stream habitats. Analyzing additional allopatric population pairs, however, reveals that strong divergence in some genomic regions has been driven by selection unrelated to lake-stream ecology. Our study highlights a major contribution of large-scale variation in recombination rate to generating heterogeneous genomic divergence and indicates that elucidating the genetic basis of adaptive divergence might be more challenging than currently recognized.

  7. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Yu, Sheng; Tong, Chaobo; Zhao, Yingzhong; Liu, Yan; Song, Chi; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ying; Hua, Wei; Li, Donghua; Li, Dan; Li, Fang; Yu, Jingyin; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Xuelian; Huang, Shunmou; Tai, Shuaishuai; Wang, Junyi; Xu, Xun; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Shengyi; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiurong

    2014-02-27

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame.

  8. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-02

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae.

  9. Single-cell genomics reveals complex carbohydrate degradation patterns in poribacterial symbionts of marine sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Rinke, Christian; Mavromatis, Kostas; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Many marine sponges are hosts to dense and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities that are located in the extracellular matrix of the animal. The candidate phylum Poribacteria is a predominant member of the sponge microbiome and its representatives are nearly exclusively found in sponges. Here we used single-cell genomics to obtain comprehensive insights into the metabolic potential of individual poribacterial cells representing three distinct phylogenetic groups within Poribacteria. Genome sizes were up to 5.4 Mbp and genome coverage was as high as 98.5%. Common features of the poribacterial genomes indicated that heterotrophy is likely to be of importance for this bacterial candidate phylum. Carbohydrate-active enzyme database screening and further detailed analysis of carbohydrate metabolism suggested the ability to degrade diverse carbohydrate sources likely originating from seawater and from the host itself. The presence of uronic acid degradation pathways as well as several specific sulfatases provides strong support that Poribacteria degrade glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans, which are important components of the sponge host matrix. Dominant glycoside hydrolase families further suggest degradation of other glycoproteins in the host matrix. We therefore propose that Poribacteria are well adapted to an existence in the sponge extracellular matrix. Poribacteria may be viewed as efficient scavengers and recyclers of a particular suite of carbon compounds that are unique to sponges as microbial ecosystems. PMID:23842652

  10. Single-cell genomics reveals complex carbohydrate degradation patterns in poribacterial symbionts of marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Rinke, Christian; Mavromatis, Kostas; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-12-01

    Many marine sponges are hosts to dense and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities that are located in the extracellular matrix of the animal. The candidate phylum Poribacteria is a predominant member of the sponge microbiome and its representatives are nearly exclusively found in sponges. Here we used single-cell genomics to obtain comprehensive insights into the metabolic potential of individual poribacterial cells representing three distinct phylogenetic groups within Poribacteria. Genome sizes were up to 5.4 Mbp and genome coverage was as high as 98.5%. Common features of the poribacterial genomes indicated that heterotrophy is likely to be of importance for this bacterial candidate phylum. Carbohydrate-active enzyme database screening and further detailed analysis of carbohydrate metabolism suggested the ability to degrade diverse carbohydrate sources likely originating from seawater and from the host itself. The presence of uronic acid degradation pathways as well as several specific sulfatases provides strong support that Poribacteria degrade glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans, which are important components of the sponge host matrix. Dominant glycoside hydrolase families further suggest degradation of other glycoproteins in the host matrix. We therefore propose that Poribacteria are well adapted to an existence in the sponge extracellular matrix. Poribacteria may be viewed as efficient scavengers and recyclers of a particular suite of carbon compounds that are unique to sponges as microbial ecosystems.

  11. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; McLoughlin, Stephen; Vajda, Vivi

    2014-03-21

    Rapidly permineralized fossils can provide exceptional insights into the evolution of life over geological time. Here, we present an exquisitely preserved, calcified stem of a royal fern (Osmundaceae) from Early Jurassic lahar deposits of Sweden in which authigenic mineral precipitation from hydrothermal brines occurred so rapidly that it preserved cytoplasm, cytosol granules, nuclei, and even chromosomes in various stages of cell division. Morphometric parameters of interphase nuclei match those of extant Osmundaceae, indicating that the genome size of these reputed "living fossils" has remained unchanged over at least 180 million years-a paramount example of evolutionary stasis.

  12. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  13. Genomic insights into the evolution of industrial yeast species Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Christopher D; Pretorius, Isak S

    2014-11-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis, like its wine yeast counterpart Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is intrinsically linked with industrial fermentations. In wine, B. bruxellensis is generally considered to contribute negative influences on wine quality, whereas for some styles of beer, it is an essential contributor. More recently, it has shown some potential for bioethanol production. Our relatively poor understanding of B. bruxellensis biology, at least when compared with S. cerevisiae, is partly due to a lack of laboratory tools. As it is a nonmodel organism, efforts to develop methods for sporulation and transformation have been sporadic and largely unsuccessful. Recent genome sequencing efforts are now providing B. bruxellensis researchers unprecedented access to gene catalogues, the possibility of performing transcriptomic studies and new insights into evolutionary drivers. This review summarises these findings, emphasises the rich data sets already available yet largely unexplored and looks over the horizon at what might be learnt soon through comprehensive population genomics of B. bruxellensis and related species. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative genomics in acid mine drainage biofilm communities reveals metabolic and structural differentiation of co-occurring archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    subtle, but important genomic differences, coupled with unknown differences in gene expression, distinguish these organisms enough to allow for co-existence. Overall this study reveals shared features of organisms from the Thermoplasmatales lineage and provides new insights into the functioning of AMD communities. PMID:23865623

  15. Divergence in Enzymatic Activities in the Soybean GST Supergene Family Provides New Insight into the Evolutionary Dynamics of Whole-Genome Duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Tang, Zhen-Xin; Han, Xue-Min; Yang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Min; Yang, Hai-Ling; Liu, Yan-Jing; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2015-11-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, is a major force in plant genome evolution. A duplicate of all genes is present in the genome immediately following a WGD event. However, the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the loss of, or retention and subsequent functional divergence of polyploidy-derived duplicates remain largely unknown. In this study we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family from the soybean genome, and identified 72 GST duplicated gene pairs formed by a recent Glycine-specific WGD event occurring approximately 13 Ma. We found that 72% of duplicated GST gene pairs experienced gene losses or pseudogenization, whereas 28% of GST gene pairs have been retained in the soybean genome. The GST pseudogenes were under relaxed selective constraints, whereas functional GSTs were subject to strong purifying selection. Plant GST genes play important roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism. By examining the gene expression responses to abiotic stresses and enzymatic properties of the ancestral and current proteins, we found that polyploidy-derived GST duplicates show the divergence in enzymatic activities. Through site-directed mutagenesis of ancestral proteins, this study revealed that nonsynonymous substitutions of key amino acid sites play an important role in the divergence of enzymatic functions of polyploidy-derived GST duplicates. These findings provide new insights into the evolutionary and functional dynamics of polyploidy-derived duplicate genes.

  16. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  17. Genome-guided insight into the methylotrophy of Paracoccus aminophilus JCM 7686

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eDziewit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccus aminophilus JCM 7686 (Alphaproteobacteria is a facultative, heterotrophic methylotroph capable of utilizing a wide range of C1 compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. Analysis of the JCM 7686 genome revealed the presence of genes involved in the oxidation of methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, N,N-dimethylformamide and formamide, as well as the serine cycle, which appears to be the only C1 assimilatory pathway in this strain. Many of these genes are located in different extrachromosomal replicons and are not present in the genomes of most members of the genus Paracoccus, which strongly suggests that they have been horizontally acquired. When compared with Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222 (type strain of the genus Paracoccus, P. aminophilus JCM 7686 has many additional methylotrophic capabilities (oxidation of dimethylamine, trimethylamine, N,N-dimethylformamide, the serine cycle, which are determined by the presence of three separate gene clusters. Interestingly, related clusters form compact methylotrophy islands within the genomes of Paracoccus sp. N5 and many marine bacteria of the Roseobacter clade.

  18. Single-cell genomics of a rare environmental alphaproteobacterium provides unique insights into Rickettsiaceae evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Joran; Schulz, Frederik; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Viklund, Johan; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Andersson, Siv G E; Horn, Matthias; Guy, Lionel; Ettema, Thijs J G

    2015-11-01

    The bacterial family Rickettsiaceae includes a group of well-known etiological agents of many human and vertebrate diseases, including epidemic typhus-causing pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii. Owing to their medical relevance, rickettsiae have attracted a great deal of attention and their host-pathogen interactions have been thoroughly investigated. All known members display obligate intracellular lifestyles, and the best-studied genera, Rickettsia and Orientia, include species that are hosted by terrestrial arthropods. Their obligate intracellular lifestyle and host adaptation is reflected in the small size of their genomes, a general feature shared with all other families of the Rickettsiales. Yet, despite that the Rickettsiaceae and other Rickettsiales families have been extensively studied for decades, many details of the origin and evolution of their obligate host-association remain elusive. Here we report the discovery and single-cell sequencing of 'Candidatus Arcanobacter lacustris', a rare environmental alphaproteobacterium that was sampled from Damariscotta Lake that represents a deeply rooting sister lineage of the Rickettsiaceae. Intriguingly, phylogenomic and comparative analysis of the partial 'Candidatus Arcanobacter lacustris' genome revealed the presence chemotaxis genes and vertically inherited flagellar genes, a novelty in sequenced Rickettsiaceae, as well as several host-associated features. This finding suggests that the ancestor of the Rickettsiaceae might have had a facultative intracellular lifestyle. Our study underlines the efficacy of single-cell genomics for studying microbial diversity and evolution in general, and for rare microbial cells in particular.

