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Sample records for genome fragments based

  1. Unsupervised binning of environmental genomic fragments based on an error robust selection of l-mers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Peng, Yu; Leung, Henry Chi-Ming; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Chen, Jing-Chi; Chin, Francis Yuk-Lun

    2010-04-16

    With the rapid development of genome sequencing techniques, traditional research methods based on the isolation and cultivation of microorganisms are being gradually replaced by metagenomics, which is also known as environmental genomics. The first step, which is still a major bottleneck, of metagenomics is the taxonomic characterization of DNA fragments (reads) resulting from sequencing a sample of mixed species. This step is usually referred as "binning". Existing binning methods are based on supervised or semi-supervised approaches which rely heavily on reference genomes of known microorganisms and phylogenetic marker genes. Due to the limited availability of reference genomes and the bias and instability of marker genes, existing binning methods may not be applicable in many cases. In this paper, we present an unsupervised binning method based on the distribution of a carefully selected set of l-mers (substrings of length l in DNA fragments). From our experiments, we show that our method can accurately bin DNA fragments with various lengths and relative species abundance ratios without using any reference and training datasets. Another feature of our method is its error robustness. The binning accuracy decreases by less than 1% when the sequencing error rate increases from 0% to 5%. Note that the typical sequencing error rate of existing commercial sequencing platforms is less than 2%. We provide a new and effective tool to solve the metagenome binning problem without using any reference datasets or markers information of any known reference genomes (species). The source code of our software tool, the reference genomes of the species for generating the test datasets and the corresponding test datasets are available at http://i.cs.hku.hk/~alse/MetaCluster/.

  2. Fragmentation based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  3. Single-Cell-Based Platform for Copy Number Variation Profiling through Digital Counting of Amplified Genomic DNA Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Yu, Zhilong; Fu, Yusi; Pang, Yuhong; Huang, Yanyi

    2017-04-26

    We develop a novel single-cell-based platform through digital counting of amplified genomic DNA fragments, named multifraction amplification (mfA), to detect the copy number variations (CNVs) in a single cell. Amplification is required to acquire genomic information from a single cell, while introducing unavoidable bias. Unlike prevalent methods that directly infer CNV profiles from the pattern of sequencing depth, our mfA platform denatures and separates the DNA molecules from a single cell into multiple fractions of a reaction mix before amplification. By examining the sequencing result of each fraction for a specific fragment and applying a segment-merge maximum likelihood algorithm to the calculation of copy number, we digitize the sequencing-depth-based CNV identification and thus provide a method that is less sensitive to the amplification bias. In this paper, we demonstrate a mfA platform through multiple displacement amplification (MDA) chemistry. When performing the mfA platform, the noise of MDA is reduced; therefore, the resolution of single-cell CNV identification can be improved to 100 kb. We can also determine the genomic region free of allelic drop-out with mfA platform, which is impossible for conventional single-cell amplification methods.

  4. The SGC beyond structural genomics: redefining the role of 3D structures by coupling genomic stratification with fragment-based discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Anthony R; Echalier, Aude; Fairhead, Michael; Strain-Damerell, Claire; Brennan, Paul; Bullock, Alex N; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Gileadi, Opher; Marsden, Brian D; Lee, Wen Hwa; Yue, Wyatt; Bountra, Chas; von Delft, Frank

    2017-11-08

    The ongoing explosion in genomics data has long since outpaced the capacity of conventional biochemical methodology to verify the large number of hypotheses that emerge from the analysis of such data. In contrast, it is still a gold-standard for early phenotypic validation towards small-molecule drug discovery to use probe molecules (or tool compounds), notwithstanding the difficulty and cost of generating them. Rational structure-based approaches to ligand discovery have long promised the efficiencies needed to close this divergence; in practice, however, this promise remains largely unfulfilled, for a host of well-rehearsed reasons and despite the huge technical advances spearheaded by the structural genomics initiatives of the noughties. Therefore the current, fourth funding phase of the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), building on its extensive experience in structural biology of novel targets and design of protein inhibitors, seeks to redefine what it means to do structural biology for drug discovery. We developed the concept of a Target Enabling Package (TEP) that provides, through reagents, assays and data, the missing link between genetic disease linkage and the development of usefully potent compounds. There are multiple prongs to the ambition: rigorously assessing targets' genetic disease linkages through crowdsourcing to a network of collaborating experts; establishing a systematic approach to generate the protocols and data that comprise each target's TEP; developing new, X-ray-based fragment technologies for generating high quality chemical matter quickly and cheaply; and exploiting a stringently open access model to build multidisciplinary partnerships throughout academia and industry. By learning how to scale these approaches, the SGC aims to make structures finally serve genomics, as originally intended, and demonstrate how 3D structures systematically allow new modes of druggability to be discovered for whole classes of targets. © 2017 The

  5. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions by NanoLuc-Based Protein-Fragment Complementation Assay | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Emory has developed a new NanoLuc®-based protein-fragment complementation assay (NanoPCA) which allows the detection of novel protein-protein interactions (PPI). NanoPCA allows the study of PPI dynamics with reversible interactions.  Read the abstract. Experimental Approaches Read the detailed Experimetnal Approaches. 

  6. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting-based community DNA hybridization to pinpoint genome-specific fragments as molecular markers to identify and track populations common to healthy human guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guifang; Pan, Li; Du, Huimin; Chen, Junyi; Zhao, Liping

    2004-10-01

    Bacterial populations common to healthy human guts may play important roles in human health. A new strategy for discovering genomic sequences as markers for these bacteria was developed using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting. Structural features within microbial communities are compared with ERIC-PCR followed by DNA hybridization to identify genomic fragments shared by samples from healthy human individuals. ERIC-PCR profiles of fecal samples from 12 diseased or healthy human and piglet subjects demonstrated stable, unique banding patterns for each individual tested. Sequence homology of DNA fragments in bands of identical size was examined between samples by hybridization under high stringency conditions with DIG-labeled ERIC-PCR products derived from the fecal sample of one healthy child. Comparative analysis of the hybridization profiles with the original agarose fingerprints identified three predominant bands as signatures for populations associated with healthy human guts with sizes of 500, 800 and 1000 bp. Clone library profiling of the three bands produced 17 genome fragments, three of which showed high similarity only with regions of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome, while the remainder were orphan sequences. Association of these sequences with healthy guts was validated by sequence-selective PCR experiments, which showed that a single fragment was present in all 32 healthy humans and 13 healthy piglets tested. Two fragments were present in the healthy human group and in 18 children with non-infectious diarrhea but not in eight children with infectious diarrhea. Genome fragments identified with this novel strategy may be used as genome-specific markers for dynamic monitoring and sequence-guided isolation of functionally important bacterial populations in complex communities such as human gut microflora.

  7. Fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process.

  8. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges.

  9. Mind the gap; seven reasons to close fragmented genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomma, Bart P H J; Seidl, Michael F; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Cook, David E; Bolton, Melvin D; van Kan, Jan A L; Faino, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Like other domains of life, research into the biology of filamentous microbes has greatly benefited from the advent of whole-genome sequencing. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized sequencing, making genomic sciences accessible to many academic laboratories including those that study non-model organisms. Thus, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and are publically available today, although these initiatives have typically yielded considerably fragmented genome assemblies that often lack large contiguous genomic regions. Many important genomic features are contained in intergenic DNA that is often missing in current genome assemblies, and recent studies underscore the significance of non-coding regions and repetitive elements for the life style, adaptability and evolution of many organisms. The study of particular types of genetic elements, such as telomeres, centromeres, repetitive elements, effectors, and clusters of co-regulated genes, but also of phenomena such as structural rearrangements, genome compartmentalization and epigenetics, greatly benefits from having a contiguous and high-quality, preferably even complete and gapless, genome assembly. Here we discuss a number of important reasons to produce gapless, finished, genome assemblies to help answer important biological questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Efficient Genome Fragment Assembling Using GA with Neighborhood Aware Fitness Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Kikuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To decode a long genome sequence, shotgun sequencing is the state-of-the-art technique. It needs to properly sequence a very large number, sometimes as large as millions, of short partially readable strings (fragments. Arranging those fragments in correct sequence is known as fragment assembling, which is an NP-problem. Presently used methods require enormous computational cost. In this work, we have shown how our modified genetic algorithm (GA could solve this problem efficiently. In the proposed GA, the length of the chromosome, which represents the volume of the search space, is reduced with advancing generations, and thereby improves search efficiency. We also introduced a greedy mutation, by swapping nearby fragments using some heuristics, to improve the fitness of chromosomes. We compared results with Parsons’ algorithm which is based on GA too. We used fragments with partial reads on both sides, mimicking fragments in real genome assembling process. In Parsons’ work base-pair array of the whole fragment is known. Even then, we could obtain much better results, and we succeeded in restructuring contigs covering 100% of the genome sequences.

  11. Fragment-based lead generation: identification of seed fragments by a highly efficient fragment screening technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lars; Ritscher, Allegra; Müller, Gerhard; Hafenbradl, Doris

    2009-08-01

    For the detection of the precise and unambiguous binding of fragments to a specific binding site on the target protein, we have developed a novel reporter displacement binding assay technology. The application of this technology for the fragment screening as well as the fragment evolution process with a specific modelling based design strategy is demonstrated for inhibitors of the protein kinase p38alpha. In a fragment screening approach seed fragments were identified which were then used to build compounds from the deep-pocket towards the hinge binding area of the protein kinase p38alpha based on a modelling approach. BIRB796 was used as a blueprint for the alignment of the fragments. The fragment evolution of these deep-pocket binding fragments towards the fully optimized inhibitor BIRB796 included the modulation of the residence time as well as the affinity. The goal of our study was to evaluate the robustness and efficiency of our novel fragment screening technology at high fragment concentrations, compare the screening data with biochemical activity data and to demonstrate the evolution of the hit fragments with fast kinetics, into slow kinetic inhibitors in an in silico approach.

  12. AKT1, LKB1, and YAP1 revealed as MYC interactors with NanoLuc-based protein-fragment complementation assay. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The c-Myc (MYC) transcription factor is a major cancer driver and a well-validated therapeutic target. However, directly targeting MYC has been challenging. Thus, identifying proteins that interact with and regulate MYC may provide alternative strategies to inhibit its oncogenic activity. Here we report the development of a NanoLuc®-based protein-fragment complementation assay (NanoPCA) and mapping of the MYC protein interaction hub in live mammalian cells.

  13. Knowledge-based Fragment Binding Prediction

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    Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    Target-based drug discovery must assess many drug-like compounds for potential activity. Focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) can dramatically reduce the chemical search space. However, approaches for determining protein-fragment interactions have limitations. Experimental assays are time-consuming, expensive, and not always applicable. At the same time, computational approaches using physics-based methods have limited accuracy. With increasing high-resolution structural data for protein-ligand complexes, there is now an opportunity for data-driven approaches to fragment binding prediction. We present FragFEATURE, a machine learning approach to predict small molecule fragments preferred by a target protein structure. We first create a knowledge base of protein structural environments annotated with the small molecule substructures they bind. These substructures have low-molecular weight and serve as a proxy for fragments. FragFEATURE then compares the structural environments within a target protein to those in the knowledge base to retrieve statistically preferred fragments. It merges information across diverse ligands with shared substructures to generate predictions. Our results demonstrate FragFEATURE's ability to rediscover fragments corresponding to the ligand bound with 74% precision and 82% recall on average. For many protein targets, it identifies high scoring fragments that are substructures of known inhibitors. FragFEATURE thus predicts fragments that can serve as inputs to fragment-based drug design or serve as refinement criteria for creating target-specific compound libraries for experimental or computational screening. PMID:24762971

  14. Fragment-based approaches to TB drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Chiara; Chan, Daniel S H; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) urgently demands the development of new drug leads to tackle resistant strains. Fragment-based methods have recently emerged at the forefront of pharmaceutical development as a means to generate more effective lead structures, via the identification of fragment molecules that form weak but high quality interactions with the target biomolecule and subsequent fragment optimization. This review highlights a number of novel inhibitors of Mtb targets that have been developed through fragment-based approaches in recent years.

  15. Introduction to fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged in the past decade as a powerful tool for discovering drug leads. The approach first identifies starting points: very small molecules (fragments) that are about half the size of typical drugs. These fragments are then expanded or linked together to generate drug leads. Although the origins of the technique date back some 30 years, it was only in the mid-1990s that experimental techniques became sufficiently sensitive and rapid for the concept to be become practical. Since that time, the field has exploded: FBDD has played a role in discovery of at least 18 drugs that have entered the clinic, and practitioners of FBDD can be found throughout the world in both academia and industry. Literally dozens of reviews have been published on various aspects of FBDD or on the field as a whole, as have three books (Jahnke and Erlanson, Fragment-based approaches in drug discovery, 2006; Zartler and Shapiro, Fragment-based drug discovery: a practical approach, 2008; Kuo, Fragment based drug design: tools, practical approaches, and examples, 2011). However, this chapter will assume that the reader is approaching the field with little prior knowledge. It will introduce some of the key concepts, set the stage for the chapters to follow, and demonstrate how X-ray crystallography plays a central role in fragment identification and advancement.

  16. Experiences in fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher W; Verdonk, Marcel L; Rees, David C

    2012-05-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become established in both industry and academia as an alternative approach to high-throughput screening for the generation of chemical leads for drug targets. In FBDD, specialised detection methods are used to identify small chemical compounds (fragments) that bind to the drug target, and structural biology is usually employed to establish their binding mode and to facilitate their optimisation. In this article, we present three recent and successful case histories in FBDD. We then re-examine the key concepts and challenges of FBDD with particular emphasis on recent literature and our own experience from a substantial number of FBDD applications. Our opinion is that careful application of FBDD is living up to its promise of delivering high quality leads with good physical properties and that in future many drug molecules will be derived from fragment-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient clustering aggregation based on data fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J; Zhu, Mingliang; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    Clustering aggregation, known as clustering ensembles, has emerged as a powerful technique for combining different clustering results to obtain a single better clustering. Existing clustering aggregation algorithms are applied directly to data points, in what is referred to as the point-based approach. The algorithms are inefficient if the number of data points is large. We define an efficient approach for clustering aggregation based on data fragments. In this fragment-based approach, a data fragment is any subset of the data that is not split by any of the clustering results. To establish the theoretical bases of the proposed approach, we prove that clustering aggregation can be performed directly on data fragments under two widely used goodness measures for clustering aggregation taken from the literature. Three new clustering aggregation algorithms are described. The experimental results obtained using several public data sets show that the new algorithms have lower computational complexity than three well-known existing point-based clustering aggregation algorithms (Agglomerative, Furthest, and LocalSearch); nevertheless, the new algorithms do not sacrifice the accuracy.

  18. Genome puzzle master (GPM): an integrated pipeline for building and editing pseudomolecules from fragmented sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Kudrna, Dave; Mu, Ting; Li, Weiming; Copetti, Dario; Yu, Yeisoo; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Lei, Yang; Wing, Rod A

    2016-10-15

    Next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to rapidly and affordably generate vast quantities of sequence data. Once generated, raw sequences are assembled into contigs or scaffolds. However, these assemblies are mostly fragmented and inaccurate at the whole genome scale, largely due to the inability to integrate additional informative datasets (e.g. physical, optical and genetic maps). To address this problem, we developed a semi-automated software tool-Genome Puzzle Master (GPM)-that enables the integration of additional genomic signposts to edit and build 'new-gen-assemblies' that result in high-quality 'annotation-ready' pseudomolecules. With GPM, loaded datasets can be connected to each other via their logical relationships which accomplishes tasks to 'group,' 'merge,' 'order and orient' sequences in a draft assembly. Manual editing can also be performed with a user-friendly graphical interface. Final pseudomolecules reflect a user's total data package and are available for long-term project management. GPM is a web-based pipeline and an important part of a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) which can be easily deployed on local servers for any genome research laboratory. The GPM (with LIMS) package is available at https://github.com/Jianwei-Zhang/LIMS CONTACTS: jzhang@mail.hzau.edu.cn or rwing@mail.arizona.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. In silico fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konteatis, Zenon D

    2010-11-01

    In silico fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a relatively new approach inspired by the success of the biophysical fragment-based drug discovery field. Here, we review the progress made by this approach in the last decade and showcase how it complements and expands the capabilities of biophysical FBDD and structure-based drug design to generate diverse, efficient drug candidates. Advancements in several areas of research that have enabled the development of in silico FBDD and some applications in drug discovery projects are reviewed. The reader is introduced to various computational methods that are used for in silico FBDD, the fragment library composition for this technique, special applications used to identify binding sites on the surface of proteins and how to assess the druggability of these sites. In addition, the reader will gain insight into the proper application of this approach from examples of successful programs. In silico FBDD captures a much larger chemical space than high-throughput screening and biophysical FBDD increasing the probability of developing more diverse, patentable and efficient molecules that can become oral drugs. The application of in silico FBDD holds great promise for historically challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. Future advances in force fields, scoring functions and automated methods for determining synthetic accessibility will all aid in delivering more successes with in silico FBDD.

  20. Nuclear targeting by fragmentation of the Potato spindle tuber viroid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraitiene, Asta; Zhao Yan; Hammond, Rosemarie

    2008-01-01

    Transient expression of engineered reporter RNAs encoding an intron-containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a Potato virus X-based expression vector previously demonstrated the nuclear targeting capability of the 359 nucleotide Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome. To further delimit the putative nuclear-targeting signal, PSTVd subgenomic fragments were embedded within the intron, and recombinant reporter RNAs were inoculated onto Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Appearance of green fluorescence in leaf tissue inoculated with PSTVd-fragment-containing constructs indicated shuttling of the RNA into the nucleus by fragments as short as 80 nucleotides in length. Plant-to-plant variation in the timing of intron removal and subsequent GFP fluorescence was observed; however, earliest and most abundant GFP expression was obtained with constructs containing the conserved hairpin I palindrome structure and embedded upper central conserved region. Our results suggest that this conserved sequence and/or the stem-loop structure it forms is sufficient for import of PSTVd into the nucleus

  1. Missing Fragments: Detecting Cooperative Binding in Fragment-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is to identify molecular fragments that bind to alternate subsites within a given binding pocket leading to cooperative binding when linked. In this study, the binding of fragments to human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is used to illustrate how (a) current protocols may fail to detect fragments that bind cooperatively, (b) theoretical approaches can be used to validate potential hits, and (c) apparent false positives obtained when screening against cocktails of fragments may in fact indicate promising leads. PMID:24900472

  2. Homology of yeast photoreactivating gene fragment with human genomic digests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meechan, P.J.; Milam, K.M.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Enzymatic photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions has been demonstrated for a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Its presence in placental mammals, however, has not been clearly established. The authors attempted to resolve this question by assaying for the presence (or absence) of sequences in human DNA complimentary to a fragment of the photoreactivating gene from S. cerevisiae that has recently been cloned. In another study, DNA from human, chick E. coli and yeast cells was digested with either HindIII of BglII, electrophoresed on a 0.5% agarose gel, transferred (Southern blot) to a nylon membrane and probed for homology against a Sau3A restriction fragment from S. cerevisiae that compliments phr/sup -/ cells. Hybridization to human DNA digests was observed only under relatively non-stringent conditions indicating the gene is not conserved in placental mammals. These results are correlated with current literature data concerning photoreactivating enzymes

  3. Gene fragmentation: a key to mitochondrial genome evolution in Euglenozoa?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, Pavel; Gray, M.W.; Burger, G.; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2011), 225-232 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Euglena * Diplonema * Mitochondrial genome * RNA editing * Constructive neutral evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2011

  4. Non PCR-amplified Transcripts and AFLP fragments as reduced representations of the quail genome for 454 Titanium sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leterrier Christine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism discovery is now routinely performed using high-throughput sequencing of reduced representation libraries. Our objective was to adapt 454 GS FLX based sequencing methodologies in order to obtain the largest possible dataset from two reduced representations libraries, produced by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag for the transcribed fraction of the genome. Findings The expressed fraction was obtained by preparing cDNA libraries without PCR amplification from quail embryo and brain. To optimize the information content for SNP analyses, libraries were prepared from individuals selected in three quail lines and each individual in the AFLP library was tagged. Sequencing runs produced 399,189 sequence reads from cDNA and 373,484 from genomic fragments, covering close to 250 Mb of sequence in total. Conclusions Both methods used to obtain reduced representations for high-throughput sequencing were successful after several improvements. The protocols may be used for several sequencing applications, such as de novo sequencing, tagged PCR fragments or long fragment sequencing of cDNA.

  5. Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2006-05-01

    Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

  6. Value-based genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Pan, Kathy; Fakih, Marwan; Pal, Sumanta; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-20

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge. In this review, we highlight available data through a pre-established and conceptualized framework for evaluating value-based medicine to assess the cost (efficiency), clinical benefit (effectiveness), and toxicity (safety) of genomic profiling in cancer care. We also provide perspectives on future directions of next-generation sequencing from targeted panels to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing and describe potential strategies needed to attain value-based genomics.

  7. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; García, Nuria; Pääbo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

    2013-09-24

    Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp.

  9. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...... is evaluated with 50 type, reference, and well-characterised field strains. Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints comprised over 60 bands detected in the size range 35-500 bp. Groups of outbreak strains, replicate subcultures, and 'genetically identical' strains from humans, poultry and cattle......, proved indistinguishable by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, but were differentiated fi-om unrelated isolates. Previously unknown relationships between three hippurate-negative C. jejuni strains, and two C. coil var, hyoilei strains, were identified. These relationships corresponded...

  10. Large scale meta-analysis of fragment-based screening campaigns: privileged fragments and complementary technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lindvall, Mika K; Wright, S Kirk; Ottl, Johannes; Jacob, Jaison; Scheufler, Clemens; Marzinzik, Andreas; Brooijmans, Natasja; Glick, Meir

    2015-06-01

    A first step in fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) often entails a fragment-based screen (FBS) to identify fragment "hits." However, the integration of conflicting results from orthogonal screens remains a challenge. Here we present a meta-analysis of 35 fragment-based campaigns at Novartis, which employed a generic 1400-fragment library against diverse target families using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. By statistically interrogating the multidimensional FBS data, we sought to investigate three questions: (1) What makes a fragment amenable for FBS? (2) How do hits from different fragment screening technologies and target classes compare with each other? (3) What is the best way to pair FBS assay technologies? In doing so, we identified substructures that were privileged for specific target classes, as well as fragments that were privileged for authentic activity against many targets. We also revealed some of the discrepancies between technologies. Finally, we uncovered a simple rule of thumb in screening strategy: when choosing two technologies for a campaign, pairing a biochemical and biophysical screen tends to yield the greatest coverage of authentic hits. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Endogenous hepatitis C virus homolog fragments in European rabbit and hare genomes replicate in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Silva

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses, non-retroviral RNA viruses and DNA viruses have been found in the mammalian genomes. The origin of Hepatitis C virus (HCV, the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, remains unclear since its discovery. Here we show that fragments homologous to HCV structural and non-structural (NS proteins present in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus and hare (Lepus europaeus genomes replicate in bovine cell cultures. The HCV genomic homolog fragments were demonstrated by RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, and replication in bovine cell cultures by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM using specific MAbs for HCV NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins. These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity.

  12. Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated thermophilic crenarchaeotes from a subsurface gold mine as revealed by analysis of genome fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunoura, Takuro; Hirayama, Hisako; Takami, Hideto; Oida, Hanako; Nishi, Shinro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yohey; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2005-12-01

    Within a phylum Crenarchaeota, only some members of the hyperthermophilic class Thermoprotei, have been cultivated and characterized. In this study, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a microbial mat formation in a subsurface hot water stream of the Hishikari gold mine, Japan, and sequenced genome fragments of two different phylogroups of uncultivated thermophilic Crenarchaeota: (i) hot water crenarchaeotic group (HWCG) I (41.2 kb), and (ii) HWCG III (49.3 kb). The genome fragment of HWCG I contained a 16S rRNA gene, two tRNA genes and 35 genes encoding proteins but no 23S rRNA gene. Among the genes encoding proteins, several genes for putative aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase represented a potential clue with regard to the yet unknown metabolism of HWCG I Archaea. The genome fragment of HWCG III contained a 16S/23S rRNA operon and 44 genes encoding proteins. In the 23S rRNA gene, we detected a homing-endonuclease encoding a group I intron similar to those detected in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and Bacteria, as well as eukaryotic organelles. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based on the 23S rRNA gene sequence reinforced the intermediate phylogenetic affiliation of HWCG III bridging the hyperthermophilic and non-thermophilic uncultivated Crenarchaeota.

  13. Fragment informatics and computational fragment-based drug design: an overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chunquan; Zhang, Wannian

    2013-05-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a promising approach for the discovery and optimization of lead compounds. Despite its successes, FBDD also faces some internal limitations and challenges. FBDD requires a high quality of target protein and good solubility of fragments. Biophysical techniques for fragment screening necessitate expensive detection equipment and the strategies for evolving fragment hits to leads remain to be improved. Regardless, FBDD is necessary for investigating larger chemical space and can be applied to challenging biological targets. In this scenario, cheminformatics and computational chemistry can be used as alternative approaches that can significantly improve the efficiency and success rate of lead discovery and optimization. Cheminformatics and computational tools assist FBDD in a very flexible manner. Computational FBDD can be used independently or in parallel with experimental FBDD for efficiently generating and optimizing leads. Computational FBDD can also be integrated into each step of experimental FBDD and help to play a synergistic role by maximizing its performance. This review will provide critical analysis of the complementarity between computational and experimental FBDD and highlight recent advances in new algorithms and successful examples of their applications. In particular, fragment-based cheminformatics tools, high-throughput fragment docking, and fragment-based de novo drug design will provide the focus of this review. We will also discuss the advantages and limitations of different methods and the trends in new developments that should inspire future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genomic diversity among Danish field strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Nielsen, Elisabeth O.

    2002-01-01

    Genomic diversity among strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated in Denmark was assessed by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Ninety-six strains, obtained from different specimens and geographical locations during 30 years and the type strain of M. hyosynoviae S16(T......) were concurrently examined for variance in BglII-MfeI and EcoRI-Csp6I-A AFLP markers. A total of 56 different genomic fingerprints having an overall similarity between 77 and 96% were detected. No correlation between AFLP variability and period of isolation or anatomical site of isolation could...

  15. Fragment-based discovery of a potent NAMPT inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanova, Alla; Longenecker, Kenton L; Pratt, Steve D; Panchal, Sanjay C; Clark, Richard F; Lake, Marc; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha M; Raich, Diana; Sun, Chaohong; Petros, Andrew M

    2017-12-12

    NAMPT expression is elevated in many cancers, making this protein a potential target for anticancer therapy. We have carried out both NMR based and TR-FRET based fragment screens against human NAMPT and identified six novel binders with a range of potencies. Co-crystal structures were obtained for two of the fragments bound to NAMPT while for the other four fragments force-field driven docking was employed to generate a bound pose. Based on structural insights arising from comparison of the bound fragment poses to that of bound FK866 we were able to synthetically elaborate one of the fragments into a potent NAMPT inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. When fragments link : a bibliometric perspective on the development of fragment-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romasanta, A.K.S.; van der Sijde, P.C.; Hellsten, I.; Hubbard, Roderick E.; Keseru, Gyorgy M.; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E.; de Esch, I.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a highly interdisciplinary field, rich in ideas integrated from pharmaceutical sciences, chemistry, biology, and physics, among others. To enrich our understanding of the development of the field, we used bibliometric techniques to analyze 3642 publications in

  17. Physical mapping of 20 unmapped fragments of the btau_4.0 genome assembly in cattle, sheep and river buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, L; Genualdo, V; Perucatti, A; Iannuzzi, A; Iannuzzi, L; Parma, P

    2013-01-01

    The recent advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics have revolutionized genomic research, making the decoding of the genome an easier task. Genome sequences are currently available for many species, including cattle, sheep and river buffalo. The available reference genomes are very accurate, and they represent the best possible order of loci at this time. In cattle, despite the great accuracy achieved, a part of the genome has been sequenced but not yet assembled: these genome fragments are called unmapped fragments. In the present study, 20 unmapped fragments belonging to the Btau_4.0 reference genome have been mapped by FISH in cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) and river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50). Our results confirm the accuracy of the available reference genome, though there are some discrepancies between the expected localization and the observed localization. Moreover, the available data in the literature regarding genomic homologies between cattle, sheep and river buffalo are confirmed. Finally, the results presented here suggest that FISH was, and still is, a useful technology to validate the data produced by genome sequencing programs. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. NMR-Fragment Based Virtual Screening: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Tam, Benjamin; Akabayov, Barak

    2018-01-25

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) using NMR has become a central approach over the last twenty years for development of small molecule inhibitors against biological macromolecules, to control a variety of cellular processes. Yet, several considerations should be taken into account for obtaining a therapeutically relevant agent. In this review, we aim to list the considerations that make NMR fragment screening a successful process for yielding potent inhibitors. Factors that may govern the competence of NMR in fragment based drug discovery are discussed, as well as later steps that involve optimization of hits obtained by NMR-FBDD.

  19. NMR-Fragment Based Virtual Screening: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD using NMR has become a central approach over the last twenty years for development of small molecule inhibitors against biological macromolecules, to control a variety of cellular processes. Yet, several considerations should be taken into account for obtaining a therapeutically relevant agent. In this review, we aim to list the considerations that make NMR fragment screening a successful process for yielding potent inhibitors. Factors that may govern the competence of NMR in fragment based drug discovery are discussed, as well as later steps that involve optimization of hits obtained by NMR-FBDD.

  20. ACFIS: a web server for fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Jiang, Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Wu, Feng-Xu; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-07-08

    In order to foster innovation and improve the effectiveness of drug discovery, there is a considerable interest in exploring unknown 'chemical space' to identify new bioactive compounds with novel and diverse scaffolds. Hence, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) was developed rapidly due to its advanced expansive search for 'chemical space', which can lead to a higher hit rate and ligand efficiency (LE). However, computational screening of fragments is always hampered by the promiscuous binding model. In this study, we developed a new web server Auto Core Fragment in silico Screening (ACFIS). It includes three computational modules, PARA_GEN, CORE_GEN and CAND_GEN. ACFIS can generate core fragment structure from the active molecule using fragment deconstruction analysis and perform in silico screening by growing fragments to the junction of core fragment structure. An integrated energy calculation rapidly identifies which fragments fit the binding site of a protein. We constructed a simple interface to enable users to view top-ranking molecules in 2D and the binding mode in 3D for further experimental exploration. This makes the ACFIS a highly valuable tool for drug discovery. The ACFIS web server is free and open to all users at http://chemyang.ccnu.edu.cn/ccb/server/ACFIS/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. The ways and means of fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Bradley C; Norton, Raymond S; Scanlon, Martin J

    2016-11-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has emerged as a mainstream approach for the rapid and efficient identification of building blocks that can be used to develop high-affinity ligands against protein targets. One of the strengths of FBDD is the relative ease and low cost of the primary screen to identify fragments that bind. However, the fragments that emerge from primary screens often have low affinities, with K D values in the high μM to mM range, and a significant challenge for FBDD is to develop the initial fragments into more potent ligands. Successful fragment elaboration often requires co-structures of the fragments bound to their target proteins, as well as a range of biophysical and biochemical assays to track potency and efficacy. These challenges have led to the development of specific chemical strategies for the elaboration of weakly-binding fragments into more potent "hits" and lead compounds. In this article we review different approaches that have been employed to meet these challenges and describe some of the strategies that have resulted in several fragment-derived compounds entering clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Fragment-based drug discovery: concept and aim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke

    2010-03-01

    Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) has been recognized as a newly emerging lead discovery methodology that involves biophysical fragment screening and chemistry-driven fragment-to-lead stages. Although fragments, defined as structurally simple and small compounds (typically FBDD primarily turns our attention to weakly but specifically binding fragments (hit fragments) as the starting point of medicinal chemistry. Hit fragments are then promoted to more potent lead compounds through linking or merging with another hit fragment and/or attaching functional groups. Another positive aspect of FBDD is ligand efficiency. Ligand efficiency is a useful guide in screening hit selection and hit-to-lead phases to achieve lead-likeness. Owing to these features, a number of successful applications of FBDD to "undruggable targets" (where HTS and other lead identification methods failed to identify useful lead compounds) have been reported. As a result, FBDD is now expected to complement more conventional methodologies. This review, as an introduction of the following articles, will summarize the fundamental concepts of FBDD and will discuss its advantages over other conventional drug discovery approaches.

  3. ACFIS: a web server for fragment-based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Jiang, Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Wu, Feng-Xu; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In order to foster innovation and improve the effectiveness of drug discovery, there is a considerable interest in exploring unknown ‘chemical space’ to identify new bioactive compounds with novel and diverse scaffolds. Hence, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) was developed rapidly due to its advanced expansive search for ‘chemical space’, which can lead to a higher hit rate and ligand efficiency (LE). However, computational screening of fragments is always hampered by the promiscuous binding model. In this study, we developed a new web server Auto Core Fragment in silico Screening (ACFIS). It includes three computational modules, PARA_GEN, CORE_GEN and CAND_GEN. ACFIS can generate core fragment structure from the active molecule using fragment deconstruction analysis and perform in silico screening by growing fragments to the junction of core fragment structure. An integrated energy calculation rapidly identifies which fragments fit the binding site of a protein. We constructed a simple interface to enable users to view top-ranking molecules in 2D and the binding mode in 3D for further experimental exploration. This makes the ACFIS a highly valuable tool for drug discovery. The ACFIS web server is free and open to all users at http://chemyang.ccnu.edu.cn/ccb/server/ACFIS/. PMID:27150808

  4. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Hu; Xu, Xuezhu; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly

  5. Fragment approaches in structure-based drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Roderick E.

    2008-01-01

    Fragment-based methods are successfully generating novel and selective drug-like inhibitors of protein targets, with a number of groups reporting compounds entering clinical trials. This paper summarizes the key features of the approach as one of the tools in structure-guided drug discovery. There has been considerable interest recently in what is known as 'fragment-based lead discovery'. The novel feature of the approach is to begin with small low-affinity compounds. The main advantage is that a larger potential chemical diversity can be sampled with fewer compounds, which is particularly important for new target classes. The approach relies on careful design of the fragment library, a method that can detect binding of the fragment to the protein target, determination of the structure of the fragment bound to the target, and the conventional use of structural information to guide compound optimization. In this article the methods are reviewed, and experiences in fragment-based discovery of lead series of compounds against kinases such as PDK1 and ATPases such as Hsp90 are discussed. The examples illustrate some of the key benefits and issues of the approach and also provide anecdotal examples of the patterns seen in selectivity and the binding mode of fragments across different protein targets

  6. Barcode server: a visualization-based genome analysis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglou Mao

    Full Text Available We have previously developed a computational method for representing a genome as a barcode image, which makes various genomic features visually apparent. We have demonstrated that this visual capability has made some challenging genome analysis problems relatively easy to solve. We have applied this capability to a number of challenging problems, including (a identification of horizontally transferred genes, (b identification of genomic islands with special properties and (c binning of metagenomic sequences, and achieved highly encouraging results. These application results inspired us to develop this barcode-based genome analysis server for public service, which supports the following capabilities: (a calculation of the k-mer based barcode image for a provided DNA sequence; (b detection of sequence fragments in a given genome with distinct barcodes from those of the majority of the genome, (c clustering of provided DNA sequences into groups having similar barcodes; and (d homology-based search using Blast against a genome database for any selected genomic regions deemed to have interesting barcodes. The barcode server provides a job management capability, allowing processing of a large number of analysis jobs for barcode-based comparative genome analyses. The barcode server is accessible at http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/Barcode.

  7. Distant homology between yeast photoreactivating gene fragment and human genomic digests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meechan, P.J.; Milam, K.M.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Hybridization of DNA coding for the yeast DNA photolyase to human genomic DNA appears to allow one to determine whether a conserved enzyme is coded for in human cells. Under stringent conditions (68 0 C), hybridization is not found between the cloned yeast fragment (YEp13-phr1) and human or chick genomic digests. At less stringent conditions (60 0 C), hybridization is observed with chick digests, indicating evolutionary divergence even among organisms capable of photo-reactivation. At 50 0 C, weak hybridization with human digests was observed, indicating further divergence from the cloned gene. Data concerning the precise extent of homology and methods to clone the chick gene for use as another probe are discussed

  8. Modeling the integration of bacterial rRNA fragments into the human cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Karsten B; Gajer, Pawel; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2016-03-21

    Cancer is a disease driven by the accumulation of genomic alterations, including the integration of exogenous DNA into the human somatic genome. We previously identified in silico evidence of DNA fragments from a Pseudomonas-like bacteria integrating into the 5'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes in stomach cancer sequencing data. The functional and biological consequences of these bacterial DNA integrations remain unknown. Modeling of these integrations suggests that the previously identified sequences cover most of the sequence flanking the junction between the bacterial and human DNA. Further examination of these reads reveals that these integrations are rich in guanine nucleotides and the integrated bacterial DNA may have complex transcript secondary structures. The models presented here lay the foundation for future experiments to test if bacterial DNA integrations alter the transcription of the human genes.

  9. Fragment-based approaches to the discovery of kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Paul N; Berdini, Valerio; O'Reilly, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are one of the most important families of drug targets, and aberrant kinase activity has been linked to a large number of disease areas. Although eminently targetable using small molecules, kinases present a number of challenges as drug targets, not least obtaining selectivity across such a large and relatively closely related target family. Fragment-based drug discovery involves screening simple, low-molecular weight compounds to generate initial hits against a target. These hits are then optimized to more potent compounds via medicinal chemistry, usually facilitated by structural biology. Here, we will present a number of recent examples of fragment-based approaches to the discovery of kinase inhibitors, detailing the construction of fragment-screening libraries, the identification and validation of fragment hits, and their optimization into potent and selective lead compounds. The advantages of fragment-based methodologies will be discussed, along with some of the challenges associated with using this route. Finally, we will present a number of key lessons derived both from our own experience running fragment screens against kinases and from a large number of published studies.