  19. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences of Boea hygrometrica: insights into the evolution of plant organellar genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwu Zhang

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast (cp and mitochondrial (mt genomes of resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Bh, Gesneriaceae have been determined with the lengths of 153,493 bp and 510,519 bp, respectively. The smaller chloroplast genome contains more genes (147 with a 72% coding sequence, and the larger mitochondrial genome have less genes (65 with a coding faction of 12%. Similar to other seed plants, the Bh cp genome has a typical quadripartite organization with a conserved gene in each region. The Bh mt genome has three recombinant sequence repeats of 222 bp, 843 bp, and 1474 bp in length, which divide the genome into a single master circle (MC and four isomeric molecules. Compared to other angiosperms, one remarkable feature of the Bh mt genome is the frequent transfer of genetic material from the cp genome during recent Bh evolution. We also analyzed organellar genome evolution in general regarding genome features as well as compositional dynamics of sequence and gene structure/organization, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organellar genomes in plants. The cp-derived sequences including tRNAs found in angiosperm mt genomes support the conclusion that frequent gene transfer events may have begun early in the land plant lineage.

  20. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences of Boea hygrometrica: insights into the evolution of plant organellar genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwu; Fang, Yongjun; Wang, Xumin; Deng, Xin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Bh, Gesneriaceae) have been determined with the lengths of 153,493 bp and 510,519 bp, respectively. The smaller chloroplast genome contains more genes (147) with a 72% coding sequence, and the larger mitochondrial genome have less genes (65) with a coding faction of 12%. Similar to other seed plants, the Bh cp genome has a typical quadripartite organization with a conserved gene in each region. The Bh mt genome has three recombinant sequence repeats of 222 bp, 843 bp, and 1474 bp in length, which divide the genome into a single master circle (MC) and four isomeric molecules. Compared to other angiosperms, one remarkable feature of the Bh mt genome is the frequent transfer of genetic material from the cp genome during recent Bh evolution. We also analyzed organellar genome evolution in general regarding genome features as well as compositional dynamics of sequence and gene structure/organization, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organellar genomes in plants. The cp-derived sequences including tRNAs found in angiosperm mt genomes support the conclusion that frequent gene transfer events may have begun early in the land plant lineage.

  1. The Burmese python genome reveals the molecular basis for extreme adaptation in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoe, Todd A; de Koning, A P Jason; Hall, Kathryn T; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Fujita, Matthew K; Ruggiero, Robert P; Degner, Jack F; Daza, Juan M; Gu, Wanjun; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Shaney, Kyle J; Castoe, Jill M; Fox, Samuel E; Poole, Alex W; Polanco, Daniel; Dobry, Jason; Vandewege, Michael W; Li, Qing; Schott, Ryan K; Kapusta, Aurélie; Minx, Patrick; Feschotte, Cédric; Uetz, Peter; Ray, David A; Hoffmann, Federico G; Bogden, Robert; Smith, Eric N; Chang, Belinda S W; Vonk, Freek J; Casewell, Nicholas R; Henkel, Christiaan V; Richardson, Michael K; Mackessy, Stephen P; Bronikowski, Anne M; Bronikowsi, Anne M; Yandell, Mark; Warren, Wesley C; Secor, Stephen M; Pollock, David D

    2013-12-17

    Snakes possess many extreme morphological and physiological adaptations. Identification of the molecular basis of these traits can provide novel understanding for vertebrate biology and medicine. Here, we study snake biology using the genome sequence of the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), a model of extreme physiological and metabolic adaptation. We compare the python and king cobra genomes along with genomic samples from other snakes and perform transcriptome analysis to gain insights into the extreme phenotypes of the python. We discovered rapid and massive transcriptional responses in multiple organ systems that occur on feeding and coordinate major changes in organ size and function. Intriguingly, the homologs of these genes in humans are associated with metabolism, development, and pathology. We also found that many snake metabolic genes have undergone positive selection, which together with the rapid evolution of mitochondrial proteins, provides evidence for extensive adaptive redesign of snake metabolic pathways. Additional evidence for molecular adaptation and gene family expansions and contractions is associated with major physiological and phenotypic adaptations in snakes; genes involved are related to cell cycle, development, lungs, eyes, heart, intestine, and skeletal structure, including GRB2-associated binding protein 1, SSH, WNT16, and bone morphogenetic protein 7. Finally, changes in repetitive DNA content, guanine-cytosine isochore structure, and nucleotide substitution rates indicate major shifts in the structure and evolution of snake genomes compared with other amniotes. Phenotypic and physiological novelty in snakes seems to be driven by system-wide coordination of protein adaptation, gene expression, and changes in the structure of the genome.

  2. The Burmese python genome reveals the molecular basis for extreme adaptation in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoe, Todd A.; de Koning, A. P. Jason; Hall, Kathryn T.; Card, Daren C.; Schield, Drew R.; Fujita, Matthew K.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Degner, Jack F.; Daza, Juan M.; Gu, Wanjun; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Shaney, Kyle J.; Castoe, Jill M.; Fox, Samuel E.; Poole, Alex W.; Polanco, Daniel; Dobry, Jason; Vandewege, Michael W.; Li, Qing; Schott, Ryan K.; Kapusta, Aurélie; Minx, Patrick; Feschotte, Cédric; Uetz, Peter; Ray, David A.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Bogden, Robert; Smith, Eric N.; Chang, Belinda S. W.; Vonk, Freek J.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Richardson, Michael K.; Mackessy, Stephen P.; Bronikowski, Anne M.; Yandell, Mark; Warren, Wesley C.; Secor, Stephen M.; Pollock, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Snakes possess many extreme morphological and physiological adaptations. Identification of the molecular basis of these traits can provide novel understanding for vertebrate biology and medicine. Here, we study snake biology using the genome sequence of the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), a model of extreme physiological and metabolic adaptation. We compare the python and king cobra genomes along with genomic samples from other snakes and perform transcriptome analysis to gain insights into the extreme phenotypes of the python. We discovered rapid and massive transcriptional responses in multiple organ systems that occur on feeding and coordinate major changes in organ size and function. Intriguingly, the homologs of these genes in humans are associated with metabolism, development, and pathology. We also found that many snake metabolic genes have undergone positive selection, which together with the rapid evolution of mitochondrial proteins, provides evidence for extensive adaptive redesign of snake metabolic pathways. Additional evidence for molecular adaptation and gene family expansions and contractions is associated with major physiological and phenotypic adaptations in snakes; genes involved are related to cell cycle, development, lungs, eyes, heart, intestine, and skeletal structure, including GRB2-associated binding protein 1, SSH, WNT16, and bone morphogenetic protein 7. Finally, changes in repetitive DNA content, guanine-cytosine isochore structure, and nucleotide substitution rates indicate major shifts in the structure and evolution of snake genomes compared with other amniotes. Phenotypic and physiological novelty in snakes seems to be driven by system-wide coordination of protein adaptation, gene expression, and changes in the structure of the genome. PMID:24297902

  3. Unique core genomes of the bacterial family vibrionaceae: insights into niche adaptation and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlke Tim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criteria for defining bacterial species and even the concept of bacterial species itself are under debate, and the discussion is apparently intensifying as more genome sequence data is becoming available. However, it is still unclear how the new advances in genomics should be used most efficiently to address this question. In this study we identify genes that are common to any group of genomes in our dataset, to determine whether genes specific to a particular taxon exist and to investigate their potential role in adaptation of bacteria to their specific niche. These genes were named unique core genes. Additionally, we investigate the existence and importance of unique core genes that are found in isolates of phylogenetically non-coherent groups. These groups of isolates, that share a genetic feature without sharing a closest common ancestor, are termed genophyletic groups. Results The bacterial family Vibrionaceae was used as the model, and we compiled and compared genome sequences of 64 different isolates. Using the software orthoMCL we determined clusters of homologous genes among the investigated genome sequences. We used multilocus sequence analysis to build a host phylogeny and mapped the numbers of unique core genes of all distinct groups of isolates onto the tree. The results show that unique core genes are more likely to be found in monophyletic groups of isolates. Genophyletic groups of isolates, in contrast, are less common especially for large groups of isolate. The subsequent annotation of unique core genes that are present in genophyletic groups indicate a high degree of horizontally transferred genes. Finally, the annotation of the unique core genes of Vibrio cholerae revealed genes involved in aerotaxis and biosynthesis of the iron-chelator vibriobactin. Conclusion The presented work indicates that genes specific for any taxon inside the bacterial family Vibrionaceae exist. These unique core genes encode

  4. The Schistosoma mansoni phylome: using evolutionary genomics to gain insight into a parasite’s biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Larissa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni is one of the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects about 237 million people worldwide. Despite recent efforts, we still lack a general understanding of the relevant host-parasite interactions, and the possible treatments are limited by the emergence of resistant strains and the absence of a vaccine. The S. mansoni genome was completely sequenced and still under continuous annotation. Nevertheless, more than 45% of the encoded proteins remain without experimental characterization or even functional prediction. To improve our knowledge regarding the biology of this parasite, we conducted a proteome-wide evolutionary analysis to provide a broad view of the S. mansoni’s proteome evolution and to improve its functional annotation. Results Using a phylogenomic approach, we reconstructed the S. mansoni phylome, which comprises the evolutionary histories of all parasite proteins and their homologs across 12 other organisms. The analysis of a total of 7,964 phylogenies allowed a deeper understanding of genomic complexity and evolutionary adaptations to a parasitic lifestyle. In particular, the identification of lineage-specific gene duplications pointed to the diversification of several protein families that are relevant for host-parasite interaction, including proteases, tetraspanins, fucosyltransferases, venom allergen-like proteins, and tegumental-allergen-like proteins. In addition to the evolutionary knowledge, the phylome data enabled us to automatically re-annotate 3,451 proteins through a phylogenetic-based approach rather than solely sequence similarity searches. To allow further exploitation of this valuable data, all information has been made available at PhylomeDB (http://www.phylomedb.org. Conclusions In this study, we used an evolutionary approach to assess S. mansoni parasite biology, improve genome/proteome functional annotation, and provide insights into

  5. Genomic and proteomic analyses of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora provide insights into nematode-trap formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Yang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematode-trapping fungi are "carnivorous" and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927 was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions.