  10. Molecular and FISH analyses of a 53-kbp intact DNA fragment inserted by biolistics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partier, A; Gay, G; Tassy, C; Beckert, M; Feuillet, C; Barret, P

    2017-10-01

    A large, 53-kbp, intact DNA fragment was inserted into the wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genome. FISH analyses of individual transgenic events revealed multiple insertions of intact fragments. Transferring large intact DNA fragments containing clusters of resistance genes or complete metabolic pathways into the wheat genome remains a challenge. In a previous work, we showed that the use of dephosphorylated cassettes for wheat transformation enabled the production of simple integration patterns. Here, we used the same technology to produce a cassette containing a 44-kb Arabidopsis thaliana BAC, flanked by one selection gene and one reporter gene. This 53-kb linear cassette was integrated in the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome by biolistic transformation. Our results showed that transgenic plants harboring the entire cassette were generated. The inheritability of the cassette was demonstrated in the T1 and T2 generation. Surprisingly, FISH analysis performed on T1 progeny of independent events identified double genomic insertions of intact fragments in non-homoeologous positions. Inheritability of these double insertions was demonstrated by FISH analysis of the T1 generation. Relative conclusions that can be drawn from molecular or FISH analysis are discussed along with future prospects of the engineering of large fragments for wheat transformation or genome editing.

  11. Genomic variations of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Bolske, G.; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains based on determination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) is described. AFLP fingerprints of 38 strains derived from different countries in Africa and the Middle East consisted of over 100 bands in the size...

  12. When fragments link: a bibliometric perspective on the development of fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romasanta, Angelo K S; van der Sijde, Peter; Hellsten, Iina; Hubbard, Roderick E; Keseru, Gyorgy M; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2018-05-05

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a highly interdisciplinary field, rich in ideas integrated from pharmaceutical sciences, chemistry, biology, and physics, among others. To enrich our understanding of the development of the field, we used bibliometric techniques to analyze 3642 publications in FBDD, complementing accounts by key practitioners. Mapping its core papers, we found the transfer of knowledge from academia to industry. Co-authorship analysis showed that university-industry collaboration has grown over time. Moreover, we show how ideas from other scientific disciplines have been integrated into the FBDD paradigm. Keyword analysis showed that the field is organized into four interconnected practices: library design, fragment screening, computational methods, and optimization. This study highlights the importance of interactions among various individuals and institutions from diverse disciplines in newly emerging scientific fields. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Advances in fragment-based drug discovery platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Masaya; Warizaya, Masaichi; Amano, Yasushi; Ohno, Kazuki; Niimi, Tatsuya

    2009-11-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has been established as a powerful alternative and complement to traditional high-throughput screening techniques for identifying drug leads. At present, this technique is widely used among academic groups as well as small biotech and large pharmaceutical companies. In recent years, > 10 new compounds developed with FBDD have entered clinical development, and more and more attention in the drug discovery field is being focused on this technique. Under the FBDD approach, a fragment library of relatively small compounds (molecular mass = 100 - 300 Da) is screened by various methods and the identified fragment hits which normally weakly bind to the target are used as starting points to generate more potent drug leads. Because FBDD is still a relatively new drug discovery technology, further developments and optimizations in screening platforms and fragment exploitation can be expected. This review summarizes recent advances in FBDD platforms and discusses the factors important for the successful application of this technique. Under the FBDD approach, both identifying the starting fragment hit to be developed and generating the drug lead from that starting fragment hit are important. Integration of various techniques, such as computational technology, X-ray crystallography, NMR, surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, mass spectrometry and high-concentration screening, must be applied in a situation-appropriate manner.

  14. Fragment-based drug discovery using rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhoti, H

    2007-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is established as an alternative approach to high-throughput screening for generating novel small molecule drug candidates. In FBDD, relatively small libraries of low molecular weight compounds (or fragments) are screened using sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding to the target protein. A lower absolute affinity of binding is expected from fragments, compared to much higher molecular weight hits detected by high-throughput screening, due to their reduced size and complexity. Through the use of iterative cycles of medicinal chemistry, ideally guided by three-dimensional structural data, it is often then relatively straightforward to optimize these weak binding fragment hits into potent and selective lead compounds. As with most other lead discovery methods there are two key components of FBDD; the detection technology and the compound library. In this review I outline the two main approaches used for detecting the binding of low affinity fragments and also some of the key principles that are used to generate a fragment library. In addition, I describe an example of how FBDD has led to the generation of a drug candidate that is now being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  15. A probabilistic fragment-based protein structure prediction algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Simoncini

    Full Text Available Conformational sampling is one of the bottlenecks in fragment-based protein structure prediction approaches. They generally start with a coarse-grained optimization where mainchain atoms and centroids of side chains are considered, followed by a fine-grained optimization with an all-atom representation of proteins. It is during this coarse-grained phase that fragment-based methods sample intensely the conformational space. If the native-like region is sampled more, the accuracy of the final all-atom predictions may be improved accordingly. In this work we present EdaFold, a new method for fragment-based protein structure prediction based on an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm. Fragment-based approaches build protein models by assembling short fragments from known protein structures. Whereas the probability mass functions over the fragment libraries are uniform in the usual case, we propose an algorithm that learns from previously generated decoys and steers the search toward native-like regions. A comparison with Rosetta AbInitio protocol shows that EdaFold is able to generate models with lower energies and to enhance the percentage of near-native coarse-grained decoys on a benchmark of [Formula: see text] proteins. The best coarse-grained models produced by both methods were refined into all-atom models and used in molecular replacement. All atom decoys produced out of EdaFold's decoy set reach high enough accuracy to solve the crystallographic phase problem by molecular replacement for some test proteins. EdaFold showed a higher success rate in molecular replacement when compared to Rosetta. Our study suggests that improving low resolution coarse-grained decoys allows computational methods to avoid subsequent sampling issues during all-atom refinement and to produce better all-atom models. EdaFold can be downloaded from http://www.riken.jp/zhangiru/software.html [corrected].

  16. OCCURRENCE OF SMALL HOMOLOGOUS AND COMPLEMENTARY FRAGMENTS IN HUMAN VIRUS GENOMES AND THEIR POSSIBLE ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With computer analysis occurrence of small homologous and complementary fragments (21 nucleotides in length has been studied in genomes of 14 human viruses causing most dangerous infections. The sample includes viruses with (+ and (– single stranded RNA and DNA-containing hepatitis A virus. Analysis of occurrence of homologous sequences has shown the existence two extreme situations. On the one hand, the same virus contains homologous sequences to almost all other viruses (for example, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and mumps virus, and numerous homologous sequences to the same other virus (especially in severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus to Dengue virus and in Ebola virus to poliovirus. On the other hand, there are rare occurrence and not numerous homologous sequences in genomes of other viruses (rubella virus, hepatitis A virus, and hepatitis B virus. Similar situation exists for occurrence of complementary sequences. Rubella virus, the genome of which has the high content of guanine and cytosine, has no complementary sequences to almost all other viruses. Most viruses have moderate level of occurrence for homologous and complementary sequences. Autocomplementary sequences are numerous in most viruses and one may suggest that the genome of single stranded RNA viruses has branched secondary structure. In addition to possible role in recombination among strains autocomplementary sequences could be regulators of translation rate of virus proteins and determine its optimal proportion in virion assembly with genome and mRNA folding. Occurrence of small homologous and complementary sequences in RNA- and DNA-containing viruses may be the result of multiple recombinations in the past and the present and determine their adaptation and variability. Recombination may take place in coinfection of human and/or common hosts. Inclusion of homologous and complementary sequences into genome could not

  17. Fragment-based screening by protein crystallography: successes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingaryan, Zorik; Yin, Zhou; Oakley, Aaron J

    2012-10-08

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) concerns the screening of low-molecular weight compounds against macromolecular targets of clinical relevance. These compounds act as starting points for the development of drugs. FBDD has evolved and grown in popularity over the past 15 years. In this paper, the rationale and technology behind the use of X-ray crystallography in fragment based screening (FBS) will be described, including fragment library design and use of synchrotron radiation and robotics for high-throughput X-ray data collection. Some recent uses of crystallography in FBS will be described in detail, including interrogation of the drug targets β-secretase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, phosphodiesterase 4A and Hsp90. These examples provide illustrations of projects where crystallography is straightforward or difficult, and where other screening methods can help overcome the limitations of crystallography necessitated by diffraction quality.

  18. Fragment-Based Screening by Protein Crystallography: Successes and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Oakley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD concerns the screening of low-molecular weight compounds against macromolecular targets of clinical relevance. These compounds act as starting points for the development of drugs. FBDD has evolved and grown in popularity over the past 15 years. In this paper, the rationale and technology behind the use of X-ray crystallography in fragment based screening (FBS will be described, including fragment library design and use of synchrotron radiation and robotics for high-throughput X-ray data collection. Some recent uses of crystallography in FBS will be described in detail, including interrogation of the drug targets β-secretase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, phosphodiesterase 4A and Hsp90. These examples provide illustrations of projects where crystallography is straightforward or difficult, and where other screening methods can help overcome the limitations of crystallography necessitated by diffraction quality.

  19. Fragment-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (FB-QSAR) for fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Huang, Ri-Bo; Wei, Yu-Tuo; Pang, Zong-Wen; Du, Li-Qin; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-01-30

    In cooperation with the fragment-based design a new drug design method, the so-called "fragment-based quantitative structure-activity relationship" (FB-QSAR) is proposed. The essence of the new method is that the molecular framework in a family of drug candidates are divided into several fragments according to their substitutes being investigated. The bioactivities of molecules are correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecular fragments through two sets of coefficients in the linear free energy equations. One coefficient set is for the physicochemical properties and the other for the weight factors of the molecular fragments. Meanwhile, an iterative double least square (IDLS) technique is developed to solve the two sets of coefficients in a training data set alternately and iteratively. The IDLS technique is a feedback procedure with machine learning ability. The standard Two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) is a special case, in the FB-QSAR, when the whole molecule is treated as one entity. The FB-QSAR approach can remarkably enhance the predictive power and provide more structural insights into rational drug design. As an example, the FB-QSAR is applied to build a predictive model of neuraminidase inhibitors for drug development against H5N1 influenza virus. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium quinoa genome. Conserved domains of the rt gene were amplified and characterized using degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs. Sequence analyses indicated that half of Ty1-copia rt (51 %) and 39 % of Ty3-gypsy rt fragments contained intact reading frames. High heterogeneity among rt sequences was observed for both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy rt amplicons, with Ty1-copia more heterogeneous than Ty3-gypsy. Most of the isolated rt fragments were present in quinoa genome in low copy numbers, with only one highly amplified Ty1-copia rt sequence family. The gypsy-like RNase H fragments co-amplified with Ty1-copia-degenerate primers were shown to be highly amplified in the quinoa genome indicating either higher abundance of some gypsy families of which rt domains could not be amplified, or independent evolution of this gypsy-region in quinoa. Both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons were preferentially located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of quinoa chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of newly amplified rt fragments together with well-characterized retrotransposon families from other organisms allowed identification of major lineages of retroelements in the genome of quinoa and provided preliminary insight into their evolutionary dynamics.

  1. DNA fragments assembly based on nicking enzyme system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available A couple of DNA ligation-independent cloning (LIC methods have been reported to meet various requirements in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The principle of LIC is the assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments by single-stranded (ss DNA overlaps annealing. Here we present a method to generate single-stranded DNA overlaps based on Nicking Endonucleases (NEases for LIC, the method was termed NE-LIC. Factors related to cloning efficiency were optimized in this study. This NE-LIC allows generating 3'-end or 5'-end ss DNA overlaps of various lengths for fragments assembly. We demonstrated that the 10 bp/15 bp overlaps had the highest DNA fragments assembling efficiency, while 5 bp/10 bp overlaps showed the highest efficiency when T4 DNA ligase was added. Its advantage over Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning (SLIC and Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER was obvious. The mechanism can be applied to many other LIC strategies. Finally, the NEases based LIC (NE-LIC was successfully applied to assemble a pathway of six gene fragments responsible for synthesizing microbial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB.

  2. Genome-wide macrosynteny among Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

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    Lieschen De Vos

    Full Text Available The Gibberella fujikuroi complex includes many Fusarium species that cause significant losses in yield and quality of agricultural and forestry crops. Due to their economic importance, whole-genome sequence information has rapidly become available for species including Fusarium circinatum, Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium verticillioides, each of which represent one of the three main clades known in this complex. However, no previous studies have explored the genomic commonalities and differences among these fungi. In this study, a previously completed genetic linkage map for an interspecific cross between Fusarium temperatum and F. circinatum, together with genomic sequence data, was utilized to consider the level of synteny between the three Fusarium genomes. Regions that are homologous amongst the Fusarium genomes examined were identified using in silico and pyrosequenced amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP fragment analyses. Homology was determined using BLAST analysis of the sequences, with 777 homologous regions aligned to F. fujikuroi and F. verticillioides. This also made it possible to assign the linkage groups from the interspecific cross to their corresponding chromosomes in F. verticillioides and F. fujikuroi, as well as to assign two previously unmapped supercontigs of F. verticillioides to probable chromosomal locations. We further found evidence of a reciprocal translocation between the distal ends of chromosome 8 and 11, which apparently originated before the divergence of F. circinatum and F. temperatum. Overall, a remarkable level of macrosynteny was observed among the three Fusarium genomes, when comparing AFLP fragments. This study not only demonstrates how in silico AFLPs can aid in the integration of a genetic linkage map to the physical genome, but it also highlights the benefits of using this tool to study genomic synteny and architecture.

  3. Genome analysis and DNA marker-based characterisation of pathogenic trypanosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbo, Edwin Chukwura

    2003-01-01

    The advances in genomics technologies and genome analysis methods that offer new leads for accelerating discovery of putative targets for developing overall control tools are reviewed in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, a PCR typing method based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the

  4. Fragment-based drug discovery and protein–protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull AP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrew P Turnbull,1 Susan M Boyd,2 Björn Walse31CRT Discovery Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK; 2IOTA Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Cambridge, UK; 3SARomics Biostructures AB, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Protein–protein interactions (PPIs are involved in many biological processes, with an estimated 400,000 PPIs within the human proteome. There is significant interest in exploiting the relatively unexplored potential of these interactions in drug discovery, driven by the need to find new therapeutic targets. Compared with classical drug discovery against targets with well-defined binding sites, developing small-molecule inhibitors against PPIs where the contact surfaces are frequently more extensive and comparatively flat, with most of the binding energy localized in “hot spots”, has proven far more challenging. However, despite the difficulties associated with targeting PPIs, important progress has been made in recent years with fragment-based drug discovery playing a pivotal role in improving their tractability. Computational and empirical approaches can be used to identify hot-spot regions and assess the druggability and ligandability of new targets, whilst fragment screening campaigns can detect low-affinity fragments that either directly or indirectly perturb the PPI. Once fragment hits have been identified and confirmed using biochemical and biophysical approaches, three-dimensional structural data derived from nuclear magnetic resonance or X-ray crystallography can be used to drive medicinal chemistry efforts towards the development of more potent inhibitors. A small-scale comparison presented in this review of “standard” fragments with those targeting PPIs has revealed that the latter tend to be larger, be more lipophilic, and contain more polar (acid/base functionality, whereas three-dimensional descriptor data indicate that there is little difference in their three

  5. Binding thermodynamics discriminates fragments from druglike compounds: a thermodynamic description of fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glyn; Ferenczy, György G; Ulander, Johan; Keserű, György M

    2017-04-01

    Small is beautiful - reducing the size and complexity of chemical starting points for drug design allows better sampling of chemical space, reveals the most energetically important interactions within protein-binding sites and can lead to improvements in the physicochemical properties of the final drug. The impact of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) on recent drug discovery projects and our improved knowledge of the structural and thermodynamic details of ligand binding has prompted us to explore the relationships between ligand-binding thermodynamics and FBDD. Information on binding thermodynamics can give insights into the contributions to protein-ligand interactions and could therefore be used to prioritise compounds with a high degree of specificity in forming key interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2017-01-17

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) can sustain their sensitivity even at very high strain levels (with a gauge factor of over 10(7) at 50% strain). This record sensitivity is ascribed to the low initial electrical resistance (5-28 Omega) of the SWCNT paper and the wide change in resistance (up to 10(6) Omega) governed by the percolated network of SWCNT in the cracked region. The sensor response remains nearly unchanged after 10 000 strain cycles at 20% proving the robustness of this technology. This fragmentation based sensing system brings opportunities to engineer highly sensitive stretchable sensors.

  7. Restriction site extension PCR: a novel method for high-throughput characterization of tagged DNA fragments and genome walking.

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    Jiabing Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insertion mutant isolation and characterization are extremely valuable for linking genes to physiological function. Once an insertion mutant phenotype is identified, the challenge is to isolate the responsible gene. Multiple strategies have been employed to isolate unknown genomic DNA that flanks mutagenic insertions, however, all these methods suffer from limitations due to inefficient ligation steps, inclusion of restriction sites within the target DNA, and non-specific product generation. These limitations become close to insurmountable when the goal is to identify insertion sites in a high throughput manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a novel strategy called Restriction Site Extension PCR (RSE-PCR to efficiently conduct large-scale isolation of unknown genomic DNA fragments linked to DNA insertions. The strategy is a modified adaptor-mediated PCR without ligation. An adapter, with complementarity to the 3' overhang of the endonuclease (KpnI, NsiI, PstI, or SacI restricted DNA fragments, extends the 3' end of the DNA fragments in the first cycle of the primary RSE-PCR. During subsequent PCR cycles and a second semi-nested PCR (secondary RSE-PCR, touchdown and two-step PCR are combined to increase the amplification specificity of target fragments. The efficiency and specificity was demonstrated in our characterization of 37 tex mutants of Arabidopsis. All the steps of RSE-PCR can be executed in a 96 well PCR plate. Finally, RSE-PCR serves as a successful alternative to Genome Walker as demonstrated by gene isolation from maize, a plant with a more complex genome than Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RSE-PCR has high potential application in identifying tagged (T-DNA or transposon sequence or walking from known DNA toward unknown regions in large-genome plants, with likely application in other organisms as well.

  8. Current perspectives in fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoree, Bas; Hubbard, Roderick E.

    2017-01-01

    It is over 20 years since the first fragment-based discovery projects were disclosed. The methods are now mature for most ‘conventional’ targets in drug discovery such as enzymes (kinases and proteases) but there has also been growing success on more challenging targets, such as disruption of protein–protein interactions. The main application is to identify tractable chemical startpoints that non-covalently modulate the activity of a biological molecule. In this essay, we overview current practice in the methods and discuss how they have had an impact in lead discovery – generating a large number of fragment-derived compounds that are in clinical trials and two medicines treating patients. In addition, we discuss some of the more recent applications of the methods in chemical biology – providing chemical tools to investigate biological molecules, mechanisms and systems. PMID:29118093

  9. The rise of fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher W; Rees, David C

    2009-06-01

    The search for new drugs is plagued by high attrition rates at all stages in research and development. Chemists have an opportunity to tackle this problem because attrition can be traced back, in part, to the quality of the chemical leads. Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a new approach, increasingly used in the pharmaceutical industry, for reducing attrition and providing leads for previously intractable biological targets. FBDD identifies low-molecular-weight ligands (∼150 Da) that bind to biologically important macromolecules. The three-dimensional experimental binding mode of these fragments is determined using X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, and is used to facilitate their optimization into potent molecules with drug-like properties. Compared with high-throughput-screening, the fragment approach requires fewer compounds to be screened, and, despite the lower initial potency of the screening hits, offers more efficient and fruitful optimization campaigns. Here, we review the rise of FBDD, including its application to discovering clinical candidates against targets for which other chemistry approaches have struggled.

  10. The heat is on: thermodynamic analysis in fragment-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edink, E.S.; Jansen, C.J.W.; Leurs, R.; De Esch, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis provides access to the determinants of binding affinity, enthalpy and entropy. In fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), thermodynamic analysis provides a powerful tool to discriminate fragments based on their potential for successful optimization. The thermodynamic data

  11. Native Mass Spectrometry in Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Liliana; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-07-28

    The advent of native mass spectrometry (MS) in 1990 led to the development of new mass spectrometry instrumentation and methodologies for the analysis of noncovalent protein-ligand complexes. Native MS has matured to become a fast, simple, highly sensitive and automatable technique with well-established utility for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). Native MS has the capability to directly detect weak ligand binding to proteins, to determine stoichiometry, relative or absolute binding affinities and specificities. Native MS can be used to delineate ligand-binding sites, to elucidate mechanisms of cooperativity and to study the thermodynamics of binding. This review highlights key attributes of native MS for FBDD campaigns.

  12. NMR screening in fragment-based drug design: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hai-Young; Wyss, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) comprises both fragment-based screening (FBS) to find hits and elaboration of these hits to lead compounds. Typical fragment hits have lower molecular weight (FBDD since it identifies and localizes the binding site of weakly interacting hits on the target protein. Here we describe ligand-based NMR methods for hit identification from fragment libraries and for functional cross-validation of primary hits.

  13. Towards novel therapeutics for HIV through fragment-based screening and drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefendbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C David

    2014-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery has been applied with varying levels of success to a number of proteins involved in the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) life cycle. Fragment-based approaches have led to the discovery of novel binding sites within protease, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and gp41. Novel compounds that bind to known pockets within CCR5 have also been identified via fragment screening, and a fragment-based approach to target the TAR-Tat interaction was explored. In the context of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), fragment-based approaches have yielded fragment hits with mid-μM activity in an in vitro activity assay, as well as fragment hits that are active against drug-resistant variants of RT. Fragment-based drug discovery is a powerful method to elucidate novel binding sites within proteins, and the method has had significant success in the context of HIV proteins.

  14. Process Fragment Libraries for Easier and Faster Development of Process-based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schumm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “process fragment” is recently gaining momentum in business process management research. We understand a process fragment as a connected and reusable process structure, which has relaxed completeness and consistency criteria compared to executable processes. We claim that process fragments allow for an easier and faster development of process-based applications. As evidence to this claim we present a process fragment concept and show a sample collection of concrete, real-world process fragments. We present advanced application scenarios for using such fragments in development of process-based applications. Process fragments are typically managed in a repository, forming a process fragment library. On top of a process fragment library from previous work, we discuss the potential impact of using process fragment libraries in cross-enterprise collaboration and application integration.

  15. Replication-Coupled PCNA Unloading by the Elg1 Complex Occurs Genome-wide and Requires Okazaki Fragment Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kubota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The sliding clamp PCNA is a crucial component of the DNA replication machinery. Timely PCNA loading and unloading are central for genome integrity and must be strictly coordinated with other DNA processing steps during replication. Here, we show that the S. cerevisiae Elg1 replication factor C-like complex (Elg1-RLC unloads PCNA genome-wide following Okazaki fragment ligation. In the absence of Elg1, PCNA is retained on chromosomes in the wake of replication forks, rather than at specific sites. Degradation of the Okazaki fragment ligase Cdc9 leads to PCNA accumulation on chromatin, similar to the accumulation caused by lack of Elg1. We demonstrate that Okazaki fragment ligation is the critical prerequisite for PCNA unloading, since Chlorella virus DNA ligase can substitute for Cdc9 in yeast and simultaneously promotes PCNA unloading. Our results suggest that Elg1-RLC acts as a general PCNA unloader and is dependent upon DNA ligation during chromosome replication.

  16. Native Mass Spectrometry in Fragment-Based Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of native mass spectrometry (MS in 1990 led to the development of new mass spectrometry instrumentation and methodologies for the analysis of noncovalent protein–ligand complexes. Native MS has matured to become a fast, simple, highly sensitive and automatable technique with well-established utility for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD. Native MS has the capability to directly detect weak ligand binding to proteins, to determine stoichiometry, relative or absolute binding affinities and specificities. Native MS can be used to delineate ligand-binding sites, to elucidate mechanisms of cooperativity and to study the thermodynamics of binding. This review highlights key attributes of native MS for FBDD campaigns.

  17. Medicinal chemistry inspired fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanter, James; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Lead generation can be a very challenging phase of the drug discovery process. The two principal methods for this stage of research are blind screening and rational design. Among the rational or semirational design approaches, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged as a useful tool for the generation of lead structures. It is particularly powerful as a complement to high-throughput screening approaches when the latter failed to yield viable hits for further development. Engagement of medicinal chemists early in the process can accelerate the progression of FBDD efforts by incorporating drug-friendly properties in the earliest stages of the design process. Medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2b and ketohexokinase are chosen as examples to illustrate the importance of close collaboration of medicinal chemists, crystallography, and modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  19. DNA Length Modulates the Affinity of Fragments of Genomic DNA for the Nuclear Matrix In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vilchis, David; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2017-12-01

    Classical observations have shown that during the interphase the chromosomal DNA of metazoans is organized in supercoiled loops attached to a compartment known as the nuclear matrix (NM). Fragments of chromosomal DNA able to bind the isolated NM in vitro are known as matrix associated/attachment/addressed regions or MARs. No specific consensus sequence or motif has been found that may constitute a universal, defining feature of MARs. On the other hand, high-salt resistant DNA-NM interactions in situ define true DNA loop anchorage regions or LARs, that might correspond to a subset of the potential MARs but are not necessarily identical to MARs characterized in vitro, since there are several examples of MARs able to bind the NM in vitro but which are not actually bound to the NM in situ. In the present work we assayed the capacity of two LARs, as well as of shorter fragments within such LARs, for binding to the NM in vitro. Paradoxically the isolated (≈2 kb) LARs cannot bind to the NM in vitro while their shorter (≈300 pb) sub-fragments and other non-related but equally short DNA fragments, bind to the NM in a high-salt resistant fashion. Our results suggest that the ability of a given DNA fragment for binding to the NM in vitro primarily depends on the length of the fragment, suggesting that binding to the NM is modulated by the local topology of the DNA fragment in suspension that it is known to depend on the DNA length. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4487-4497, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudogymnoascus spp. reveals primarily clonal evolution with small genome fragments exchanged between lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leushkin, Evgeny V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Sutormin, Roman A; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Kochkina, Galina A; Ivanushkina, Natalia E; Vasilenko, Oleg V; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Ozerskaya, Svetlana M

    2015-05-21

    Pseudogymnoascus spp. is a wide group of fungi lineages in the family Pseudorotiaceae including an aggressive pathogen of bats P. destructans. Although several lineages of P. spp. were shown to produce ascospores in culture, the vast majority of P. spp. demonstrates no evidence of sexual reproduction. P. spp. can tolerate a wide range of different temperatures and salinities and can survive even in permafrost layer. Adaptability of P. spp. to different environments is accompanied by extremely variable morphology and physiology. We sequenced genotypes of 14 strains of P. spp., 5 of which were extracted from permafrost, 1 from a cryopeg, a layer of unfrozen ground in permafrost, and 8 from temperate surface environments. All sequenced genotypes are haploid. Nucleotide diversity among these genomes is very high, with a typical evolutionary distance at synonymous sites dS ≈ 0.5, suggesting that the last common ancestor of these strains lived >50 Mya. The strains extracted from permafrost do not form a separate clade. Instead, each permafrost strain has close relatives from temperate environments. We observed a strictly clonal population structure with no conflicting topologies for ~99% of genome sequences. However, there is a number of short (~100-10,000 nt) genomic segments with the total length of 67.6 Kb which possess phylogenetic patterns strikingly different from the rest of the genome. The most remarkable case is a MAT-locus, which has 2 distinct alleles interspersed along the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. Predominantly clonal structure of genome sequences is consistent with the observations that sexual reproduction is rare in P. spp. Small number of regions with noncanonical phylogenies seem to arise due to some recombination events between derived lineages of P. spp., with MAT-locus being transferred on multiple occasions. All sequenced strains have heterothallic configuration of MAT-locus.

  1. Fragmentation of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in oyster mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milbury Coren A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discontinuous genes have been observed in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Gene discontinuity occurs in multiple forms: the two most frequent forms result from introns that are spliced out of the RNA and the resulting exons are spliced together to form a single transcript, and fragmented gene transcripts that are not covalently attached post-transcriptionally. Within the past few years, fragmented ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes have been discovered in bilateral metazoan mitochondria, all within a group of related oysters. Results In this study, we have characterized this fragmentation with comparative analysis and experimentation. We present secondary structures, modeled using comparative sequence analysis of the discontinuous mitochondrial large subunit rRNA genes of the cupped oysters C. virginica, C. gigas, and C. hongkongensis. Comparative structure models for the large subunit rRNA in each of the three oyster species are generally similar to those for other bilateral metazoans. We also used RT-PCR and analyzed ESTs to determine if the two fragmented LSU rRNAs are spliced together. The two segments are transcribed separately, and not spliced together although they still form functional rRNAs and ribosomes. Conclusions Although many examples of discontinuous ribosomal genes have been documented in bacteria and archaea, as well as the nuclei, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotes, oysters are some of the first characterized examples of fragmented bilateral animal mitochondrial rRNA genes. The secondary structures of the oyster LSU rRNA fragments have been predicted on the basis of previous comparative metazoan mitochondrial LSU rRNA structure models.

  2. Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin : Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondal, Milon; Radeva, Nedyalka; Fanlo-Virgos, Hugo; Otto, Sijbren; Klebe, Gerhard; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) affords active compounds for biological targets. While there are numerous reports on FBDD by fragment growing/optimization, fragment linking has rarely been reported. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) has become a powerful hit-identification strategy for

  3. Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments “embedded” in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed “Bootstrap Embedding,” a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN-SPECIFIC FECAL METAGENOMIC SEQUENCES USING GENOME FRAGMENT ENRICHMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence analysis of microbial genomes has provided biologists the opportunity to compare genetic differences between closely related microorganisms. While random sequencing has also been used to study natural microbial communities, metagenomic comparisons via sequencing analysis...

  5. A Survey of 6,300 Genomic Fragments for cis-Regulatory Activity in the Imaginal Discs of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Jory

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 6,000 fragments from the genome of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed for their ability to drive expression of GAL4 reporter genes in the third-instar larval imaginal discs. About 1,200 reporter genes drove expression in the eye, antenna, leg, wing, haltere, or genital imaginal discs. The patterns ranged from large regions to individual cells. About 75% of the active fragments drove expression in multiple discs; 20% were expressed in ventral, but not dorsal, discs (legs, genital, and antenna, whereas ∼23% were expressed in dorsal but not ventral discs (wing, haltere, and eye. Several patterns, for example, within the leg chordotonal organ, appeared a surprisingly large number of times. Unbiased searches for DNA sequence motifs suggest candidate transcription factors that may regulate enhancers with shared activities. Together, these expression patterns provide a valuable resource to the community and offer a broad overview of how transcriptional regulatory information is distributed in the Drosophila genome.

  6. Reconstruction of Banknote Fragments Based on Keypoint Matching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Chih-Ying; Wei, Chia-Hung; Li, Yue; Chiu, Nan-Hsing

    2015-07-01

    Banknotes may be shredded by a scrap machine, ripped up by hand, or damaged in accidents. This study proposes an image registration method for reconstruction of multiple sheets of banknotes. The proposed method first constructs different scale spaces to identify keypoints in the underlying banknote fragments. Next, the features of those keypoints are extracted to represent their local patterns around keypoints. Then, similarity is computed to find the keypoint pairs between the fragment and the reference banknote. The banknote fragments can determine the coordinate and amend the orientation. Finally, an assembly strategy is proposed to piece multiple sheets of banknote fragments together. Experimental results show that the proposed method causes, on average, a deviation of 0.12457 ± 0.12810° for each fragment while the SIFT method deviates 1.16893 ± 2.35254° on average. The proposed method not only reconstructs the banknotes but also decreases the computing cost. Furthermore, the proposed method can estimate relatively precisely the orientation of the banknote fragments to assemble. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Discovery and High-Density Genetic Map Construction in Cauliflower Using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenqing; Gu, Honghui; Sheng, Xiaoguang; Yu, Huifang; Wang, Jiansheng; Huang, Long; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers and genetic maps play an important role in plant genomics and breeding studies. Cauliflower is an important and distinctive vegetable; however, very few molecular resources have been reported for this species. In this study, a novel, specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing strategy was employed for large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and high-density genetic map construction in a double-haploid, segregating population of cauliflower. A total of 12.47 Gb raw data containing 77.92 M pair-end reads were obtained after processing and 6815 polymorphic SLAFs between the two parents were detected. The average sequencing depths reached 52.66-fold for the female parent and 49.35-fold for the male parent. Subsequently, these polymorphic SLAFs were used to genotype the population and further filtered based on several criteria to construct a genetic linkage map of cauliflower. Finally, 1776 high-quality SLAF markers, including 2741 SNPs, constituted the linkage map with average data integrity of 95.68%. The final map spanned a total genetic length of 890.01 cM with an average marker interval of 0.50 cM, and covered 364.9 Mb of the reference genome. The markers and genetic map developed in this study could provide an important foundation not only for comparative genomics studies within Brassica oleracea species but also for quantitative trait loci identification and molecular breeding of cauliflower. PMID:27047515

  8. Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) Simulations for Fragment-Based Drug Design

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, Christina E.; Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) involves screening low molecular weight molecules (“fragments”) that correspond to functional groups found in larger drug-like molecules to determine their binding to target proteins or nucleic acids. Based on the principle of thermodynamic additivity, two fragments that bind non-overlapping nearby sites on the target can be combined to yield a new molecule whose binding free energy is the sum of those of the fragments. Experimental FBDD approaches, like NMR ...

  9. Certain amplified genomic-DNA fragments (AGFs) may be involved in cell cycle progression and chloroquine is found to induce the production of cell-cycle-associated AGFs (CAGFs) in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gao-De

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cyclins are a family of proteins that control cell-cycle progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinase. Based on our experimental results, we propose here a novel hypothesis that certain amplified genomic-DNA fragments (AGFs) may also be required for the cell cycle progression of eukaryotic cells and thus can be named as cell-cycle-associated AGFs (CAGFs). Like fluctuation in cyclin levels during cell cycle progression, these CAGFs are amplified and degraded at diffe...

  10. Controlled isotropic fission fragment sources on the base of nuclear-physical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevast'yanov, V.D.; Maslov, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Isotropic fission fragment sources (IFFS) are developed on the base of a neutron generator and pulse fast reactor. IFFS permit to calibrate fission fragment detectors. The IFFS consist of radiators with 235 U. The radiators are placed in a thermal neutron field of the neutron generator or in the reactor core center. The fragment activity is controlled by indications of an α-particle counter or by indications of a monitor of energy release in the core. 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. An efficient approach to BAC based assembly of complex genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visendi, Paul; Berkman, Paul J; Hayashi, Satomi; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Ruperao, Pradeep; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Montenegro, Juan; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Staňková, Helena; Batley, Jacqueline; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in the number of genome sequencing projects since the introduction of next generation DNA sequencing technologies. Genome projects have increasingly involved assembly of whole genome data which produces inferior assemblies compared to traditional Sanger sequencing of genomic fragments cloned into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). While whole genome shotgun sequencing using next generation sequencing (NGS) is relatively fast and inexpensive, this method is extremely challenging for highly complex genomes, where polyploidy or high repeat content confounds accurate assembly, or where a highly accurate 'gold' reference is required. Several attempts have been made to improve genome sequencing approaches by incorporating NGS methods, to variable success. We present the application of a novel BAC sequencing approach which combines indexed pools of BACs, Illumina paired read sequencing, a sequence assembler specifically designed for complex BAC assembly, and a custom bioinformatics pipeline. We demonstrate this method by sequencing and assembling BAC cloned fragments from bread wheat and sugarcane genomes. We demonstrate that our assembly approach is accurate, robust, cost effective and scalable, with applications for complete genome sequencing in large and complex genomes.

  12. Investigation on energetics of ex-vessel vapor explosion based on spontaneous nucleation fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    A computer code PROVER-I is developed for propagation phase of vapor explosion. A new thermal fragmentation model is proposed with three kinds of time scale for modeling instant fragmentation, spontaneous nucleation fragmentation and normal boiling fragmentation. The energetics of ex-vessel vapor explosion is investigated based on different fragmentation models. A higher pressure peak and a larger mechanical energy conversion ratio are obtained by spontaneous nucleation fragmentation. A smaller energy conversion ratio results from normal boiling fragmentation. When the delay time in thermal fragmentation model is near 0.0 ms, the pressure propagation behavior tends to be analogous with that in hydrodynamic fragmentation. If the delay time is longer, pressure attenuation occurs at the shock front. The high energy conversion ratio (>4%) is obtained in a small vapor volume fraction together with spontaneous nucleation fragmentation. These results are consistent with fuel-coolant interaction experiments with alumina melt. However, in larger vapor volume fraction conditions (α υ >0.3), the vapor explosion is weak. For corium melt, a coarse mixture with void fraction of more than 30% can be generated in the pre-mixing process because of its physical properties. In the mixture with such a high void fraction the energetic vapor explosion hardly takes place. (author)

  13. Assessment of Dengue virus helicase and methyltransferase as targets for fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Li, Changqing; Sharff, Andrew; Lescar, Julien; Bricogne, Gérard; Barral, Karine

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal and pandemic flaviviruses continue to be leading global health concerns. With the view to help drug discovery against Dengue virus (DENV), a fragment-based experimental approach was applied to identify small molecule ligands targeting two main components of the flavivirus replication complex: the NS3 helicase (Hel) and the NS5 mRNA methyltransferase (MTase) domains. A library of 500 drug-like fragments was first screened by thermal-shift assay (TSA) leading to the identification of 36 and 32 fragment hits binding Hel and MTase from DENV, respectively. In a second stage, we set up a fragment-based X-ray crystallographic screening (FBS-X) in order to provide both validated fragment hits and structural binding information. No fragment hit was confirmed for DENV Hel. In contrast, a total of seven fragments were identified as DENV MTase binders and structures of MTase-fragment hit complexes were solved at resolution at least 2.0Å or better. All fragment hits identified contain either a five- or six-membered aromatic ring or both, and three novel binding sites were located on the MTase. To further characterize the fragment hits identified by TSA and FBS-X, we performed enzymatic assays to assess their inhibition effect on the N7- and 2'-O-MTase enzymatic activities: five of these fragment hits inhibit at least one of the two activities with IC50 ranging from 180μM to 9mM. This work validates the FBS-X strategy for identifying new anti-flaviviral hits targeting MTase, while Hel might not be an amenable target for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). This approach proved to be a fast and efficient screening method for FBDD target validation and discovery of starting hits for the development of higher affinity molecules that bind to novel allosteric sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fragment based drug discovery: practical implementation based on ¹⁹F NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John B; Poppe, Leszek; Xia, Xiaoyang; Cheng, Alan C; Sun, Yax; Michelsen, Klaus; Eastwood, Heather; Schnier, Paul D; Nixey, Thomas; Zhong, Wenge

    2012-01-26

    Fragment based drug discovery (FBDD) is a widely used tool for discovering novel therapeutics. NMR is a powerful means for implementing FBDD, and several approaches have been proposed utilizing (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) as well as one-dimensional (1)H and (19)F NMR to screen compound mixtures against a target of interest. While proton-based NMR methods of fragment screening (FBS) have been well documented and are widely used, the use of (19)F detection in FBS has been only recently introduced (Vulpetti et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2009, 131 (36), 12949-12959) with the aim of targeting "fluorophilic" sites in proteins. Here, we demonstrate a more general use of (19)F NMR-based fragment screening in several areas: as a key tool for rapid and sensitive detection of fragment hits, as a method for the rapid development of structure-activity relationship (SAR) on the hit-to-lead path using in-house libraries and/or commercially available compounds, and as a quick and efficient means of assessing target druggability.

  15. Computational Fragment-Based Drug Design: Current Trends, Strategies, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yuemin; Xie, Xiang-Qun Sean

    2018-04-09

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an effective methodology for drug development for decades. Successful applications of this strategy brought both opportunities and challenges to the field of Pharmaceutical Science. Recent progress in the computational fragment-based drug design provide an additional approach for future research in a time- and labor-efficient manner. Combining multiple in silico methodologies, computational FBDD possesses flexibilities on fragment library selection, protein model generation, and fragments/compounds docking mode prediction. These characteristics provide computational FBDD superiority in designing novel and potential compounds for a certain target. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest advances, ranging from commonly used strategies to novel concepts and technologies in computational fragment-based drug design. Particularly, in this review, specifications and advantages are compared between experimental and computational FBDD, and additionally, limitations and future prospective are discussed and emphasized.

  16. Genomic DNA fingerprinting of clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates by polymerase chain reaction amplification: comparison with major outer-membrane protein and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, A.; Duim, B.; Regelink, A.; Möller, L.; Quint, W.; van Alphen, L.

    1994-01-01

    Non-capsulate strains of Haemophilus influenzae were genotyped by analysis of variable DNA segments obtained by amplification of genomic DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting). Discrete fragments of 100-2000 bp were obtained. The reproducibility of the procedure was assessed by

  17. Enrichment of true positives from structural alerts through the use of novel atomic fragment based descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, A.; Rydberg, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the discrimination rate for methods applying structural alerts and biotransformation rules in the prediction of toxicity and drug metabolism we have developed a set of novel fragment based atomic descriptors. These atomic descriptors encode the properties of the fragments separating an...

  18. qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Christopher B.; Gallati, Sabina; Schaller, André

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. ► Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. ► Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. ► Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze–thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA (λ nDNA ) and mtDNA (λ mtDNA ) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in degraded samples in the future. To our knowledge this is the first time different degradation impact of the two

  19. qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Christopher B., E-mail: Christopher.jackson@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gallati, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.gallati@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Schaller, Andre, E-mail: andre.schaller@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in

  20. Critical Evaluation of Native Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Fragment-Based Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göth, Melanie; Badock, Volker; Weiske, Jörg; Pagel, Kevin; Kuropka, Benno

    2017-08-08

    Fragment-based screening presents a promising alternative to high-throughput screening and has gained great attention in recent years. So far, only a few studies have discussed mass spectrometry as a screening technology for fragments. Herein, we report the application of native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) for screening defined sets of fragments against four different target proteins. Fragments were selected from a primary screening conducted with a thermal shift assay (TSA) and represented different binding categories. Our data indicated that, beside specific complex formation, many fragments show extensive multiple binding and also charge-state shifts. Both of these factors complicate automated data analysis and decrease the attractiveness of native MS as a primary screening tool for fragments. A comparison of the hits identified by native MS and TSA showed good agreement for two of the proteins. Furthermore, we discuss general challenges, including the determination of an optimal fragment concentration and the question of how to rank fragment hits according to their affinity. In conclusion, we consider native MS to be a highly valuable tool for the validation and deeper investigation of promising fragment hits rather than a method for primary screening. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Dhajala meteorite shower: atmospheric fragmentation and ablation based on cosmic ray track studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagolia, C; Doshi, N; Gupta, S K; Kumar, S; Lal, D; Trivedi, J R [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India)

    1977-06-01

    Cosmic-ray track studies have been carried out in more than 250 fragments of Dhajala meteorite comprising greater than 70% of the recovered mass. In the case of larger fragments (namely, those with mass exceeding 250 g) several faces of each fragment have been analysed for track densities. Track densities are low, and fall generally in the range (10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/)cm/sup -2/, indicating appreciable ablation losses since the cosmic ray exposure age of Dhajala is about 7 m.y. (track measurements were confined to large olivine grains to minimize contributions to tracks due to the fission of uranium and extinct radionuclides). Attempts have been made to deduce information about fragmentation dynamics and the preatmospheric mass/radius of Dhajala, based on the present comprehensive study of track densities in the fragments. Correlations between the position of a fragment in the strewnfield and its track density have provided an approximate scenario for the fragmentation/ablation of the meteorite during its atmospheric flight. Observation of minimum track density in the fragments lead to a value of (38 +- 2)cm for the preatmospheric radius of the meteorite. It is estimated from these data that the collection of fragments was made with an overall efficiency of approximately 60% and that the ablation amounts to (86.7 +- 2.1)%. Estimated amounts of ablation for shells of different radii are also presented.

  2. Process of Fragment-Based Lead Discovery—A Perspective from NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Ma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD has proven fruitful during the past two decades for a variety of targets, even challenging protein–protein interaction (PPI systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy plays a vital role, from initial fragment-based screening to lead generation, because of its power to probe the intrinsically weak interactions between targets and low-molecular-weight fragments. Here, we review the NMR FBLD process from initial library construction to lead generation. We describe technical aspects regarding fragment library design, ligand- and protein-observed screening, and protein–ligand structure model generation. For weak binders, the initial hit-to-lead evolution can be guided by structural information retrieved from NMR spectroscopy, including chemical shift perturbation, transferred pseudocontact shifts, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. This perspective examines structure-guided optimization from weak fragment screening hits to potent leads for challenging PPI targets.

  3. Target Immobilization as a Strategy for NMR-Based Fragment Screening: Comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for Fragment Hit Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, M.; Retra, K.; Figaroa, F.; Hollander, J.G.; Ab, E.; Heetebrij, R.J.; Irth, H.; Siegal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the

  4. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  5. Fragment virtual screening based on Bayesian categorization for discovering novel VEGFR-2 scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmin; Jiao, Yu; Xiong, Xiao; Liu, Haichun; Ran, Ting; Xu, Jinxing; Lu, Shuai; Xu, Anyang; Pan, Jing; Qiao, Xin; Shi, Zhihao; Lu, Tao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of novel scaffolds against a specific target has long been one of the most significant but challengeable goals in discovering lead compounds. A scaffold that binds in important regions of the active pocket is more favorable as a starting point because scaffolds generally possess greater optimization possibilities. However, due to the lack of sufficient chemical space diversity of the databases and the ineffectiveness of the screening methods, it still remains a great challenge to discover novel active scaffolds. Since the strengths and weaknesses of both fragment-based drug design and traditional virtual screening (VS), we proposed a fragment VS concept based on Bayesian categorization for the discovery of novel scaffolds. This work investigated the proposal through an application on VEGFR-2 target. Firstly, scaffold and structural diversity of chemical space for 10 compound databases were explicitly evaluated. Simultaneously, a robust Bayesian classification model was constructed for screening not only compound databases but also their corresponding fragment databases. Although analysis of the scaffold diversity demonstrated a very unevenly distribution of scaffolds over molecules, results showed that our Bayesian model behaved better in screening fragments than molecules. Through a literature retrospective research, several generated fragments with relatively high Bayesian scores indeed exhibit VEGFR-2 biological activity, which strongly proved the effectiveness of fragment VS based on Bayesian categorization models. This investigation of Bayesian-based fragment VS can further emphasize the necessity for enrichment of compound databases employed in lead discovery by amplifying the diversity of databases with novel structures.

  6. A new crystal structure fragment-based pharmacophore method for G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidom, Kimberley; Isberg, Vignir; Hauser, Alexander Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    and receptor residue pairs, from crystal structure complexes. We describe the procedure to collect a library with more than 250 fragments covering 29 residue positions within the generic transmembrane binding pocket. We describe how the library fragments are recombined and inferred to build pharmacophores...... for new targets. A validating retrospective virtual screening of histamine H1 and H3 receptor pharmacophores yielded area-under-the-curves of 0.88 and 0.82, respectively. The fragment-based method has the unique advantage that it can be applied to targets for which no (homologous) crystal structures...... or ligands are known. 47% of the class A G protein-coupled receptors can be targeted with at least four-element pharmacophores. The fragment libraries can also be used to grow known ligands or for rotamer refinement of homology models. Researchers can download the complete fragment library or a subset...

  7. Radioactive nuclear beam facilities based on projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    The production of radioactive beams using direct separation techniques is discussed. The reaction mechanisms which can be used to produce radioactive beams with these techniques can be broadly divided into three groups, projectile fragmentation, nucleon transfer, and Coulomb disassociation. Radioactive nuclei produced in these ways have large forward momenta with relatively sharp angular distributions peaked near zero degrees which are suitable for collection with magnetic devices. Secondary beam intensities of up to a few percent of the primary beam intensity are possible, although depending on the production mechanism the beam emittance may be poor. Further beam purification can be achieved using atomic processes with profiled energy degraders. The features of the production reaction mechanism, separation techniques, and a review of world wide efforts are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are presented, with discussion of techniques to overcome some of the disadvantages. (Author)

  8. Fragment-based drug discovery as alternative strategy to the drug development for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E; Gomes, Renan Augusto; Vital-Fujii, Drielli Gomes; Ferreira, Glaucio Monteiro; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart

    2017-12-01

    Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area. In this article, we discuss the basic Fragment-Based Drug Discovery process, brief successful ideas of general applications and show a landscape of its use in NDs, encouraging the implementation of this strategy as an interesting way to optimize the development of new drugs to NDs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Generation of Polar Semi-Saturated Bicyclic Pyrazoles for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luise, Nicola; Wyatt, Paul

    2018-05-07

    Synthesising polar semi-saturated bicyclic heterocycles can lead to better starting points for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) programs. This communication highlights the application of diverse chemistry to construct bicyclic systems from a common intermediate, where pyrazole, a privileged heteroaromatic able to bind effectively to biological targets, is fused to diverse saturated counterparts. The generated fragments can be further developed either after confirmation of their binding pose or early in the process, as their synthetic intermediates. Essential quality control (QC) for selection of small molecules to add to a fragment library is discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizeng Jia; Hongjie Li; Xueyong Zhang; Zichao Li; Lijuan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR) or "Genoplasmics" is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  11. A Ligand-observed Mass Spectrometry Approach Integrated into the Fragment Based Lead Discovery Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Qin, Shanshan; Chen, Shuai; Li, Jinlong; Li, Lixin; Wang, Zhongling; Wang, Quan; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Cheng; Shui, Wenqing

    2015-01-01

    In fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD), a cascade combining multiple orthogonal technologies is required for reliable detection and characterization of fragment binding to the target. Given the limitations of the mainstream screening techniques, we presented a ligand-observed mass spectrometry approach to expand the toolkits and increase the flexibility of building a FBLD pipeline especially for tough targets. In this study, this approach was integrated into a FBLD program targeting the HCV RNA polymerase NS5B. Our ligand-observed mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the discovery of 10 hits from a 384-member fragment library through two independent screens of complex cocktails and a follow-up validation assay. Moreover, this MS-based approach enabled quantitative measurement of weak binding affinities of fragments which was in general consistent with SPR analysis. Five out of the ten hits were then successfully translated to X-ray structures of fragment-bound complexes to lay a foundation for structure-based inhibitor design. With distinctive strengths in terms of high capacity and speed, minimal method development, easy sample preparation, low material consumption and quantitative capability, this MS-based assay is anticipated to be a valuable addition to the repertoire of current fragment screening techniques. PMID:25666181

  12. Evolutions in fragment-based drug design: the deconstruction–reconstruction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Xiaobin; Wang, Ailan; Zheng, Yunquan; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of molecular recognition and protein–ligand interactions have facilitated rapid development of potent and selective ligands for therapeutically relevant targets. Over the past two decades, a variety of useful approaches and emerging techniques have been developed to promote the identification and optimization of leads that have high potential for generating new therapeutic agents. Intriguingly, the innovation of a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach has enabled rapid and efficient progress in drug discovery. In this critical review, we focus on the construction of fragment libraries and the advantages and disadvantages of various fragment-based screening (FBS) for constructing such libraries. We also highlight the deconstruction–reconstruction strategy by utilizing privileged fragments of reported ligands. PMID:25263697

  13. FragIt: a tool to prepare input files for fragment based quantum chemical calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Steinmann

    Full Text Available Near linear scaling fragment based quantum chemical calculations are becoming increasingly popular for treating large systems with high accuracy and is an active field of research. However, it remains difficult to set up these calculations without expert knowledge. To facilitate the use of such methods, software tools need to be available to support these methods and help to set up reasonable input files which will lower the barrier of entry for usage by non-experts. Previous tools relies on specific annotations in structure files for automatic and successful fragmentation such as residues in PDB files. We present a general fragmentation methodology and accompanying tools called FragIt to help setup these calculations. FragIt uses the SMARTS language to locate chemically appropriate fragments in large structures and is applicable to fragmentation of any molecular system given suitable SMARTS patterns. We present SMARTS patterns of fragmentation for proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, specifically for D-galactopyranose for use in cyclodextrins. FragIt is used to prepare input files for the Fragment Molecular Orbital method in the GAMESS program package, but can be extended to other computational methods easily.

  14. The multiple roles of computational chemistry in fragment-based drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Richard; Barker, Oliver; Barker, John J.; Hesterkamp, Thomas; Godemann, Robert; Andersen, Ole; Fryatt, Tara; Courtney, Steve; Hallett, Dave; Whittaker, Mark

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) represents a change in strategy from the screening of molecules with higher molecular weights and physical properties more akin to fully drug-like compounds, to the screening of smaller, less complex molecules. This is because it has been recognised that fragment hit molecules can be efficiently grown and optimised into leads, particularly after the binding mode to the target protein has been first determined by 3D structural elucidation, e.g. by NMR or X-ray crystallography. Several studies have shown that medicinal chemistry optimisation of an already drug-like hit or lead compound can result in a final compound with too high molecular weight and lipophilicity. The evolution of a lower molecular weight fragment hit therefore represents an attractive alternative approach to optimisation as it allows better control of compound properties. Computational chemistry can play an important role both prior to a fragment screen, in producing a target focussed fragment library, and post-screening in the evolution of a drug-like molecule from a fragment hit, both with and without the available fragment-target co-complex structure. We will review many of the current developments in the area and illustrate with some recent examples from successful FBDD discovery projects that we have conducted.

  15. Fragment-Based Drug Discovery of Potent Protein Kinase C Iota Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Liu, Boping; Tee, Doris Hui Ying; Chen, Guoying; Ahmad, Nur Huda Binte; Wong, Yun Xuan; Poh, Zhi Ying; Ang, Shi Hua; Tan, Eldwin Sum Wai; Ong, Esther Hq; Nurul Dinie; Poulsen, Anders; Pendharkar, Vishal; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Lee, May Ann; Sepramaniam, Sugunavathi; Ho, Soo Yei; Cherian, Joseph; Hill, Jeffrey; Keller, Thomas H; Hung, Alvin W

    2018-05-24

    Protein kinase C iota (PKC-ι) is an atypical kinase implicated in the promotion of different cancer types. A biochemical screen of a fragment library has identified several hits from which an azaindole-based scaffold was chosen for optimization. Driven by a structure-activity relationship and supported by molecular modeling, a weakly bound fragment was systematically grown into a potent and selective inhibitor against PKC-ι.

  16. Incorporation of rapid thermodynamic data in fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Akihiro; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tashiro, Shinya; Kajihara, Daisuke; Kikkawa, Masato; Mitani, Tomoya; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2013-03-14

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. We introduce SITE (single-injection thermal extinction), a novel thermodynamic methodology that selects high-quality hits early in FBDD. SITE is a fast calorimetric competitive assay suitable for automation that captures the essence of isothermal titration calorimetry but using significantly fewer resources. We describe the principles of SITE and identify a novel family of fragment inhibitors of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase displaying high values of enthalpic efficiency.

  17. Fragment-Based Protein-Protein Interaction Antagonists of a Viral Dimeric Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Jonathan E; Lee, Gregory M; Acker, Timothy M; Hulce, Kaitlin R; Gonzalez, Eric R; Schweigler, Patrick; Melkko, Samu; Farady, Christopher J; Craik, Charles S

    2016-04-19

    Fragment-based drug discovery has shown promise as an approach for challenging targets such as protein-protein interfaces. We developed and applied an activity-based fragment screen against dimeric Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus protease (KSHV Pr) using an optimized fluorogenic substrate. Dose-response determination was performed as a confirmation screen, and NMR spectroscopy was used to map fragment inhibitor binding to KSHV Pr. Kinetic assays demonstrated that several initial hits also inhibit human cytomegalovirus protease (HCMV Pr). Binding of these hits to HCMV Pr was also confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Despite the use of a target-agnostic fragment library, more than 80 % of confirmed hits disrupted dimerization and bound to a previously reported pocket at the dimer interface of KSHV Pr, not to the active site. One class of fragments, an aminothiazole scaffold, was further explored using commercially available analogues. These compounds demonstrated greater than 100-fold improvement of inhibition. This study illustrates the power of fragment-based screening for these challenging enzymatic targets and provides an example of the potential druggability of pockets at protein-protein interfaces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. GenColors-based comparative genome databases for small eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Marius; Romualdi, Alessandro; Petzold, Andreas; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Glöckner, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Many sequence data repositories can give a quick and easily accessible overview on genomes and their annotations. Less widespread is the possibility to compare related genomes with each other in a common database environment. We have previously described the GenColors database system (http://gencolors.fli-leibniz.de) and its applications to a number of bacterial genomes such as Borrelia, Legionella, Leptospira and Treponema. This system has an emphasis on genome comparison. It combines data from related genomes and provides the user with an extensive set of visualization and analysis tools. Eukaryote genomes are normally larger than prokaryote genomes and thus pose additional challenges for such a system. We have, therefore, adapted GenColors to also handle larger datasets of small eukaryotic genomes and to display eukaryotic gene structures. Further recent developments include whole genome views, genome list options and, for bacterial genome browsers, the display of horizontal gene transfer predictions. Two new GenColors-based databases for two fungal species (http://fgb.fli-leibniz.de) and for four social amoebas (http://sacgb.fli-leibniz.de) were set up. Both new resources open up a single entry point for related genomes for the amoebozoa and fungal research communities and other interested users. Comparative genomics approaches are greatly facilitated by these resources.

  19. Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) simulations for fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Raman, E Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) involves screening low molecular weight molecules ("fragments") that correspond to functional groups found in larger drug-like molecules to determine their binding to target proteins or nucleic acids. Based on the principle of thermodynamic additivity, two fragments that bind nonoverlapping nearby sites on the target can be combined to yield a new molecule whose binding free energy is the sum of those of the fragments. Experimental FBDD approaches, like NMR and X-ray crystallography, have proven very useful but can be expensive in terms of time, materials, and labor. Accordingly, a variety of computational FBDD approaches have been developed that provide different levels of detail and accuracy.The Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) method of computational FBDD uses all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify fragment binding. The target is "soaked" in an aqueous solution with multiple fragments having different identities. The resulting computational competition assay reveals what small molecule types are most likely to bind which regions of the target. From SILCS simulations, 3D probability maps of fragment binding called "FragMaps" can be produced. Based on the probabilities relative to bulk, SILCS FragMaps can be used to determine "Grid Free Energies (GFEs)," which provide per-atom contributions to fragment binding affinities. For essentially no additional computational overhead relative to the production of the FragMaps, GFEs can be used to compute Ligand Grid Free Energies (LGFEs) for arbitrarily complex molecules, and these LGFEs can be used to rank-order the molecules in accordance with binding affinities.

  20. Lessons from hot spot analysis for fragment-based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Vajda, Sandor

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of binding energy hot spots at protein surfaces can provide crucial insights into the prospects for successful application of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), and whether a fragment hit can be advanced into a high affinity, druglike ligand. The key factor is the strength of the top ranking hot spot, and how well a given fragment complements it. We show that published data are sufficient to provide a sophisticated and quantitative understanding of how hot spots derive from protein three-dimensional structure, and how their strength, number and spatial arrangement govern the potential for a surface site to bind to fragment-sized and larger ligands. This improved understanding provides important guidance for the effective application of FBDD in drug discovery. PMID:26538314

  1. The Office Software Learning and Examination System Design Based on Fragmented Learning Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented learning is that through the segmentation of learning content or learning time, make learners can use the fragmented time for learning fragmentated content, have the characteristics of time flexibility, learning targeted and high learning efficiency. Based on the fragmented learning ideas, combined with the teaching idea of micro class and interactive teaching, comprehensive utilization of flash animation design software, .NET development platform, VSTO technology, multimedia development technology and so on, design and develop a system integrated with learning, practice and examination of the Office software, which is not only conducive to the effective and personalized learning of students, but also conducive to the understanding the students’ situation of teachers, and liberate teachers from the heavy labor of mechanical, focus on promoting the formation of students’ knowledge system.

  2. Lessons from Hot Spot Analysis for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R; Kozakov, Dima; Whitty, Adrian; Vajda, Sandor

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of binding energy hot spots at protein surfaces can provide crucial insights into the prospects for successful application of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), and whether a fragment hit can be advanced into a high-affinity, drug-like ligand. The key factor is the strength of the top ranking hot spot, and how well a given fragment complements it. We show that published data are sufficient to provide a sophisticated and quantitative understanding of how hot spots derive from a protein 3D structure, and how their strength, number, and spatial arrangement govern the potential for a surface site to bind to fragment-sized and larger ligands. This improved understanding provides important guidance for the effective application of FBDD in drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fragment-based drug discovery and its application to challenging drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda J; Howard, Steven; Cons, Benjamin D

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a technique for identifying low molecular weight chemical starting points for drug discovery. Since its inception 20 years ago, FBDD has grown in popularity to the point where it is now an established technique in industry and academia. The approach involves the biophysical screening of proteins against collections of low molecular weight compounds (fragments). Although fragments bind to proteins with relatively low affinity, they form efficient, high quality binding interactions with the protein architecture as they have to overcome a significant entropy barrier to bind. Of the biophysical methods available for fragment screening, X-ray protein crystallography is one of the most sensitive and least prone to false positives. It also provides detailed structural information of the protein-fragment complex at the atomic level. Fragment-based screening using X-ray crystallography is therefore an efficient method for identifying binding hotspots on proteins, which can then be exploited by chemists and biologists for the discovery of new drugs. The use of FBDD is illustrated here with a recently published case study of a drug discovery programme targeting the challenging protein-protein interaction Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1:nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Novel approach of fragment-based lead discovery applied to renin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawada, Michiko; Suzuki, Shinkichi; Imaeda, Yasuhiro; Oki, Hideyuki; Snell, Gyorgy; Behnke, Craig A; Kondo, Mitsuyo; Tarui, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kuroita, Takanobu; Tomimoto, Masaki

    2016-11-15

    A novel approach was conducted for fragment-based lead discovery and applied to renin inhibitors. The biochemical screening of a fragment library against renin provided the hit fragment which showed a characteristic interaction pattern with the target protein. The hit fragment bound only to the S1, S3, and S3 SP (S3 subpocket) sites without any interactions with the catalytic aspartate residues (Asp32 and Asp215 (pepsin numbering)). Prior to making chemical modifications to the hit fragment, we first identified its essential binding sites by utilizing the hit fragment's substructures. Second, we created a new and smaller scaffold, which better occupied the identified essential S3 and S3 SP sites, by utilizing library synthesis with high-throughput chemistry. We then revisited the S1 site and efficiently explored a good building block attaching to the scaffold with library synthesis. In the library syntheses, the binding modes of each pivotal compound were determined and confirmed by X-ray crystallography and the library was strategically designed by structure-based computational approach not only to obtain a more active compound but also to obtain informative Structure Activity Relationship (SAR). As a result, we obtained a lead compound offering synthetic accessibility as well as the improved in vitro ADMET profiles. The fragments and compounds possessing a characteristic interaction pattern provided new structural insights into renin's active site and the potential to create a new generation of renin inhibitors. In addition, we demonstrated our FBDD strategy integrating highly sensitive biochemical assay, X-ray crystallography, and high-throughput synthesis and in silico library design aimed at fragment morphing at the initial stage was effective to elucidate a pocket profile and a promising lead compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ionization and fragmentation of DNA-RNA bases: a density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadr-Arani, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) cross human tissue, deposit energy and dissipate fragmenting molecules. The resulting fragments may be highlighted by mass spectrometry. Despite the amount of information obtained experimentally by the interpretation of the mass spectrum, experience alone cannot answer all the questions of the mechanism of fragmentation of DNA/RNA bases and a theoretical study is a complement to this information. A theoretical study allows us to know the weakest bonds in the molecule during ionization and thus may help to provide mechanisms of dissociation and produced fragments. The purpose of this work, using the DFT with the PBE functional, is to study the ionization and fragmentation mechanisms of DNA/RNA bases (Uracil, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine) and to identify the cations corresponding to each peak in mass spectra. For all RNA bases, the retro Diels-Alder reaction (elimination of HNCO or NCO*) is a major route for dissociating, with the exception of adenine for which there is no atom oxygen in its structure. Loss of NH 3 (NH 2 *) molecule is another common way to all bases that contain amine group. The possibility of the loss of hydrogen from the cations is also investigated, as well as the dissociation of dehydrogenated cations and protonated uracil. This work shows the interest of providing DFT calculation in the interpretation of mass spectra of DNA bases. (author)

  6. A Trichosporonales genome tree based on 27 haploid and three evolutionarily conserved 'natural' hybrid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Masako; Sriswasdi, Sira; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly Trichosporon mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of ~55%, and its closest haploid relative was Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis. After constructing the C. mucoides subgenomes, we generated a phylogenetic tree using genome data from the 27 haploid species and the subgenome data from the three hybrid genome species. It was a high-quality tree with 100% bootstrap support for all of the branches. The genome-based tree provided superior resolution compared with previous multi-gene analyses. Although our backbone tree does not include all Trichosporonales genera (e.g. Cryptotrichosporon), it will be valuable for future analyses of genome data. Interest in interspecies hybrid fungal genomes has recently increased because they may provide a basis for new technologies. The three Trichosporonales hybrid genomes described in this study are different from well-characterized hybrid genomes (e.g. those of Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces bayanus) because these hybridization events probably occurred in the distant evolutionary past. Hence, they will be useful for studying genome stability following hybridization and speciation events. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Computational medicinal chemistry in fragment-based drug discovery: what, how and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabal, Obdulia; Urbano-Cuadrado, Manuel; Oyarzabal, Julen

    2011-01-01

    The use of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has increased in the last decade due to the encouraging results obtained to date. In this scenario, computational approaches, together with experimental information, play an important role to guide and speed up the process. By default, FBDD is generally considered as a constructive approach. However, such additive behavior is not always present, therefore, simple fragment maturation will not always deliver the expected results. In this review, computational approaches utilized in FBDD are reported together with real case studies, where applicability domains are exemplified, in order to analyze them, and then, maximize their performance and reliability. Thus, a proper use of these computational tools can minimize misleading conclusions, keeping the credit on FBDD strategy, as well as achieve higher impact in the drug-discovery process. FBDD goes one step beyond a simple constructive approach. A broad set of computational tools: docking, R group quantitative structure-activity relationship, fragmentation tools, fragments management tools, patents analysis and fragment-hopping, for example, can be utilized in FBDD, providing a clear positive impact if they are utilized in the proper scenario - what, how and when. An initial assessment of additive/non-additive behavior is a critical point to define the most convenient approach for fragments elaboration.

  8. CyanoBase: the cyanobacteria genome database update 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mitsuteru; Okamoto, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2010-01-01

    CyanoBase (http://genome.kazusa.or.jp/cyanobase) is the genome database for cyanobacteria, which are model organisms for photosynthesis. The database houses cyanobacteria species information, complete genome sequences, genome-scale experiment data, gene information, gene annotations and mutant information. In this version, we updated these datasets and improved the navigation and the visual display of the data views. In addition, a web service API now enables users to retrieve the data in various formats with other tools, seamlessly.

  9. CyanoBase: the cyanobacteria genome database update 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Mitsuteru; Okamoto, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2009-01-01

    CyanoBase (http://genome.kazusa.or.jp/cyanobase) is the genome database for cyanobacteria, which are model organisms for photosynthesis. The database houses cyanobacteria species information, complete genome sequences, genome-scale experiment data, gene information, gene annotations and mutant information. In this version, we updated these datasets and improved the navigation and the visual display of the data views. In addition, a web service API now enables users to retrieve the data in var...

  10. Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Milon; Radeva, Nedyalka; Fanlo-Virgós, Hugo; Otto, Sijbren; Klebe, Gerhard; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2016-08-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) affords active compounds for biological targets. While there are numerous reports on FBDD by fragment growing/optimization, fragment linking has rarely been reported. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) has become a powerful hit-identification strategy for biological targets. We report the synergistic combination of fragment linking and DCC to identify inhibitors of the aspartic protease endothiapepsin. Based on X-ray crystal structures of endothiapepsin in complex with fragments, we designed a library of bis-acylhydrazones and used DCC to identify potent inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor exhibits an IC50 value of 54 nm, which represents a 240-fold improvement in potency compared to the parent hits. Subsequent X-ray crystallography validated the predicted binding mode, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the combination of fragment linking and DCC as a hit-identification strategy. This approach could be applied to a range of biological targets, and holds the potential to facilitate hit-to-lead optimization. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Rapid detection of structural variation in a human genome using nanochannel-based genome mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hastie, Alex R.; Cao, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    mutations; however, none of the current detection methods are comprehensive, and currently available methodologies are incapable of providing sufficient resolution and unambiguous information across complex regions in the human genome. To address these challenges, we applied a high-throughput, cost......-effective genome mapping technology to comprehensively discover genome-wide SVs and characterize complex regions of the YH genome using long single molecules (>150 kb) in a global fashion. RESULTS: Utilizing nanochannel-based genome mapping technology, we obtained 708 insertions/deletions and 17 inversions larger...... fosmid data. Of the remaining 270 SVs, 260 are insertions and 213 overlap known SVs in the Database of Genomic Variants. Overall, 609 out of 666 (90%) variants were supported by experimental orthogonal methods or historical evidence in public databases. At the same time, genome mapping also provides...

  12. Anti-fouling properties of Fab’ fragments immobilized on silane-based adlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor; Romaschin, Alexander; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and mixed adlayers formed with Fab’ linker and/or spacers. • Binding of Fab’ fragments through TUBTS linker resulted in oriented immobilization. • Immobilized Fab’ fragments have inherent anti-fouling character. • Up to 80% fouling reduction when Fab’ fragments introduced to surfaces. • Used the minimally fouling surfaces to detect a cancer biomarker (PTHrP) in serum. - Graphical abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a difficult task. The last decade has seen an increase in the use of immobilized antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab’) in biosensors. One Fab’ linker compound S-(11-trichlorosilyl-undecanyl)-benzothiosulfonate (TUBTS) and three spacers were used to create the silane-based adlayers. The ultra-high frequency electromagnetic piezoelectric acoustic sensor (EMPAS) was used to gauge the fouling properties of the various surfaces using bovine serum albumin (BSA), goat IgG, and mouse serum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to characterize the surfaces. It was discovered that immobilized oriented Fab’ fragments reduced the fouling levels of surfaces up to 80% compared to the surfaces without fragments. An explanation for this phenomenon is that the antibody fragments increase the hydration of the surfaces and aid in the formation of an anti-fouling water barrier. The anti-fouling effect of the Fab’ fragments is at its maximum when there is an even distribution of fragments across the surfaces. Finally, using Fab’-covered surfaces, a cancer biomarker was detected from serum, showing the applicability of this work to the field of biodetection. - Abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a

  13. Anti-fouling properties of Fab’ fragments immobilized on silane-based adlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada); Romaschin, Alexander [Clinical Biochemistry, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8 (Canada); Thompson, Michael, E-mail: mikethom@chem.utoronto.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Simple and mixed adlayers formed with Fab’ linker and/or spacers. • Binding of Fab’ fragments through TUBTS linker resulted in oriented immobilization. • Immobilized Fab’ fragments have inherent anti-fouling character. • Up to 80% fouling reduction when Fab’ fragments introduced to surfaces. • Used the minimally fouling surfaces to detect a cancer biomarker (PTHrP) in serum. - Graphical abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a difficult task. The last decade has seen an increase in the use of immobilized antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab’) in biosensors. One Fab’ linker compound S-(11-trichlorosilyl-undecanyl)-benzothiosulfonate (TUBTS) and three spacers were used to create the silane-based adlayers. The ultra-high frequency electromagnetic piezoelectric acoustic sensor (EMPAS) was used to gauge the fouling properties of the various surfaces using bovine serum albumin (BSA), goat IgG, and mouse serum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to characterize the surfaces. It was discovered that immobilized oriented Fab’ fragments reduced the fouling levels of surfaces up to 80% compared to the surfaces without fragments. An explanation for this phenomenon is that the antibody fragments increase the hydration of the surfaces and aid in the formation of an anti-fouling water barrier. The anti-fouling effect of the Fab’ fragments is at its maximum when there is an even distribution of fragments across the surfaces. Finally, using Fab’-covered surfaces, a cancer biomarker was detected from serum, showing the applicability of this work to the field of biodetection. - Abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a

  14. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  15. Determination of rock fragmentation based on a photographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehgan Banadaki, M.M.; Majdi, A.; Raessi Gahrooei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper represents a physical blasting model in laboratory scale along with a photographic approach to describe the distribution of blasted rock materials. For this purpose, based on wobble probability distribution function, eight samples each weighted 100 kg,were obtained. Four pictures from four different section of each sample were taken. Then, pictures were converted into graphic files with characterizing boundary of each piece of rocks in the samples. Error caused due to perspective were eliminated. Volume of each piece of the blasted rock materials and hence the required sieve size, each piece of rock to pass through, were calculated. Finally, original blasted rock size distribution was compared with that obtained from the photographic method. The paper concludes with presenting an approach to convert the results of photographic technique into size distribution obtained by seine analysis with sufficient verification

  16. Generating "fragment-based virtual library" using pocket similarity search of ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Raed S

    2015-01-01

    As the number of available ligand-receptor complexes is increasing, researchers are becoming more dedicated to mine these complexes to aid in the drug design and development process. We present free software which is developed as a tool for performing similarity search across ligand-receptor complexes for identifying binding pockets which are similar to that of a target receptor. The search is based on 3D-geometric and chemical similarity of the atoms forming the binding pocket. For each match identified, the ligand's fragment(s) corresponding to that binding pocket are extracted, thus forming a virtual library of fragments (FragVLib) that is useful for structure-based drug design. The program provides a very useful tool to explore available databases.

  17. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-08

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF sensors is ascribed to the sliding of individual fragmentized-CNT/PDMS-composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  18. In silico fragment-based drug discovery: setup and validation of a fragment-to-lead computational protocol using S4MPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Laurent; Renaud, Jean-Paul; Horvath, Dragos

    2013-04-22

    This paper describes the use and validation of S4MPLE in Fragment-Based Drug Design (FBDD)--a strategy to build drug-like ligands starting from small compounds called fragments. S4MPLE is a conformational sampling tool based on a hybrid genetic algorithm that is able to simulate one (conformer enumeration) or more molecules (docking). The goal of the current paper is to show that due to the judicious design of genetic operators, S4MPLE may be used without any specific adaptation as an in silico FBDD tool. Such fragment-to-lead evolution involves either growing of one or linking of several fragment-like binder(s). The native ability to specifically "dock" a substructure that is covalently anchored to its target (here, some prepositioned fragment formally part of the binding site) enables it to act like dedicated de novo builders and differentiates it from most classical docking tools, which may only cope with non-covalent interactions. Besides, S4MPLE may address growing/linking scenarios involving protein site flexibility, and it might also suggest "growth" moves by bridging the ligand to the site via water-mediated interactions if H2O molecules are simply appended to the input files. Therefore, the only development overhead required to build a virtual fragment→ligand growing/linking strategy based on S4MPLE were two chemoinformatics programs meant to provide a minimalistic management of the linker library. The first creates a duplicate-free library by fragmenting a compound database, whereas the second builds new compounds, attaching chemically compatible linkers to the starting fragments. S4MPLE is subsequently used to probe the optimal placement of the linkers within the binding site, with initial restraints on atoms from initial fragments, followed by an optimization of all kept poses after restraint removal. Ranking is mainly based on two criteria: force-field potential energy and RMSD shifts of the original fragment moieties. This strategy was applied to

  19. Computational fragment-based screening using RosettaLigand: the SAMPL3 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y. J.

    2012-05-01

    SAMPL3 fragment based virtual screening challenge provides a valuable opportunity for researchers to test their programs, methods and screening protocols in a blind testing environment. We participated in SAMPL3 challenge and evaluated our virtual fragment screening protocol, which involves RosettaLigand as the core component by screening a 500 fragments Maybridge library against bovine pancreatic trypsin. Our study reaffirmed that the real test for any virtual screening approach would be in a blind testing environment. The analyses presented in this paper also showed that virtual screening performance can be improved, if a set of known active compounds is available and parameters and methods that yield better enrichment are selected. Our study also highlighted that to achieve accurate orientation and conformation of ligands within a binding site, selecting an appropriate method to calculate partial charges is important. Another finding is that using multiple receptor ensembles in docking does not always yield better enrichment than individual receptors. On the basis of our results and retrospective analyses from SAMPL3 fragment screening challenge we anticipate that chances of success in a fragment screening process could be increased significantly with careful selection of receptor structures, protein flexibility, sufficient conformational sampling within binding pocket and accurate assignment of ligand and protein partial charges.