  6. Genomic and physiological analysis reveals versatile metabolic capacity of deep-sea Photobacterium phosphoreum ANT-2200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Da; Santini, Claire-Lise; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Guyomar, Charlotte; Garel, Marc; Chen, Hai-Tao; Li, Xue-Gong; Yin, Qun-Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Armengaud, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Martini, Séverine; Pradel, Nathalie; Vidaud, Claude; Alberto, François; Médigue, Claudine; Tamburini, Christian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Photobacterium thrive worldwide in oceans and show substantial eco-physiological diversity including free-living, symbiotic and piezophilic life styles. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are poorly understood. Here we carried out genomic and physiological analysis of Photobacterium phosphoreum strain ANT-2200, the first deep-sea luminous bacterium of which the genome has been sequenced. Using optical mapping we updated the genomic data and reassembled it into two chromosomes and a large plasmid. Genomic analysis revealed a versatile energy metabolic potential and physiological analysis confirmed its growth capacity by deriving energy from fermentation of glucose or maltose, by respiration with formate as electron donor and trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO), nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptors, or by chemo-organo-heterotrophic growth in rich media. Despite that it was isolated at a site with saturated dissolved oxygen, the ANT-2200 strain possesses four gene clusters coding for typical anaerobic enzymes, the TMAO reductases. Elevated hydrostatic pressure enhances the TMAO reductase activity, mainly due to the increase of isoenzyme TorA1. The high copy number of the TMAO reductase isoenzymes and pressure-enhanced activity might imply a strategy developed by bacteria to adapt to deep-sea habitats where the instant TMAO availability may increase with depth.

  7. Development and application of a novel genome-wide SNP array reveals domestication history in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Chu, Shanshan; Zhang, Huairen; Zhu, Ying; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2016-02-09

    Domestication of soybeans occurred under the intense human-directed selections aimed at developing high-yielding lines. Tracing the domestication history and identifying the genes underlying soybean domestication require further exploration. Here, we developed a high-throughput NJAU 355 K SoySNP array and used this array to study the genetic variation patterns in 367 soybean accessions, including 105 wild soybeans and 262 cultivated soybeans. The population genetic analysis suggests that cultivated soybeans have tended to originate from northern and central China, from where they spread to other regions, accompanied with a gradual increase in seed weight. Genome-wide scanning for evidence of artificial selection revealed signs of selective sweeps involving genes controlling domestication-related agronomic traits including seed weight. To further identify genomic regions related to seed weight, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted across multiple environments in wild and cultivated soybeans. As a result, a strong linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 20 was found to be significantly correlated with seed weight in cultivated soybeans. Collectively, these findings should provide an important basis for genomic-enabled breeding and advance the study of functional genomics in soybean.

  8. De Novo Sequences of Haloquadratum walsbyi from Lake Tyrrell, Australia, Reveal a Variable Genomic Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Tully

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline systems near salt saturation levels represent an extreme environment, in which organisms grow and survive near the limits of life. One of the abundant members of the microbial communities in hypersaline systems is the square archaeon, Haloquadratum walsbyi. Utilizing a short-read metagenome from Lake Tyrrell, a hypersaline ecosystem in Victoria, Australia, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of H. walsbyi to better understand the extent of variation between strains/subspecies. Results revealed that previously isolated strains/subspecies do not fully describe the complete repertoire of the genomic landscape present in H. walsbyi. Rearrangements, insertions, and deletions were observed for the Lake Tyrrell derived Haloquadratum genomes and were supported by environmental de novo sequences, including shifts in the dominant genomic landscape of the two most abundant strains. Analysis pertaining to halomucins indicated that homologs for this large protein are not a feature common for all species of Haloquadratum. Further, we analyzed ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-type transporters for evidence of niche partitioning between different strains/subspecies. We were able to identify unique and variable transporter subunits from all five genomes analyzed and the de novo environmental sequences, suggesting that differences in nutrient and carbon source acquisition may play a role in maintaining distinct strains/subspecies.

  9. Ecology of uncultured Prochlorococcus clades revealed through single-cell genomics and biogeographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Rex R; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Huang, Katherine H; Kelly, Libusha; Kern, Suzanne E; Thompson, Anne; Roggensack, Sara; Berube, Paul M; Henn, Matthew R; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2013-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the numerically dominant photosynthetic organism throughout much of the world's oceans, yet little is known about the ecology and genetic diversity of populations inhabiting tropical waters. To help close this gap, we examined natural Prochlorococcus communities in the tropical Pacific Ocean using a single-cell whole-genome amplification and sequencing. Analysis of the gene content of just 10 single cells from these waters added 394 new genes to the Prochlorococcus pan-genome--that is, genes never before seen in a Prochlorococcus cell. Analysis of marker genes, including the ribosomal internal transcribed sequence, from dozens of individual cells revealed several representatives from two uncultivated clades of Prochlorococcus previously identified as HNLC1 and HNLC2. While the HNLC clades can dominate Prochlorococcus communities under certain conditions, their overall geographic distribution was highly restricted compared with other clades of Prochlorococcus. In the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, these clades were only found in warm waters with low Fe and high inorganic P levels. Genomic analysis suggests that at least one of these clades thrives in low Fe environments by scavenging organic-bound Fe, a process previously unknown in Prochlorococcus. Furthermore, the capacity to utilize organic-bound Fe appears to have been acquired horizontally and may be exchanged among other clades of Prochlorococcus. Finally, one of the single Prochlorococcus cells sequenced contained a partial genome of what appears to be a prophage integrated into the genome.

  10. The amphioxus genome provides unique insight into the evolution of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishaw, Larry J; Haire, Robert N; Litman, Gary W

    2012-03-01

    Immune systems evolve as essential strategies to maintain homeostasis with the environment, prevent microbial assault and recycle damaged host tissues. The immune system is composed of two components, innate and adaptive immunity. The former is common to all animals while the latter consists of a vertebrate-specific system that relies on somatically derived lymphocytes and is associated with near limitless genetic diversity as well as long-term memory. Deuterostome invertebrates provide a view of immune repertoires in phyla that immediately predate the origins of vertebrates. Genomic studies in amphioxus, a cephalochordate, have revealed homologs of genes encoding most innate immune receptors found in vertebrates; however, many of the gene families have undergone dramatic expansions, greatly increasing the innate immune repertoire. In addition, domain-swapping accounts for the innovation of new predicted pathways of receptor function. In both amphioxus and Ciona, a urochordate, the VCBPs (variable region containing chitin-binding proteins), which consist of immunoglobulin V (variable) and chitin binding domains, mediate recognition through the V domains. The V domains of VCBPs in amphioxus exhibit high levels of allelic complexity that presumably relate to functional specificity. Various features of the amphioxus immune repertoire reflect novel selective pressures, which likely have resulted in innovative strategies. Functional genomic studies underscore the value of amphioxus as a model for studying innate immunity and may help reveal how unique relationships between innate immune receptors and both pathogens and symbionts factored in the evolution of adaptive immune systems.

  11. HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licatalosi, Donny D.; Mele, Aldo; Fak, John J.; Ule, Jernej; Kayikci, Melis; Chi, Sung Wook; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Blume, John E.; Wang, Xuning; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2008-11-01

    Protein-RNA interactions have critical roles in all aspects of gene expression. However, applying biochemical methods to understand such interactions in living tissues has been challenging. Here we develop a genome-wide means of mapping protein-RNA binding sites in vivo, by high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). HITS-CLIP analysis of the neuron-specific splicing factor Nova revealed extremely reproducible RNA-binding maps in multiple mouse brains. These maps provide genome-wide in vivo biochemical footprints confirming the previous prediction that the position of Nova binding determines the outcome of alternative splicing; moreover, they are sufficiently powerful to predict Nova action de novo. HITS-CLIP revealed a large number of Nova-RNA interactions in 3' untranslated regions, leading to the discovery that Nova regulates alternative polyadenylation in the brain. HITS-CLIP, therefore, provides a robust, unbiased means to identify functional protein-RNA interactions in vivo.