  20. The use of many-body expansions and geometry optimizations in fragment-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitri G; Asada, Naoya; Nakanishi, Isao; Kitaura, Kazuo

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Chemists routinely work with complex molecular systems: solutions, biochemical molecules, and amorphous and composite materials provide some typical examples. The questions one often asks are what are the driving forces for a chemical phenomenon? How reasonable are our views of chemical systems in terms of subunits, such as functional groups and individual molecules? How can one quantify the difference in physicochemical properties of functional units found in a different chemical environment? Are various effects on functional units in molecular systems additive? Can they be represented by pairwise potentials? Are there effects that cannot be represented in a simple picture of pairwise interactions? How can we obtain quantitative values for these effects? Many of these questions can be formulated in the language of many-body effects. They quantify the properties of subunits (fragments), referred to as one-body properties, pairwise interactions (two-body properties), couplings of two-body interactions described by three-body properties, and so on. By introducing the notion of fragments in the framework of quantum chemistry, one obtains two immense benefits: (a) chemists can finally relate to quantum chemistry, which now speaks their language, by discussing chemically interesting subunits and their interactions and (b) calculations become much faster due to a reduced computational scaling. For instance, the somewhat academic sounding question of the importance of three-body effects in water clusters is actually another way of asking how two hydrogen bonds affect each other, when they involve three water molecules. One aspect of this is the many-body charge transfer (CT), because the charge transfers in the two hydrogen bonds are coupled to each other (not independent). In this work, we provide a generalized view on the use of many-body expansions in fragment-based methods, focusing on the general aspects of the property expansion and a contraction of a

  1. Diffusion mediated coagulation and fragmentation based study of domain formation in lipid bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Laxminarsimha V., E-mail: laxman@iitk.ac.in [Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Roy, Subhradeep [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics (MC 0219), Virginia Tech, 495 Old Turner Street, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Das, Sovan Lal [Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2017-01-15

    We estimate the equilibrium size distribution of cholesterol rich micro-domains on a lipid bilayer by solving Smoluchowski equation for coagulation and fragmentation. Towards this aim, we first derive the coagulation kernels based on the diffusion behaviour of domains moving in a two dimensional membrane sheet, as this represents the reality better. We incorporate three different diffusion scenarios of domain diffusion into our coagulation kernel. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of the parameters in our model on the coagulation and fragmentation behaviour. The observed behaviours of the coagulation and fragmentation kernels are also manifested in the equilibrium domain size distribution and its first moment. Finally, considering the liquid domains diffusing in a supported lipid bilayer, we fit the equilibrium domain size distribution to a benchmark solution.

  2. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  3. Lead identification for the K-Ras protein: virtual screening and combinatorial fragment-based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan AAK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Akbar Ali Khan Pathan,1,2,* Bhavana Panthi,3,* Zahid Khan,1 Purushotham Reddy Koppula,4–6 Mohammed Saud Alanazi,1 Sachchidanand,3 Narasimha Reddy Parine,1 Mukesh Chourasia3,* 1Genome Research Chair (GRC, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, 2Integrated Gulf Biosystems, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacoinformatics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India; 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, 5Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital, 6Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Kirsten rat sarcoma (K-Ras protein is a member of Ras family belonging to the small guanosine triphosphatases superfamily. The members of this family share a conserved structure and biochemical properties, acting as binary molecular switches. The guanosine triphosphate-bound active K-Ras interacts with a range of effectors, resulting in the stimulation of downstream signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Efforts to target K-Ras have been unsuccessful until now, placing it among high-value molecules against which developing a therapy would have an enormous impact. K-Ras transduces signals when it binds to guanosine triphosphate by directly binding to downstream effector proteins, but in case of guanosine diphosphate-bound conformation, these interactions get disrupted. Methods: In the present study, we targeted the nucleotide-binding site in the “on” and “off” state conformations of the K-Ras protein to find out suitable lead compounds. A structure-based virtual screening approach has been used to screen compounds from different databases, followed by a combinatorial fragment-based approach to design the apposite lead for the K-Ras protein. Results: Interestingly, the designed compounds exhibit a binding preference for the

  4. Fragment-based screening in tandem with phenotypic screening provides novel antiparasitic hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaazer, Antoni R; Orrling, Kristina M; Shanmugham, Anitha; Jansen, Chimed; Maes, Louis; Edink, Ewald; Sterk, Geert Jan; Siderius, Marco; England, Paul; Bailey, David; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Methods to discover biologically active small molecules include target-based and phenotypic screening approaches. One of the main difficulties in drug discovery is elucidating and exploiting the relationship between drug activity at the protein target and disease modification, a phenotypic endpoint. Fragment-based drug discovery is a target-based approach that typically involves the screening of a relatively small number of fragment-like (molecular weight <300) molecules that efficiently cover chemical space. Here, we report a fragment screening on TbrPDEB1, an essential cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) from Trypanosoma brucei, and human PDE4D, an off-target, in a workflow in which fragment hits and a series of close analogs are subsequently screened for antiparasitic activity in a phenotypic panel. The phenotypic panel contained T. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agents of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, and malaria, respectively, as well as MRC-5 human lung cells. This hybrid screening workflow has resulted in the discovery of various benzhydryl ethers with antiprotozoal activity and low toxicity, representing interesting starting points for further antiparasitic optimization. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. A new assay based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of homocitrate synthase gene fragments for Candida species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemiako, Kasjan; Śledzińska, Anna; Krawczyk, Beata

    2017-08-01

    Candida sp. have been responsible for an increasing number of infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Species-specific differentiation of Candida sp. is difficult in routine diagnosis. This identification can have a highly significant association in therapy and prophylaxis. This work has shown a new application of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) method in the molecular identification of six species of Candida, which are the most common causes of fungal infections. Specific for fungi homocitrate synthase gene was chosen as a molecular target for amplification. The use of three restriction enzymes, DraI, RsaI, and BglII, for amplicon digestion can generate species-specific fluorescence labeled DNA fragment profiles, which can be used to determine the diagnostic algorithm. The designed method can be a cost-efficient high-throughput molecular technique for the identification of six clinically important Candida species.

  6. Characterizing GEO Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentations Using Ground-based and Telescopic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.; Reyes, J. A.

    In a continued effort to better characterize the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) environment, NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while the Transtage fragmented a third time in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in low Earth orbit. To better assess and characterize these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that it was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to continue material analysis and historical documentation. The Transtage has undergone two separate spectral measurement campaigns to characterize the reflectance spectroscopy of historical aerospace materials. These data have been incorporated into the NASA Spectral Database, with the goal of using telescopic data comparisons for potential material identification. A Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system scan also has been completed and a scale model has been created for use in the Optical Measurement Center (OMC) for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An historical overview of the Titan IIIC Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment will be discussed in the subsequent presentation.

  7. Design Principles for Fragment Libraries: Maximizing the Value of Learnings from Pharma Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) Programs for Use in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserű, György M; Erlanson, Daniel A; Ferenczy, György G; Hann, Michael M; Murray, Christopher W; Pickett, Stephen D

    2016-09-22

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is well suited for discovering both drug leads and chemical probes of protein function; it can cover broad swaths of chemical space and allows the use of creative chemistry. FBDD is widely implemented for lead discovery in industry but is sometimes used less systematically in academia. Design principles and implementation approaches for fragment libraries are continually evolving, and the lack of up-to-date guidance may prevent more effective application of FBDD in academia. This Perspective explores many of the theoretical, practical, and strategic considerations that occur within FBDD programs, including the optimal size, complexity, physicochemical profile, and shape profile of fragments in FBDD libraries, as well as compound storage, evaluation, and screening technologies. This compilation of industry experience in FBDD will hopefully be useful for those pursuing FBDD in academia.

  8. CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kiel, Jan A K W; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Nygård, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  10. Targeting lysine specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A) tandem TUDOR domain - A fragment based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Anup K; Judge, Russell A; Li, Leiming; Pithawalla, Ron; Simanis, Justin; Bodelle, Pierre M; Marin, Violeta L; Henry, Rodger F; Petros, Andrew M; Sun, Chaohong

    2018-06-01

    The tandem TUDOR domains present in the non-catalytic C-terminal half of the KDM4A, 4B and 4C enzymes play important roles in regulating their chromatin localizations and substrate specificities. They achieve this regulatory role by binding to different tri-methylated lysine residues on histone H3 (H3-K4me3, H3-K23me3) and histone H4 (H4-K20me3) depending upon the specific chromatin environment. In this work, we have used a 2D-NMR based fragment screening approach to identify a novel fragment (1a), which binds to the KDM4A-TUDOR domain and shows modest competition with H3-K4me3 binding in biochemical as well as in vitro cell based assays. A co-crystal structure of KDM4A TUDOR domain in complex with 1a shows that the fragment binds stereo-specifically to the methyl lysine binding pocket forming a network of strong hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. We anticipate that the fragment 1a can be further developed into a novel allosteric inhibitor of the KDM4 family of enzymes through targeting their C-terminal tandem TUDOR domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ab initio protein structure assembly using continuous structure fragments and optimized knowledge-based force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang

    2012-07-01

    Ab initio protein folding is one of the major unsolved problems in computational biology owing to the difficulties in force field design and conformational search. We developed a novel program, QUARK, for template-free protein structure prediction. Query sequences are first broken into fragments of 1-20 residues where multiple fragment structures are retrieved at each position from unrelated experimental structures. Full-length structure models are then assembled from fragments using replica-exchange Monte Carlo simulations, which are guided by a composite knowledge-based force field. A number of novel energy terms and Monte Carlo movements are introduced and the particular contributions to enhancing the efficiency of both force field and search engine are analyzed in detail. QUARK prediction procedure is depicted and tested on the structure modeling of 145 nonhomologous proteins. Although no global templates are used and all fragments from experimental structures with template modeling score >0.5 are excluded, QUARK can successfully construct 3D models of correct folds in one-third cases of short proteins up to 100 residues. In the ninth community-wide Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction experiment, QUARK server outperformed the second and third best servers by 18 and 47% based on the cumulative Z-score of global distance test-total scores in the FM category. Although ab initio protein folding remains a significant challenge, these data demonstrate new progress toward the solution of the most important problem in the field. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hot spot analysis for driving the development of hits into leads in fragment based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Ngan, Chi Ho; Zerbe, Brandon S.; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor

    2011-01-01

    Fragment based drug design (FBDD) starts with finding fragment-sized compounds that are highly ligand efficient and can serve as a core moiety for developing high affinity leads. Although the core-bound structure of a protein facilitates the construction of leads, effective design is far from straightforward. We show that protein mapping, a computational method developed to find binding hot spots and implemented as the FTMap server, provides information that complements the fragment screening results and can drive the evolution of core fragments into larger leads with a minimal loss or, in some cases, even a gain in ligand efficiency. The method places small molecular probes, the size of organic solvents, on a dense grid around the protein, and identifies the hot spots as consensus clusters formed by clusters of several probes. The hot spots are ranked based on the number of probe clusters, which predicts the binding propensity of the subsites and hence their importance for drug design. Accordingly, with a single exception the main hot spot identified by FTMap binds the core compound found by fragment screening. The most useful information is provided by the neighboring secondary hot spots, indicating the regions where the core can be extended to increase its affinity. To quantify this information, we calculate the density of probes from mapping, which describes the binding propensity at each point, and show that the change in the correlation between a ligand position and the probe density upon extending or repositioning the core moiety predicts the expected change in ligand efficiency. PMID:22145575

  13. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests.

  14. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in

  15. Quantum mechanical fragment methods based on partitioning atoms or partitioning coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Ke R; Xu, Xuefei; Isegawa, Miho; Leverentz, Hannah R; Truhlar, Donald G

    2014-09-16

    atoms for capping dangling bonds, and we have shown that they can greatly improve the accuracy. Finally we present a new approach that goes beyond QM/MM by combining the convenience of molecular mechanics with the accuracy of fitting a potential function to electronic structure calculations on a specific system. To make the latter practical for systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, we developed a method to interpolate between local internal-coordinate fits to the potential energy. A key issue for the application to large systems is that rather than assigning the atoms or monomers to fragments, we assign the internal coordinates to reaction, secondary, and tertiary sets. Thus, we make a partition in coordinate space rather than atom space. Fits to the local dependence of the potential energy on tertiary coordinates are arrayed along a preselected reaction coordinate at a sequence of geometries called anchor points; the potential energy function is called an anchor points reactive potential. Electrostatically embedded fragment methods and the anchor points reactive potential, because they are based on treating an entire system by quantum mechanical electronic structure methods but are affordable for large and complex systems, have the potential to open new areas for accurate simulations where combined QM/MM methods are inadequate.

  16. Next-Generation Sequencing of Genomic DNA Fragments Bound to a Transcription Factor in Vitro Reveals Its Regulatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Kurihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several transcription factors (TFs coordinate to regulate expression of specific genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana it is estimated that approximately 10% of all genes encode TFs or TF-like proteins. It is important to identify target genes that are directly regulated by TFs in order to understand the complete picture of a plant’s transcriptome profile. Here, we investigate the role of the LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5 transcription factor that acts as a regulator of photomorphogenesis. We used an in vitro genomic DNA binding assay coupled with immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing (gDB-seq instead of the in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-based methods. The results demonstrate that the HY5-binding motif predicted here was similar to the motif reported previously and that in vitro HY5-binding loci largely overlapped with the HY5-targeted candidate genes identified in previous ChIP-chip analysis. By combining these results with microarray analysis, we identified hundreds of HY5-binding genes that were differentially expressed in hy5. We also observed delayed induction of some transcripts of HY5-binding genes in hy5 mutants in response to blue-light exposure after dark treatment. Thus, an in vitro gDNA-binding assay coupled with sequencing is a convenient and powerful method to bridge the gap between identifying TF binding potential and establishing function.

  17. Physics-Based Fragment Acceleration Modeling for Pressurized Tank Burst Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ted A.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    As part of comprehensive efforts to develop physics-based risk assessment techniques for space systems at NASA, coupled computational fluid and rigid body dynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the flow mechanisms that accelerate tank fragments in bursting pressurized vessels. Simulations of several configurations were compared to analyses based on the industry-standard Baker explosion model, and were used to formulate an improved version of the model. The standard model, which neglects an external fluid, was found to agree best with simulation results only in configurations where the internal-to-external pressure ratio is very high and fragment curvature is small. The improved model introduces terms that accommodate an external fluid and better account for variations based on circumferential fragment count. Physics-based analysis was critical in increasing the model's range of applicability. The improved tank burst model can be used to produce more accurate risk assessments of space vehicle failure modes that involve high-speed debris, such as exploding propellant tanks and bursting rocket engines.

  18. Restriction Fragment Pattern (RFP) analysis of genomes from Danish isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.; Lei, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Purified DNA from 42 isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected during 1985 from clinical outbreaks of Aujezsky's disease on Danish farms was compared by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis. The BamHI generated RFPs were found to be distinguishable, thus confirming RFP analysis...

  19. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-01

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human–machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  20. Identification of Histamine H3 Receptor Ligands Using a New Crystal Structure Fragment-based Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ida Osborn; Boesgaard, Michael W; Fidom, Kimberley

    2017-01-01

    Virtual screening offers an efficient alternative to high-throughput screening in the identification of pharmacological tools and lead compounds. Virtual screening is typically based on the matching of target structures or ligand pharmacophores to commercial or in-house compound catalogues....... The complete pharmacophore fragment library is freely available through the GPCR database, GPCRdb, allowing the successful application herein to be repeated for most of the 285 class A GPCR targets. The method could also easily be adapted to other protein families....

  1. Fragment-based modelling of single stranded RNA bound to RNA recognition motif containing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beauchene, Isaure Chauvot; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protein-RNA complexes are important for many biological processes. However, structural modeling of such complexes is hampered by the high flexibility of RNA. Particularly challenging is the docking of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). We have developed a fragment-based approach to model the structure of ssRNA bound to a protein, based on only the protein structure, the RNA sequence and conserved contacts. The conformational diversity of each RNA fragment is sampled by an exhaustive library of trinucleotides extracted from all known experimental protein–RNA complexes. The method was applied to ssRNA with up to 12 nucleotides which bind to dimers of the RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), a highly abundant eukaryotic RNA-binding domain. The fragment based docking allows a precise de novo atomic modeling of protein-bound ssRNA chains. On a benchmark of seven experimental ssRNA–RRM complexes, near-native models (with a mean heavy-atom deviation of <3 Å from experiment) were generated for six out of seven bound RNA chains, and even more precise models (deviation < 2 Å) were obtained for five out of seven cases, a significant improvement compared to the state of the art. The method is not restricted to RRMs but was also successfully applied to Pumilio RNA binding proteins. PMID:27131381

  2. EDF fragment relocation model based on the displacement of rigid bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callu, C.; Baron, D.; Ruck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to release the restricting conditions imposed to the reactor operations with regards to PCMI (Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction), the simulation of a fuel rod thermomechanical behavior has to be improved. The computer programming has to cope with the more and more sophisticated mathematical modellings induced by the complexity and the interdependence of the phenomena. Therefore EDF is developing a new code - CYRANO3 - since 1990 putting emphasis on its evolution capacities. Concerning more precisely the PCMI simulation, the pellet fragmentation and the fragments relocation is one of the major aspect one must account for. Thanks to recent analytical experiments, EDF developed a new modelling based on the displacement of rigid bodies and on the calculation of the interaction efforts between the fragments. This paper presents the basis of the model, its introduction within the CYRANO3 code and its calibration on a specific analytical experiment. The modelling is then tested against PWR fuel rods deformations from the EDF data base. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Fragment-Based Discovery of Pyrimido[1,2-b]indazole PDE10A Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Ayaka; Seo, Ryushi; Amano, Yasushi; Namatame, Ichiji; Hamaguchi, Wataru; Honbou, Kazuya; Mihara, Takuma; Yamazaki, Mayako; Tomishima, Masaki; Masuda, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we report the identification of potent pyrimidoindazoles as phosphodiesterase10A (PDE10A) inhibitors by using the method of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). The pyrazolopyridine derivative 2 was found to be a fragment hit compound which could occupy a part of the binding site of PDE10A enzyme by using the method of the X-ray co-crystal structure analysis. On the basis of the crystal structure of compound 2 and PDE10A protein, a number of compounds were synthesized and evaluated, by means of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, which culminated in the discovery of a novel pyrimidoindazole derivative 13 having good physicochemical properties.

  4. Fragment-Based Drug Discovery in the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mostafa; Serya, Rabah

    2017-08-01

    Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibition has emerged recently as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of many human disorders such as atherosclerosis, inflammatory disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), some viral infections, and cancer. Since the discovery of the two potent inhibitors, I-BET762 and JQ1, different research groups have used different techniques to develop novel potent and selective inhibitors. In this review, we will be concerned with the trials that used fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) approaches to discover or optimize BET inhibitors, also showing fragments that can be further optimized in future projects to reach novel potent BET inhibitors. © 2017 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  5. Time-zero fission-fragment detector based on low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Assamagan, Ketevi A; Bayatyan, G L; Carlini, R; Danagulyan, S; Eden, T; Egiyan, K; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Grigoryan, N K; Greenwood, Z; Gueye, P; Hashimoto, O; Johnston, K; Keppel, C; Knyazyan, S; Majewski, S; Margaryan, A; Margaryan, Yu L; Marikian, G G; Martoff, J; Mkrtchyan, H G; Parlakyan, L; Sato, Y; Sawafta, R; Simicevic, N; Tadevosyan, V; Takahashi, T; Tang, L; Vartanian, G S; Vulcan, W; Wells, S; Wood, S

    1999-01-01

    A time-zero fission fragment (FF) detector, based on the technique of low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers (LPMWPC), has been designed and constructed for the heavy hypernuclear lifetime experiment (E95-002) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its characteristics and the method of time-zero reconstruction were investigated using fission fragments from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission source. The influence of the ionization energy loss was also studied. It is shown that Heptane, Hexane, and Isobutane gases at a pressure of 1-2 Torr are all suitable for such a FF detector. As desired by experiment, a timing resolution of about 200 ps (FWHM) for a chamber size of 21x21 cm sup 2 was achieved.

  6. Time-zero fission-fragment detector based on low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assamagan, K.; Baker, K.; Bayatyan, G.; Carlini, R.; Danagoulian, S.; Eden, T.; Egiyan, K.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Grigoryan, N.; Greenwood, Z.; Gueye, P.; Hashimoto, O.; Johnston, K.; Keppel, C.; Knyazyan, S.; Majewski, S.; Margaryan, A.; Margaryan, Yu.; Marikyan, G.; Martoff, J.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Parlakyan, L.; Sato, Y.; Sawafta, R.; Simicevic, N.; Tadevosyan, V.; Takahashi, T.; Tang, L.; Vartanyan, G.; Vulcan, W.; Wells, S.; Wood, S.

    1999-01-01

    A time-zero fission fragment (FF) detector, based on the technique of low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers (LPMWPC), has been designed and constructed for the heavy hypernuclear lifetime experiment (E95-002) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its characteristics and the method of time-zero reconstruction were investigated using fission fragments from a 252 Cf spontaneous fission source. The influence of the ionization energy loss was also studied. It is shown that Heptane, Hexane, and Isobutane gases at a pressure of 1-2 Torr are all suitable for such a FF detector. As desired by experiment, a timing resolution of about 200 ps (FWHM) for a chamber size of 21x21 cm 2 was achieved

  7. New Genome Similarity Measures based on Conserved Gene Adjacencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Daniel; Kowada, Luis Antonio B; Araujo, Eloi; Deshpande, Shachi; Dantas, Simone; Moret, Bernard M E; Stoye, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Many important questions in molecular biology, evolution, and biomedicine can be addressed by comparative genomic approaches. One of the basic tasks when comparing genomes is the definition of measures of similarity (or dissimilarity) between two genomes, for example, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between species. The power of different genome comparison methods varies with the underlying formal model of a genome. The simplest models impose the strong restriction that each genome under study must contain the same genes, each in exactly one copy. More realistic models allow several copies of a gene in a genome. One speaks of gene families, and comparative genomic methods that allow this kind of input are called gene family-based. The most powerful-but also most complex-models avoid this preprocessing of the input data and instead integrate the family assignment within the comparative analysis. Such methods are called gene family-free. In this article, we study an intermediate approach between family-based and family-free genomic similarity measures. Introducing this simpler model, called gene connections, we focus on the combinatorial aspects of gene family-free genome comparison. While in most cases, the computational costs to the general family-free case are the same, we also find an instance where the gene connections model has lower complexity. Within the gene connections model, we define three variants of genomic similarity measures that have different expression powers. We give polynomial-time algorithms for two of them, while we show NP-hardness for the third, most powerful one. We also generalize the measures and algorithms to make them more robust against recent local disruptions in gene order. Our theoretical findings are supported by experimental results, proving the applicability and performance of our newly defined similarity measures.

  8. SPY: a new scission-point model based on microscopic inputs to predict fission fragment properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panebianco, Stefano; Lemaître, Jean-Francois; Sida, Jean-Luc [CEA Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Ivette (France); Dubray, Noëel [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, Stephane [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophisique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the difficulty in describing the whole fission dynamics, the main fragment characteristics can be determined in a static approach based on a so-called scission-point model. Within this framework, a new Scission-Point model for the calculations of fission fragment Yields (SPY) has been developed. This model, initially based on the approach developed by Wilkins in the late seventies, consists in performing a static energy balance at scission, where the two fragments are supposed to be completely separated so that their macroscopic properties (mass and charge) can be considered as fixed. Given the knowledge of the system state density, averaged quantities such as mass and charge yields, mean kinetic and excitation energy can then be extracted in the framework of a microcanonical statistical description. The main advantage of the SPY model is the introduction of one of the most up-to-date microscopic descriptions of the nucleus for the individual energy of each fragment and, in the future, for their state density. These quantities are obtained in the framework of HFB calculations using the Gogny nucleon-nucleon interaction, ensuring an overall coherence of the model. Starting from a description of the SPY model and its main features, a comparison between the SPY predictions and experimental data will be discussed for some specific cases, from light nuclei around mercury to major actinides. Moreover, extensive predictions over the whole chart of nuclides will be discussed, with particular attention to their implication in stellar nucleosynthesis. Finally, future developments, mainly concerning the introduction of microscopic state densities, will be briefly discussed. (author)

  9. An open source GIS-based tool to integrate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Gili, Josep A.; Corominas, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Rockfalls are frequent instability processes in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. Even though the stability of rock slopes can be determined using analytical approaches, the assessment of large rock cliffs require simplifying assumptions due to the difficulty of working with a large amount of joints, the scattering of both the orientations and strength parameters. The attitude and persistency of joints within the rock mass define the size of kinematically unstable rock volumes. Furthermore the rock block will eventually split in several fragments during its propagation downhill due its impact with the ground surface. Knowledge of the size, energy, trajectory… of each block resulting from fragmentation is critical in determining the vulnerability of buildings and protection structures. The objective of this contribution is to present a simple and open source tool to simulate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation models and in the calculation of impact energies. This tool includes common modes of motion for falling boulders based on the previous literature. The final tool is being implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) using open source Python programming. The tool under development will be simple, modular, compatible with any GIS environment, open source, able to model rockfalls phenomena correctly. It could be used in any area susceptible to rockfalls with a previous adjustment of the parameters. After the adjustment of the model parameters to a given area, a simulation could be performed to obtain maps of kinetic energy, frequency, stopping density and passing heights. This GIS-based tool and the analysis of the fragmentation laws using data collected from recent rockfall have being developed within the RockRisk Project (2014-2016). This project is funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and entitled "Rockfalls in cliffs: risk quantification and its prevention"(BIA2013-42582-P).

  10. Optimizing virtual fragment screening for GPCRs: Identification of novel ligands for the histamine H3 receptor using ligand- and structure-based molecular fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirci, F.; Istyastono, E.P.; Vischer, H.F.; Nijmeijer, S.; Kuijer, M.; Kooistra, A.J.; Wijtmans, M.; Mannhold, R.; Leurs, R.; de Esch, I.J.P.; de Graaf, C.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual fragment screening (VFS) is a promising new method that uses computer models to identify small, fragment-like biologically active molecules as useful starting points for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). Training sets of true active and inactive fragment-like molecules to construct and

  11. RESEARCH NOTE Genome-based exome-sequencing analysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-02-22

    Feb 22, 2017 ... Genome-based exome-sequencing analysis identifies GYG1, DIS3L, DDRGK1 genes ... Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance .... with p values of <0.05 byanalyzing differences in allele distribution.

  12. SPR-based fragment screening with neurotensin receptor 1 generates novel small molecule ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sylwia; Casagrande, Fabio; Hug, Melanie N.; Wang, Lisha; Heine, Philipp; Kummer, Lutz; Plückthun, Andreas; Hennig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor 1 represents an important drug target involved in various diseases of the central nervous system. So far, the full exploitation of potential therapeutic activities has been compromised by the lack of compounds with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties which efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Recent progress in the generation of stabilized variants of solubilized neurotensin receptor 1 and its subsequent purification and successful structure determination presents a solid starting point to apply the approach of fragment-based screening to extend the chemical space of known neurotensin receptor 1 ligands. In this report, surface plasmon resonance was used as primary method to screen 6369 compounds. Thereby 44 hits were identified and confirmed in competition as well as dose-response experiments. Furthermore, 4 out of 8 selected hits were validated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as orthogonal biophysical method. Computational analysis of the compound structures, taking the known crystal structure of the endogenous peptide agonist into consideration, gave insight into the potential fragment-binding location and interactions and inspires chemistry efforts for further exploration of the fragments. PMID:28510609

  13. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.

  14. A Web-Based Comparative Genomics Tutorial for Investigating Microbial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Strong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the number of completely sequenced microbial genomes continues to rise at an impressive rate, it is important to prepare students with the skills necessary to investigate microorganisms at the genomic level. As a part of the core curriculum for first-year graduate students in the biological sciences, we have implemented a web-based tutorial to introduce students to the fields of comparative and functional genomics. The tutorial focuses on recent computational methods for identifying functionally linked genes and proteins on a genome-wide scale and was used to introduce students to the Rosetta Stone, Phylogenetic Profile, conserved Gene Neighbor, and Operon computational methods. Students learned to use a number of publicly available web servers and databases to identify functionally linked genes in the Escherichia coli genome, with emphasis on genome organization and operon structure. The overall effectiveness of the tutorial was assessed based on student evaluations and homework assignments. The tutorial is available to other educators at http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/~strong/m253.php.

  15. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  16. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  17. Fragment-based approaches to anti-HIV drug discovery: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boshi; Kang, Dongwei; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2015-12-01

    The search for additional drugs to treat HIV infection is a continuing effort due to the emergence and spread of HIV strains resistant to nearly all current drugs. The recent literature reveals that fragment-based drug design/discovery (FBDD) has become an effective alternative to conventional high-throughput screening strategies for drug discovery. In this critical review, the authors describe the state of the art in FBDD strategies for the discovery of anti-HIV drug-like compounds. The article focuses on fragment screening techniques, direct fragment-based design and early hit-to-lead progress. Rapid progress in biophysical detection and in silico techniques has greatly aided the application of FBDD to discover candidate agents directed at a variety of anti-HIV targets. Growing evidence suggests that structural insights on key proteins in the HIV life cycle can be applied in the early phase of drug discovery campaigns, providing valuable information on the binding modes and efficiently prompting fragment hit-to-lead progression. The combination of structural insights with improved methodologies for FBDD, including the privileged fragment-based reconstruction approach, fragment hybridization based on crystallographic overlays, fragment growth exploiting dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and high-speed fragment assembly via diversity-oriented synthesis followed by in situ screening, offers the possibility of more efficient and rapid discovery of novel drugs for HIV-1 prevention or treatment. Though the use of FBDD in anti-HIV drug discovery is still in its infancy, it is anticipated that anti-HIV agents developed via fragment-based strategies will be introduced into the clinic in the future.

  18. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Yingssu; McPhillips, Scott E.; González, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M.; Zinn, Daniel; Cohen, Aina E.; Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David; Ludaescher, Bertram; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Soltis, S. Michael

    2013-01-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  19. Fragment Based Strategies for Discovery of Novel HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Catherine F; La, Jennifer; Tinetti, Ricky N; Chalmers, David K; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global health problem. While combined antiretroviral therapy has been successful in controlling the virus in patients, HIV can develop resistance to drugs used for treatment, rendering available drugs less effective and limiting treatment options. Initiatives to find novel drugs for HIV treatment are ongoing, although traditional drug design approaches often focus on known binding sites for inhibition of established drug targets like reverse transcriptase and integrase. These approaches tend towards generating more inhibitors in the same drug classes already used in the clinic. Lack of diversity in antiretroviral drug classes can result in limited treatment options, as cross-resistance can emerge to a whole drug class in patients treated with only one drug from that class. A fresh approach in the search for new HIV-1 drugs is fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), a validated strategy for drug discovery based on using smaller libraries of low molecular weight molecules (FBDD is aimed at not only finding novel drug scaffolds, but also probing the target protein to find new, often allosteric, inhibitory binding sites. Several fragment-based strategies have been successful in identifying novel inhibitory sites or scaffolds for two proven drug targets for HIV-1, reverse transcriptase and integrase. While any FBDD-generated HIV-1 drugs have yet to enter the clinic, recent FBDD initiatives against these two well-characterised HIV-1 targets have reinvigorated antiretroviral drug discovery and the search for novel classes of HIV-1 drugs.

  20. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.

    2012-01-01

    DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.

  1. A recombinant estrogen receptor fragment-based homogeneous fluorescent assay for rapid detection of estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Xie, Jiangbi; Zhu, Xiaocui; Li, Jinqiu; Zhao, Dongqin; Zhao, Meiping

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel estrogenic receptor fragment-based homogeneous fluorescent assay which enables rapid and sensitive detection of 17β-estradiol (E2) and other highly potent estrogens. A modified human estrogenic receptor fragment (N-His × 6-hER270-595-C-Strep tag II) has been constructed that contains amino acids 270-595 of wild-type human estrogenic receptor α (hER270-595) and two specific tags (6 × His and Strep tag II) fused to the N and C terminus, respectively. The designed receptor protein fragment could be easily produced by prokaryotic expression with high yield and high purity. The obtained protein exhibits high binding affinity to E2 and the two tags greatly facilitate the application of the recombinant protein. Taking advantage of the unique spectroscopic properties of coumestrol (CS), a fluorescent phytoestrogen, a CS/hER270-595-based fluorescent assay has been developed which can sensitively respond to E2 within 1.0 min with a linear working range from 0.1 to 20 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL. The assay was successfully applied for rapid detection of E2 in the culture medium of rat hippocampal neurons. The method also holds great potential for high-throughput monitoring the variation of estrogen levels in complex biological fluids, which is crucial for investigation of the molecular basis of various estrogen-involved processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elucidating the triplicated ancestral genome structure of radish based on chromosome-level comparison with the Brassica genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Kim, Namshin; Ahn, Byung Ohg; Oh, Mijin; Chung, Won-Hyong; Chung, Hee; Jeong, Seongmun; Lim, Ki-Byung; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Goon-Bo; Baek, Seunghoon; Choi, Sang-Bong; Hyung, Dae-Jin; Lee, Seung-Won; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Jin, Mina; Seol, Young-Joo; Chae, Won Byoung; Choi, Keun Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish that is assembled into nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. A comprehensive comparative genome analysis with the Brassica genomes provides genomic evidences on the evolution of the mesohexaploid radish genome. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an agronomically important root vegetable crop and its origin and phylogenetic position in the tribe Brassiceae is controversial. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the radish genome based on the chromosome sequences of R. sativus cv. WK10039. The radish genome was sequenced and assembled into 426.2 Mb spanning >98 % of the gene space, of which 344.0 Mb were integrated into nine chromosome pseudomolecules. Approximately 36 % of the genome was repetitive sequences and 46,514 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated. Comparative mapping of the tPCK-like ancestral genome revealed that the radish genome has intermediate characteristics between the Brassica A/C and B genomes in the triplicated segments, suggesting an internal origin from the genus Brassica. The evolutionary characteristics shared between radish and other Brassica species provided genomic evidences that the current form of nine chromosomes in radish was rearranged from the chromosomes of hexaploid progenitor. Overall, this study provides a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish as well as novel insight into evolution of the mesohexaploid genomes in the tribe Brassiceae.

  3. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotmore, S.F.; McKie, V.C.; Anderson, L.J.; Astell, C.R.; Tattersall, P.

    1986-11-01

    Plasma from a child with homozygous sickle-cell disease, sampled during the early phase of an aplastic crisis, contained human parvovirus B19 virions. Plasma taken 10 days later (during the convalescent phase) contained both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against two viral polypeptides with apparent molecular weights for 83,000 and 58,000 which were present exclusively in the particulate fraction of the plasma taken during the acute phase. These two protein species comigrated at 110S on neutral sucrose velocity gradients with the B19 viral DNA and thus appear to constitute the viral capsid polypeptides. The B19 genome was molecularly cloned into a bacterial plasmid vector. Two expression constructs containing B19 sequences from different halves of the viral genome were obtained, which directed the synthesis, in bacteria, of segments of virally encoded protein. These polypeptide fragments were then purified and used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies against a protein sequence specified between nucleotides 2897 and 3749 recognized both the 83- and 58-kilodalton capsid polypeptides in aplastic plasma taken during the acute phase and detected similar proteins in the similar proteins in the tissues of a stillborn fetus which had been infected transplacentally with B19. Antibodies against a protein sequence encoded in the other half of the B19 genome (nucleotides 1072 through 2044) did not react specifically with any protein in plasma taken during the acute phase but recognized three nonstructural polypeptides of 71, 63, and 52 kilodaltons present in the liver and, at lower levels, in some other tissues of the transplacentally infected fetus.

  4. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotmore, S.F.; McKie, V.C.; Anderson, L.J.; Astell, C.R.; Tattersall, P.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma from a child with homozygous sickle-cell disease, sampled during the early phase of an aplastic crisis, contained human parvovirus B19 virions. Plasma taken 10 days later (during the convalescent phase) contained both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against two viral polypeptides with apparent molecular weights for 83,000 and 58,000 which were present exclusively in the particulate fraction of the plasma taken during the acute phase. These two protein species comigrated at 110S on neutral sucrose velocity gradients with the B19 viral DNA and thus appear to constitute the viral capsid polypeptides. The B19 genome was molecularly cloned into a bacterial plasmid vector. Two expression constructs containing B19 sequences from different halves of the viral genome were obtained, which directed the synthesis, in bacteria, of segments of virally encoded protein. These polypeptide fragments were then purified and used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies against a protein sequence specified between nucleotides 2897 and 3749 recognized both the 83- and 58-kilodalton capsid polypeptides in aplastic plasma taken during the acute phase and detected similar proteins in the similar proteins in the tissues of a stillborn fetus which had been infected transplacentally with B19. Antibodies against a protein sequence encoded in the other half of the B19 genome (nucleotides 1072 through 2044) did not react specifically with any protein in plasma taken during the acute phase but recognized three nonstructural polypeptides of 71, 63, and 52 kilodaltons present in the liver and, at lower levels, in some other tissues of the transplacentally infected fetus

  5. incaRNAfbinv: a web server for the fragment-based design of RNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drory Retwitzer, Matan; Reinharz, Vladimir; Ponty, Yann; Waldispühl, Jérôme; Barash, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, new methods for computational RNA design have been developed and applied to various problems in synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Lately, there is considerable interest in incorporating essential biological information when solving the inverse RNA folding problem. Correspondingly, RNAfbinv aims at including biologically meaningful constraints and is the only program to-date that performs a fragment-based design of RNA sequences. In doing so it allows the design of sequences that do not necessarily exactly fold into the target, as long as the overall coarse-grained tree graph shape is preserved. Augmented by the weighted sampling algorithm of incaRNAtion, our web server called incaRNAfbinv implements the method devised in RNAfbinv and offers an interactive environment for the inverse folding of RNA using a fragment-based design approach. It takes as input: a target RNA secondary structure; optional sequence and motif constraints; optional target minimum free energy, neutrality and GC content. In addition to the design of synthetic regulatory sequences, it can be used as a pre-processing step for the detection of novel natural occurring RNAs. The two complementary methodologies RNAfbinv and incaRNAtion are merged together and fully implemented in our web server incaRNAfbinv, available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/incaRNAfbinv. PMID:27185893

  6. A new in silico classification model for ready biodegradability, based on molecular fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Anna; Pizzo, Fabiola; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Ferrari, Thomas; Gini, Giuseppina

    2014-08-01

    Regulations such as the European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) often require chemicals to be evaluated for ready biodegradability, to assess the potential risk for environmental and human health. Because not all chemicals can be tested, there is an increasing demand for tools for quick and inexpensive biodegradability screening, such as computer-based (in silico) theoretical models. We developed an in silico model starting from a dataset of 728 chemicals with ready biodegradability data (MITI-test Ministry of International Trade and Industry). We used the novel software SARpy to automatically extract, through a structural fragmentation process, a set of substructures statistically related to ready biodegradability. Then, we analysed these substructures in order to build some general rules. The model consists of a rule-set made up of the combination of the statistically relevant fragments and of the expert-based rules. The model gives good statistical performance with 92%, 82% and 76% accuracy on the training, test and external set respectively. These results are comparable with other in silico models like BIOWIN developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); moreover this new model includes an easily understandable explanation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contributions of computational chemistry and biophysical techniques to fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalbes, Rafael; Carbajo, Rodrigo J; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved from a novel approach in the search of new hits to a valuable alternative to the high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns of many pharmaceutical companies. The increasing relevance of FBDD in the drug discovery universe has been concomitant with an implementation of the biophysical techniques used for the detection of weak inhibitors, e.g. NMR, X-ray crystallography or surface plasmon resonance (SPR). At the same time, computational approaches have also been progressively incorporated into the FBDD process and nowadays several computational tools are available. These stretch from the filtering of huge chemical databases in order to build fragment-focused libraries comprising compounds with adequate physicochemical properties, to more evolved models based on different in silico methods such as docking, pharmacophore modelling, QSAR and virtual screening. In this paper we will review the parallel evolution and complementarities of biophysical techniques and computational methods, providing some representative examples of drug discovery success stories by using FBDD.