  12. Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes Micromonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worden, Alexandra Z.; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Mock, Thomas; Rouze, Pierre; Simmons, Melinda P.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Allen, Andrew E.; Cuvelier, Marie L.; Derelle, Evelyne; Everett, Meredieht V.; Foulon, Elodie; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Henrissat, Bernard; Napoli, Carolyn; McDonald, Sarah M.; Parker, Micaela S.; Rombauts, Stephane; Salamov, Asaf; von Dassow, Peter; Badger, Jonathan G,; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Demir, Elif; Dubchak, Inna; Gentemann, Chelle; Eikrem, Wenche; Gready, Jill E.; John, Uwe; Lanier, William; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Mayer, Kluas F. X.; Moreau, Herve; Not, Fabrice; Otillar, Robert; Panaud, Olivier; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Paulsen, Ian; Piegu, Benoit; Poliakov, Aaron; Robbens, Steven; Schmutz, Jeremy; Roulza, Eve; Wyss, Tania; Zelensky, Alexander; Zhou, Kemin; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Goodenough, Ursula W.; Van de Peer, Yves; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2009-10-14

    Picoeukaryotes are a taxonomically diverse group of organisms less than 2 micrometers in diameter. Photosynthetic marine picoeukaryotes in the genus Micromonas thrive in ecosystems ranging from tropical to polar and could serve as sentinel organisms for biogeochemical fluxes of modern oceans during climate change. These broadly distributed primary producers belong to an anciently diverged sister clade to land plants. Although Micromonas isolates have high 18S ribosomal RNA gene identity, we found that genomes from two isolates shared only 90percent of their predicted genes. Their independent evolutionary paths were emphasized by distinct riboswitch arrangements as well as the discovery of intronic repeat elements in one isolate, and in metagenomic data, but not in other genomes. Divergence appears to have been facilitated by selection and acquisition processes that actively shape the repertoire of genes that are mutually exclusive between the two isolates differently than the core genes. Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution.

  13. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Renmao

    2014-08-29

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Cai, Lin; Bajic, Vladimir; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genome-wide location analysis reveals a role for Sub1 in RNA polymerase III transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavenet, Arounie; Suleau, Audrey; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Ferrari, Roberto; Ducrot, Cécile; Michaut, Magali; Aude, Jean-Christophe; Dieci, Giorgio; Lefebvre, Olivier; Conesa, Christine; Acker, Joël

    2009-01-01

    Human PC4 and the yeast ortholog Sub1 have multiple functions in RNA polymerase II transcription. Genome-wide mapping revealed that Sub1 is present on Pol III-transcribed genes. Sub1 was found to interact with components of the Pol III transcription system and to stimulate the initiation and reinitiation steps in a system reconstituted with all recombinant factors. Sub1 was required for optimal Pol III gene transcription in exponentially growing cells. PMID:19706510

  16. Genome of Diaporthe sp. provides insights into the potential inter-phylum transfer of a fungal sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena Filho, Jose Guedes; Quin, Maureen B; Spakowicz, Daniel J; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Kucera, Kaury; Dunican, Brian; Strobel, Scott A; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Fungi have highly active secondary metabolic pathways which enable them to produce a wealth of sesquiterpenoids that are bioactive. One example is Δ6-protoilludene, the precursor to the cytotoxic illudins, which are pharmaceutically relevant as anticancer therapeutics. To date, this valuable sesquiterpene has only been identified in members of the fungal division Basidiomycota. To explore the untapped potential of fungi belonging to the division Ascomycota in producing Δ6-protoilludene, we isolated a fungal endophyte Diaporthe sp. BR109 and show that it produces a diversity of terpenoids including Δ6-protoilludene. Using a genome sequencing and mining approach 17 putative novel sesquiterpene synthases were identified in Diaporthe sp. BR109. A phylogenetic approach was used to predict which gene encodes Δ6-protoilludene synthase, which was then confirmed experimentally. These analyses reveal that the sesquiterpene synthase and its putative sesquiterpene scaffold modifying cytochrome P450(s) may have been acquired by inter-phylum horizontal gene transfer from Basidiomycota to Ascomycota. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that inter-phylum transfer of these minimal sequiterpenoid secondary metabolic pathways may have occurred in other fungi. This work provides insights into the evolution of fungal sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolic pathways in the production of pharmaceutically relevant bioactive natural products.

  17. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum-Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  18. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum—Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G.; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  19. The Slow:Fast substitution ratio reveals changing patterns of natural selection in gamma-proteobacterial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Shapiro, B. Jesse

    2009-04-15

    Different microbial species are thought to occupy distinct ecological niches, subjecting each species to unique selective constraints, which may leave a recognizable signal in their genomes. Thus, it may be possible to extract insight into the genetic basis of ecological differences among lineages by identifying unusual patterns of substitutions in orthologous gene or protein sequences. We use the ratio of substitutions in slow versus fast-evolving sites (nucleotides in DNA, or amino acids in protein sequence) to quantify deviations from the typical pattern of selective constraint observed across bacterial lineages. We propose that elevated S:F in one branch (an excess of slow-site substitutions) can indicate a functionally-relevant change, due to either positive selection or relaxed evolutionary constraint. In a genome-wide comparative study of gamma-proteobacterial proteins, we find that cell-surface proteins involved with motility and secretion functions often have high S:F ratios, while information-processing genes do not. Change in evolutionary constraints in some species is evidenced by increased S:F ratios within functionally-related sets of genes (e.g., energy production in Pseudomonas fluorescens), while other species apparently evolve mostly by drift (e.g., uniformly elevated S:F across most genes in Buchnera spp.). Overall, S:F reveals several species-specific, protein-level changes with potential functional/ecological importance. As microbial genome projects yield more species-rich gene-trees, the S:F ratio will become an increasingly powerful tool for uncovering functional genetic differences among species.

  20. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  1. Structural characterisation of Tpx from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis reveals insights into the binding of salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds.

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    Mads Gabrielsen

    Full Text Available Thiol peroxidase, Tpx, has been shown to be a target protein of the salicylidene acylhydrazide class of antivirulence compounds. In this study we present the crystal structures of Tpx from Y. pseudotuberculosis (ypTpx in the oxidised and reduced states, together with the structure of the C61S mutant. The structures solved are consistent with previously solved atypical 2-Cys thiol peroxidases, including that for "forced" reduced states using the C61S mutant. In addition, by investigating the solution structure of ypTpx using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, we have confirmed that reduced state ypTpx in solution is a homodimer. The solution structure also reveals flexibility around the dimer interface. Notably, the conformational changes observed between the redox states at the catalytic triad and at the dimer interface have implications for substrate and inhibitor binding. The structural data were used to model the binding of two salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds to the oxidised structure of ypTpx. Overall, the study provides insights into the binding of the salicylidene acylhydrazides to ypTpx, aiding our long-term strategy to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds.

  2. Fish genomes provide novel insights into the evolution of vertebrate secretin receptors and their ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Trindade, Marlene; Power, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    The secretin receptor (SCTR) is a member of Class 2 subfamily B1 GPCRs and part of the PAC1/VPAC receptor subfamily. This receptor has long been known in mammals but has only recently been identified in other vertebrates including teleosts, from which it was previously considered to be absent. The ligand for SCTR in mammals is secretin (SCT), an important gastrointestinal peptide, which in teleosts has not yet been isolated, or the gene identified. This study revises the evolutionary model previously proposed for the secretin-GPCRs in metazoan by analysing in detail the fishes, the most successful of the extant vertebrates. All the Actinopterygii genomes analysed and the Chondrichthyes and Sarcopterygii fish possess a SCTR gene that shares conserved sequence, structure and synteny with the tetrapod homologue. Phylogenetic clustering and gene environment comparisons revealed that fish and tetrapod SCTR shared a common origin and diverged early from the PAC1/VPAC subfamily group. In teleosts SCTR duplicated as a result of the fish specific whole genome duplication but in all the teleost genomes analysed, with the exception of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the duplicates was lost. The function of SCTR in teleosts is unknown but quantitative PCR revealed that in both sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) transcript abundance is high in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting it may intervene in similar processes to those in mammals. In contrast, no gene encoding the ligand SCT was identified in the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) although it was present in the coelacanth (lobe finned fish, Sarcopterygii) and in the elephant shark (holocephalian). The genes in linkage with SCT in tetrapods and coelacanth were also identified in ray-finned fishes supporting the idea that it was lost from their genome. At present SCTR remains an orphan receptor in ray-finned fishes and it will be of interest in the future to establish why SCT was

  3. Genomes of Gardnerella Strains Reveal an Abundance of Prophages within the Bladder Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Kema; Shapiro, Jason W; Price, Travis K; Hilt, Evann E; Thomas-White, Krystal; Sircar, Trina; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Kuffel, Gina; Zilliox, Michael J; Wolfe, Alan J; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial surveys of the vaginal and bladder human microbiota have revealed an abundance of many similar bacterial taxa. As the bladder was once thought to be sterile, the complex interactions between microbes within the bladder have yet to be characterized. To initiate this process, we have begun sequencing isolates, including the clinically relevant genus Gardnerella. Herein, we present the genomic sequences of four Gardnerella strains isolated from the bladders of women with symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence; these are the first Gardnerella genomes produced from this niche. Congruent to genomic characterization of Gardnerella isolates from the reproductive tract, isolates from the bladder reveal a large pangenome, as well as evidence of high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Prophage gene sequences were found to be abundant amongst the strains isolated from the bladder, as well as amongst publicly available Gardnerella genomes from the vagina and endometrium, motivating an in depth examination of these sequences. Amongst the 39 Gardnerella strains examined here, there were more than 400 annotated prophage gene sequences that we could cluster into 95 homologous groups; 49 of these groups were unique to a single strain. While many of these prophages exhibited no sequence similarity to any lytic phage genome, estimation of the rate of phage acquisition suggests both vertical and horizontal acquisition. Furthermore, bioinformatic evidence indicates that prophage acquisition is ongoing within both vaginal and bladder Gardnerella populations. The abundance of prophage sequences within the strains examined here suggests that phages could play an important role in the species' evolutionary history and in its interactions within the complex communities found in the female urinary and reproductive tracts.

  4. Genomes of Gardnerella Strains Reveal an Abundance of Prophages within the Bladder Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Kema; Shapiro, Jason W.; Price, Travis K.; Hilt, Evann E.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Sircar, Trina; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Kuffel, Gina; Zilliox, Michael J.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial surveys of the vaginal and bladder human microbiota have revealed an abundance of many similar bacterial taxa. As the bladder was once thought to be sterile, the complex interactions between microbes within the bladder have yet to be characterized. To initiate this process, we have begun sequencing isolates, including the clinically relevant genus Gardnerella. Herein, we present the genomic sequences of four Gardnerella strains isolated from the bladders of women with symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence; these are the first Gardnerella genomes produced from this niche. Congruent to genomic characterization of Gardnerella isolates from the reproductive tract, isolates from the bladder reveal a large pangenome, as well as evidence of high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Prophage gene sequences were found to be abundant amongst the strains isolated from the bladder, as well as amongst publicly available Gardnerella genomes from the vagina and endometrium, motivating an in depth examination of these sequences. Amongst the 39 Gardnerella strains examined here, there were more than 400 annotated prophage gene sequences that we could cluster into 95 homologous groups; 49 of these groups were unique to a single strain. While many of these prophages exhibited no sequence similarity to any lytic phage genome, estimation of the rate of phage acquisition suggests both vertical and horizontal acquisition. Furthermore, bioinformatic evidence indicates that prophage acquisition is ongoing within both vaginal and bladder Gardnerella populations. The abundance of prophage sequences within the strains examined here suggests that phages could play an important role in the species’ evolutionary history and in its interactions within the complex communities found in the female urinary and reproductive tracts. PMID:27861551

  5. Partial sequencing of the bottle gourd genome reveals markers useful for phylogenetic analysis and breeding

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    Wang Sha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.] is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. Archaeological research indicates that bottle gourd was domesticated more than 10,000 years ago, making it one of the earliest plants cultivated by man. In spite of its widespread importance and long history of cultivation almost nothing has been known about the genome of this species thus far. Results We report here the partial sequencing of bottle gourd genome using the 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. A total of 150,253 sequence reads, which were assembled into 3,994 contigs and 82,522 singletons were generated. The total length of the non-redundant singletons/assemblies is 32 Mb, theoretically covering ~ 10% of the bottle gourd genome. Functional annotation of the sequences revealed a broad range of functional types, covering all the three top-level ontologies. Comparison of the gene sequences between bottle gourd and the model cucurbit cucumber (Cucumis sativus revealed a 90% sequence similarity on average. Using the sequence information, 4395 microsatellite-containing sequences were identified and 400 SSR markers were developed, of which 94% amplified bands of anticipated sizes. Transferability of these markers to four other cucurbit species showed obvious decline with increasing phylogenetic distance. From analyzing polymorphisms of a subset of 14 SSR markers assayed on 44 representative China bottle gourd varieties/landraces, a principal coordinates (PCo analysis output and a UPGMA-based dendrogram were constructed. Bottle gourd accessions tended to group by fruit shape rather than geographic origin, although in certain subclades the lines from the same or close origin did tend to cluster. Conclusions This work provides an initial basis for genome characterization, gene isolation and comparative genomics analysis in bottle gourd. The SSR markers developed would facilitate marker assisted breeding schemes for efficient

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome sequencing reveals novel haplotypes in a Polynesian population.

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    Miles Benton

    Full Text Available The high risk of metabolic disease traits in Polynesians may be partly explained by elevated prevalence of genetic variants involved in energy metabolism. The genetics of Polynesian populations has been shaped by island hoping migration events which have possibly favoured thrifty genes. The aim of this study was to sequence the mitochondrial genome in a group of Maoris in an effort to characterise genome variation in this Polynesian population for use in future disease association studies. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 20 non-admixed Maori subjects using Affymetrix technology. DNA diversity analyses showed the Maori group exhibited reduced mitochondrial genome diversity compared to other worldwide populations, which is consistent with historical bottleneck and founder effects. Global phylogenetic analysis positioned these Maori subjects specifically within mitochondrial haplogroup--B4a1a1. Interestingly, we identified several novel variants that collectively form new and unique Maori motifs--B4a1a1c, B4a1a1a3 and B4a1a1a5. Compared to ancestral populations we observed an increased frequency of non-synonymous coding variants of several mitochondrial genes in the Maori group, which may be a result of positive selection and/or genetic drift effects. In conclusion, this study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence data for a Maori population. Overall, these new data reveal novel mitochondrial genome signatures in this Polynesian population and enhance the phylogenetic picture of maternal ancestry in Oceania. The increased frequency of several mitochondrial coding variants makes them good candidates for future studies aimed at assessment of metabolic disease risk in Polynesian populations.

  7. Draft genome of an Aerophobetes bacterium reveals a facultative lifestyle in deep-sea anaerobic sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Zhao-Ming Gao; Jiang-Tao Li; Salim Bougouffa; Ren Mao Tian; Vladimir B.Bajic; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2016-01-01

    Aerophobetes (or CD12) is a recently defined bacterial phylum,of which the metabolic processes and ecological importance remain unclear.In the present study,we obtained the draft genome of an Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 from saline sediment near the Thuwal cold seep in the Red Sea using a genome binning method.Analysis of 16S rRNA genes of TCS1 and close relatives revealed wide distribution of Aerophobetes in deep-sea sediments.Phylogenetic relationships showed affinity between Aerophobetes TCS1 and some thermophilic bacterial phyla.The genome of TCS1 (at least 1.27 Mbp)contains a full set of genes encoding core metabolic pathways,including glycolysis and pyruvate fermentation to produce acetyl-CoA and acetate.The identification of cross-membrane sugar transporter genes further indicates its potential ability to consume carbohydrates preserved in the sediment under the microbial mat.Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 therefore probably carried out saccharolytic and fermentative metabolism.The genes responsible for autotrophic synthesis of acetyl-CoA via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway were also found in the genome.Phylogenetic study of the essential genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway implied relative independence of Aerophobetes bacterium from the known acetogens and methanogens.Compared with genomes of acetogenic bacteria,Aerophobetes bacterium TCS 1 genome lacks the genes involved in nitrogen metabolism,sulfur metabolism,signal transduction and cell motility.The metabolic activities of TCS1 might depend on geochemical conditions such as supplies of CO2,hydrogen and sugars,and therefore the TCS1 might be a facultative bacterium in anaerobic saline sediments near cold seeps.

  8. Draft genome of an Aerophobetes bacterium reveals a facultative lifestyle in deep-sea anaerobic sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Aerophobetes (or CD12) is a recently defined bacterial phylum, of which the metabolic processes and ecological importance remain unclear. In the present study, we obtained the draft genome of an Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 from saline sediment near the Thuwal cold seep in the Red Sea using a genome binning method. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes of TCS1 and close relatives revealed wide distribution of Aerophobetes in deep-sea sediments. Phylogenetic relationships showed affinity between Aerophobetes TCS1 and some thermophilic bacterial phyla. The genome of TCS1 (at least 1.27 Mbp) contains a full set of genes encoding core metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and pyruvate fermentation to produce acetyl-CoA and acetate. The identification of cross-membrane sugar transporter genes further indicates its potential ability to consume carbohydrates preserved in the sediment under the microbial mat. Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 therefore probably carried out saccharolytic and fermentative metabolism. The genes responsible for autotrophic synthesis of acetyl-CoA via the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway were also found in the genome. Phylogenetic study of the essential genes for the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway implied relative independence of Aerophobetes bacterium from the known acetogens and methanogens. Compared with genomes of acetogenic bacteria, Aerophobetes bacterium TCS1 genome lacks the genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, sulfur metabolism, signal transduction and cell motility. The metabolic activities of TCS1 might depend on geochemical conditions such as supplies of CO2, hydrogen and sugars, and therefore the TCS1 might be a facultative bacterium in anaerobic saline sediments near cold seeps. © 2016, Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

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    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  10. High resolution genome wide binding event finding and motif discovery reveals transcription factor spatial binding constraints.