  8. GENOMIC DNA-FINGERPRINTING OF CLINICAL HAEMOPHILUS-INFLUENZAE ISOLATES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION AMPLIFICATION - COMPARISON WITH MAJOR OUTER-MEMBRANE PROTEIN AND RESTRICTION-FRAGMENT-LENGTH-POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBELKUM, A; DUIM, B; REGELINK, A; MOLLER, L; QUINT, W; VANALPHEN, L

    Non-capsulate strains of Haemophilus influenzae were genotyped by analysis of variable DNA segments obtained by amplification of genomic DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting). Discrete fragments of 100-2000 bp were obtained. The reproducibility of the procedure was assessed by

  9. Viral Genome DataBase: storing and analyzing genes and proteins from complete viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, D; Upton, C

    2000-05-01

    The Viral Genome DataBase (VGDB) contains detailed information of the genes and predicted protein sequences from 15 completely sequenced genomes of large (&100 kb) viruses (2847 genes). The data that is stored includes DNA sequence, protein sequence, GenBank and user-entered notes, molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point (pI), amino acid content, A + T%, nucleotide frequency, dinucleotide frequency and codon use. The VGDB is a mySQL database with a user-friendly JAVA GUI. Results of queries can be easily sorted by any of the individual parameters. The software and additional figures and information are available at http://athena.bioc.uvic.ca/genomes/index.html .

  10. A role for fragment-based drug design in developing novel lead compounds for central nervous system targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wasko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacologic screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening, which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of virtual screening is fragment-based drug design, an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for growing the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual fragment-based drug design within central nervous system (CNS targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  11. A Bioinorganic Approach to Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Targeting Metalloenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth M

    2017-08-15

    Metal-dependent enzymes (i.e., metalloenzymes) make up a large fraction of all enzymes and are critically important in a wide range of biological processes, including DNA modification, protein homeostasis, antibiotic resistance, and many others. Consequently, metalloenzymes represent a vast and largely untapped space for drug development. The discovery of effective therapeutics that target metalloenzymes lies squarely at the interface of bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry and requires expertise, methods, and strategies from both fields to mount an effective campaign. In this Account, our research program that brings together the principles and methods of bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry are described, in an effort to bridge the gap between these fields and address an important class of medicinal targets. Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is an important drug discovery approach that is particularly well suited for metalloenzyme inhibitor development. FBDD uses relatively small but diverse chemical structures that allow for the assembly of privileged molecular collections that focus on a specific feature of the target enzyme. For metalloenzyme inhibition, the specific feature is rather obvious, namely, a metal-dependent active site. Surprisingly, prior to our work, the exploration of diverse molecular fragments for binding the metal active sites of metalloenzymes was largely unexplored. By assembling a modest library of metal-binding pharmacophores (MBPs), we have been able to find lead hits for many metalloenzymes and, from these hits, develop inhibitors that act via novel mechanisms of action. A specific case study on the use of this strategy to identify a first-in-class inhibitor of zinc-dependent Rpn11 (a component of the proteasome) is highlighted. The application of FBDD for the development of metalloenzyme inhibitors has raised several other compelling questions, such as how the metalloenzyme active site influences the coordination chemistry of bound

  12. Genome-Based Comparison of Clostridioides difficile: Average Amino Acid Identity Analysis of Core Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; Jun, Se-Ran; Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Wanchai, Visanu; Nookaew, Intawat; Wongsurawat, Thidathip; Burgess, Mary J; Kothari, Atul; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2018-02-14

    Infections due to Clostridioides difficile (previously known as Clostridium difficile) are a major problem in hospitals, where cases can be caused by community-acquired strains as well as by nosocomial spread. Whole genome sequences from clinical samples contain a lot of information but that needs to be analyzed and compared in such a way that the outcome is useful for clinicians or epidemiologists. Here, we compare 663 public available complete genome sequences of C. difficile using average amino acid identity (AAI) scores. This analysis revealed that most of these genomes (640, 96.5%) clearly belong to the same species, while the remaining 23 genomes produce four distinct clusters within the Clostridioides genus. The main C. difficile cluster can be further divided into sub-clusters, depending on the chosen cutoff. We demonstrate that MLST, either based on partial or full gene-length, results in biased estimates of genetic differences and does not capture the true degree of similarity or differences of complete genomes. Presence of genes coding for C. difficile toxins A and B (ToxA/B), as well as the binary C. difficile toxin (CDT), was deduced from their unique PfamA domain architectures. Out of the 663 C. difficile genomes, 535 (80.7%) contained at least one copy of ToxA or ToxB, while these genes were missing from 128 genomes. Although some clusters were enriched for toxin presence, these genes are variably present in a given genetic background. The CDT genes were found in 191 genomes, which were restricted to a few clusters only, and only one cluster lacked the toxin A/B genes consistently. A total of 310 genomes contained ToxA/B without CDT (47%). Further, published metagenomic data from stools were used to assess the presence of C. difficile sequences in blinded cases of C. difficile infection (CDI) and controls, to test if metagenomic analysis is sensitive enough to detect the pathogen, and to establish strain relationships between cases from the same

  13. Crius: A Novel Fragment-Based Algorithm of De Novo Substrate Prediction for Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuiqin; Zhang, Lujia; Gao, Bei; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H; Wei, Dongzhi

    2018-05-03

    The study of enzyme substrate specificity is vital for developing potential applications of enzymes. However, the routine experimental procedures require lot of resources in the discovery of novel substrates. This article reports an in silico structure-based algorithm called Crius, which predicts substrates for enzyme. The results of this fragment-based algorithm show good agreements between the simulated and experimental substrate specificities, using a lipase from Candida antarctica (CALB), a nitrilase from Cyanobacterium syechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Nit6803), and an aldo-keto reductase from Gluconobacter oxydans (Gox0644). This opens new prospects of developing computer algorithms that can effectively predict substrates for an enzyme. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Protein Society.

  14. Fragment-based discovery of potent inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic MCL-1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Andrew M; Swann, Steven L; Song, Danying; Swinger, Kerren; Park, Chang; Zhang, Haichao; Wendt, Michael D; Kunzer, Aaron R; Souers, Andrew J; Sun, Chaohong

    2014-03-15

    Apoptosis is regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins, which is comprised of both pro-death and pro-survival members. Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant cells. One way in which cancer cells achieve this evasion is thru overexpression of the pro-survival members of the BCL-2 family. Overexpression of MCL-1, a pro-survival protein, has been shown to be a resistance factor for Navitoclax, a potent inhibitor of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. Here we describe the use of fragment screening methods and structural biology to drive the discovery of novel MCL-1 inhibitors from two distinct structural classes. Specifically, cores derived from a biphenyl sulfonamide and salicylic acid were uncovered in an NMR-based fragment screen and elaborated using high throughput analog synthesis. This culminated in the discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of MCL-1 that may serve as promising leads for medicinal chemistry optimization efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ontology aided modeling of organic reaction mechanisms with flexible and fragment based XML markup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Aghila, Gnanasekaran

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism models for primary organic reactions encoding the structural fragments undergoing substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangements are developed. In the proposed models, each and every structural component of mechanistic pathways is represented with flexible and fragment based markup technique in XML syntax. A significant feature of the system is the encoding of the electron movements along with the other components like charges, partial charges, half bonded species, lone pair electrons, free radicals, reaction arrows, etc. needed for a complete representation of reaction mechanism. The rendering of reaction schemes described with the proposed methodology is achieved with a concise XML extension language interoperating with the structure markup. The reaction scheme is visualized as 2D graphics in a browser by converting them into SVG documents enabling the desired layouts normally perceived by the chemists conventionally. An automatic representation of the complex patterns of the reaction mechanism is achieved by reusing the knowledge in chemical ontologies and developing artificial intelligence components in terms of axioms.

  16. Highly efficient power system based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Consistent analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. The calculated energy conversion efficiencies for the presented designs without a thermodynamic cycle and with the heavy water cycle are 52% and 62%, respectively. The analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 90% are potentially achievable. (author)

  17. Discovery of novel dengue virus NS5 methyltransferase non-nucleoside inhibitors by fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Fatiha; Trist, Iuni; Coutard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Querat, Gilles; Brancale, Andrea; Barral, Karine

    2017-01-05

    With the aim to help drug discovery against dengue virus (DENV), a fragment-based drug design approach was applied to identify ligands targeting a main component of DENV replication complex: the NS5 AdoMet-dependent mRNA methyltransferase (MTase) domain, playing an essential role in the RNA capping process. Herein, we describe the identification of new inhibitors developed using fragment-based, structure-guided linking and optimization techniques. Thermal-shift assay followed by a fragment-based X-ray crystallographic screening lead to the identification of three fragment hits binding DENV MTase. We considered linking two of them, which bind to proximal sites of the AdoMet binding pocket, in order to improve their potency. X-ray crystallographic structures and computational docking were used to guide the fragment linking, ultimately leading to novel series of non-nucleoside inhibitors of flavivirus MTase, respectively N-phenyl-[(phenylcarbamoyl)amino]benzene-1-sulfonamide and phenyl [(phenylcarbamoyl)amino]benzene-1-sulfonate derivatives, that show a 10-100-fold stronger inhibition of 2'-O-MTase activity compared to the initial fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Fragment-based virtual screening approach and molecular dynamics simulation studies for identification of BACE1 inhibitor leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Prabu; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2018-05-01

    Traditional structure-based virtual screening method to identify drug-like small molecules for BACE1 is so far unsuccessful. Location of BACE1, poor Blood Brain Barrier permeability and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) susceptibility of the inhibitors make it even more difficult. Fragment-based drug design method is suitable for efficient optimization of initial hit molecules for target like BACE1. We have developed a fragment-based virtual screening approach to identify/optimize the fragment molecules as a starting point. This method combines the shape, electrostatic, and pharmacophoric features of known fragment molecules, bound to protein conjugate crystal structure, and aims to identify both chemically and energetically feasible small fragment ligands that bind to BACE1 active site. The two top-ranked fragment hits were subjected for a 53 ns MD simulation. Principle component analysis and free energy landscape analysis reveal that the new ligands show the characteristic features of established BACE1 inhibitors. The potent method employed in this study may serve for the development of potential lead molecules for BACE1-directed Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

  19. Score-based prediction of genomic islands in prokaryotic genomes using hidden Markov models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovcik Katharina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is considered a strong evolutionary force shaping the content of microbial genomes in a substantial manner. It is the difference in speed enabling the rapid adaptation to changing environmental demands that distinguishes HGT from gene genesis, duplications or mutations. For a precise characterization, algorithms are needed that identify transfer events with high reliability. Frequently, the transferred pieces of DNA have a considerable length, comprise several genes and are called genomic islands (GIs or more specifically pathogenicity or symbiotic islands. Results We have implemented the program SIGI-HMM that predicts GIs and the putative donor of each individual alien gene. It is based on the analysis of codon usage (CU of each individual gene of a genome under study. CU of each gene is compared against a carefully selected set of CU tables representing microbial donors or highly expressed genes. Multiple tests are used to identify putatively alien genes, to predict putative donors and to mask putatively highly expressed genes. Thus, we determine the states and emission probabilities of an inhomogeneous hidden Markov model working on gene level. For the transition probabilities, we draw upon classical test theory with the intention of integrating a sensitivity controller in a consistent manner. SIGI-HMM was written in JAVA and is publicly available. It accepts as input any file created according to the EMBL-format. It generates output in the common GFF format readable for genome browsers. Benchmark tests showed that the output of SIGI-HMM is in agreement with known findings. Its predictions were both consistent with annotated GIs and with predictions generated by different methods. Conclusion SIGI-HMM is a sensitive tool for the identification of GIs in microbial genomes. It allows to interactively analyze genomes in detail and to generate or to test hypotheses about the origin of acquired

  20. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  1. Fragment-Based Screening of a Natural Product Library against 62 Potential Malaria Drug Targets Employing Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Natural products are well known for their biological relevance, high degree of three-dimensionality, and access to areas of largely unexplored chemical space. To shape our understanding of the interaction between natural products and protein targets in the postgenomic era, we have used native mass spectrometry to investigate 62 potential protein targets for malaria using a natural-product-based fragment library. We reveal here 96 low-molecular-weight natural products identified as binding partners of 32 of the putative malarial targets. Seventy-nine (79) fragments have direct growth inhibition on Plasmodium falciparum at concentrations that are promising for the development of fragment hits against these protein targets. This adds a fragment library to the published HTS active libraries in the public domain. PMID:29436819

  2. In search of new lead compounds for trypanosomiasis drug design: A protein structure-based linked-fragment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Rudenko, Gabrielle; Hol, Wim G. J.

    1992-04-01

    A modular method for pursuing structure-based inhibitor design in the framework of a design cycle is presented. The approach entails four stages: (1) a design pathway is defined in the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; (2) this pathway is divided into subregions; (3) complementary building blocks, also called fragments, are designed in each subregion; complementarity is defined in terms of shape, hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond properties and electrostatics; and (4) fragments from different subregions are linked into potential lead compounds. Stages (3) and (4) are qualitatively guided by force-field calculations. In addition, the designed fragments serve as entries for retrieving existing compounds from chemical databases. This linked-fragment approach has been applied in the design of potentially selective inhibitors of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  3. Prophylactic effect of a therapeutic vaccine against TB based on fragments of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Gil, Olga; Cáceres, Neus; Pinto, Sergio; Díaz, Jorge; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2011-01-01

    The prophylactic capacity of the RUTI® vaccine, based on fragmented cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been evaluated in respect to aerosol challenge with virulent bacilli. Subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced viable bacterial counts in both lungs and spleens of C57Bl mice, when challenged 4 weeks after vaccination. RUTI® protected the spleen less than BCG. Following a 9 month vaccination-challenge interval, protection was observed for the lungs, but not for the spleen. Survival of infected guinea pigs was prolonged by vaccination given 5 weeks before challenge. Inoculations of RUTI® shortly after infection significantly reduced the viable bacterial counts in the lungs, when compared with infected control mice. Thus, vaccination by RUTI® has potential for both the prophylaxis and immunotherapy of tuberculosis.

  4. Fragment-based drug discovery and molecular docking in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wu, Mian-Bin; Chen, Zheng-Jie; Chen, Hua; Lin, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has caused a revolution in the process of drug discovery and design, with many FBDD leads being developed into clinical trials or approved in the past few years. Compared with traditional high-throughput screening, it displays obvious advantages such as efficiently covering chemical space, achieving higher hit rates, and so forth. In this review, we focus on the most recent developments of FBDD for improving drug discovery, illustrating the process and the importance of FBDD. In particular, the computational strategies applied in the process of FBDD and molecular-docking programs are highlighted elaborately. In most cases, docking is used for predicting the ligand-receptor interaction modes and hit identification by structurebased virtual screening. The successful cases of typical significance and the hits identified most recently are discussed.

  5. Changing Histopathological Diagnostics by Genome-Based Tumor Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kloth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, tumors are classified by histopathological criteria, i.e., based on their specific morphological appearances. Consequently, current therapeutic decisions in oncology are strongly influenced by histology rather than underlying molecular or genomic aberrations. The increase of information on molecular changes however, enabled by the Human Genome Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium as well as the manifold advances in molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing techniques, inaugurated the integration of genomic information into disease classification. Furthermore, in some cases it became evident that former classifications needed major revision and adaption. Such adaptations are often required by understanding the pathogenesis of a disease from a specific molecular alteration, using this molecular driver for targeted and highly effective therapies. Altogether, reclassifications should lead to higher information content of the underlying diagnoses, reflecting their molecular pathogenesis and resulting in optimized and individual therapeutic decisions. The objective of this article is to summarize some particularly important examples of genome-based classification approaches and associated therapeutic concepts. In addition to reviewing disease specific markers, we focus on potentially therapeutic or predictive markers and the relevance of molecular diagnostics in disease monitoring.

  6. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-01-04

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Target immobilization as a strategy for NMR-based fragment screening: comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for fragment hit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Retra, Kim; Figaroa, Francis; Hollander, Johan G; Ab, Eiso; Heetebrij, Robert J; Irth, Hubertus; Siegal, Gregg

    2010-09-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the first stage of the process be optimized. Here the authors compare the 3 most commonly used methods for hit discovery in FBDD: high concentration screening (HCS), solution ligand-observed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). They selected the commonly used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and the proprietary target immobilized NMR screening (TINS) as representative of the array of possible NMR methods. Using a target typical of FBDD campaigns, the authors find that HCS and TINS are the most sensitive to weak interactions. They also find a good correlation between TINS and STD for tighter binding ligands, but the ability of STD to detect ligands with affinity weaker than 1 mM K(D) is limited. Similarly, they find that SPR detection is most suited to ligands that bind with K(D) better than 1 mM. However, the good correlation between SPR and potency in a bioassay makes this a good method for hit validation and characterization studies.

  8. Application of the fragment molecular orbital method analysis to fragment-based drug discovery of BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Motoyasu; Ozawa, Tomonaga; Ueda, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    The molecular interactions of inhibitors of bromodomains (BRDs) were investigated. BRDs are protein interaction modules that recognizing ε-N-acetyl-lysine (εAc-Lys) motifs found in histone tails and are promising protein-protein interaction (PPI) targets. First, we analyzed a peptide ligand containing εAc-Lys to evaluate native PPIs. We then analyzed tetrahydroquinazoline-6-yl-benzensulfonamide derivatives found by fragment-based drug design (FBDD) and examined their interactions with the protein compared with the peptide ligand in terms of the inter-fragment interaction energy. In addition, we analyzed benzodiazepine derivatives that are high-affinity ligands for BRDs and examined differences in the CH/π interactions of the amino acid residues. We further surveyed changes in the charges of the amino acid residues among individual ligands, performed pair interaction energy decomposition analysis and estimated the water profile within the ligand binding site. Thus, useful insights for drug design were provided. Through these analyses and considerations, we show that the FMO method is a useful drug design tool to evaluate the process of FBDD and to explore PPI inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GI-SVM: A sensitive method for predicting genomic islands based on unannotated sequence of a single genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingxin; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    Genomic islands (GIs) are clusters of functionally related genes acquired by lateral genetic transfer (LGT), and they are present in many bacterial genomes. GIs are extremely important for bacterial research, because they not only promote genome evolution but also contain genes that enhance adaption and enable antibiotic resistance. Many methods have been proposed to predict GI. But most of them rely on either annotations or comparisons with other closely related genomes. Hence these methods cannot be easily applied to new genomes. As the number of newly sequenced bacterial genomes rapidly increases, there is a need for methods to detect GI based solely on sequences of a single genome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, GI-SVM, to predict GIs given only the unannotated genome sequence. GI-SVM is based on one-class support vector machine (SVM), utilizing composition bias in terms of k-mer content. From our evaluations on three real genomes, GI-SVM can achieve higher recall compared with current methods, without much loss of precision. Besides, GI-SVM allows flexible parameter tuning to get optimal results for each genome. In short, GI-SVM provides a more sensitive method for researchers interested in a first-pass detection of GI in newly sequenced genomes.

  10. Universal elements of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovsky, V. V.; Tur, A. V.; Kuklina, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    A fragmentation theory is proposed that explains the universal asymptotic behavior of the fragment-size distribution in the large-size range, based on simple physical principles. The basic principles of the theory are the total mass conservation in a fragmentation process and a balance condition for the energy expended in increasing the surface of fragments during their breakup. A flux-based approach is used that makes it possible to supplement the basic principles and develop a minimal theory of fragmentation. Such a supplementary principle is that of decreasing fragment-volume flux with increasing energy expended in fragmentation. It is shown that the behavior of the decreasing flux is directly related to the form of a power-law fragment-size distribution. The minimal theory is used to find universal asymptotic fragment-size distributions and to develop a natural physical classification of fragmentation models. A more general, nonlinear theory of strong fragmentation is also developed. It is demonstrated that solutions to a nonlinear kinetic equation consistent with both basic principles approach a universal asymptotic size distribution. Agreement between the predicted asymptotic fragment-size distributions and experimental observations is discussed.

  11. Mass distribution of fission fragments using SSNTDs based image analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Sharma, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    Lexan polycarbonate track detector was used to obtain mass distribution of fission fragments from 252 Cf planchette source, Normally, if the fission fragments are incident perpendicular to the lexan surface, the diameter of heavy fragment is greater than that of lighter fragment. In practical problems fission fragments are incident on the detector at all angles. So, in the present experiment, lexan detector was exposed to 252 Cf planchette source in 2π geometry. Fission fragments were incident on the detector with various angles. So the projected fission track length for fission fragment of same energy is different because of different angle of incidence. Image analysis software was used to measure the projected track length. But the problem is that for fission fragment having greater angle of incidence the entire track length is not focused on the surface. So reduced track length is measured. This problem is solved by taking two images, one at the surface and one at the tip of track and then overlapping both the images using image analysis software. The projected track length and the depth of the track were used to get the angle of incidence. Fission track lengths were measured for same angle of incidence. In all 500 track lengths were measured and plot for mass distribution for fission fragment was obtained.(author)

  12. Identification of genomic sites for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in the Vitis vinifera genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been recently demonstrated as an effective and popular genome editing tool for modifying genomes of human, animals, microorganisms, and plants. Success of such genome editing is highly dependent on the availability of suitable target sites in the genomes to be edited. Many specific t...

  13. Comparative genomics beyond sequence-based alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Yao, Zizhen; Wiklund, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent computational scans for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in multiple organisms have relied on existing multiple sequence alignments. However, as sequence similarity drops, a key signal of RNA structure--frequent compensating base changes--is increasingly likely to cause sequence-based alignment me...

  14. Ascaris phylogeny based on multiple whole mtDNA genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Betson, Martha

    2016-01-01

    and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history...

  15. Integrated genome-based studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Konstantinidis, Kostas [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Worden, Mark [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-01-08

    The aim of the work reported is to study Shewanella population genomics, and to understand the evolution, ecophysiology, and speciation of Shewanella. The tasks supporting this aim are: to study genetic and ecophysiological bases defining the core and diversification of Shewanella species; to determine gene content patterns along redox gradients; and to Investigate the evolutionary processes, patterns and mechanisms of Shewanella.

  16. Base-By-Base: single nucleotide-level analysis of whole viral genome alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Ryan; Smith, Alex J; Roper, Rachel L; Tcherepanov, Vasily; Upton, Chris

    2004-07-14

    With ever increasing numbers of closely related virus genomes being sequenced, it has become desirable to be able to compare two genomes at a level more detailed than gene content because two strains of an organism may share the same set of predicted genes but still differ in their pathogenicity profiles. For example, detailed comparison of multiple isolates of the smallpox virus genome (each approximately 200 kb, with 200 genes) is not feasible without new bioinformatics tools. A software package, Base-By-Base, has been developed that provides visualization tools to enable researchers to 1) rapidly identify and correct alignment errors in large, multiple genome alignments; and 2) generate tabular and graphical output of differences between the genomes at the nucleotide level. Base-By-Base uses detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes and can list each predicted gene with nucleotide differences, display whether variations occur within promoter regions or coding regions and whether these changes result in amino acid substitutions. Base-By-Base can connect to our mySQL database (Virus Orthologous Clusters; VOCs) to retrieve detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes or use information from text files. Base-By-Base enables users to quickly and easily compare large viral genomes; it highlights small differences that may be responsible for important phenotypic differences such as virulence. It is available via the Internet using Java Web Start and runs on Macintosh, PC and Linux operating systems with the Java 1.4 virtual machine.

  17. Benchmark fragment-based 1H, 13C, 15N and 17O chemical shift predictions in molecular crystals†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Joshua D.; Kudla, Ryan A.; Day, Graeme M.; Mueller, Leonard J.; Beran, Gregory J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of fragment-based ab initio 1H, 13C, 15N and 17O chemical shift predictions is assessed against experimental NMR chemical shift data in four benchmark sets of molecular crystals. Employing a variety of commonly used density functionals (PBE0, B3LYP, TPSSh, OPBE, PBE, TPSS), we explore the relative performance of cluster, two-body fragment, and combined cluster/fragment models. The hybrid density functionals (PBE0, B3LYP and TPSSh) generally out-perform their generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based counterparts. 1H, 13C, 15N, and 17O isotropic chemical shifts can be predicted with root-mean-square errors of 0.3, 1.5, 4.2, and 9.8 ppm, respectively, using a computationally inexpensive electrostatically embedded two-body PBE0 fragment model. Oxygen chemical shieldings prove particularly sensitive to local many-body effects, and using a combined cluster/fragment model instead of the simple two-body fragment model decreases the root-mean-square errors to 7.6 ppm. These fragment-based model errors compare favorably with GIPAW PBE ones of 0.4, 2.2, 5.4, and 7.2 ppm for the same 1H, 13C, 15N, and 17O test sets. Using these benchmark calculations, a set of recommended linear regression parameters for mapping between calculated chemical shieldings and observed chemical shifts are provided and their robustness assessed using statistical cross-validation. We demonstrate the utility of these approaches and the reported scaling parameters on applications to 9-tertbutyl anthracene, several histidine co-crystals, benzoic acid and the C-nitrosoarene SnCl2(CH3)2(NODMA)2. PMID:27431490

  18. Benchmark fragment-based (1)H, (13)C, (15)N and (17)O chemical shift predictions in molecular crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Joshua D; Kudla, Ryan A; Day, Graeme M; Mueller, Leonard J; Beran, Gregory J O

    2016-08-21

    The performance of fragment-based ab initio(1)H, (13)C, (15)N and (17)O chemical shift predictions is assessed against experimental NMR chemical shift data in four benchmark sets of molecular crystals. Employing a variety of commonly used density functionals (PBE0, B3LYP, TPSSh, OPBE, PBE, TPSS), we explore the relative performance of cluster, two-body fragment, and combined cluster/fragment models. The hybrid density functionals (PBE0, B3LYP and TPSSh) generally out-perform their generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based counterparts. (1)H, (13)C, (15)N, and (17)O isotropic chemical shifts can be predicted with root-mean-square errors of 0.3, 1.5, 4.2, and 9.8 ppm, respectively, using a computationally inexpensive electrostatically embedded two-body PBE0 fragment model. Oxygen chemical shieldings prove particularly sensitive to local many-body effects, and using a combined cluster/fragment model instead of the simple two-body fragment model decreases the root-mean-square errors to 7.6 ppm. These fragment-based model errors compare favorably with GIPAW PBE ones of 0.4, 2.2, 5.4, and 7.2 ppm for the same (1)H, (13)C, (15)N, and (17)O test sets. Using these benchmark calculations, a set of recommended linear regression parameters for mapping between calculated chemical shieldings and observed chemical shifts are provided and their robustness assessed using statistical cross-validation. We demonstrate the utility of these approaches and the reported scaling parameters on applications to 9-tert-butyl anthracene, several histidine co-crystals, benzoic acid and the C-nitrosoarene SnCl2(CH3)2(NODMA)2.

  19. Quantitative metagenomic analyses based on average genome size normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Jeremy Alexander; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2011-01-01

    provide not just a census of the community members but direct information on metabolic capabilities and potential interactions among community members. Here we introduce a method for the quantitative characterization and comparison of microbial communities based on the normalization of metagenomic data...... marine sources using both conventional small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene analyses and our quantitative method to calculate the proportion of genomes in each sample that are capable of a particular metabolic trait. With both environments, to determine what proportion of each community they make up and how......). These analyses demonstrate how genome proportionality compares to SSU rRNA gene relative abundance and how factors such as average genome size and SSU rRNA gene copy number affect sampling probability and therefore both types of community analysis....

  20. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  1. A fragment-based approach towards ab-initio treatment of polymeric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reshma S Pingale

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... Keywords. π-Conjugated polymer; divide and conquer; ab-initio; fragmentation. PACS Nos 31.15.A−; 36.20. ... cut the parent system into a set of overlapping small fragments and .... some oligomers, we approached the problem by increas- ..... Financial support of DST, Govt. of India, New Delhi, in the form of ...

  2. Design and synthesis of dihydroisoquinolones for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nick; Peakman, Torren M; Norton, David; Rees, David C

    2016-02-07

    This study describes general synthesis aspects of fragments for FBDD, as illustrated by the dihydroisoquinolones 1-3. Previous Rh(III) methodology is extended to incorporate amines, heteroatoms (N and S), and substituents (halogen, ester) as potential binding groups and/or synthetic growth points for fragment-to-lead elaboration.

  3. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; Snipen, Lars; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of bacteria within the genus Brucella has been difficult due in part to considerable genomic homogeneity between the different species and biovars, in spite of clear differences in phenotypes. Therefore, many different methods have been used to assess Brucella taxonomy....... In the current work, we examine 32 sequenced genomes from genus Brucella representing the six classical species, as well as more recently described species, using bioinformatical methods. Comparisons were made at the level of genomic DNA using oligonucleotide based methods (Markov chain based genomic signatures...... between the oligonucleotide based methods used. Whilst the Markov chain based genomic signatures grouped the different species in genus Brucella according to host preference, the codon and amino acid frequencies based methods reflected small differences between the Brucella species. Only minor differences...

  4. A Role for Fragment-Based Drug Design in Developing Novel Lead Compounds for Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Michael J; Pellegrene, Kendy A; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacological screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening (VS), which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of VS is fragment-based drug design (FBDD), an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low-molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for "growing" the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual FBDD within central nervous system (CNS) targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor-binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process not only places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  5. e-Drug3D: 3D structure collections dedicated to drug repurposing and fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihan, Emilie; Colliandre, Lionel; Guichou, Jean-François; Douguet, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    In the drug discovery field, new uses for old drugs, selective optimization of side activities and fragment-based drug design (FBDD) have proved to be successful alternatives to high-throughput screening. e-Drug3D is a database of 3D chemical structures of drugs that provides several collections of ready-to-screen SD files of drugs and commercial drug fragments. They are natural inputs in studies dedicated to drug repurposing and FBDD. e-Drug3D collections are freely available at http://chemoinfo.ipmc.cnrs.fr/e-drug3d.html either for download or for direct in silico web-based screenings.

  6. Tracing common origins of Genomic Islands in prokaryotes based on genome signature analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Passel, Mark Wj

    2011-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer constitutes a powerful and innovative force in evolution, but often little is known about the actual origins of transferred genes. Sequence alignments are generally of limited use in tracking the original donor, since still only a small fraction of the total genetic diversity is thought to be uncovered. Alternatively, approaches based on similarities in the genome specific relative oligonucleotide frequencies do not require alignments. Even though the exact origins of horizontally transferred genes may still not be established using these compositional analyses, it does suggest that compositionally very similar regions are likely to have had a common origin. These analyses have shown that up to a third of large acquired gene clusters that reside in the same genome are compositionally very similar, indicative of a shared origin. This brings us closer to uncovering the original donors of horizontally transferred genes, and could help in elucidating possible regulatory interactions between previously unlinked sequences.

  7. Fragment-based identification of determinants of conformational and spectroscopic change at the ricin active site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Alexei S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ricin is a potent toxin and known bioterrorism threat with no available antidote. The ricin A-chain (RTA acts enzymatically to cleave a specific adenine base from ribosomal RNA, thereby blocking translation. To understand better the relationship between ligand binding and RTA active site conformational change, we used a fragment-based approach to find a minimal set of bonding interactions able to induce rearrangements in critical side-chain positions. Results We found that the smallest ligand stabilizing an open conformer of the RTA active site pocket was an amide group, bound weakly by only a few hydrogen bonds to the protein. Complexes with small amide-containing molecules also revealed a switch in geometry from a parallel towards a splayed arrangement of an arginine-tryptophan cation-pi interaction that was associated with an increase and red-shift in tryptophan fluorescence upon ligand binding. Using the observed fluorescence signal, we determined the thermodynamic changes of adenine binding to the RTA active site, as well as the site-specific binding of urea. Urea binding had a favorable enthalpy change and unfavorable entropy change, with a ΔH of -13 ± 2 kJ/mol and a ΔS of -0.04 ± 0.01 kJ/(K*mol. The side-chain position of residue Tyr80 in a complex with adenine was found not to involve as large an overlap of rings with the purine as previously considered, suggesting a smaller role for aromatic stacking at the RTA active site. Conclusion We found that amide ligands can bind weakly but specifically to the ricin active site, producing significant shifts in positions of the critical active site residues Arg180 and Tyr80. These results indicate that fragment-based drug discovery methods are capable of identifying minimal bonding determinants of active-site side-chain rearrangements and the mechanistic origins of spectroscopic shifts. Our results suggest that tryptophan fluorescence provides a sensitive probe for the

  8. Detection of ligand binding hot spots on protein surfaces via fragment-based methods: application to DJ-1 and glucocerebrosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, Melissa R.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Hoang, Quyen Q.; Ju, Shulin; Caaveiro, Jose M.M.; Orwig, Susan D.; Kozakov, Dima; Brenke, Ryan; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Beglov, Dmitry; Vajda, Sandor; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; (BU-M); (Brandeis); (GIT)

    2010-08-04

    The identification of hot spots, i.e., binding regions that contribute substantially to the free energy of ligand binding, is a critical step for structure-based drug design. Here we present the application of two fragment-based methods to the detection of hot spots for DJ-1 and glucocerebrosidase (GCase), targets for the development of therapeutics for Parkinson's and Gaucher's diseases, respectively. While the structures of these two proteins are known, binding information is lacking. In this study we employ the experimental multiple solvent crystal structures (MSCS) method and computational fragment mapping (FTMap) to identify regions suitable for the development of pharmacological chaperones for DJ-1 and GCase. Comparison of data derived via MSCS and FTMap also shows that FTMap, a computational method for the identification of fragment binding hot spots, is an accurate and robust alternative to the performance of expensive and difficult crystallographic experiments.

  9. Fragment-based {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift predictions in molecular crystals: An alternative to planewave methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Joshua D.; Beran, Gregory J. O., E-mail: gregory.beran@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Monaco, Stephen; Schatschneider, Bohdan [The Pennsylvania State University, The Eberly Campus, 2201 University Dr, Lemont Furnace, Pennsylvania 15456 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    We assess the quality of fragment-based ab initio isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shift predictions for a collection of 25 molecular crystals with eight different density functionals. We explore the relative performance of cluster, two-body fragment, combined cluster/fragment, and the planewave gauge-including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) models relative to experiment. When electrostatic embedding is employed to capture many-body polarization effects, the simple and computationally inexpensive two-body fragment model predicts both isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shifts and the chemical shielding tensors as well as both cluster models and the GIPAW approach. Unlike the GIPAW approach, hybrid density functionals can be used readily in a fragment model, and all four hybrid functionals tested here (PBE0, B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-2) predict chemical shifts in noticeably better agreement with experiment than the four generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals considered (PBE, OPBE, BLYP, and BP86). A set of recommended linear regression parameters for mapping between calculated chemical shieldings and observed chemical shifts are provided based on these benchmark calculations. Statistical cross-validation procedures are used to demonstrate the robustness of these fits.

  10. Genome-Based Microbial Taxonomy Coming of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Philip; Skarshewski, Adam; Parks, Donovan H

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructing the complete evolutionary history of extant life on our planet will be one of the most fundamental accomplishments of scientific endeavor, akin to the completion of the periodic table, which revolutionized chemistry. The road to this goal is via comparative genomics because genomes are our most comprehensive and objective evolutionary documents. The genomes of plant and animal species have been systematically targeted over the past decade to provide coverage of the tree of life. However, multicellular organisms only emerged in the last 550 million years of more than three billion years of biological evolution and thus comprise a small fraction of total biological diversity. The bulk of biodiversity, both past and present, is microbial. We have only scratched the surface in our understanding of the microbial world, as most microorganisms cannot be readily grown in the laboratory and remain unknown to science. Ground-breaking, culture-independent molecular techniques developed over the past 30 years have opened the door to this so-called microbial dark matter with an accelerating momentum driven by exponential increases in sequencing capacity. We are on the verge of obtaining representative genomes across all life for the first time. However, historical use of morphology, biochemical properties, behavioral traits, and single-marker genes to infer organismal relationships mean that the existing highly incomplete tree is riddled with taxonomic errors. Concerted efforts are now needed to synthesize and integrate the burgeoning genomic data resources into a coherent universal tree of life and genome-based taxonomy. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic bigheadedturtle (Platysternon): description of unusual genomic features and thereconciliation of phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial andnuclear DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parham, James F.; Feldman, Chris R.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-28

    The big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) from east Asia is the sole living representative of a poorly-studied turtle lineage (Platysternidae). It has no close living relatives, and its phylogenetic position within turtles is one of the outstanding controversies in turtle systematics. Platysternon was traditionally considered to be close to snapping turtles (Chelydridae) based on some studies of its morphology and mitochondrial (mt) DNA, however, other studies of morphology and nuclear (nu) DNA do not support that hypothesis. We sequenced the complete mt genome of Platysternon and the nearly complete mt genomes of two other relevant turtles and compared them to turtle mt genomes from the literature to form the largest molecular dataset used to date to address this issue. The resulting phylogeny robustly rejects the placement of Platysternon with Chelydridae, but instead shows that it is a member of the Testudinoidea, a diverse, nearly globally-distributed group that includes pond turtles and tortoises. We also discovered that Platysternon mtDNA has large-scale gene rearrangements and possesses two, nearly identical, control regions, features that distinguish it from all other studied turtles. Our study robustly determines the phylogenetic placement of Platysternon and provides a well-resolved outline of major turtle lineages, while demonstrating the significantly greater resolving power of comparing large amounts of mt sequence over that of short fragments. Earlier phylogenies placing Platysternon with chelydrids required a temporal gap in the fossil record that is now unnecessary. The duplicated control regions and gene rearrangements of the Platysternon mt DNA probably resulted from the duplication of part of the genome and then the subsequent loss of redundant genes. Although it is possible that having two control regions may provide some advantage, explaining why the control regions would be maintained while some of the duplicated genes were eroded

  13. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary industrialized architecture based on advanced information technology and highly technological production processes, implies a radically different approach to architecture than what we have experienced in the past. Works of architecture composed of prefabricated building components......, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...