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    Yuchun Guo

    Full Text Available An essential component of genome function is the syntax of genomic regulatory elements that determine how diverse transcription factors interact to orchestrate a program of regulatory control. A precise characterization of in vivo spacing constraints between key transcription factors would reveal key aspects of this genomic regulatory language. To discover novel transcription factor spatial binding constraints in vivo, we developed a new integrative computational method, genome wide event finding and motif discovery (GEM. GEM resolves ChIP data into explanatory motifs and binding events at high spatial resolution by linking binding event discovery and motif discovery with positional priors in the context of a generative probabilistic model of ChIP data and genome sequence. GEM analysis of 63 transcription factors in 214 ENCODE human ChIP-Seq experiments recovers more known factor motifs than other contemporary methods, and discovers six new motifs for factors with unknown binding specificity. GEM's adaptive learning of binding-event read distributions allows it to further improve upon previous methods for processing ChIP-Seq and ChIP-exo data to yield unsurpassed spatial resolution and discovery of closely spaced binding events of the same factor. In a systematic analysis of in vivo sequence-specific transcription factor binding using GEM, we have found hundreds of spatial binding constraints between factors. GEM found 37 examples of factor binding constraints in mouse ES cells, including strong distance-specific constraints between Klf4 and other key regulatory factors. In human ENCODE data, GEM found 390 examples of spatially constrained pair-wise binding, including such novel pairs as c-Fos:c-Jun/USF1, CTCF/Egr1, and HNF4A/FOXA1. The discovery of new factor-factor spatial constraints in ChIP data is significant because it proposes testable models for regulatory factor interactions that will help elucidate genome function and the

  11. High resolution genome wide binding event finding and motif discovery reveals transcription factor spatial binding constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchun; Mahony, Shaun; Gifford, David K

    2012-01-01

    An essential component of genome function is the syntax of genomic regulatory elements that determine how diverse transcription factors interact to orchestrate a program of regulatory control. A precise characterization of in vivo spacing constraints between key transcription factors would reveal key aspects of this genomic regulatory language. To discover novel transcription factor spatial binding constraints in vivo, we developed a new integrative computational method, genome wide event finding and motif discovery (GEM). GEM resolves ChIP data into explanatory motifs and binding events at high spatial resolution by linking binding event discovery and motif discovery with positional priors in the context of a generative probabilistic model of ChIP data and genome sequence. GEM analysis of 63 transcription factors in 214 ENCODE human ChIP-Seq experiments recovers more known factor motifs than other contemporary methods, and discovers six new motifs for factors with unknown binding specificity. GEM's adaptive learning of binding-event read distributions allows it to further improve upon previous methods for processing ChIP-Seq and ChIP-exo data to yield unsurpassed spatial resolution and discovery of closely spaced binding events of the same factor. In a systematic analysis of in vivo sequence-specific transcription factor binding using GEM, we have found hundreds of spatial binding constraints between factors. GEM found 37 examples of factor binding constraints in mouse ES cells, including strong distance-specific constraints between Klf4 and other key regulatory factors. In human ENCODE data, GEM found 390 examples of spatially constrained pair-wise binding, including such novel pairs as c-Fos:c-Jun/USF1, CTCF/Egr1, and HNF4A/FOXA1. The discovery of new factor-factor spatial constraints in ChIP data is significant because it proposes testable models for regulatory factor interactions that will help elucidate genome function and the implementation of combinatorial

  12. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling reveals molecular signatures of secondary xylem differentiation in Populus tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X H; Li, X G; Li, B L; Zhang, D Q

    2014-11-11

    Wood formation occurs via cell division, primary cell wall and secondary wall formation, and programmed cell death in the vascular cambium. Transcriptional profiling of secondary xylem differentiation is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. Differential gene expression in secondary xylem differentiation of Populus has been previously investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms from a genome-wide perspective. In this study, the Affymetrix poplar genome chips containing 61,413 probes were used to investigate the changes in the transcriptome during secondary xylem differentiation in Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa). Two xylem tissues (newly formed and lignified) were sampled for genome-wide transcriptional profiling. In total, 6843 genes (~11%) were identified with differential expression in the two xylem tissues. Many genes involved in cell division, primary wall modification, and cellulose synthesis were preferentially expressed in the newly formed xylem. In contrast, many genes, including 4-coumarate:cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), associated with lignin biosynthesis were more transcribed in the lignified xylem. The two xylem tissues also showed differential expression of genes related to various hormones; thus, the secondary xylem differentiation could be regulated by hormone signaling. Furthermore, many transcription factor genes were preferentially expressed in the lignified xylem, suggesting that wood lignification involves extensive transcription regulation. The genome-wide transcriptional profiling of secondary xylem differentiation could provide additional insights into the molecular basis of wood formation in poplar species.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology.

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    John R Shaffer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3. We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8 for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis.

  14. Genome-wide mutagenesis reveals that ORF7 is a novel VZV skin-tropic factor.

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    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available The Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV is a ubiquitous human alpha-herpesvirus that is the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles. Although an attenuated VZV vaccine (v-Oka has been widely used in children in the United States, chicken pox outbreaks are still seen, and the shingles vaccine only reduces the risk of shingles by 50%. Therefore, VZV still remains an important public health concern. Knowledge of VZV replication and pathogenesis remains limited due to its highly cell-associated nature in cultured cells, the difficulty of generating recombinant viruses, and VZV's almost exclusive tropism for human cells and tissues. In order to circumvent these hurdles, we cloned the entire VZV (p-Oka genome into a bacterial artificial chromosome that included a dual-reporter system (GFP and luciferase reporter genes. We used PCR-based mutagenesis and the homologous recombination system in the E. coli to individually delete each of the genome's 70 unique ORFs. The collection of viral mutants obtained was systematically examined both in MeWo cells and in cultured human fetal skin organ samples. We use our genome-wide deletion library to provide novel functional annotations to 51% of the VZV proteome. We found 44 out of 70 VZV ORFs to be essential for viral replication. Among the 26 non-essential ORF deletion mutants, eight have discernable growth defects in MeWo. Interestingly, four ORFs were found to be required for viral replication in skin organ cultures, but not in MeWo cells, suggesting their potential roles as skin tropism factors. One of the genes (ORF7 has never been described as a skin tropic factor. The global profiling of the VZV genome gives further insights into the replication and pathogenesis of this virus, which can lead to improved prevention and therapy of chicken pox and shingles.

  15. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

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    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  16. Genomic analysis offers insights into the evolution of the bovine TRA/TRD locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Longhi, Cassandra W; Morrison, W Ivan

    2014-11-19

    The TRA/TRD locus contains the genes for V(D)J somatic rearrangement of TRA and TRD chains expressed by αβ and γδ T cells respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bovine TRA/TRD locus contains an exceptionally large number of TRAV/TRDV genes. In this study we combine genomic and transcript analysis to provide insights into the evolutionary development of the bovine TRA/TRD locus and the remarkable TRAV/TRDV gene repertoire. Annotation of the UMD3.1 assembly identified 371 TRAV/TRDV genes (distributed in 42 subgroups), 3 TRDJ, 6 TRDD, 62 TRAJ and single TRAC and TRDC genes, most of which were located within a 3.5 Mb region of chromosome 10. Most of the TRAV/TRDV subgroups have multiple members and several have undergone dramatic expansion, most notably TRDV1 (60 genes). Wide variation in the proportion of pseudogenes within individual subgroups, suggest that differential 'birth' and 'death' rates have been used to form a functional bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire which is phylogenetically distinct from that of humans and mice. The expansion of the bovine TRAV/TRDV gene repertoire has predominantly been achieved through a complex series of homology unit (regions of DNA containing multiple gene) replications. Frequent co-localisation within homology units of genes from subgroups with low and high pseudogene proportions suggest that replication of homology units driven by evolutionary selection for the former may have led to a 'collateral' expansion of the latter. Transcript analysis was used to define the TRAV/TRDV subgroups available for recombination of TRA and TRD chains and demonstrated preferential usage of different subgroups by the expressed TRA and TRD repertoires, indicating that TRA and TRD selection have had distinct impacts on the evolution of the TRAV/TRDV repertoire. Both TRA and TRD selection have contributed to the evolution of the bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire. However, our data suggest that due to homology unit duplication TRD

  17. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  18. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma: From improving risk stratification and revealing novel biology to identifying actionable genomic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus and not only has catalyzed a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis but also has revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent, activating, somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed toward aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma.