  14. Occlusion-Aware Fragment-Based Tracking With Spatial-Temporal Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Huchuan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a robust tracking method by exploiting a fragment-based appearance model with consideration of both temporal continuity and discontinuity information. From the perspective of probability theory, the proposed tracking algorithm can be viewed as a two-stage optimization problem. In the first stage, by adopting the estimated occlusion state as a prior, the optimal state of the tracked object can be obtained by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function is designed based on the classification score, occlusion prior, and temporal continuity information. In the second stage, we propose a discriminative occlusion model, which exploits both foreground and background information to detect the possible occlusion, and also models the consistency of occlusion labels among different frames. In addition, a simple yet effective training strategy is introduced during the model training (and updating) process, with which the effects of spatial-temporal consistency are properly weighted. The proposed tracker is evaluated by using the recent benchmark data set, on which the results demonstrate that our tracker performs favorably against other state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  15. Fragment-based discovery of novel pentacyclic triterpenoid derivatives as cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongzhi; Zhou, Shuxi; Li, Enqin; Zhao, Wenfeng; Ji, Yanpeng; Wen, Xiaoan; Sun, Hongbin; Yuan, Haoliang

    2017-01-27

    Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our molecular modeling study revealed that pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds could mimic the protein-ligand interactions of the endogenous ligand cholesteryl ester (CE) by occupying its binding site. Alignment of the docking conformations of oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA) and the crystal conformations of known CETP inhibitor Torcetrapib in the active site proposed the applicability of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approaches in this study. Accordingly, a series of pentacyclic triterpenoid derivatives have been designed and synthesized as novel CETP inhibitors. The most potent compound 12e (IC 50 :0.28 μM) validated our strategy for molecular design. Molecular dynamics simulations illustrated that the more stable hydrogen bond interaction of the UA derivative 12e with Ser191 and stronger hydrophobic interactions with Val198, Phe463 than those of OA derivative 12b mainly led to their significantly different CETP inhibitory activity. These novel potent CETP inhibitors based on ursane-type scaffold should deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic prediction in families of perennial ryegrass based on genotyping-by-sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal

    In this thesis we investigate the potential for genomic prediction in perennial ryegrass using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. Association method based on family-based breeding systems was developed, genomic heritabilities, genomic prediction accurancies and effects of some key factors wer...... explored. Results show that low sequencing depth caused underestimation of allele substitution effects in GWAS and overestimation of genomic heritability in prediction studies. Other factors susch as SNP marker density, population structure and size of training population influenced accuracy of genomic...... prediction. Overall, GBS allows for genomic prediction in breeding families of perennial ryegrass and holds good potential to expedite genetic gain and encourage the application of genomic prediction...

  17. The effect of genealogy-based haplotypes on genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Fernando, Rohan L.; Su, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    on haplotypes instead of regression on individual markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction using haplotypes based on local genealogy information. Methods A total of 4429 Danish Holstein bulls were genotyped with the 50K SNP chip. Haplotypes were constructed using...... local genealogical trees. Effects of haplotype covariates were estimated with two types of prediction models: (1) assuming that effects had the same distribution for all haplotype covariates, i.e. the GBLUP method and (2) assuming that a large proportion (pi) of the haplotype covariates had zero effect......, i.e. a Bayesian mixture method. Results About 7.5 times more covariate effects were estimated when fitting haplotypes based on local genealogical trees compared to fitting individuals markers. Genealogy-based haplotype clustering slightly increased the accuracy of genomic prediction and, in some...

  18. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  19. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  20. Analysis of Behind-Armor Debris Fragments From Physics-Based Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Jerry a; Meyer, Hubert W; Mark, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    .... Utilizing the capabilities of the interdisciplinary computing environment, we have developed a tool that is capable of identifying individual fragments in a CTH flat mesh or adaptive mesh refinement calculation...

  1. Binary fragmentation based studies for the near super-heavy compound nucleus {sup 256}Rf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Meenu; Behera, B.R.; Mahajan, Ruchi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Priya; Kapoor, Kushal; Rani, Kavita [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Saneesh, N.; Dubey, R.; Yadav, A.; Sugathan, P.; Jhingan, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Chatterjee, M.B. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Neeraj; Mandal, S. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi (India); Kumar, S. [Andhra University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Visakhapatnam (India); Saxena, A.; Kailas, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Pal, Santanu [CS, Kolkata (India); Nasirov, Avazbek [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, Department of Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kayumov, Bakhodir [National University, Department of Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2017-06-15

    Binary fragmentation of the near super-heavy compound nucleus {sup 256}Rf has been studied through the reaction {sup 48}Ti + {sup 208}Pb at a bombarding energy well above the Coulomb barrier. For a better understanding of its reaction dynamics, the mass distribution, mass-energy distribution and mass-angle distribution of the fission fragments produced from {sup 256}Rf have been investigated thoroughly. The masses and kinetic energies of the fission fragments were reconstructed event-by-event from their measured velocities and emission angles. From the mass-energy analysis, a sizeable contribution from the asymmetric fission was observed on the edges of symmetric mass distribution. Evidence of asymmetric fission was also clued from the observed correlation between the masses and emission angles of the fission fragments. Contribution of the quasi-fission products has also been estimated by performing the theoretical dinuclear system calculations. (orig.)

  2. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    restriction enzyme recognition sites within TTAGGG tandem telomeric repeats, therefore digestion of genomic DNA, not telomeric DNA, with a combination of 6 base restriction endonucleases reduces genomic DNA size to less than 800 bp.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.

  4. Fragmented implementation of maternal and child health home-based records in Vietnam: need for integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiga, Hirotsugu; Nguyen, Vinh Duc; Nguyen, Cuong Dinh; Nguyen, Tho Thi Thi; Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Background Home-based records (HBRs) are globally implemented as the effective tools that encourage pregnant women and mothers to timely and adequately utilise maternal and child health (MCH) services. While availability and utilisation of nationally representative HBRs have been assessed in several earlier studies, the reality of a number of HBRs subnationally implemented in a less coordinated manner has been neither reported nor analysed. Objectives This study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBRs for MCH and the level of fragmentation of and overlapping between different HBRs for MCH in Vietnam. The study further attempts to identify health workers’ and mothers’ perceptions towards HBR operations and utilisations. Design A self-administered questionnaire was sent to the provincial health departments of 28 selected provinces. A copy of each HBR available was collected from them. A total of 20 semi-structured interviews with health workers and mothers were conducted at rural communities in four of 28 selected provinces. Results Whereas HBRs developed exclusively for maternal health and exclusively for child health were available in four provinces (14%) and in 28 provinces (100%), respectively, those for both maternal health and child health were available in nine provinces (32%). The mean number of HBRs in 28 provinces (=5.75) indicates over-availability of HBRs. All 119 minimum required items for recording found in three different HBRs under nationwide scale-up were also included in the Maternal and Child Health Handbook being piloted for nationwide scaling-up. Implementation of multiple HBRs is likely to confuse not only health workers by requiring them to record the same data on several HBRs but also mothers about which HBR they should refer to and rely on at home. Conclusions To enable both health workers and pregnant women to focus on only one type of HBR, province-specific HBRs for maternal and/or child health need to be nationally standardised

  5. Model for fusion and cool compound nucleus formation based on the fragmentation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Aroumougame, R.; Saroha, D.R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Collective potential energy surfaces are calculated in both the adiabatic and sudden approximations by using the asymmetric two-center shell model in the Strutinsky method. It is shown that fusion of two colliding heavy ions occurs by their crossing over of the adiabatic interaction barrier. The adiabatic scattering potentials present two barriers, whereas no barrier is shown to occur in sudden scattering potentials. The first barrier is obtained just past the saddle shape but is too low, such that a deep inelastic process is expected. The other, inner, barrier is high enough to let the system fall into the fusion well, whose excitation energy then determines whether a cool compound nucleus is produced or the fusion-fission process occurs. For a given compound nucleus, the excitation energy is found to be small for only a few target-projectile combinations, which increase as their mass asymmetry increases. Such target-projectile combinations which refer to a cool compound nucleus can be identified by a simple calculation of the fragmentation potential based on the ground state binding energies with Coulomb and proximity effects calculated at a constant relative separation of the two nuclei. Our calculations are made for the composite systems with 102 < or =Z < or =114

  6. Model for fusion and cool compound nucleus formation based on the fragmentation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Aroumougame, R.; Saroha, D.R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1985-07-01

    The collective potential energy surfaces are calculated in both the adiabatic and sudden approximations by using the asymmetric two centre shell model in Strutinsky method. It is shown that fusion of two colliding heavy ions occur by their crossing over of the adiabatic interaction barrier. The adiabatic scattering potentials present two barriers whereas no barrier is shown to occur in sudden scattering potentials. The first barrier is obtained just past the saddle shape but is too low, such that a deep inelastic process is expected. The other, inner, barrier is high enough to let the system fall into the fusion well, whose excitation energy then determine whether a cool compound nucleus is produced or the fusion-fission process occurs. For a given compound nucleus, the excitation energy is found to be small for only a few target-projectile combinations, which increase as their mass asymmetry increases. Such target-projectile combinations which refer to a cool compound nucleus, can be identified by a simple calculation of the fragmentation potential based on the ground state binding energies with Couloumb and proximity effects calculated at a constant relative separation of the two nuclei. Our calculations are made for the composite systems with 102<=Z<=114. (author)

  7. Application of hybrid artificial fish swarm algorithm based on similar fragments in VRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jinnuo; Zhou, Kang; Zhang, Xueyu; Tong, Xin; Hou, Lingyun; Jia, Shiyu; Zhen, Yiting

    2018-03-01

    Focused on the issue that the decrease of convergence speed and the precision of calculation at the end of the process in Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm(AFSA) and instability of results, a hybrid AFSA based on similar fragments is proposed. Traditional AFSA enjoys a lot of obvious advantages in solving complex optimization problems like Vehicle Routing Problem(VRP). AFSA have a few limitations such as low convergence speed, low precision and instability of results. In this paper, two improvements are introduced. On the one hand, change the definition of the distance for artificial fish, as well as increase vision field of artificial fish, and the problem of speed and precision can be improved when solving VRP. On the other hand, mix artificial bee colony algorithm(ABC) into AFSA - initialize the population of artificial fish by the ABC, and it solves the problem of instability of results in some extend. The experiment results demonstrate that the optimal solution of the hybrid AFSA is easier to approach the optimal solution of the standard database than the other two algorithms. In conclusion, the hybrid algorithm can effectively solve the problem that instability of results and decrease of convergence speed and the precision of calculation at the end of the process.

  8. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Choline Kinase Identified by Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Stephan G; Kohlmann, Anna; Zhou, Tianjun; Li, Feng; Squillace, Rachel M; Parillon, Lois E; Greenfield, Matthew T; Miller, David P; Qi, Jiwei; Thomas, R Mathew; Wang, Yihan; Xu, Yongjin; Miret, Juan J; Shakespeare, William C; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C

    2016-01-28

    Choline kinase α (ChoKα) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and thereby plays key roles in regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, and human carcinogenesis. Since several inhibitors of ChoKα display antiproliferative activity in both cellular and animal models, this novel oncogene has recently gained interest as a promising small molecule target for cancer therapy. Here we summarize our efforts to further validate ChoKα as an oncogenic target and explore the activity of novel small molecule inhibitors of ChoKα. Starting from weakly binding fragments, we describe a structure based lead discovery approach, which resulted in novel highly potent inhibitors of ChoKα. In cancer cell lines, our lead compounds exhibit a dose-dependent decrease of phosphocholine, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The druglike lead series presented here is optimizable for improvements in cellular potency, drug target residence time, and pharmacokinetic parameters. These inhibitors may be utilized not only to further validate ChoKα as antioncogenic target but also as novel chemical matter that may lead to antitumor agents that specifically interfere with cancer cell metabolism.

  9. Mechanisms of Base Substitution Mutagenesis in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Bacolla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs. Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  10. Mechanisms of base substitution mutagenesis in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacolla, Albino; Cooper, David N; Vasquez, Karen M

    2014-03-05

    Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs). Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  11. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Echophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrethe H. Serres

    2012-06-29

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a motile, facultative {gamma}-Proteobacterium with remarkable respiratory versatility; it can utilize a range of organic and inorganic compounds as terminal electronacceptors for anaerobic metabolism. The ability to effectively reduce nitrate, S0, polyvalent metals andradionuclides has established MR-1 as an important model dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism for genome-based investigations of biogeochemical transformation of metals and radionuclides that are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites nationwide. Metal-reducing bacteria such as Shewanella also have a highly developed capacity for extracellular transfer of respiratory electrons to solid phase Fe and Mn oxides as well as directly to anode surfaces in microbial fuel cells. More broadly, Shewanellae are recognized free-living microorganisms and members of microbial communities involved in the decomposition of organic matter and the cycling of elements in aquatic and sedimentary systems. To function and compete in environments that are subject to spatial and temporal environmental change, Shewanella must be able to sense and respond to such changes and therefore require relatively robust sensing and regulation systems. The overall goal of this project is to apply the tools of genomics, leveraging the availability of genome sequence for 18 additional strains of Shewanella, to better understand the ecophysiology and speciation of respiratory-versatile members of this important genus. To understand these systems we propose to use genome-based approaches to investigate Shewanella as a system of integrated networks; first describing key cellular subsystems - those involved in signal transduction, regulation, and metabolism - then building towards understanding the function of whole cells and, eventually, cells within populations. As a general approach, this project will employ complimentary "top-down" - bioinformatics-based genome functional predictions, high

  12. Dissecting Orthosteric Contacts for a Reverse-Fragment-Based Ligand Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Arun; Tulsian, Nikhil K; Anand, Ganesh S

    2017-08-01

    Orthosteric sites on proteins are formed typically from noncontiguous interacting sites in three-dimensional space where the composite binding interaction of a biological ligand is mediated by multiple synergistic interactions of its constituent functional groups. Through these multiple interactions, ligands stabilize both the ligand binding site and the local secondary structure. However, relative energetic contributions of the individual contacts in these protein-ligand interactions are difficult to resolve. Deconvolution of the contributions of these various functional groups in natural inhibitors/ligand would greatly aid in iterative fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). In this study, we describe an approach of progressive unfolding of a target protein using a gradient of denaturant urea to reveal the individual energetic contributions of various ligand-functional groups to the affinity of the entire ligand. Through calibrated unfolding of two protein-ligand systems: cAMP-bound regulatory subunit of Protein Kinase A (RIα) and IBMX-bound phosphodiesterase8 (PDE8), monitored by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, we show progressive disruption of individual orthosteric contacts in the ligand binding sites, allowing us to rank the energetic contributions of these individual interactions. In the two cAMP-binding sites of RIα, exocyclic phosphate oxygens of cAMP were identified to mediate stronger interactions than ribose 2'-OH in both the RIα-cAMP binding interfaces. Further, we have also ranked the relative contributions of the different functional groups of IBMX based on their interactions with the orthosteric residues of PDE8. This strategy for deconstruction of individual binding sites and identification of the strongest functional group interaction in enzyme orthosteric sites offers a rational starting point for FBDD.

  13. Marker-based estimation of genetic parameters in genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiu Hu

    Full Text Available Linear mixed model (LMM analysis has been recently used extensively for estimating additive genetic variances and narrow-sense heritability in many genomic studies. While the LMM analysis is computationally less intensive than the Bayesian algorithms, it remains infeasible for large-scale genomic data sets. In this paper, we advocate the use of a statistical procedure known as symmetric differences squared (SDS as it may serve as a viable alternative when the LMM methods have difficulty or fail to work with large datasets. The SDS procedure is a general and computationally simple method based only on the least squares regression analysis. We carry out computer simulations and empirical analyses to compare the SDS procedure with two commonly used LMM-based procedures. Our results show that the SDS method is not as good as the LMM methods for small data sets, but it becomes progressively better and can match well with the precision of estimation by the LMM methods for data sets with large sample sizes. Its major advantage is that with larger and larger samples, it continues to work with the increasing precision of estimation while the commonly used LMM methods are no longer able to work under our current typical computing capacity. Thus, these results suggest that the SDS method can serve as a viable alternative particularly when analyzing 'big' genomic data sets.

  14. Base-By-Base: Single nucleotide-level analysis of whole viral genome alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherepanov Vasily

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With ever increasing numbers of closely related virus genomes being sequenced, it has become desirable to be able to compare two genomes at a level more detailed than gene content because two strains of an organism may share the same set of predicted genes but still differ in their pathogenicity profiles. For example, detailed comparison of multiple isolates of the smallpox virus genome (each approximately 200 kb, with 200 genes is not feasible without new bioinformatics tools. Results A software package, Base-By-Base, has been developed that provides visualization tools to enable researchers to 1 rapidly identify and correct alignment errors in large, multiple genome alignments; and 2 generate tabular and graphical output of differences between the genomes at the nucleotide level. Base-By-Base uses detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes and can list each predicted gene with nucleotide differences, display whether variations occur within promoter regions or coding regions and whether these changes result in amino acid substitutions. Base-By-Base can connect to our mySQL database (Virus Orthologous Clusters; VOCs to retrieve detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes or use information from text files. Conclusion Base-By-Base enables users to quickly and easily compare large viral genomes; it highlights small differences that may be responsible for important phenotypic differences such as virulence. It is available via the Internet using Java Web Start and runs on Macintosh, PC and Linux operating systems with the Java 1.4 virtual machine.

  15. Designing an orally available nontoxic p38 inhibitor with a fragment-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The MAPK p38 became a focal point of inflammatory research when it was recognized that it played a key role in the production of the pro-inflammatory molecules TNF-alpha, IL-beta, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The pharmaceutical industry devoted enormous efforts to creating p38 inhibitors, because blocking p38 had the potential of downregulating a group of pro-inflammatory mediators, and thus, one drug could have a cocktail effect. The market potential seemed to be clearly established (Bonafede et al., Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 6:381-388, 2014) with a multiplicity of TNF-alpha antibodies and a soluble receptor (Mewar and Wilson, Br J Pharmacol 162:785-791, 2011) already on the market, although the relationship between TNF-alpha production and p38 activation is a complicated two-way (Sabio and Davis, Semin Immunol 26:237-245, 2014) signal transduction process. With the discovery that activated p38 stabilizes (Mancini and Di Battista, Inflamm Res 60:1083-1092, 2011) COX-2 mRNA and upregulates expression of IL-beta (Bachstetter and Van Eldik, Aging Dis 1:199-211, 2010) probably in a similar manner, inhibiting p38 appeared to be a way of blocking TNF-alpha, COX-2, and IL-beta simultaneously. At Locus Pharmaceuticals we jumped on this opportunity, because we believed that our fragment-based drug discovery approach was ideally suited for making a potent small molecule p38 inhibitor that did not bind in the ATP site, but also had the solubility, lack of planarity, and low molecular weight required of a clinical candidate. Just to be clear, in our experience highly planar compounds often result in poor pharmacokinetics, because they tend to bind strongly to plasma proteins. At Locus we typically repeated assays by adding increasing amounts of plasma to check for potency degradation in the presence of blood. We found this to be a useful early indicator of pharmacokinetics and in vivo behavior. It became clear from our work and the work of others that binding to the ATP site

  16. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Brian; Datta, Parikkhit; Wu, Ying; Chan, Alan; Al Armour, John

    2006-06-30

    Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH) we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  17. In silico design of fragment-based drug targeting host processing α-glucosidase i for dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepak, E. P.; Tambunan, U. S. F.

    2017-02-01

    Dengue is a major health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. The development of antiviral that targeting dengue’s host enzyme can be more effective and efficient treatment than the viral enzyme. Host enzyme processing α-glucosidase I has an important role in the maturation process of dengue virus envelope glycoprotein. The inhibition of processing α-glucosidase I can become a promising target for dengue fever treatment. The antiviral approach using in silico fragment-based drug design can generate drug candidates with high binding affinity. In this research, 198.621 compounds were obtained from ZINC15 Biogenic Database. These compounds were screened to find the favorable fragments according to Rules of Three and pharmacological properties. The screening fragments were docked into the active site of processing α-glucosidase I. The potential fragment candidates from the molecular docking simulation were linked with castanospermine (CAST) to generate ligands with a better binding affinity. The Analysis of ligand - enzyme interaction showed ligands with code LRS 22, 28, and 47 have the better binding free energy than the standard ligand. Ligand LRS 28 (N-2-4-methyl-5-((1S,3S,6S,7R,8R,8aR)-1,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyoctahydroindolizin-3-yl) pentyl) indolin-1-yl) propionamide) itself among the other ligands has the lowest binding free energy. Pharmacological properties prediction also showed the ligands LRS 22, 28, and 47 can be promising as the dengue fever drug candidates.

  18. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  19. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei L. Osterman, Ph.D.

    2012-12-17

    Integration of bioinformatics and experimental techniques was applied to mapping and characterization of the key components (pathways, enzymes, transporters, regulators) of the core metabolic machinery in Shewanella oneidensis and related species with main focus was on metabolic and regulatory pathways involved in utilization of various carbon and energy sources. Among the main accomplishments reflected in ten joint publications with other participants of Shewanella Federation are: (i) A systems-level reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization pathways in the genus of Shewanella (19 species). This analysis yielded reconstruction of 18 sugar utilization pathways including 10 novel pathway variants and prediction of > 60 novel protein families of enzymes, transporters and regulators involved in these pathways. Selected functional predictions were verified by focused biochemical and genetic experiments. Observed growth phenotypes were consistent with bioinformatic predictions providing strong validation of the technology and (ii) Global genomic reconstruction of transcriptional regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Of those, 45 regulons were inferred directly from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in other species. Selected regulatory predictions were experimentally tested. Integration of this analysis with microarray data revealed overall consistency and provided additional layer of interactions between regulons. All the results were captured in the new database RegPrecise, which is a joint development with the LBNL team. A more detailed analysis of the individual subsystems, pathways and regulons in Shewanella spp included bioinfiormatics-based prediction and experimental characterization of: (i) N-Acetylglucosamine catabolic pathway; (ii)Lactate utilization machinery; (iii) Novel Nrt

  20. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  1. A Field-Based Technique for Teaching about Habitat Fragmentation and Edge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resler, Lynn M.; Kolivras, Korine N.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a field technique that exposes students to the indirect effects of habitat fragmentation on plant distributions through studying edge effects. This assignment, suited for students in an introductory biogeography or resource geography class, increases students' knowledge of basic biogeographic concepts such as environmental…

  2. Analysis of human blood plasma cell-free DNA fragment size distribution using EvaGreen chemistry based droplet digital PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2018-04-12

    Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragment size distribution provides important information required for diagnostic assay development. We have developed and optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays that quantify short and long DNA fragments. These assays were used to analyze plasma cfDNA fragment size distribution in human blood. Assays were designed to amplify 76,135, 490 and 905 base pair fragments of human β-actin gene. These assays were used for fragment size analysis of plasma cell-free, exosome and apoptotic body DNA obtained from normal and pregnant donors. The relative percentages for 76, 135, 490 and 905 bp fragments from non-pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 39%, 18%, 5.6% and 100%, 40%, 18%,3.3%, respectively. The relative percentages for pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 34%, 14%, 23%, and 100%, 30%, 12%, 18%, respectively. The relative percentages for non-pregnant plasma pellet (obtained after 2nd centrifugation step) were 100%, 100%, 87% and 83%, respectively. Non-pregnant Plasma cell-free and exosome DNA share a unique fragment distribution pattern which is different from pregnant donor plasma and exosome DNA fragment distribution indicating the effect of physiological status on cfDNA fragment size distribution. Fragment distribution pattern for plasma pellet that includes apoptotic bodies and nuclear DNA was greatly different from plasma cell-free and exosome DNA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. KGCAK: a K-mer based database for genome-wide phylogeny and complexity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Xu, Jiayue; Yu, Jun

    2015-09-16

    The K-mer approach, treating genomic sequences as simple characters and counting the relative abundance of each string upon a fixed K, has been extensively applied to phylogeny inference for genome assembly, annotation, and comparison. To meet increasing demands for comparing large genome sequences and to promote the use of the K-mer approach, we develop a versatile database, KGCAK ( http://kgcak.big.ac.cn/KGCAK/ ), containing ~8,000 genomes that include genome sequences of diverse life forms (viruses, prokaryotes, protists, animals, and plants) and cellular organelles of eukaryotic lineages. It builds phylogeny based on genomic elements in an alignment-free fashion and provides in-depth data processing enabling users to compare the complexity of genome sequences based on K-mer distribution. We hope that KGCAK becomes a powerful tool for exploring relationship within and among groups of species in a tree of life based on genomic data.

  4. A critique of race-based and genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Now that a composite human genome has been sequenced (HGP), research has accelerated to discover precise genetic bases of several chronic health issues, particularly in the realms of cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is anticipated that in the future it will be possible and cost effective to regularly sequence individual genomes, and thereby produce a DNA profile that potentially can be used to assess the health risks for each person with respect to certain genetically predisposed conditions. Coupled with that enormous diagnostic power, it will then depend upon equally rapid research efforts to develop personalized courses of treatment, including that of pharmaceutical therapy. Initial treatment attempts have been made to match drug efficacy and safety to individuals of assigned or self-identified groups according to their genetic ancestry or presumed race. A prime example is that of BiDil, which was the first drug approved by the US FDA for the explicit treatment of heart patients of African American ancestry. This race-based approach to medicine has been met with justifiable criticism, notably on ethical grounds that have long plagued historical applications and misuses of human race classification, and also on questionable science. This paper will assess race-based medical research and practice in light of a more thorough understanding of human genetic variability. Additional concerns will be expressed with regard to the rapidly developing area of pharmacogenomics, promoted to be the future of personalized medicine. Genomic epidemiology will be discussed with several examples of on-going research that hopefully will provide a solid scientific grounding for personalized medicine to build upon.

  5. Analysis Of Segmental Duplications In The Pig Genome Based On Next-Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Bendixen, Christian

    Segmental duplications are >1kb segments of duplicated DNA present in a genome with high sequence identity (>90%). They are associated with genomic rearrangements and provide a significant source of gene and genome evolution within mammalian genomes. Although segmental duplications have been...... extensively studied in other organisms, its analysis in pig has been hampered by the lack of a complete pig genome assembly. By measuring the depth of coverage of Illumina whole-genome shotgun sequencing reads of the Tabasco animal aligned to the latest pig genome assembly (Sus scrofa 10 – based also...... and their associated copy number alterations, focusing on the global organization of these segments and their possible functional significance in porcine phenotypes. This work provides insights into mammalian genome evolution and generates a valuable resource for porcine genomics research...

  6. Annotation-Based Whole Genomic Prediction and Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, Luc

    Genomic selection is widely used in both animal and plant species, however, it is performed with no input from known genomic or biological role of genetic variants and therefore is a black box approach in a genomic era. This study investigated the role of different genomic regions and detected QTLs...... in their contribution to estimated genomic variances and in prediction of genomic breeding values by applying SNP annotation approaches to feed efficiency. Ensembl Variant Predictor (EVP) and Pig QTL database were used as the source of genomic annotation for 60K chip. Genomic prediction was performed using the Bayes...... classes. Predictive accuracy was 0.531, 0.532, 0.302, and 0.344 for DFI, RFI, ADG and BF, respectively. The contribution per SNP to total genomic variance was similar among annotated classes across different traits. Predictive performance of SNP classes did not significantly differ from randomized SNP...

  7. CrusView: a Java-based visualization platform for comparative genomics analyses in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-09-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/.

  8. Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment for precious DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer Aiden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment (TGE protocols permit selective sequencing of genomic regions of interest on a massively parallel scale. These protocols could be improved by: 1 modifying or eliminating time consuming steps; 2 increasing yield to reduce input DNA and excessive PCR cycling; and 3 enhancing reproducible. Results We developed a solution-based TGE method for downstream Illumina sequencing in a non-automated workflow, adding standard Illumina barcode indexes during the post-hybridization amplification to allow for sample pooling prior to sequencing. The method utilizes Agilent SureSelect baits, primers and hybridization reagents for the capture, off-the-shelf reagents for the library preparation steps, and adaptor oligonucleotides for Illumina paired-end sequencing purchased directly from an oligonucleotide manufacturing company. Conclusions This solution-based TGE method for Illumina sequencing is optimized for small- or medium-sized laboratories and addresses the weaknesses of standard protocols by reducing the amount of input DNA required, increasing capture yield, optimizing efficiency, and improving reproducibility.

  9. Virtual screening filters for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase inhibitors: a fragment based library generation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G Narahari

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we introduce the development and application of a three-step scoring and filtering procedure for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase leads using allosteric fragments extracted from virtual screening hits. The design of the virtual screening filters is based on a thorough evaluation of docking methods, DFG-loop conformation, binding interactions and chemotype specificity of the 138 p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from Protein Data Bank bound to DFG-in and DFG-out conformations using Glide, GOLD and CDOCKER. A 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation with the apo, type I with DFG-in and type II with DFG-out forms was carried out to delineate the effects of structural variations on inhibitor binding. The designed docking-score and sub-structure filters were first tested on a dataset of 249 potent p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from seven diverse series and 18,842 kinase inhibitors from PDB, to gauge their capacity to discriminate between kinase and non-kinase inhibitors and likewise to selectively filter-in target-specific inhibitors. The designed filters were then applied in the virtual screening of a database of ten million (10⁷) compounds resulting in the identification of 100 hits. Based on their binding modes, 98 allosteric fragments were extracted from the hits and a fragment library was generated. New type II p38 MAP kinase leads were designed by tailoring the existing type I ATP site binders with allosteric fragments using a common urea linker. Target specific virtual screening filters can thus be easily developed for other kinases based on this strategy to retrieve target selective compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Practical application of in silico fragmentation based residue screening with ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick; Maden, Kathry; Walker, Stephan; Widmer, Mirjam

    2017-07-15

    A screening concept for residues in complex matrices based on liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry LC/IMS-HRMS is presented. The comprehensive four-dimensional data (chromatographic retention time, drift time, mass-to-charge and ion abundance) obtained in data-independent acquisition (DIA) mode was used for data mining. An in silico fragmenter utilizing a molecular structure database was used for suspect screening, instead of targeted screening with reference substances. The utilized data-independent acquisition mode relies on the MS E concept; where two constantly alternating HRMS scans (low and high fragmentation energy) are acquired. Peak deconvolution and drift time alignment of ions from the low (precursor ion) and high (product ion) energy scan result in relatively clean product ion spectra. A bond dissociation in silico fragmenter (MassFragment) supplied with mol files of compounds of interest was used to explain the observed product ions of each extracted candidate component (chromatographic peak). Two complex matrices (fish and bovine liver extract) were fortified with 98 veterinary drugs. Out of 98 screened compounds 94 could be detected with the in silico based screening approach. The high correlation among drift time and m/z value of equally charged ions was utilized for an orthogonal filtration (ranking). Such an orthogonal ion mobility based filter removes multiply charged ions (e.g. peptides and proteins from the matrix) as well as noise and artefacts. Most significantly, this filtration dramatically reduces false positive findings but hardly increases false negative findings. The proposed screening approach may offer new possibilities for applications where reference compounds are hardly or not at all commercially available. Such areas may be the analysis of metabolites of drugs, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, marine toxins, derivatives of sildenafil or novel designer drugs (new psychoactive substances

  11. Kernel Based Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction and Classification for Genomic Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Shu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic microarrays are powerful research tools in bioinformatics and modern medicinal research because they enable massively-parallel assays and simultaneous monitoring of thousands of gene expression of biological samples. However, a simple microarray experiment often leads to very high-dimensional data and a huge amount of information, the vast amount of data challenges researchers into extracting the important features and reducing the high dimensionality. In this paper, a nonlinear dimensionality reduction kernel method based locally linear embedding(LLE is proposed, and fuzzy K-nearest neighbors algorithm which denoises datasets will be introduced as a replacement to the classical LLE’s KNN algorithm. In addition, kernel method based support vector machine (SVM will be used to classify genomic microarray data sets in this paper. We demonstrate the application of the techniques to two published DNA microarray data sets. The experimental results confirm the superiority and high success rates of the presented method.

  12. A Fragment-Based Method of Creating Small-Molecule Libraries to Target the Aggregation of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Habchi, Johnny; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-03-14

    The aggregation process of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has been associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, however, no drug in clinical use targets IDP aggregation. To facilitate drug discovery programs in this important and challenging area, we describe a fragment-based approach of generating small-molecule libraries that target specific IDPs. The method is based on the use of molecular fragments extracted from compounds reported in the literature to inhibit of the aggregation of IDPs. These fragments are used to screen existing large generic libraries of small molecules to form smaller libraries specific for given IDPs. We illustrate this approach by describing three distinct small-molecule libraries to target, Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein, which are three IDPs implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The strategy described here offers novel opportunities for the identification of effective molecular scaffolds for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disorders and to provide insights into the mechanism of small-molecule binding to IDPs.

  13. Fragment-based drug design and identification of HJC0123, a novel orally bioavailable STAT3 inhibitor for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Yang, Zhengduo; Ding, Chunyong; Chu, Lili; Zhang, Yusong; Terry, Kristin; Liu, Huiling; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a promising approach for the generation of lead molecules with enhanced activity and especially drug-like properties against therapeutic targets. Herein, we report the fragment-based drug design, systematic chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel scaffolds as potent anticancer agents by utilizing six privileged fragments from known STAT3 inhibitors. Several new molecules such as compounds 5, 12, and 19 that may act as advanced chemical leads have been identified. The most potent compound 5 (HJC0123) has demonstrated to inhibit STAT3 promoter activity, downregulate phosphorylation of STAT3, increase the expression of cleaved caspase-3, inhibit cell cycle progression and promote apoptosis in breast and pancreatic cancer cells with low micromolar to nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, compound 5 significantly suppressed estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth in vivo (p.o.), indicating its great potential as an efficacious and orally bioavailable drug candidate for human cancer therapy. PMID:23416191

  14. From Protein Structure to Small-Molecules: Recent Advances and Applications to Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo G; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2017-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a broadly used strategy in structure-guided ligand design, whereby low-molecular weight hits move from lead-like to drug-like compounds. Over the past 15 years, an increasingly important role of the integration of these strategies into industrial and academic research platforms has been successfully established, allowing outstanding contributions to drug discovery. One important factor for the current prominence of FBDD is the better coverage of the chemical space provided by fragment-like libraries. The development of the field relies on two features: (i) the growing number of structurally characterized drug targets and (ii) the enormous chemical diversity available for experimental and virtual screenings. Indeed, fragment-based campaigns have contributed to address major challenges in lead optimization, such as the appropriate physicochemical profile of clinical candidates. This perspective paper outlines the usefulness and applications of FBDD approaches in medicinal chemistry and drug design. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. A Genomics-Based Classification of Human Lung Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, Danila; Zander, Thomas; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Peifer, Martin; Bos, Marc; Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Leenders, Frauke; Lu, Xin; Ansen, Sascha; Gardizi, Masyar; Nguyen, Chau; Berg, Johannes; Russell, Prudence; Wainer, Zoe; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Rogers, Toni-Maree; Solomon, Benjamin; Pao, William; Carter, Scott L.; Getz, Gad; Hayes, D. Neil; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Thunnissen, Erik; Travis, William D.; Perner, Sven; Wright, Gavin; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Buettner, Reinhard; Wolf, Juergen; Thomas, Roman; Gabler, Franziska; Wilkening, Ines; Mueller, Christian; Dahmen, Ilona; Menon, Roopika; Koenig, Katharina; Albus, Kerstin; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Fassunke, Jana; Schmitz, Katja; Kuenstlinger, Helen; Kleine, Michaela; Binot, Elke; Querings, Silvia; Altmueller, Janine; Boessmann, Ingelore; Nuemberg, Peter; Schneider, Peter; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim

    2013-01-01

    We characterized genome alterations in 1255 clinically annotated lung tumors of all histological subgroups to identify genetically defined and clinically relevant subtypes. More than 55% of all cases had at least one oncogenic genome alteration potentially amenable to specific therapeutic

  16. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the rainbow trout genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorgaard Gary H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC physical map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. This resource will also facilitate efforts to obtain and assemble a whole-genome reference sequence for this species. Results The physical map was constructed from DNA fingerprinting of 192,096 BAC clones using the 4-color high-information content fingerprinting (HICF method. The clones were assembled into physical map contigs using the finger-printing contig (FPC program. The map is composed of 4,173 contigs and 9,379 singletons. The total number of unique fingerprinting fragments (consensus bands in contigs is 1,185,157, which corresponds to an estimated physical length of 2.0 Gb. The map assembly was validated by 1 comparison with probe hybridization results and agarose gel fingerprinting contigs; and 2 anchoring large contigs to the microsatellite-based genetic linkage map. Conclusion The production and validation of the first BAC physical map of the rainbow trout genome is described in this paper. We are currently integrating this map with the NCCCWA genetic map using more than 200 microsatellites isolated from BAC end sequences and by identifying BACs that harbor more than 300 previously mapped markers. The availability of an integrated physical and genetic map will enable detailed comparative genome

  17. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    . To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087......) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9....... Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes....

  18. Brute-Force Approach for Mass Spectrometry-Based Variant Peptide Identification in Proteogenomics without Personalized Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Lobas, Anna A.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Moshkovskii, Sergei A.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2018-02-01

    In a proteogenomic approach based on tandem mass spectrometry analysis of proteolytic peptide mixtures, customized exome or RNA-seq databases are employed for identifying protein sequence variants. However, the problem of variant peptide identification without personalized genomic data is important for a variety of applications. Following the recent proposal by Chick et al. (Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 743-749, 2015) on the feasibility of such variant peptide search, we evaluated two available approaches based on the previously suggested "open" search and the "brute-force" strategy. To improve the efficiency of these approaches, we propose an algorithm for exclusion of false variant identifications from the search results involving analysis of modifications mimicking single amino acid substitutions. Also, we propose a de novo based scoring scheme for assessment of identified point mutations. In the scheme, the search engine analyzes y-type fragment ions in MS/MS spectra to confirm the location of the mutation in the variant peptide sequence.

  19. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases.