  19. Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling of Archaea Lends Insight into Diversity of Metabolic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Decades of biochemical, bioinformatic, and sequencing data are currently being systematically compiled into genome-scale metabolic reconstructions (GEMs). Such reconstructions are knowledge-bases useful for engineering, modeling, and comparative analysis. Here we review the fifteen GEMs of archaeal species that have been constructed to date. They represent primarily members of the Euryarchaeota with three-quarters comprising representative of methanogens. Unlike other reviews on GEMs, we specially focus on archaea. We briefly review the GEM construction process and the genealogy of the archaeal models. The major insights gained during the construction of these models are then reviewed with specific focus on novel metabolic pathway predictions and growth characteristics. Metabolic pathway usage is discussed in the context of the composition of each organism's biomass and their specific energy and growth requirements. We show how the metabolic models can be used to study the evolution of metabolism in archaea. Conservation of particular metabolic pathways can be studied by comparing reactions using the genes associated with their enzymes. This demonstrates the utility of GEMs to evolutionary studies, far beyond their original purpose of metabolic modeling; however, much needs to be done before archaeal models are as extensively complete as those for bacteria. PMID:28133437

  20. Comprehensive population-based genome sequencing provides insight into hematopoietic regulatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Michael H.; Nandakumar, Satish K.; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Zekavat, Seyedeh M.; Buenrostro, Jason D.; Natarajan, Pradeep; Salem, Rany M.; Chiarle, Roberto; Mitt, Mario; Kals, Mart; Pärn, Kalle; Fischer, Krista; Milani, Lili; Mägi, Reedik; Palta, Priit; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Metspalu, Andres; Lander, Eric S.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Esko, Tõnu; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic variants affecting hematopoiesis can influence commonly measured blood cell traits. To identify factors that affect hematopoiesis, we performed association studies for blood cell traits in the population-based Estonian Biobank using high-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 2,284 samples and SNP genotyping in an additional 14,904 samples. Using up to 7,134 samples with available phenotype data, our analyses identified 17 associations across 14 blood cell traits. Integration of WGS-based fine-mapping and complementary epigenomic datasets provided evidence for causal mechanisms at several loci, including at a previously undiscovered basophil count-associated locus near the master hematopoietic transcription factor CEBPA. The fine-mapped variant at this basophil count association near CEBPA overlapped an enhancer active in common myeloid progenitors and influenced its activity. In situ perturbation of this enhancer by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells demonstrated that it is necessary for and specifically regulates CEBPA expression during basophil differentiation. We additionally identified basophil count-associated variation at another more pleiotropic myeloid enhancer near GATA2, highlighting regulatory mechanisms for ordered expression of master hematopoietic regulators during lineage specification. Our study illustrates how population-based genetic studies can provide key insights into poorly understood cell differentiation processes of considerable physiologic relevance. PMID:28031487

  1. Developmental origins of the adipocyte lineage: new insights from genetics and genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billon, Nathalie; Dani, Christian

    2012-03-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and overweight has caused a surge of interest in the study of adipose tissue formation. Much progress has been made in defining the transcriptional networks controlling the terminal differentiation of adipocyte progenitors into mature adipocytes. However, the early steps of adipocyte development and the embryonic origin of this lineage have been largely disregarded until recently. In mammals, two functionally different types of adipose tissues coexist, which are both involved in energy balance but assume opposite functions. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure. WAT and BAT can be found as several depots located in various sites of the body. Individual fat depots exhibit different timing of appearance during development, as well as distinct functional properties, suggesting possible differences in their developmental origin. This hypothesis has recently been revisited through large-scale genomics studies and in vivo lineage tracing approaches, which are reviewed in this report. These studies have provided novel fundamental insights into adipocyte biology, pointing out distinct developmental origins for WAT and BAT, as well as for individual WAT depots. They suggest that the adipose tissue is composed of distinct mini-organs, exhibiting developmental and functional differences, as well as variable contribution to obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  2. Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Welkin H; Bowman, Charles A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Asai, David J; Cresawn, Steven G; Jacobs, William R; Hendrix, Roger W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hatfull, Graham F; Abbazia, Patrick; Ababio, Amma; Adam, Naazneen

    2015-01-01

    The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06416.001 PMID:25919952

  3. A novel genome-wide full- length kinesin prediction analysis reveals additional mammalian kinesins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yu; LIU Dan; FU Chuanhai; DOU Zhen; ZHOU Qing; YAO Xuebiao

    2006-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily of microtubule- based motor orchestrates a variety of cellular processes. Recent availability of mammalian genomes has enabled analyses of kinesins on the whole genome. Here we present a novel full-length kinesin prediction program (FKPP) for mammalian kinesin gene discovery based on a comparative genomics approach. Contrary to previous predictions of 94 kinesins, we identify a total of 134 potentially kinesin genes from mammalian genomes, including 45 from mouse, 45 from rat and 44 from human. In addition, FKPP synthesizes 25 potentially full-length mammalian kinesins based on the partial sequences in the database. Surprisingly, FKPP reveals that full-length human CENP-E contains 2701 aa rather than 2663 aa in the database. Experimentation using sequence specific antibody and cDNA sequencing of human CENP-E validates the accuracy of FKPP. Given the remarkable computing efficiency and accuracy of FKPP, we reclassify the mammalian kinesin superfamily. Since current databases contain many incomplete sequences, FKPP may provide a novel approach for molecular delineation of kinesins and other protein families.

  4. Genome-wide translocation sequencing reveals mechanisms of chromosome breaks and rearrangements in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarle, Roberto; Zhang, Yu; Frock, Richard L; Lewis, Susanna M; Molinie, Benoit; Ho, Yu-Jui; Myers, Darienne R; Choi, Vivian W; Compagno, Mara; Malkin, Daniel J; Neuberg, Donna; Monti, Stefano; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W

    2011-09-30

    Whereas chromosomal translocations are common pathogenetic events in cancer, mechanisms that promote them are poorly understood. To elucidate translocation mechanisms in mammalian cells, we developed high-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS). We employed HTGTS to identify tens of thousands of independent translocation junctions involving fixed I-SceI meganuclease-generated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within the c-myc oncogene or IgH locus of B lymphocytes induced for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switching. DSBs translocated widely across the genome but were preferentially targeted to transcribed chromosomal regions. Additionally, numerous AID-dependent and AID-independent hot spots were targeted, with the latter comprising mainly cryptic I-SceI targets. Comparison of translocation junctions with genome-wide nuclear run-ons revealed a marked association between transcription start sites and translocation targeting. The majority of translocation junctions were formed via end-joining with short microhomologies. Our findings have implications for diverse fields, including gene therapy and cancer genomics.

  5. Genetic variation architecture of mitochondrial genome reveals the differentiation in Korean landrace and weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; He, Qiang; Park, Yong-Jin

    2017-03-03

    Mitochondrial genome variations have been detected despite the overall conservation of this gene content, which has been valuable for plant population genetics and evolutionary studies. Here, we describe mitochondrial variation architecture and our performance of a phylogenetic dissection of Korean landrace and weedy rice. A total of 4,717 variations across the mitochondrial genome were identified adjunct with 10 wild rice. Genetic diversity assessment revealed that wild rice has higher nucleotide diversity than landrace and/or weedy, and landrace rice has higher diversity than weedy rice. Genetic distance was suggestive of a high level of breeding between landrace and weedy rice, and the landrace showing a closer association with wild rice than weedy rice. Population structure and principal component analyses showed no obvious difference in the genetic backgrounds of landrace and weedy rice in mitochondrial genome level. Phylogenetic, population split, and haplotype network evaluations were suggestive of independent origins of the indica and japonica varieties. The origin of weedy rice is supposed to be more likely from cultivated rice rather than from wild rice in mitochondrial genome level.

  6. Genetic variation architecture of mitochondrial genome reveals the differentiation in Korean landrace and weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; He, Qiang; Park, Yong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome variations have been detected despite the overall conservation of this gene content, which has been valuable for plant population genetics and evolutionary studies. Here, we describe mitochondrial variation architecture and our performance of a phylogenetic dissection of Korean landrace and weedy rice. A total of 4,717 variations across the mitochondrial genome were identified adjunct with 10 wild rice. Genetic diversity assessment revealed that wild rice has higher nucleotide diversity than landrace and/or weedy, and landrace rice has higher diversity than weedy rice. Genetic distance was suggestive of a high level of breeding between landrace and weedy rice, and the landrace showing a closer association with wild rice than weedy rice. Population structure and principal component analyses showed no obvious difference in the genetic backgrounds of landrace and weedy rice in mitochondrial genome level. Phylogenetic, population split, and haplotype network evaluations were suggestive of independent origins of the indica and japonica varieties. The origin of weedy rice is supposed to be more likely from cultivated rice rather than from wild rice in mitochondrial genome level. PMID:28256554

  7. Whole genome analysis of linezolid resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals resistance and compensatory mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré Danielle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mutations were present in the genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae linezolid-resistant strains but the role of several of these mutations had not been experimentally tested. To analyze the role of these mutations, we reconstituted resistance by serial whole genome transformation of a novel resistant isolate into two strains with sensitive background. We sequenced the parent mutant and two independent transformants exhibiting similar minimum inhibitory concentration to linezolid. Results Comparative genomic analyses revealed that transformants acquired G2576T transversions in every gene copy of 23S rRNA and that the number of altered copies correlated with the level of linezolid resistance and cross-resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol. One of the transformants also acquired a mutation present in the parent mutant leading to the overexpression of an ABC transporter (spr1021. The acquisition of these mutations conferred a fitness cost however, which was further enhanced by the acquisition of a mutation in a RNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance. Interestingly, the fitness of the transformants could be restored in part by the acquisition of altered copies of the L3 and L16 ribosomal proteins and by mutations leading to the overexpression of the spr1887 ABC transporter that were present in the original linezolid-resistant mutant. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome approaches at detecting major determinants of resistance as well as compensatory mutations that alleviate the fitness cost associated with resistance.

  8. Unique features of a Japanese 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' strain revealed by whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Katoh

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (huanglongbing is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by citrus psyllids and is associated with phloem-limited bacteria of three species of α-Proteobacteria, namely, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. L. americanus', and 'Ca. L. africanus'. Recent findings suggested that some Japanese strains lack the bacteriophage-type DNA polymerase region (DNA pol, in contrast to the Floridian psy62 strain. The whole genome sequence of the pol-negative 'Ca. L. asiaticus' Japanese isolate Ishi-1 was determined by metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected psyllids and leaf midribs. The 1.19-Mb genome has an average 36.32% GC content. Annotation revealed 13 operons encoding rRNA and 44 tRNA genes, but no typical bacterial pathogenesis-related genes were located within the genome, similar to the Floridian psy62 and Chinese gxpsy. In contrast to other 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strains, the genome of the Japanese Ishi-1 strain lacks a prophage-related region.