  20. New Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiments for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Dikova, R.; Wilson, M.; Huynh, T.; Sorge, M.; Sheaffer, P.; Opiela, J.; Cowardin, H.; Krisko, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, U.S. Air Force's Space and Missile Systems Center, the Aerospace Corporation, and University of Florida is planning a series of hypervelocity impact experiments on mockup targets at the U.S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) in early 2014. The target for the first experiment resembles a rocket upper stage whereas the target for the second experiment represents a typical 60-cm/50-kg class payload that incorporates modern spacecraft materials and components as well as exterior wrap of multi-layer insulation and three solar panels. The projectile is designed with the maximum mass that AEDC's Range G two-stage light gas gun can accelerate to an impact speed of 7 km/sec. The impact energy is expected to be close to 15 MJ to ensure catastrophic destruction of the target after the impact. Low density foam panels are installed inside the target chamber to slow down and soft-catch the fragments for post-impact processing. Diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray and high speed optical cameras, will also be used to record the breakup process. The main goal of this "DebriSat" project is to characterize the physical properties, including size, mass, shape, and density distributions, of orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving an upper stage or a modern satellite in the low Earth orbit environment. In addition, representative fragments will be selected for laboratory optical and radar measurements to allow for better interpretation of data obtained by telescope and radar observations. This paper will provide a preliminary report of the impact results and the plans to process, measure, and analyze the fragments.

  1. Dissecting fragment-based lead discovery at the von Hippel-Lindau protein:hypoxia inducible factor 1α protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Molle, Inge; Thomann, Andreas; Buckley, Dennis L; So, Ernest C; Lang, Steffen; Crews, Craig M; Ciulli, Alessio

    2012-10-26

    Fragment screening is widely used to identify attractive starting points for drug design. However, its potential and limitations to assess the tractability of often challenging protein:protein interfaces have been underexplored. Here, we address this question by means of a systematic deconstruction of lead-like inhibitors of the pVHL:HIF-1α interaction into their component fragments. Using biophysical techniques commonly employed for screening, we could only detect binding of fragments that violate the Rule of Three, are more complex than those typically screened against classical druggable targets, and occupy two adjacent binding subsites at the interface rather than just one. Analyses based on ligand and group lipophilicity efficiency of anchored fragments were applied to dissect the individual subsites and probe for binding hot spots. The implications of our findings for targeting protein interfaces by fragment-based approaches are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  3. Repositioning the substrate activity screening (SAS) approach as a fragment-based method for identification of weak binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Cleenewerck, Matthias; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2014-10-13

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved into an established approach for "hit" identification. Typically, most applications of FBDD depend on specialised cost- and time-intensive biophysical techniques. The substrate activity screening (SAS) approach has been proposed as a relatively cheap and straightforward alternative for identification of fragments for enzyme inhibitors. We have investigated SAS for the discovery of inhibitors of oncology target urokinase (uPA). Although our results support the key hypotheses of SAS, we also encountered a number of unreported limitations. In response, we propose an efficient modified methodology: "MSAS" (modified substrate activity screening). MSAS circumvents the limitations of SAS and broadens its scope by providing additional fragments and more coherent SAR data. As well as presenting and validating MSAS, this study expands existing SAR knowledge for the S1 pocket of uPA and reports new reversible and irreversible uPA inhibitor scaffolds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  5. High Efficiency Hydrodynamic DNA Fragmentation in a Bubbling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-18

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling system. We expect that hydrodynamic forces generated during the bubbling process shear the DNA molecules, extending and breaking them at the points where shearing forces are larger than the strength of the phosphate backbone. Factors of applied pressure, bubbling time and temperature have been investigated. Genomic DNA could be fragmented down to controllable 1-10 Kbp fragment lengths with a yield of 75.30-91.60%. We demonstrate that the ends of the genomic DNAs generated from hydrodynamic shearing can be ligated by T4 ligase and the fragmented DNAs can be used as templates for polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, in the bubbling system, DNAs could be hydrodynamically sheared to achieve smaller pieces in dsDNAs available for further processes. It could potentially serve as a DNA sample pretreatment technique in the future.

  6. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  7. Chameleon fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Upadhye, Amol, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: aupadhye@anl.gov [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha University, International Education, Building #601, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  8. Chameleon fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Upadhye, Amol

    2014-01-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ 4 and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments

  9. Estimating the Grain Size Distribution of Mars based on Fragmentation Theory and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Golombek, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present here a fundamental extension to the fragmentation theory [1] which yields estimates of the distribution of particle sizes of a planetary surface. The model is valid within the size regimes of surfaces whose genesis is best reflected by the evolution of fragmentation phenomena governed by either the process of meteoritic impacts, or by a mixture with aeolian transportation at the smaller sizes. The key parameter of the model, the regolith maturity index, can be estimated as an average of that observed at a local site using cratering size-frequency measurements, orbital and surface image-detected rock counts and observations of sub-mm particles at landing sites. Through validation of ground truth from previous landed missions, the basis of this approach has been used at the InSight landing ellipse on Mars to extrapolate rock size distributions in HiRISE images down to 5 cm rock size, both to determine the landing safety risk and the subsequent probability of obstruction by a rock of the deployed heat flow mole down to 3-5 m depth [2]. Here we focus on a continuous extrapolation down to 600 µm coarse sand particles, the upper size limit that may be present through aeolian processes [3]. The parameters of the model are first derived for the fragmentation process that has produced the observable rocks via meteorite impacts over time, and therefore extrapolation into a size regime that is affected by aeolian processes has limited justification without further refinement. Incorporating thermal inertia estimates, size distributions observed by the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager [4] and Atomic Force and Optical Microscopy from the Phoenix Lander [5], the model's parameters in combination with synthesis methods are quantitatively refined further to allow transition within the aeolian transportation size regime. In addition, due to the nature of the model emerging in fractional mass abundance, the percentage of material by volume or mass that resides

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  11. The Wicked Problem of Climate Change: A New Approach Based on Social Mess and Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhe Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century has been the warmest period on record since 1880, making the problem of climate change a central issue in the global political arena. While most approaches to climate change emphasize setting and imposing thresholds for greenhouse gas emissions, this paper argues that the issue of climate change and its solutions should be viewed in a more dynamic and complex way, involving social messes and the fragmentation of industries and organizations. In this context, learning models can offer a starting point to understand the reasons why organizations engage in certain types of corporate environmental strategies with regard to climate change, and can help in the search for solutions to the problem of climate change.

  12. Disk-based compression of data from genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Szymon; Deorowicz, Sebastian; Roguski, Łukasz

    2015-05-01

    High-coverage sequencing data have significant, yet hard to exploit, redundancy. Most FASTQ compressors cannot efficiently compress the DNA stream of large datasets, since the redundancy between overlapping reads cannot be easily captured in the (relatively small) main memory. More interesting solutions for this problem are disk based, where the better of these two, from Cox et al. (2012), is based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) and achieves 0.518 bits per base for a 134.0 Gbp human genome sequencing collection with almost 45-fold coverage. We propose overlapping reads compression with minimizers, a compression algorithm dedicated to sequencing reads (DNA only). Our method makes use of a conceptually simple and easily parallelizable idea of minimizers, to obtain 0.317 bits per base as the compression ratio, allowing to fit the 134.0 Gbp dataset into only 5.31 GB of space. http://sun.aei.polsl.pl/orcom under a free license. sebastian.deorowicz@polsl.pl Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Ricebase: a breeding and genetics platform for rice, integrating individual molecular markers, pedigrees and whole-genome-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J D; Baldo, A M; Mueller, L A

    2016-01-01

    Ricebase (http://ricebase.org) is an integrative genomic database for rice (Oryza sativa) with an emphasis on combining datasets in a way that maintains the key links between past and current genetic studies. Ricebase includes DNA sequence data, gene annotations, nucleotide variation data and molecular marker fragment size data. Rice research has benefited from early adoption and extensive use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers; however, the majority of rice SSR markers were developed prior to the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. Interpretation of new research using SNPs in the context of literature citing SSRs requires a common coordinate system. A new pipeline, using a stepwise relaxation of stringency, was used to map SSR primers onto the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. The SSR markers and experimentally assayed amplicon sizes are presented in a relational database with a web-based front end, and are available as a track loaded in a genome browser with links connecting the browser and database. The combined capabilities of Ricebase link genetic markers, genome context, allele states across rice germplasm and potentially user curated phenotypic interpretations as a community resource for genetic discovery and breeding in rice. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  14. Congruent Deep Relationships in the Grape Family (Vitaceae) Based on Sequences of Chloroplast Genomes and Mitochondrial Genes via Genome Skimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wen, Jun; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Vitaceae is well-known for having one of the most economically important fruits, i.e., the grape (Vitis vinifera). The deep phylogeny of the grape family was not resolved until a recent phylogenomic analysis of 417 nuclear genes from transcriptome data. However, it has been reported extensively that topologies based on nuclear and organellar genes may be incongruent due to differences in their evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a backbone phylogeny of the grape family using plastomes and mitochondrial genes. In this study,next-generation sequencing data sets of 27 species were obtained using genome skimming with total DNAs from silica-gel preserved tissue samples on an Illumina NextSeq 500 instrument [corrected]. Plastomes were assembled using the combination of de novo and reference genome (of V. vinifera) methods. Sixteen mitochondrial genes were also obtained via genome skimming using the reference genome of V. vinifera. Extensive phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The topology based on either plastome data or mitochondrial genes is congruent with the one using hundreds of nuclear genes, indicating that the grape family did not exhibit significant reticulation at the deep level. The results showcase the power of genome skimming in capturing extensive phylogenetic data: especially from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs.

  15. Congruent Deep Relationships in the Grape Family (Vitaceae Based on Sequences of Chloroplast Genomes and Mitochondrial Genes via Genome Skimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available Vitaceae is well-known for having one of the most economically important fruits, i.e., the grape (Vitis vinifera. The deep phylogeny of the grape family was not resolved until a recent phylogenomic analysis of 417 nuclear genes from transcriptome data. However, it has been reported extensively that topologies based on nuclear and organellar genes may be incongruent due to differences in their evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a backbone phylogeny of the grape family using plastomes and mitochondrial genes. In this study,next-generation sequencing data sets of 27 species were obtained using genome skimming with total DNAs from silica-gel preserved tissue samples on an Illumina NextSeq 500 instrument [corrected]. Plastomes were assembled using the combination of de novo and reference genome (of V. vinifera methods. Sixteen mitochondrial genes were also obtained via genome skimming using the reference genome of V. vinifera. Extensive phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The topology based on either plastome data or mitochondrial genes is congruent with the one using hundreds of nuclear genes, indicating that the grape family did not exhibit significant reticulation at the deep level. The results showcase the power of genome skimming in capturing extensive phylogenetic data: especially from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs.

  16. Web Apollo: a web-based genomic annotation editing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eduardo; Helt, Gregg A; Reese, Justin T; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Childers, Chris P; Buels, Robert M; Stein, Lincoln; Holmes, Ian H; Elsik, Christine G; Lewis, Suzanna E

    2013-08-30

    Web Apollo is the first instantaneous, collaborative genomic annotation editor available on the web. One of the natural consequences following from current advances in sequencing technology is that there are more and more researchers sequencing new genomes. These researchers require tools to describe the functional features of their newly sequenced genomes. With Web Apollo researchers can use any of the common browsers (for example, Chrome or Firefox) to jointly analyze and precisely describe the features of a genome in real time, whether they are in the same room or working from opposite sides of the world.

  17. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The PhD project Bespoke Fragments is investigating the space emerging in the exploration of the relationship between digital drawing and fabrication, and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Through a series of different experiments, the project situates itself in a shuttli...

  18. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  19. Post processing of protein-compound docking for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD): in-silico structure-based drug screening and ligand-binding pose prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    For fragment-based drug development, both hit (active) compound prediction and docking-pose (protein-ligand complex structure) prediction of the hit compound are important, since chemical modification (fragment linking, fragment evolution) subsequent to the hit discovery must be performed based on the protein-ligand complex structure. However, the naïve protein-compound docking calculation shows poor accuracy in terms of docking-pose prediction. Thus, post-processing of the protein-compound docking is necessary. Recently, several methods for the post-processing of protein-compound docking have been proposed. In FBDD, the compounds are smaller than those for conventional drug screening. This makes it difficult to perform the protein-compound docking calculation. A method to avoid this problem has been reported. Protein-ligand binding free energy estimation is useful to reduce the procedures involved in the chemical modification of the hit fragment. Several prediction methods have been proposed for high-accuracy estimation of protein-ligand binding free energy. This paper summarizes the various computational methods proposed for docking-pose prediction and their usefulness in FBDD.

  20. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. Results In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. Conclusion Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  1. Investigation of the Rock Fragmentation Process by a Single TBM Cutter Using a Voronoi Element-Based Numerical Manifold Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Jiang, Yalong; Wu, Zhijun; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional Voronoi element-based numerical manifold method (VE-NMM) is developed to analyze the granite fragmentation process by a single tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutter under different confining stresses. A Voronoi tessellation technique is adopted to generate the polygonal grain assemblage to approximate the microstructure of granite sample from the Gubei colliery of Huainan mining area in China. A modified interface contact model with cohesion and tensile strength is embedded into the numerical manifold method (NMM) to interpret the interactions between the rock grains. Numerical uniaxial compression and Brazilian splitting tests are first conducted to calibrate and validate the VE-NMM models based on the laboratory experiment results using a trial-and-error method. On this basis, numerical simulations of rock fragmentation by a single TBM cutter are conducted. The simulated crack initiation and propagation process as well as the indentation load-penetration depth behaviors in the numerical models accurately predict the laboratory indentation test results. The influence of confining stress on rock fragmentation is also investigated. Simulation results show that radial tensile cracks are more likely to be generated under a low confining stress, eventually coalescing into a major fracture along the loading axis. However, with the increase in confining stress, more side cracks initiate and coalesce, resulting in the formation of rock chips at the upper surface of the model. In addition, the peak indentation load also increases with the increasing confining stress, indicating that a higher thrust force is usually needed during the TBM boring process in deep tunnels.

  2. Automated NMR fragment based screening identified a novel interface blocker to the LARG/RhoA complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Gao

    Full Text Available The small GTPase cycles between the inactive GDP form and the activated GTP form, catalyzed by the upstream guanine exchange factors. The modulation of such process by small molecules has been proven to be a fruitful route for therapeutic intervention to prevent the over-activation of the small GTPase. The fragment based approach emerging in the past decade has demonstrated its paramount potential in the discovery of inhibitors targeting such novel and challenging protein-protein interactions. The details regarding the procedure of NMR fragment screening from scratch have been rarely disclosed comprehensively, thus restricts its wider applications. To achieve a consistent screening applicable to a number of targets, we developed a highly automated protocol to cover every aspect of NMR fragment screening as possible, including the construction of small but diverse libray, determination of the aqueous solubility by NMR, grouping compounds with mutual dispersity to a cocktail, and the automated processing and visualization of the ligand based screening spectra. We exemplified our streamlined screening in RhoA alone and the complex of the small GTPase RhoA and its upstream guanine exchange factor LARG. Two hits were confirmed from the primary screening in cocktail and secondary screening over individual hits for LARG/RhoA complex, while one of them was also identified from the screening for RhoA alone. HSQC titration of the two hits over RhoA and LARG alone, respectively, identified one compound binding to RhoA.GDP at a 0.11 mM affinity, and perturbed the residues at the switch II region of RhoA. This hit blocked the formation of the LARG/RhoA complex, validated by the native gel electrophoresis, and the titration of RhoA to ¹⁵N labeled LARG in the absence and presence the compound, respectively. It therefore provides us a starting point toward a more potent inhibitor to RhoA activation catalyzed by LARG.

  3. GeNemo: a search engine for web-based functional genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqing; Cao, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Sheng

    2016-07-08

    A set of new data types emerged from functional genomic assays, including ChIP-seq, DNase-seq, FAIRE-seq and others. The results are typically stored as genome-wide intensities (WIG/bigWig files) or functional genomic regions (peak/BED files). These data types present new challenges to big data science. Here, we present GeNemo, a web-based search engine for functional genomic data. GeNemo searches user-input data against online functional genomic datasets, including the entire collection of ENCODE and mouse ENCODE datasets. Unlike text-based search engines, GeNemo's searches are based on pattern matching of functional genomic regions. This distinguishes GeNemo from text or DNA sequence searches. The user can input any complete or partial functional genomic dataset, for example, a binding intensity file (bigWig) or a peak file. GeNemo reports any genomic regions, ranging from hundred bases to hundred thousand bases, from any of the online ENCODE datasets that share similar functional (binding, modification, accessibility) patterns. This is enabled by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based maximization process, executed on up to 24 parallel computing threads. By clicking on a search result, the user can visually compare her/his data with the found datasets and navigate the identified genomic regions. GeNemo is available at www.genemo.org. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Peter N.; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N = 2,287). Using additional whole-genome seque...

  5. Genome chaos: survival strategy during crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo; Stevens, Joshua B; Horne, Steven D; Abdallah, Batoul Y; Ye, Karen J; Bremer, Steven W; Ye, Christine J; Chen, David J; Heng, Henry H

    2014-01-01

    Genome chaos, a process of complex, rapid genome re-organization, results in the formation of chaotic genomes, which is followed by the potential to establish stable genomes. It was initially detected through cytogenetic analyses, and recently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing efforts which identified multiple subtypes including "chromothripsis", "chromoplexy", "chromoanasynthesis", and "chromoanagenesis". Although genome chaos occurs commonly in tumors, both the mechanism and detailed aspects of the process are unknown due to the inability of observing its evolution over time in clinical samples. Here, an experimental system to monitor the evolutionary process of genome chaos was developed to elucidate its mechanisms. Genome chaos occurs following exposure to chemotherapeutics with different mechanisms, which act collectively as stressors. Characterization of the karyotype and its dynamic changes prior to, during, and after induction of genome chaos demonstrates that chromosome fragmentation (C-Frag) occurs just prior to chaotic genome formation. Chaotic genomes seem to form by random rejoining of chromosomal fragments, in part through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Stress induced genome chaos results in increased karyotypic heterogeneity. Such increased evolutionary potential is demonstrated by the identification of increased transcriptome dynamics associated with high levels of karyotypic variance. In contrast to impacting on a limited number of cancer genes, re-organized genomes lead to new system dynamics essential for cancer evolution. Genome chaos acts as a mechanism of rapid, adaptive, genome-based evolution that plays an essential role in promoting rapid macroevolution of new genome-defined systems during crisis, which may explain some unwanted consequences of cancer treatment.

  6. Reducing the Flexibility of Type II Dehydroquinase for Inhibition: A Fragment-Based Approach and Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peón, Antonio; Robles, Adrián; Blanco, Beatriz; Convertino, Marino; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R; Caflisch, Amedeo; González-Bello, Concepción

    2017-09-21

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to identify and optimize a quinazolinedione-based ligand that would decrease the flexibility of the substrate-covering loop (catalytic loop) of the type II dehydroquinase from Helicobacter pylori. This enzyme, which is essential for the survival of this bacterium, is involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. A computer-aided fragment-based protocol (ALTA) was first used to identify the aromatic fragments able to block the interface pocket that separates two neighboring enzyme subunits and is located at the active site entrance. Chemical modification of its non-aromatic moiety through an olefin cross-metathesis and Seebach's self-reproduction of chirality synthetic principle allowed the development of a quinazolinedione derivative that disables the catalytic loop plasticity, which is essential for the enzyme's catalytic cycle. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ligand would force the catalytic loop into an inappropriate arrangement for catalysis by strong interactions with the catalytic tyrosine and by expelling the essential arginine out of the active site. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  8. Differentiation and diagnosis of Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton with genomic DNA probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, U; Wenzel, G.

    1993-01-01

    Repetitive genomic clones were used to differentiate between varieties within the species Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides. From 21 clones tested 13 revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms among isolates. Cluster analysis was performed based on these data. Differentiation of isolate...

  9. HpBase: A genome database of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Sonoko; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Yaguchi, Shunsuke

    2018-04-01

    To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results. In this manuscript, we report a draft genome of the sea urchin Hemincentrotus pulcherrimus because this species has a long history as the target of developmental and cell biology in East Asia. The genome of H. pulcherrimus was assembled into 16,251 scaffold sequences with an N50 length of 143 kbp, and approximately 25,000 genes were identified in the genome. The size of the genome and the sequencing coverage were estimated to be approximately 800 Mbp and 100×, respectively. To provide these data and information of annotation, we constructed a database, HpBase (http://cell-innovation.nig.ac.jp/Hpul/). In HpBase, gene searches, genome browsing, and blast searches are available. In addition, HpBase includes the "recipes" for experiments from each lab using H. pulcherrimus. These recipes will continue to be updated according to the circumstances of individual scientists and can be powerful tools for experimental biologists and for the community. HpBase is a suitable dataset for evolutionary, developmental, and cell biologists to compare H. pulcherrimus genomic information with that of other species and to isolate gene information. © 2018 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. A Fragment-Based Ligand Screen Against Part of a Large Protein Machine: The ND1 Domains of the AAA+ ATPase p97/VCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenti, Michael S; Bulfer, Stacie L; Neitz, R Jeffrey; Renslo, Adam R; Jacobson, Matthew P; James, Thomas L; Arkin, Michelle R; Kelly, Mark J S

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitous AAA+ ATPase p97 functions as a dynamic molecular machine driving several cellular processes. It is essential in regulating protein homeostasis, and it represents a potential drug target for cancer, particularly when there is a greater reliance on the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to degrade an overabundance of secreted proteins. Here, we report a case study for using fragment-based ligand design approaches against this large and dynamic hexamer, which has multiple potential binding sites for small molecules. A screen of a fragment library was conducted by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and followed up by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), two complementary biophysical techniques. Virtual screening was also carried out to examine possible binding sites for the experimental hits and evaluate the potential utility of fragment docking for this target. Out of this effort, 13 fragments were discovered that showed reversible binding with affinities between 140 µM and 1 mM, binding stoichiometries of 1:1 or 2:1, and good ligand efficiencies. Structural data for fragment-protein interactions were obtained with residue-specific [U-(2)H] (13)CH3-methyl-labeling NMR strategies, and these data were compared to poses from docking. The combination of virtual screening, SPR, and NMR enabled us to find and validate a number of interesting fragment hits and allowed us to gain an understanding of the structural nature of fragment binding. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Small molecule inhibitors of the LEDGF site of human immunodeficiency virus integrase identified by fragment screening and structure based design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Peat

    Full Text Available A fragment-based screen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV integrase led to a number of compounds that bound to the lens epithelium derived growth factor (LEDGF binding site of the integrase catalytic core domain. We determined the crystallographic structures of complexes of the HIV integrase catalytic core domain for 10 of these compounds and quantitated the binding by surface plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that the compounds inhibit the interaction of LEDGF with HIV integrase in a proximity AlphaScreen assay, an assay for the LEDGF enhancement of HIV integrase strand transfer and in a cell based assay. The compounds identified represent a potential framework for the development of a new series of HIV integrase inhibitors that do not bind to the catalytic site of the enzyme.

  12. [Whole Genome Sequencing of Human mtDNA Based on Ion Torrent PGM™ Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Zou, K N; Huang, J P; Ma, K; Ping, Y

    2017-08-01

    To analyze and detect the whole genome sequence of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by Ion Torrent PGM™ platform and to study the differences of mtDNA sequence in different tissues. Samples were collected from 6 unrelated individuals by forensic postmortem examination, including chest blood, hair, costicartilage, nail, skeletal muscle and oral epithelium. Amplification of whole genome sequence of mtDNA was performed by 4 pairs of primer. Libraries were constructed with Ion Shear™ Plus Reagents kit and Ion Plus Fragment Library kit. Whole genome sequencing of mtDNA was performed using Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. Sanger sequencing was used to determine the heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region. The whole genome sequence of mtDNA from all samples were amplified successfully. Six unrelated individuals belonged to 6 different haplotypes. Different tissues in one individual had heteroplasmy difference. The heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region were verified by Sanger sequencing. After a consistency check by the Kappa method, it was found that the results of mtDNA sequence had a high consistency in different tissues. The testing method used in present study for sequencing the whole genome sequence of human mtDNA can detect the heteroplasmy difference in different tissues, which have good consistency. The results provide guidance for the further applications of mtDNA in forensic science. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  13. Whole genome homology-based identification of candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Erhiakporeh

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... candidate genes for drought tolerance in sesame. (Sesamum ... Our results provided genomic resources for further functional analysis and genetic engineering .... reverse transcribed using the Reverse Transcription System.

  14. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jizhong [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); He, Zhili [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-04-08

    As a part of the Shewanella Federation project, we have used integrated genomic, proteomic and computational technologies to study various aspects of energy metabolism of two Shewanella strains from a systems-level perspective.

  15. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  16. GenomeVx: simple web-based creation of editable circular chromosome maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Gavin C; Wolfe, Kenneth H

    2008-03-15

    We describe GenomeVx, a web-based tool for making editable, publication-quality, maps of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes and of large plasmids. These maps show the location of genes and chromosomal features as well as a position scale. The program takes as input either raw feature positions or GenBank records. In the latter case, features are automatically extracted and colored, an example of which is given. Output is in the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) and can be edited by programs such as Adobe Illustrator. GenomeVx is available at http://wolfe.gen.tcd.ie/GenomeVx

  17. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-03-31

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.

  18. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  19. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , investigating levels of control and uncertainty encountering with these. Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect...... architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics. In this Ph.D.-project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However, these creations also become the driving...

  20. Genome-based prediction of common diseases: Methodological considerations for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe translation of emerging genomic knowledge into public health and clinical care is one of the major challenges for the coming decades. At the moment, genome-based prediction of common diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer, is still not informative. Our

  1. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is

  2. SIGI: score-based identification of genomic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl Rainer

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic islands can be observed in many microbial genomes. These stretches of DNA have a conspicuous composition with regard to sequence or encoded functions. Genomic islands are assumed to be frequently acquired via horizontal gene transfer. For the analysis of genome structure and the study of horizontal gene transfer, it is necessary to reliably identify and characterize these islands. Results A scoring scheme on codon frequencies Score_G1G2(cdn = log(f_G2(cdn / f_G1(cdn was utilized. To analyse genes of a species G1 and to test their relatedness to species G2, scores were determined by applying the formula to log-odds derived from mean codon frequencies of the two genomes. A non-redundant set of nearly 400 codon usage tables comprising microbial species was derived; its members were used alternatively at position G2. Genes having at least one score value above a species-specific and dynamically determined cut-off value were analysed further. By means of cluster analysis, genes were identified that comprise clusters of statistically significant size. These clusters were predicted as genomic islands. Finally and individually for each of these genes, the taxonomical relation among those species responsible for significant scores was interpreted. The validity of the approach and its limitations were made plausible by an extensive analysis of natural genes and synthetic ones aimed at modelling the process of gene amelioration. Conclusions The method reliably allows to identify genomic island and the likely origin of alien genes.

  3. Discovery of potent, reversible MetAP2 inhibitors via fragment based drug discovery and structure based drug design-Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Christopher; Cheruvallath, Zacharia; Komandla, Mallareddy; Tang, Mingnam; Farrell, Pamela; Lawson, J David; Vanderpool, Darin; Wu, Yiqin; Dougan, Douglas R; Plonowski, Artur; Holub, Corine; Larson, Chris

    2016-06-15

    Methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2) is an enzyme that cleaves an N-terminal methionine residue from a number of newly synthesized proteins. This step is required before they will fold or function correctly. Pre-clinical and clinical studies with a MetAP2 inhibitor suggest that they could be used as a novel treatment for obesity. Herein we describe the discovery of a series of pyrazolo[4,3-b]indoles as reversible MetAP2 inhibitors. A fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) approach was used, beginning with the screening of fragment libraries to generate hits with high ligand-efficiency (LE). An indazole core was selected for further elaboration, guided by structural information. SAR from the indazole series led to the design of a pyrazolo[4,3-b]indole core and accelerated knowledge-based fragment growth resulted in potent and efficient MetAP2 inhibitors, which have shown robust and sustainable body weight loss in DIO mice when dosed orally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A SPH Method-based Numerical Simulation of the Space Debris Fragments Interaction with Spacecraft Structure Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant amount of space debris available in the near-Earth space is a reason to protect space vehicles from the fragments of space debris. Existing empirical calculation methods do not allow us to estimate quality of developed protection. Experimental verification of protection requires complex and expensive installations that do not allow having a desirable impact velocity. The article proposes to use the ANSYS AUTODYN software environment – a software complex of the nonlinear dynamic analysis to evaluate quality of developed protection. The ANSYS AUTODYN environment is based on the integration methods of a system of equations of continuum mechanics. The SPH (smoothed particle method method is used as a solver. The SPH method is based on the area of sampling by a finite set of the Lagrangian particles that can be represented as the elementary volumes of the medium. In modeling the targets were under attack of 2 and 3 mm spheres and cylinders with 2 mm in bottom diameter and with generator of 2 and 3 mm. The apheres and cylinders are solid and hollow, with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The impact velocity of the particles with a target was assumed to be 7.5 km / s. The number of integration cycles in all cases of calculation was assumed to be 1000. The rate of flying debris fragments of the target material as a function of the h / d ratio (h - the thickness of the target, / d - the diameter of a sphere or a cylinder end is obtained. In simulation the sample picture obtained coincides both with results of experimental study carried out at the Tomsk State Technical University and  with results described in the literature.

  6. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  7. A web-based multi-genome synteny viewer for customized data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanna Kashi V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based synteny visualization tools are important for sharing data and revealing patterns of complicated genome conservation and rearrangements. Such tools should allow biologists to upload genomic data for their own analysis. This requirement is critical because individual biologists are generating large amounts of genomic sequences that quickly overwhelm any centralized web resources to collect and display all those data. Recently, we published a web-based synteny viewer, GSV, which was designed to satisfy the above requirement. However, GSV can only compare two genomes at a given time. Extending the functionality of GSV to visualize multiple genomes is important to meet the increasing demand of the research community. Results We have developed a multi-Genome Synteny Viewer (mGSV. Similar to GSV, mGSV is a web-based tool that allows users to upload their own genomic data files for visualization. Multiple genomes can be presented in a single integrated view with an enhanced user interface. Users can navigate through all the selected genomes in either pairwise or multiple viewing mode to examine conserved genomic regions as well as the accompanying genome annotations. Besides serving users who manually interact with the web server, mGSV also provides Web Services for machine-to-machine communication to accept data sent by other remote resources. The entire mGSV package can also be downloaded for easy local installation. Conclusions mGSV significantly enhances the original functionalities of GSV. A web server hosting mGSV is provided at http://cas-bioinfo.cas.unt.edu/mgsv.

  8. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEALSON, KENNETH H.

    2013-10-15

    laboratories. Applications: 1. Corrosion: Electron flow is often part of the corrosive process, and several studies were done in concert with this proposal with regard to the ability of EET-capable bacteria to enhance, inhibit, or detect corrosion. These included using EET-capable bacteria to detect corrosion in its earliest stages [5], to use corrosion-causing bacteria for the study of the microbe/mineral interface during corrosion [1], and to study the groups of microbes involved with corrosion of natural systems [19]. 2. Bioenergy and microbial fuel cells: The production of electricity by Shewanella was shown early in this program (several years ago) to be dependent on the genes for extracellular electron transport (EET), and applied work involved the testing of various strains and conditions for the optimization of current production by the shewanellae [11,14,16]. 3. Identification of shewanellae strains: Based on similarities seen in genomic comparisons, a rapid method was employed for distinguishing between shewanellae strains [17]. Interactions with other laboratories: This grant was an extension of a grant involving the so-called ?Shewanella Federation?, and as such, a number of our publications were joint with other members of this group. The groups included: 1. Pacific Northwest Laboratories ? 2. Oak Ridge National Labs 3. Michigan State University 4. University of Oklahoma 5. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 6. Burnham Medical Research Institute, San Diego 7. J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego Education: Graduate Students: Michael Waters, Ph.D. ? at NIST, Washington D.C. Lewis Hsu, Ph.D. ? at NRL, San Diego Howard Harris, Ph.D. ? Postdoc at University, France Everett Salas, Ph.D. ? Scientist at Chevron McLean, Jeffrey, Ph.D. ? Scientist at J. Craig Venter Institute McCrow, John, Ph.D. ? Scientist at J. Craig Venter Institute Postdocs: Mohamed El-Naggar ? Professor of Physics, USC Jinjun Kan ? Senior Researcher at Undergraduatges: During this year, we had

  9. Evidence-based gene models for structural and functional annotations of the oil palm genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kuang-Lim; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Rosli, Rozana; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Azizi, Norazah; Halim, Mohd Amin Ab; Sanusi, Nik Shazana Nik Mohd; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Ponomarenko, Petr; Triska, Martin; Solovyev, Victor; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Murphy, Denis; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie

    2017-09-08

    Oil palm is an important source of edible oil. The importance of the crop, as well as its long breeding cycle (10-12 years) has led to the sequencing of its genome in 2013 to pave the way for genomics-guided breeding. Nevertheless, the first set of gene predictions, although useful, had many fragmented genes. Classification and characterization of genes associated with traits of interest, such as those for fatty acid biosynthesis and disease resistance, were also limited. Lipid-, especially fatty acid (FA)-related genes are of particular interest for the oil palm as they specify oil yields and quality. This paper presents the characterization of the oil palm genome using different gene prediction methods and comparative genomics analysis, identification of FA biosynthesis and disease resistance genes, and the development of an annotation database and bioinformatics tools. Using two independent gene-prediction pipelines, Fgenesh++ and Seqping, 26,059 oil palm genes with transcriptome and RefSeq support were identified from the oil palm genome. These coding regions of the genome have a characteristic broad distribution of GC 3 (fraction of cytosine and guanine in the third position of a codon) with over half the GC 3 -rich genes (GC 3  ≥ 0.75286) being intronless. In comparison, only one-seventh of the oil palm genes identified are intronless. Using comparative genomics analysis, characterization of conserved domains and active sites, and expression analysis, 42 key genes involved in FA biosynthesis in oil palm were identified. For three of them, namely EgFABF, EgFABH and EgFAD3, segmental duplication events were detected. Our analysis also identified 210 candidate resistance genes in six classes, grouped by their protein domain structures. We present an accurate and comprehensive annotation of the oil palm genome, focusing on analysis of important categories of genes (GC 3 -rich and intronless), as well as those associated with important functions, such as FA

  10. Genomic organization, annotation, and ligand-receptor inferences of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptor genes based on comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in host defense, organogenesis, hematopoiesis, and neuronal communication. Forty-two chemokines and 19 cognate receptors have been found in the human genome. Prior to this report, only 11 chicken chemokines and 7 receptors had been reported. The objectives of this study were to systematically identify chicken chemokines and their cognate receptor genes in the chicken genome and to annotate these genes and ligand-receptor binding by a comparative genomics approach. Results Twenty-three chemokine and 14 chemokine receptor genes were identified in the chicken genome. All of the chicken chemokines contained a conserved CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC motif, whereas all the chemokine receptors had seven conserved transmembrane helices, four extracellular domains with a conserved cysteine, and a conserved DRYLAIV sequence in the second intracellular domain. The number of coding exons in these genes and the syntenies are highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken although the amino acid sequence homologies are generally low between mammalian and chicken chemokines. Chicken genes were named with the systematic nomenclature used in humans and mice based on phylogeny, synteny, and sequence homology. Conclusion The independent nomenclature of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptors suggests that the chicken may have ligand-receptor pairings similar to mammals. All identified chicken chemokines and their cognate receptors were identified in the chicken genome except CCR9, whose ligand was not identified in this study. The organization of these genes suggests that there were a substantial number of these genes present before divergence between aves and mammals and more gene duplications of CC, CXC, CCR, and CXCR subfamilies in mammals than in aves after the divergence.

  11. Ocean biogeochemistry modeled with emergent trait-based genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, V. J.; Stukel, M. R.; Brooks, M. T.; Burd, A.; Crump, B. C.; Moran, M. A.; Paul, J. H.; Satinsky, B. M.; Yager, P. L.; Zielinski, B. L.; Hood, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Marine ecosystem models have advanced to incorporate metabolic pathways discovered with genomic sequencing, but direct comparisons between models and “omics” data are lacking. We developed a model that directly simulates metagenomes and metatranscriptomes for comparison with observations. Model microbes were randomly assigned genes for specialized functions, and communities of 68 species were simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. Unfit organisms were replaced, and the model self-organized to develop community genomes and transcriptomes. Emergent communities from simulations that were initialized with different cohorts of randomly generated microbes all produced realistic vertical and horizontal ocean nutrient, genome, and transcriptome gradients. Thus, the library of gene functions available to the community, rather than the distribution of functions among specific organisms, drove community assembly and biogeochemical gradients in the model ocean.

  12. Evidence of codon usage in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of bases in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.

  13. Identification of potential glutaminyl cyclase inhibitors from lead-like libraries by in silico and in vitro fragment-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaszkó, Mária; Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Dobi, Krisztina; Magyar, Csaba; Simon, István; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Kapui, Zoltán; Pázmány, Tamás; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2017-02-01

    A glutaminyl cyclase (QC) fragment library was in silico selected by disconnection of the structure of known QC inhibitors and by lead-like 2D virtual screening of the same set. The resulting fragment library (204 compounds) was acquired from commercial suppliers and pre-screened by differential scanning fluorimetry followed by functional in vitro assays. In this way, 10 fragment hits were identified ([Formula: see text]5 % hit rate, best inhibitory activity: 16 [Formula: see text]). The in vitro hits were then docked to the active site of QC, and the best scoring compounds were analyzed for binding interactions. Two fragments bound to different regions in a complementary manner, and thus, linking those fragments offered a rational strategy to generate novel QC inhibitors. Based on the structure of the virtual linked fragment, a 77-membered QC target focused library was selected from vendor databases and docked to the active site of QC. A PubChem search confirmed that the best scoring analogues are novel, potential QC inhibitors.