  9. Comparative Analysis of 35 Basidiomycete Genomes Reveals Diversity and Uniqueness of the Phylum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Otillar, Robert; Fagnan, Kirsten; Boussau, Bastien; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Held, Benjamin; Nagy, Laszlo; Floudas, Dimitris; Morin, Emmanuelle; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Martin, Francis; Blanchette, Robert; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprobes including wood decaying fungi. To better understand the diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycete fungi including 6 newly sequenced genomes. The genomes of basidiomycetes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. A phylogenetic tree of Basidiomycota was generated using the Phyldog software, which uses all available protein sequence data to simultaneously infer gene and species trees. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) comprising proteins found in only one organism. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay among the members of Agaricomycotina subphylum. There is a correlation of the profile of certain gene families to nutritional mode in Agaricomycotina. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of such profiles, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has liginolytic class II fungal peroxidases. Furthermore, we find that both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics in growth assays. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the high value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  10. Whole genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus reveals the pathogenesis of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Makoto; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kumano, Miyuki; Morikawa, Kazuya; Higashide, Masato; Maruyama, Atsushi; Inose, Yumiko; Matoba, Kimio; Toh, Hidehiro; Kuhara, Satoru; Hattori, Masahira; Ohta, Toshiko

    2005-09-13

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a uropathogenic Staphylococcus frequently isolated from young female outpatients presenting with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. We sequenced the whole genome of S. saprophyticus type strain ATCC 15305, which harbors a circular chromosome of 2,516,575 bp with 2,446 ORFs and two plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses with the strains of two other species, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as experimental data, revealed the following characteristics of the S. saprophyticus genome. S. saprophyticus does not possess any virulence factors found in S. aureus, such as coagulase, enterotoxins, exoenzymes, and extracellular matrix-binding proteins, although it does have a remarkable paralog expansion of transport systems related to highly variable ion contents in the urinary environment. A further unique feature is that only a single ORF is predictable as a cell wall-anchored protein, and it shows positive hemagglutination and adherence to human bladder cell associated with initial colonization in the urinary tract. It also shows significantly high urease activity in S. saprophyticus. The uropathogenicity of S. saprophyticus can be attributed to its genome that is needed for its survival in the human urinary tract by means of novel cell wall-anchored adhesin and redundant uro-adaptive transport systems, together with urease.

  11. Complexity of genome evolution by segmental rearrangement in Brassica rapa revealed by sequence-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Andrew H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassica species, related to Arabidopsis thaliana, include an important group of crops and represent an excellent system for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Previous studies have led to a proposed structure for an ancestral karyotype and models for the evolution of the B. rapa genome by triplication and segmental rearrangement, but these have not been validated at the sequence level. Results We developed computational tools to analyse the public collection of B. rapa BAC end sequence, in order to identify candidates for representing collinearity discontinuities between the genomes of B. rapa and A. thaliana. For each putative discontinuity, one of the BACs was sequenced and analysed for collinearity with the genome of A. thaliana. Additional BAC clones were identified and sequenced as part of ongoing efforts to sequence four chromosomes of B. rapa. Strikingly few of the 19 inter-chromosomal rearrangements corresponded to the set of collinearity discontinuities anticipated on the basis of previous studies. Our analyses revealed numerous instances of newly detected collinearity blocks. For B. rapa linkage group A8, we were able to develop a model for the derivation of the chromosome from the ancestral karyotype. We were also able to identify a rearrangement event in the ancestor of B. rapa that was not shared with the ancestor of A. thaliana, and is represented in triplicate in the B. rapa genome. In addition to inter-chromosomal rearrangements, we identified and analysed 32 BACs containing the end points of segmental inversion events. Conclusion Our results show that previous studies of segmental collinearity between the A. thaliana, Brassica and ancestral karyotype genomes, although very useful, represent over-simplifications of their true relationships. The presence of numerous cryptic collinear genome segments and the frequent occurrence of segmental inversions mean that inference of the positions

  12. Whole-Genome Enrichment Provides Deep Insights into Vibrio cholerae Metagenome from an African River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, L; Grande, C; Tassistro, G; Brettar, I; Höfle, M G; Pereira, R P A; Mushi, D; Pallavicini, A; Vassallo, P; Pruzzo, C

    2017-04-01

    The detection and typing of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic environments encounter major methodological challenges related to the fact that the bacterium is often present in environmental matrices at very low abundance in nonculturable state. This study applied, for the first time to our knowledge, a whole-genome enrichment (WGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for direct genotyping and metagenomic analysis of low abundant V. cholerae DNA (cholerae metagenomic DNA via hybridization. An enriched V. cholerae metagenome library was generated and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Up to 1.8 × 10(7) bp (4.5× mean read depth) were found to map against V. cholerae reference genome sequences representing an increase of about 2500 times in target DNA coverage compared to theoretical calculations of performance for shotgun metagenomics. Analysis of metagenomic data revealed the presence of several V. cholerae virulence and virulence associated genes in river water including major virulence regions (e.g. CTX prophage and Vibrio pathogenicity island-1) and genetic markers of epidemic strains (e.g. O1-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster) that were not detectable by standard culture and molecular techniques. Overall, besides providing a powerful tool for direct genotyping of V. cholerae in complex environmental matrices, this study provides a 'proof of concept' on the methodological gap that might currently preclude a more comprehensive understanding of toxigenic V. cholerae emergence from natural aquatic environments.

  13. Genomic insights into the metabolic potential of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium N47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Franz; Selesi, Draženka; Weinmaier, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an important process during natural attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbon spills. However, knowledge about metabolic potential and physiology of organisms involved in anaerobic degradation of PAHs is scarce. Therefore, we introduce the first genome of the sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium N47 able to catabolize naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, or 2-naphthoic acid as sole carbon source. Based on proteomics, we analysed metabolic pathways during growth on PAHs to gain physiological insights on anaerobic PAH degradation. The genomic assembly and taxonomic binning resulted in 17 contigs covering most of the sulfate reducer N47 genome according to general cluster of orthologous groups (COGs) analyses. According to the genes present, the Deltaproteobacterium N47 can potentially grow with the following sugars including d-mannose, d-fructose, d-galactose, α-d-glucose-1P, starch, glycogen, peptidoglycan and possesses the prerequisites for butanoic acid fermentation. Despite the inability for culture N47 to utilize NO(3) (-) as terminal electron acceptor, genes for nitrate ammonification are present. Furthermore, it is the first sequenced genome containing a complete TCA cycle along with the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The genome contained a significant percentage of repetitive sequences and transposase-related protein domains enhancing the ability of genome evolution. Likewise, the sulfate reducer N47 genome contained many unique putative genes with unknown function, which are candidates for yet-unknown metabolic pathways.

  14. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the Daucus carota genome, an important source of provitamin A in the human diet and the first sequenced genome among members of the Euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carro...

  15. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Erny, Claude; Charpentier, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  16. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Legras

    Full Text Available Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  17. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a distant liver enhancer upstream of the COUP-TFII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine; Ahituv, Nadav; Chang, Jessie; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-08-20

    COUP-TFII is a central nuclear hormone receptor that tightly regulates the expression of numerous target lipid metabolism genes in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how COUP-TFII itself is transcriptionally controlled since studies with its promoter and upstream region fail to recapitulate the genes liver expression. In an attempt to identify liver enhancers in the vicinity of COUP-TFII, we employed a comparative genomic approach. Initial comparisons between humans and mice of the 3,470kb gene poor region surrounding COUP-TFII revealed 2,023 conserved non-coding elements. To prioritize a subset of these elements for functional studies, we performed further genomic comparisons with the orthologous pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) locus and uncovered two anciently conserved non-coding sequences (CNS) upstream of COUP-TFII (CNS-62kb and CNS-66kb). Testing these two elements using reporter constructs in liver (HepG2) cells revealed that CNS-66kb, but not CNS-62kb, yielded robust in vitro enhancer activity. In addition, an in vivo reporter assay using naked DNA transfer with CNS-66kb linked to luciferase displayed strong reproducible liver expression in adult mice, further supporting its role as a liver enhancer. Together, these studies further support the utility of comparative genomics to uncover gene regulatory sequences based on evolutionary conservation and provide the substrates to better understand the regulation and expression of COUP-TFII.

  18. Insights into fluorometabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces cattleya DSM46488 through genome sequence and knockout mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Peng; Deng, Zixin; Ou, Hong-Yu; McGlinchey, Ryan P; O'Hagan, David

    2012-10-01

    Streptomyces cattleya DSM 46488 is unusual in its ability to biosynthesise fluorine containing natural products, where it can produce fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine. The individual enzymes involved in fluorometabolite biosynthesis have already been demonstrated in in vitro investigations. Candidate genes for the individual biosynthetic steps were located from recent genome sequences. In vivo inactivation of individual genes including those encoding the S-adenosyl-l-methionine:fluoride adenosyltransferase (fluorinase, SCATT_41540), 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine phosphorylase (SCATT_41550), fluoroacetyl-CoA thioesterase (SCATT_41470), 5-fluoro-5-deoxyribose-1-phosphate isomeras