  14. Dynameomics: Data-driven methods and models for utilizing large-scale protein structure repositories for improving fragment-based loop prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, Steven J; Beck, David AC; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Protein function is intimately linked to protein structure and dynamics yet experimentally determined structures frequently omit regions within a protein due to indeterminate data, which is often due protein dynamics. We propose that atomistic molecular dynamics simulations provide a diverse sampling of biologically relevant structures for these missing segments (and beyond) to improve structural modeling and structure prediction. Here we make use of the Dynameomics data warehouse, which contains simulations of representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We developed novel computational methods to efficiently identify, rank and retrieve small peptide structures, or fragments, from this database. We also created a novel data model to analyze and compare large repositories of structural data, such as contained within the Protein Data Bank and the Dynameomics data warehouse. Our evaluation compares these structural repositories for improving loop predictions and analyzes the utility of our methods and models. Using a standard set of loop structures, containing 510 loops, 30 for each loop length from 4 to 20 residues, we find that the inclusion of Dynameomics structures in fragment-based methods improves the quality of the loop predictions without being dependent on sequence homology. Depending on loop length, ∼25–75% of the best predictions came from the Dynameomics set, resulting in lower main chain root-mean-square deviations for all fragment lengths using the combined fragment library. We also provide specific cases where Dynameomics fragments provide better predictions for NMR loop structures than fragments from crystal structures. Online access to these fragment libraries is available at http://www.dynameomics.org/fragments. PMID:25142412

  15. Dynameomics: data-driven methods and models for utilizing large-scale protein structure repositories for improving fragment-based loop prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, Steven J; Beck, David A C; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    Protein function is intimately linked to protein structure and dynamics yet experimentally determined structures frequently omit regions within a protein due to indeterminate data, which is often due protein dynamics. We propose that atomistic molecular dynamics simulations provide a diverse sampling of biologically relevant structures for these missing segments (and beyond) to improve structural modeling and structure prediction. Here we make use of the Dynameomics data warehouse, which contains simulations of representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We developed novel computational methods to efficiently identify, rank and retrieve small peptide structures, or fragments, from this database. We also created a novel data model to analyze and compare large repositories of structural data, such as contained within the Protein Data Bank and the Dynameomics data warehouse. Our evaluation compares these structural repositories for improving loop predictions and analyzes the utility of our methods and models. Using a standard set of loop structures, containing 510 loops, 30 for each loop length from 4 to 20 residues, we find that the inclusion of Dynameomics structures in fragment-based methods improves the quality of the loop predictions without being dependent on sequence homology. Depending on loop length, ∼ 25-75% of the best predictions came from the Dynameomics set, resulting in lower main chain root-mean-square deviations for all fragment lengths using the combined fragment library. We also provide specific cases where Dynameomics fragments provide better predictions for NMR loop structures than fragments from crystal structures. Online access to these fragment libraries is available at http://www.dynameomics.org/fragments. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  16. Bounds on the distribution of the number of gaps when circles and lines are covered by fragments: Theory and practical application to genomic and metagenomic projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchesi Julian R

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how a circle or line segment becomes covered when random arcs are marked off has arisen repeatedly in bioinformatics. The number of uncovered gaps is of particular interest. Approximate distributions for the number of gaps have been given in the literature, one motivation being ease of computation. Error bounds for these approximate distributions have not been given. Results We give bounds on the probability distribution of the number of gaps when a circle is covered by fragments of fixed size. The absolute error in the approximation is typically on the order of 0.1% at 10× coverage depth. The method can be applied to coverage problems on the interval, including edge effects, and applications are given to metagenomic libraries and shotgun sequencing.

  17. A URI-based approach for addressing fragments of media resources on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mannens; D. van Deursen; R. Troncy (Raphael); S. Pfeiffer; C. Parker (Conrad); Y. Lafon; A.J. Jansen (Jack); M. Hausenblas; R. van de Walle

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractTo make media resources a prime citizen on the Web, we have to go beyond simply replicating digital media files. The Web is based on hyperlinks between Web resources, and that includes hyperlinking out of resources (e.g., from a word or an image within a Web page) as well as hyperlinking

  18. Cytosolic expression of functional Fab fragments in Escherichia coli using a novel combination of dual SUMO expression cassette and EnBase® cultivation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F; Davami, F; Mansouri, K; Agha Amiri, S; Fazel, R; Mahdian, R; Davoudi, N; Enayati, S; Azizi, M; Khalaj, V

    2017-05-08

    The Escherichia coli expression system is highly effective in producing recombinant proteins. However, there are some limitations in this system, especially in obtaining correctly folded forms of some complex proteins such as Fab fragments. To improve the solubility and folding quality of Fab fragments, we have examined the effect of simultaneous application of a SUMO fusion tag, EnBase ® cultivation mode and a redox mutant strain in the E. coli expression system. A bicistronic gene construct was designed to express an antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Fab fragment as a model system. The construct contained a dual SUMO fusion gene fragment to encode SUMO-tagged heavy and light chains. While the expression of the construct in batch cultures of BL21 or SHuffle ® transformants produced insoluble and unfolded products, the induction of the transformants in EnBase ® medium resulted in soluble and correctly folded Fab fragment, reaching as high as 19% of the total protein in shuffle strain. The functional assays indicated that the biological activity of the target Fab is similar to the commercial anti-VEGF, Lucentis ® . This study demonstrated that the combination of SUMO fusion technology, EnBase ® cultivation system and recruiting a redox mutant of E. coli can efficiently enhance the solubility and productivity of recombinant Fab fragments. The presented strategy provides not only a novel method to produce soluble and active form of an anti-VEGF Fab but also may use in the efficient production of other antibody fragments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. YersiniaBase: a genomic resource and analysis platform for comparative analysis of Yersinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh Vr; Heydari, Hamed; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh

    2015-01-16

    Yersinia is a Gram-negative bacteria that includes serious pathogens such as the Yersinia pestis, which causes plague, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica. The remaining species are generally considered non-pathogenic to humans, although there is evidence that at least some of these species can cause occasional infections using distinct mechanisms from the more pathogenic species. With the advances in sequencing technologies, many genomes of Yersinia have been sequenced. However, there is currently no specialized platform to hold the rapidly-growing Yersinia genomic data and to provide analysis tools particularly for comparative analyses, which are required to provide improved insights into their biology, evolution and pathogenicity. To facilitate the ongoing and future research of Yersinia, especially those generally considered non-pathogenic species, a well-defined repository and analysis platform is needed to hold the Yersinia genomic data and analysis tools for the Yersinia research community. Hence, we have developed the YersiniaBase, a robust and user-friendly Yersinia resource and analysis platform for the analysis of Yersinia genomic data. YersiniaBase has a total of twelve species and 232 genome sequences, of which the majority are Yersinia pestis. In order to smooth the process of searching genomic data in a large database, we implemented an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)-based real-time searching system in YersiniaBase. Besides incorporating existing tools, which include JavaScript-based genome browser (JBrowse) and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), YersiniaBase also has in-house developed tools: (1) Pairwise Genome Comparison tool (PGC) for comparing two user-selected genomes; (2) Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Yersinia genomes; (3) YersiniaTree for constructing phylogenetic tree of Yersinia. We ran analyses based on the tools and genomic data in YersiniaBase and the

  20. Gene prediction in metagenomic fragments: A large scale machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenstern Burkhard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomics is an approach to the characterization of microbial genomes via the direct isolation of genomic sequences from the environment without prior cultivation. The amount of metagenomic sequence data is growing fast while computational methods for metagenome analysis are still in their infancy. In contrast to genomic sequences of single species, which can usually be assembled and analyzed by many available methods, a large proportion of metagenome data remains as unassembled anonymous sequencing reads. One of the aims of all metagenomic sequencing projects is the identification of novel genes. Short length, for example, Sanger sequencing yields on average 700 bp fragments, and unknown phylogenetic origin of most fragments require approaches to gene prediction that are different from the currently available methods for genomes of single species. In particular, the large size of metagenomic samples requires fast and accurate methods with small numbers of false positive predictions. Results We introduce a novel gene prediction algorithm for metagenomic fragments based on a two-stage machine learning approach. In the first stage, we use linear discriminants for monocodon usage, dicodon usage and translation initiation sites to extract features from DNA sequences. In the second stage, an artificial neural network combines these features with open reading frame length and fragment GC-content to compute the probability that this open reading frame encodes a protein. This probability is used for the classification and scoring of gene candidates. With large scale training, our method provides fast single fragment predictions with good sensitivity and specificity on artificially fragmented genomic DNA. Additionally, this method is able to predict translation initiation sites accurately and distinguishes complete from incomplete genes with high reliability. Conclusion Large scale machine learning methods are well-suited for gene

  1. Microarray-based ultra-high resolution discovery of genomic deletion mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oligonucleotide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) offers an attractive possible route for the rapid and cost-effective genome-wide discovery of deletion mutations. CGH typically involves comparison of the hybridization intensities of genomic DNA samples with microarray chip representations of entire genomes, and has widespread potential application in experimental research and medical diagnostics. However, the power to detect small deletions is low. Results Here we use a graduated series of Arabidopsis thaliana genomic deletion mutations (of sizes ranging from 4 bp to ~5 kb) to optimize CGH-based genomic deletion detection. We show that the power to detect smaller deletions (4, 28 and 104 bp) depends upon oligonucleotide density (essentially the number of genome-representative oligonucleotides on the microarray chip), and determine the oligonucleotide spacings necessary to guarantee detection of deletions of specified size. Conclusions Our findings will enhance a wide range of research and clinical applications, and in particular will aid in the discovery of genomic deletions in the absence of a priori knowledge of their existence. PMID:24655320

  2. The ethical introduction of genome-based information and technologies into public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H C; Swinnen, E; Douw, K; Vondeling, H; Cassiman, J-J; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Borry, P

    2013-01-01

    With the human genome project running from 1989 until its completion in 2003, and the incredible advances in sequencing technology and in bioinformatics during the last decade, there has been a shift towards an increase focus on studying common complex disorders which develop due to the interplay of many different genes as well as environmental factors. Although some susceptibility genes have been identified in some populations for disorders such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, the integration of this information into the health care system has proven to be much more problematic than for single gene disorders. Furthermore, with the 1000$ genome supposedly just around the corner, and whole genome sequencing gradually being integrated into research protocols as well as in the clinical context, there is a strong push for the uptake of additional genomic testing. Indeed, the advent of public health genomics, wherein genomics would be integrated in all aspects of health care and public health, should be taken seriously. Although laudable, these advances also bring with them a slew of ethical and social issues that challenge the normative frameworks used in clinical genetics until now. With this in mind, we highlight herein 5 principles that are used as a primer to discuss the ethical introduction of genome-based information and genome-based technologies into public health. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Amplified-fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycoplasma species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Jensen, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selective amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplasmas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including...... Mycoplasma genitalium (n = 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyopneunmoniae (n = 9), Myco plasma flocculare (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (n = 10), and Mycoplasma dispar (n = 5), AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of mycoplasmal DNA with BglII and Mfe...... to discriminate the analyzed strains at species and intraspecies levels as well, Each of the tested Mycoplasma species developed a banding pattern entirely different from those obtained from other species under analysis, Subtle intraspecies genomic differences were detected among strains of all of the Mycoplasma...

  4. NONINVASIVE OPTICAL IMAGING OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION IN VIVO USING AN ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE FRAGMENT BASED NEAR-INFRARED FLUORESCENT PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUICUI LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of bacterial infections remains a major challenge in medicine. Optical imaging of bacterial infection in living animals is usually conducted with genetic reporters such as light-emitting enzymes or fluorescent proteins. However, there are many circumstances where genetic reporters are not applicable, and there is an urgent need for exogenous synthetic probes that can selectively target bacteria. Optical imaging of bacteria in vivo is much less developed than methods such as radioimaging and MRI. Furthermore near-infrared (NIR dyes with emission wavelengths in the region of 650–900 nm can propagate through two or more centimeters of tissue and may enable deeper tissue imaging if sensitive detection techniques are employed. Here we constructed an antimicrobial peptide fragment UBI29-41-based near-infrared fluorescent imaging probe. The probe is composed of UBI29-41 conjugated to a near infrared dye ICG-Der-02. UBI29-41 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that targets the anionic surfaces of bacterial cells. The probe allows detection of Staphylococcus aureus infection (5 × 107 cells in a mouse local infection model using whole animal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the UBI29-41-based imaging probe can selectively accumulate within bacteria. The significantly higher accumulation in bacterial infection suggests that UBI29-41-based imaging probe may be a promising imaging agent to detect bacterial infections.

  5. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong; Gao, Zhaoming; Xu, Ying; Li, Guangyu; He, Lisheng; Qian, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    -generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms

  6. An NMR strategy for fragment-based ligand screening utilizing a paramagnetic lanthanide probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saio, Tomohide; Ogura, Kenji; Shimizu, Kazumi; Yokochi, Masashi; Burke, Terrence R.; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance-based ligand screening strategy utilizing a paramagnetic lanthanide probe is presented. By fixing a paramagnetic lanthanide ion to a target protein, a pseudo-contact shift (PCS) and a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) can be observed for both the target protein and its bound ligand. Based on PRE and PCS information, the bound ligand is then screened from the compound library and the structure of the ligand–protein complex is determined. PRE is an isotropic paramagnetic effect observed within 30 Å from the lanthanide ion, and is utilized for the ligand screening in the present study. PCS is an anisotropic paramagnetic effect providing long-range (∼40 Å) distance and angular information on the observed nuclei relative to the paramagnetic lanthanide ion, and utilized for the structure determination of the ligand–protein complex. Since a two-point anchored lanthanide-binding peptide tag is utilized for fixing the lanthanide ion to the target protein, this screening method can be generally applied to non-metal-binding proteins. The usefulness of this strategy was demonstrated in the case of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and its low- and high-affinity ligands.

  7. Discovery of Tyk2 inhibitors via the virtual site-directed fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo Dae; Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Hoon Young; Park, Seung Yeon; Cho, Young Sik; Koo, Tae-sung; Lee, Hyuk; Kang, Nam Sook

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we synthesized compound 12 with potent Tyk2 inhibitory activity from FBDD study and carried out a cell-based assay for Tyk2/STAT3 signaling activation upon IFNα5 stimulation. Compound 12 completely suppressed the IFNα5-mediated Tyk2/STAT3 signaling pathway as well as the basal levels of pSTAT3. Stimulation with IFNα/β leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the JAK1 and Tyk2 receptor-associated kinases with subsequent STATs activation, transmitting signals from the cell surface receptor to the nucleus. In conclusion, the potency of compound 12 to interrupt the signal transmission of Tyk2/STAT3 appeared to be equivalent or superior to that of the reference compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Roundup Does not Elevate Genome-Wide Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincher, Clayton; Long, Hongan; Behringer, Megan; Walker, Noah; Lynch, Michael

    2017-10-05

    Mutations induced by pollutants may promote pathogen evolution, for example by accelerating mutations conferring antibiotic resistance. Generally, evaluating the genome-wide mutagenic effects of long-term sublethal pollutant exposure at single-nucleotide resolution is extremely difficult. To overcome this technical barrier, we use the mutation accumulation/whole-genome sequencing (MA/WGS) method as a mutagenicity test, to quantitatively evaluate genome-wide mutagenesis of Escherichia coli after long-term exposure to a wide gradient of the glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) Roundup Concentrate Plus. The genome-wide mutation rate decreases as GBH concentration increases, suggesting that even long-term GBH exposure does not compromise the genome stability of bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Tincher et al.

  9. Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy

  10. Fragment-Based, Structure-Enabled Discovery of Novel Pyridones and Pyridone Macrocycles as Potent Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET) Family Bromodomain Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Le; Pratt, John K.; Soltwedel, Todd; Sheppard, George S.; Fidanze, Steven D.; Liu, Dachun; Hasvold, Lisa A.; Mantei, Robert A.; Holms, James H.; McClellan, William J.; Wendt, Michael D.; Wada, Carol; Frey, Robin; Hansen, T.Matthew; Hubbard, Robert; Park, Chang H.; Li, Leiming; Magoc, Terrance J.; Albert, Daniel H.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Warder, Scott E.; Kovar, Peter; Huang, Xiaoli; Wilcox, Denise; Wang, Rongqi; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Petros, Andrew M.; Hutchins, Charles W.; Panchal, Sanjay C.; Sun, Chaohong; Elmore, Steven W.; Shen, Yu; Kati, Warren M.; McDaniel, Keith F. (AbbVie)

    2017-03-24

    Members of the BET family of bromodomain containing proteins have been identified as potential targets for blocking proliferation in a variety of cancer cell lines. A two-dimensional NMR fragment screen for binders to the bromodomains of BRD4 identified a phenylpyridazinone fragment with a weak binding affinity (1, Ki = 160 μM). SAR investigation of fragment 1, aided by X-ray structure-based design, enabled the synthesis of potent pyridone and macrocyclic pyridone inhibitors exhibiting single digit nanomolar potency in both biochemical and cell based assays. Advanced analogs in these series exhibited high oral exposures in rodent PK studies and demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition efficacy in mouse flank xenograft models.

  11. Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment‐Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Milon; Radeva, Nedyalka; Fanlo‐Virgós, Hugo; Otto, Sijbren; Klebe, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fragment‐based drug design (FBDD) affords active compounds for biological targets. While there are numerous reports on FBDD by fragment growing/optimization, fragment linking has rarely been reported. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) has become a powerful hit‐identification strategy for biological targets. We report the synergistic combination of fragment linking and DCC to identify inhibitors of the aspartic protease endothiapepsin. Based on X‐ray crystal structures of endothiapepsin in complex with fragments, we designed a library of bis‐acylhydrazones and used DCC to identify potent inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor exhibits an IC50 value of 54 nm, which represents a 240‐fold improvement in potency compared to the parent hits. Subsequent X‐ray crystallography validated the predicted binding mode, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the combination of fragment linking and DCC as a hit‐identification strategy. This approach could be applied to a range of biological targets, and holds the potential to facilitate hit‐to‐lead optimization. PMID:27400756

  12. Genome-based comparative analyses of Antarctic and temperate species of Paenibacillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dsouza

    Full Text Available Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR. However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043-3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs, primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further

  13. Fragment-based quantum mechanical calculation of protein-protein binding affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqian; Liu, Jinfeng; Li, Jinjin; He, Xiao

    2018-04-29

    The electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (EE-GMFCC) method has been successfully utilized for efficient linear-scaling quantum mechanical (QM) calculation of protein energies. In this work, we applied the EE-GMFCC method for calculation of binding affinity of Endonuclease colicin-immunity protein complex. The binding free energy changes between the wild-type and mutants of the complex calculated by EE-GMFCC are in good agreement with experimental results. The correlation coefficient (R) between the predicted binding energy changes and experimental values is 0.906 at the B3LYP/6-31G*-D level, based on the snapshot whose binding affinity is closest to the average result from the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculation. The inclusion of the QM effects is important for accurate prediction of protein-protein binding affinities. Moreover, the self-consistent calculation of PB solvation energy is required for accurate calculations of protein-protein binding free energies. This study demonstrates that the EE-GMFCC method is capable of providing reliable prediction of relative binding affinities for protein-protein complexes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A contig-based strategy for the genome-wide discovery of microRNAs without complete genome resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhi Wen

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of many cellular processes and exist in a wide range of eukaryotes. High-throughput sequencing is a mainstream method of miRNA identification through which it is possible to obtain the complete small RNA profile of an organism. Currently, most approaches to miRNA identification rely on a reference genome for the prediction of hairpin structures. However, many species of economic and phylogenetic importance are non-model organisms without complete genome sequences, and this limits miRNA discovery. Here, to overcome this limitation, we have developed a contig-based miRNA identification strategy. We applied this method to a triploid species of edible banana (GCTCV-119, Musa spp. AAA group and identified 180 pre-miRNAs and 314 mature miRNAs, which is three times more than those were predicted by the available dataset-based methods (represented by EST+GSS. Based on the recently published miRNA data set of Musa acuminate, the recall rate and precision of our strategy are estimated to be 70.6% and 92.2%, respectively, significantly better than those of EST+GSS-based strategy (10.2% and 50.0%, respectively. Our novel, efficient and cost-effective strategy facilitates the study of the functional and evolutionary role of miRNAs, as well as miRNA-based molecular breeding, in non-model species of economic or evolutionary interest.

  15. Binding-site assessment by virtual fragment screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Huang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of protein druggability (propensity to bind high-affinity drug-like small molecules would greatly benefit the fields of chemical genomics and drug discovery. We have developed a novel approach to quantitatively assess protein druggability by computationally screening a fragment-like compound library. In analogy to NMR-based fragment screening, we dock approximately 11,000 fragments against a given binding site and compute a computational hit rate based on the fraction of molecules that exceed an empirically chosen score cutoff. We perform a large-scale evaluation of the approach on four datasets, totaling 152 binding sites. We demonstrate that computed hit rates correlate with hit rates measured experimentally in a previously published NMR-based screening method. Secondly, we show that the in silico fragment screening method can be used to distinguish known druggable and non-druggable targets, including both enzymes and protein-protein interaction sites. Finally, we explore the sensitivity of the results to different receptor conformations, including flexible protein-protein interaction sites. Besides its original aim to assess druggability of different protein targets, this method could be used to identifying druggable conformations of flexible binding site for lead discovery, and suggesting strategies for growing or joining initial fragment hits to obtain more potent inhibitors.

  16. Fragment-based docking: development of the CHARMMing Web user interface as a platform for computer-aided drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Yuri; Frugier, Emilie; Schalk, Vinushka; Caflisch, Amedeo; Woodcock, H Lee

    2014-09-22

    Web-based user interfaces to scientific applications are important tools that allow researchers to utilize a broad range of software packages with just an Internet connection and a browser. One such interface, CHARMMing (CHARMM interface and graphics), facilitates access to the powerful and widely used molecular software package CHARMM. CHARMMing incorporates tasks such as molecular structure analysis, dynamics, multiscale modeling, and other techniques commonly used by computational life scientists. We have extended CHARMMing's capabilities to include a fragment-based docking protocol that allows users to perform molecular docking and virtual screening calculations either directly via the CHARMMing Web server or on computing resources using the self-contained job scripts generated via the Web interface. The docking protocol was evaluated by performing a series of "re-dockings" with direct comparison to top commercial docking software. Results of this evaluation showed that CHARMMing's docking implementation is comparable to many widely used software packages and validates the use of the new CHARMM generalized force field for docking and virtual screening.

  17. Multilevel Genomics-Based Taxonomy of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengju Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive molecular characterization (including DNA methalylation and copy number, RNA, and protein expression, we classified 894 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs of various histologic types into nine major genomic subtypes. Site of origin within the nephron was one major determinant in the classification, reflecting differences among clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary RCC. Widespread molecular changes associated with TFE3 gene fusion or chromatin modifier genes were present within a specific subtype and spanned multiple subtypes. Differences in patient survival and in alteration of specific pathways (including hypoxia, metabolism, MAP kinase, NRF2-ARE, Hippo, immune checkpoint, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR could further distinguish the subtypes. Immune checkpoint markers and molecular signatures of T cell infiltrates were both highest in the subtype associated with aggressive clear cell RCC. Differences between the genomic subtypes suggest that therapeutic strategies could be tailored to each RCC disease subset.

  18. Phylogenetic tree based on complete genomes using fractal and correlation analyses without sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Guo Yu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The complete genomes of living organisms have provided much information on their phylogenetic relationships. Similarly, the complete genomes of chloroplasts have helped resolve the evolution of this organelle in photosynthetic eukaryotes. In this review, we describe two algorithms to construct phylogenetic trees based on the theories of fractals and dynamic language using complete genomes. These algorithms were developed by our research group in the past few years. Our distance-based phylogenetic tree of 109 prokaryotes and eukaryotes agrees with the biologists' "tree of life" based on the 16S-like rRNA genes in a majority of basic branchings and most lower taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis also shows that the chloroplast genomes are separated into two major clades corresponding to chlorophytes s.l. and rhodophytes s.l. The interrelationships among the chloroplasts are largely in agreement with the current understanding on chloroplast evolution.

  19. Event-based text mining for biology and functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Nawaz, Raheel; McNaught, John; Kell, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of genome function requires a mapping between genome-derived entities and biochemical reactions, and the biomedical literature represents a rich source of information about reactions between biological components. However, the increasingly rapid growth in the volume of literature provides both a challenge and an opportunity for researchers to isolate information about reactions of interest in a timely and efficient manner. In response, recent text mining research in the biology domain has been largely focused on the identification and extraction of ‘events’, i.e. categorised, structured representations of relationships between biochemical entities, from the literature. Functional genomics analyses necessarily encompass events as so defined. Automatic event extraction systems facilitate the development of sophisticated semantic search applications, allowing researchers to formulate structured queries over extracted events, so as to specify the exact types of reactions to be retrieved. This article provides an overview of recent research into event extraction. We cover annotated corpora on which systems are trained, systems that achieve state-of-the-art performance and details of the community shared tasks that have been instrumental in increasing the quality, coverage and scalability of recent systems. Finally, several concrete applications of event extraction are covered, together with emerging directions of research. PMID:24907365

  20. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  1. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  3. A BAC-based physical map of the Drosophila buzzatii genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Josefa; Nefedov, Michael; Bosdet, Ian; Casals, Ferran; Calvete, Oriol; Delprat, Alejandra; Shin, Heesun; Chiu, Readman; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Hoskins, Roger A.; Schein, JacquelineE.; de Jong, Pieter; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2005-03-18

    Large-insert genomic libraries facilitate cloning of large genomic regions, allow the construction of clone-based physical maps and provide useful resources for sequencing entire genomes. Drosophilabuzzatii is a representative species of the repleta group in the Drosophila subgenus, which is being widely used as a model in studies of genome evolution, ecological adaptation and speciation. We constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic library of D. buzzatii using the shuttle vector pTARBAC2.1. The library comprises 18,353 clones with an average insert size of 152 kb and a {approx}18X expected representation of the D. buzzatii euchromatic genome. We screened the entire library with six euchromatic gene probes and estimated the actual genome representation to be {approx}23X. In addition, we fingerprinted by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis a sample of 9,555 clones, and assembled them using Finger Printed Contigs (FPC) software and manual editing into 345 contigs (mean of 26 clones per contig) and 670singletons. Finally, we anchored 181 large contigs (containing 7,788clones) to the D. buzzatii salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization of 427 representative clones. The BAC library and a database with all the information regarding the high coverage BAC-based physical map described in this paper are available to the research community.

  4. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  5. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  6. Assembly of the Complete Sitka Spruce Chloroplast Genome Using 10X Genomics' GemCode Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Coombe

    Full Text Available The linked read sequencing library preparation platform by 10X Genomics produces barcoded sequencing libraries, which are subsequently sequenced using the Illumina short read sequencing technology. In this new approach, long fragments of DNA are partitioned into separate micro-reactions, where the same index sequence is incorporated into each of the sequencing fragment inserts derived from a given long fragment. In this study, we exploited this property by using reads from index sequences associated with a large number of reads, to assemble the chloroplast genome of the Sitka spruce tree (Picea sitchensis. Here we report on the first Sitka spruce chloroplast genome assembled exclusively from P. sitchensis genomic libraries prepared using the 10X Genomics protocol. We show that the resulting 124,049 base pair long genome shares high sequence similarity with the related white spruce and Norway spruce chloroplast genomes, but diverges substantially from a previously published P. sitchensis- P. thunbergii chimeric genome. The use of reads from high-frequency indices enabled separation of the nuclear genome reads from that of the chloroplast, which resulted in the simplification of the de Bruijn graphs used at the various stages of assembly.

  7. Partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis as a useful tool for fragment-based drug discovery: A proof of concept on thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcaş, E; Bouckaert, C; Servais, A-C; Hanson, J; Pochet, L; Fillet, M

    2017-09-01

    With the emergence of more challenging targets, a relatively new approach, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), proved its efficacy and gained increasing importance in the pharmaceutical industry. FBDD identifies low molecular-weight (MW) ligands (fragments) that bind to biologically important macromolecules, then a structure-guided fragment growing or merging approach is performed, contributing to the quality of the lead. However, to select the appropriate fragment to be evolved, sensitive analytical screening methods must be used to measure the affinity in the μM or even mM range. In this particular context, we developed a robust and selective partial filling affinity CE (ACE) method for the direct binding screening of a small fragment library in order to identify new thrombin inhibitors. To demonstrate the accuracy of our assay, the complex dissociation constants of three known thrombin inhibitors, namely benzamidine, p-aminobenzamidine and nafamostat were determined and found to be in good concordance with the previously reported values. Finally, the screening of a small library was performed and demonstrated the high discriminatory power of our method towards weak binders compared to classical spectrophotometric activity assay, proving the interest of our method in the context of FBDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Excited nuclei fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental indications leading to the thought of a very excited nucleus fragmentation are resumed. Theoretical approaches are briefly described; they are used to explain the phenomenon in showing off they are based on a minimum information principle. This model is based on time dependent Thomas-Fermi calculation which allows the mean field effect description, and with a site-bound percolation model which allows the fluctuation description [fr

  9. Integrated genome-based studies of Shewanella ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre Daniel; Beg Qasim

    2012-02-14

    This project was a component of the Shewanella Federation and, as such, contributed to the overall goal of applying the genomic tools to better understand eco-physiology and speciation of respiratory-versatile members of Shewanella genus. Our role at Boston University was to perform bioreactor and high throughput gene expression microarrays, and combine dynamic flux balance modeling with experimentally obtained transcriptional and gene expression datasets from different growth conditions. In the first part of project, we designed the S. oneidensis microarray probes for Affymetrix Inc. (based in California), then we identified the pathways of carbon utilization in the metal-reducing marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, using our newly designed high-density oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray on Shewanella cells grown with various carbon sources. Next, using a combination of experimental and computational approaches, we built algorithm and methods to integrate the transcriptional and metabolic regulatory networks of S. oneidensis. Specifically, we combined mRNA microarray and metabolite measurements with statistical inference and dynamic flux balance analysis (dFBA) to study the transcriptional response of S. oneidensis MR-1 as it passes through exponential, stationary, and transition phases. By measuring time-dependent mRNA expression levels during batch growth of S. oneidensis MR-1 under two radically different nutrient compositions (minimal lactate and nutritionally rich LB medium), we obtain detailed snapshots of the regulatory strategies used by this bacterium to cope with gradually changing nutrient availability. In addition to traditional clustering, which provides a first indication of major regulatory trends and transcription factors activities, we developed and implemented a new computational approach for Dynamic Detection of Transcriptional Triggers (D2T2). This new method allows us to infer a putative topology of transcriptional dependencies

  10. Characterization of Three Druggable Hot-Spots in the Aurora-A/TPX2 Interaction Using Biochemical, Biophysical, and Fragment-Based Approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McIntyre, P. J.; Collins, P. M.; Vrzal, Lukáš; Birchall, K.; Arnold, L. H.; Mpamhanga, C.; Coombs, P. J.; Burgess, S. G.; Richards, M. W.; Winter, A.; Veverka, Václav; von Delft, F.; Merritt, A.; Bayliss, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), s. 2906-2914 ISSN 1554-8929 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fragment-based drug discovery * structural biology * inhibition Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.995, year: 2016

  11. Controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride and the synthesis of novel polyolefin-based block copolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, de J.A.M.; Schellekens, M.A.J.; Klumperman, B.; Monteiro, M.J.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Reversible addn.-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was applied to the copolymn. of styrene and maleic anhydride. The product had a low polydispersity and a predetd. molar mass. Novel, well-defined polyolefin-based block copolymers were prepd. with a macromol. RAFT agent prepd. from a com.

  12. CrusView: A Java-Based Visualization Platform for Comparative Genomics Analyses in Brassicaceae Species[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/. PMID:23898041

  13. Discovery of novel STAT3 small molecule inhibitors via in silico site-directed fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenying; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Li, Chenglong

    2013-06-13

    Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been validated as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. To stop both STAT3 activation and dimerization, a viable strategy is to design inhibitors blocking its SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site that is responsible for both actions. A new fragment-based drug design (FBDD) strategy, in silico site-directed FBDD, was applied in this study. A designed novel compound, 5,8-dioxo-6-(pyridin-3-ylamino)-5,8-dihydronaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (LY5), was confirmed to bind to STAT3 SH2 by fluorescence polarization assay. In addition, four out of the five chosen compounds have IC50 values lower than 5 μM for the U2OS cancer cells. 8 (LY5) has an IC50 range in 0.5-1.4 μM in various cancer cell lines. 8 also suppresses tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. This study has demonstrated the utility of this approach and could be used to other drug targets in general.

  14. Sequence based polymorphic (SBP marker technology for targeted genomic regions: its application in generating a molecular map of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Binod B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers facilitate both genotype identification, essential for modern animal and plant breeding, and the isolation of genes based on their map positions. Advancements in sequencing technology have made possible the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for any genomic regions. Here a sequence based polymorphic (SBP marker technology for generating molecular markers for targeted genomic regions in Arabidopsis is described. Results A ~3X genome coverage sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype, Niederzenz (Nd-0 was obtained by applying Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (Solexa technology. Comparison of the Nd-0 genome sequence with the assembled Columbia-0 (Col-0 genome sequence identified putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs throughout the entire genome. Multiple 75 base pair Nd-0 sequence reads containing SNPs and originating from individual genomic DNA molecules were the basis for developing co-dominant SBP markers. SNPs containing Col-0 sequences, supported by transcript sequences or sequences from multiple BAC clones, were compared to the respective Nd-0 sequences to identify possible restriction endonuclease enzyme site variations. Small amplicons, PCR amplified from both ecotypes, were digested with suitable restriction enzymes and resolved on a gel to reveal the sequence based polymorphisms. By applying this technology, 21 SBP markers for the marker poor regions of the Arabidopsis map representing polymorphisms between Col-0 and Nd-0 ecotypes were generated. Conclusions The SBP marker technology described here allowed the development of molecular markers for targeted genomic regions of Arabidopsis. It should facilitate isolation of co-dominant molecular markers for targeted genomic regions of any animal or plant species, whose genomic sequences have been assembled. This technology will particularly facilitate the development of high density molecular marker maps, essential for

  15. Recombination analysis based on the complete genome of bocavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shengxia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bocavirus include bovine parvovirus, minute virus of canine, porcine bocavirus, gorilla bocavirus, and Human bocaviruses 1-4 (HBoVs. Although recent reports showed that recombination happened in bocavirus, no systematical study investigated the recombination of bocavirus. The present study performed the phylogenetic and recombination analysis of bocavirus over the complete genomes available in GenBank. Results confirmed that recombination existed among bocavirus, including the likely inter-genotype recombination between HBoV1 and HBoV4, and intra-genotype recombination among HBoV2 variants. Moreover, it is the first report revealing the recombination that occurred between minute viruses of canine.

  16. Assessment of a Competency-Based Undergraduate Course on Genetic and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronk, Rebecca; Colbert, Alison; Lengetti, Evelyn

    2017-08-24

    In response to new demands in the nursing profession, an innovative undergraduate genetics course was designed based on the Essential Nursing Competencies and Curricula Guidelines for Genetics and Genomics. Reflective journaling and storytelling were used as major pedagogies, alongside more traditional approaches. Thematic content analysis of student reflections revealed transformational learning as the major theme emerging from genomic and genetic knowledge acquisition. Quantitative analyses of precourse/postcourse student self-assessments of competencies revealed significant findings.

  17. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report

    OpenAIRE

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients i...

  18. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete d...

  19. MODEST: a web-based design tool for oligonucleotide-mediated genome engineering and recombineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Klausen, Michael Schantz; Anderson, Mads Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Recombineering and multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE) offer the possibility to rapidly modify multiple genomic or plasmid sites at high efficiencies. This enables efficient creation of genetic variants including both single mutants with specifically targeted modifications as well......, which confers the corresponding genetic change, is performed manually. To address these challenges, we have developed the MAGE Oligo Design Tool (MODEST). This web-based tool allows designing of MAGE oligos for (i) tuning translation rates by modifying the ribosomal binding site, (ii) generating...

  20. Assessing the composition of fragmented agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages in ancient sediments: comparison of counting and area-based methods in Famennian samples (Late Devonian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Catherine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Charruault, Anne-Lise; Renaud, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera have been used as proxies for various paleoenvironmental variables such as food availability, carbon flux from surface waters, microhabitats, and indirectly water depth. Estimating assemblage composition based on morphotypes, as opposed to genus- or species-level identification, potentially loses important ecological information but opens the way to the study of ancient time periods. However, the ability to accurately constrain benthic foraminiferal assemblages has been questioned when the most abundant foraminifera are fragile agglutinated forms, particularly prone to fragmentation. Here we test an alternate method for accurately estimating the composition of fragmented assemblages. The cumulated area per morphotype method is assessed, i.e., the sum of the area of all tests or fragments of a given morphotype in a sample. The percentage of each morphotype is calculated as a portion of the total cumulated area. Percentages of different morphotypes based on counting and cumulated area methods are compared one by one and analyzed using principal component analyses, a co-inertia analysis, and Shannon diversity indices. Morphotype percentages are further compared to an estimate of water depth based on microfacies description. Percentages of the morphotypes are not related to water depth. In all cases, counting and cumulated area methods deliver highly similar results, suggesting that the less time-consuming traditional counting method may provide robust estimates of assemblages. The size of each morphotype may deliver paleobiological information, for instance regarding biomass, but should be considered carefully due to the pervasive issue of fragmentation.

  1. Combining NMR and X-ray crystallography in fragment-based drug discovery: discovery of highly potent and selective BACE-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Daniel F; Wang, Yu-Sen; Eaton, Hugh L; Strickland, Corey; Voigt, Johannes H; Zhu, Zhaoning; Stamford, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become increasingly popular over the last decade. We review here how we have used highly structure-driven fragment-based approaches to complement more traditional lead discovery to tackle high priority targets and those struggling for leads. Combining biomolecular nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling with structure-assisted chemistry and innovative biology as an integrated approach for FBDD can solve very difficult problems, as illustrated in this chapter. Here, a successful FBDD campaign is described that has allowed the development of a clinical candidate for BACE-1, a challenging CNS drug target. Crucial to this achievement were the initial identification of a ligand-efficient isothiourea fragment through target-based NMR screening and the determination of its X-ray crystal structure in complex with BACE-1, which revealed an extensive H-bond network with the two active site aspartate residues. This detailed 3D structural information then enabled the design and validation of novel, chemically stable and accessible heterocyclic acylguanidines as aspartic acid protease inhibitor cores. Structure-assisted fragment hit-to-lead optimization yielded iminoheterocyclic BACE-1 inhibitors that possess desirable molecular properties as potential therapeutic agents to test the amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease in a clinical setting.

  2. Morphological characteristics of the posterior malleolar fragment according to ankle fracture patterns: a computed tomography-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young; Chun, Dong-Il; Won, Sung Hun; Park, Suyeon; Lee, Sanghyeon; Cho, Jaeho

    2018-02-13

    The posterior malleolar fragment (PMF) of an ankle fracture can have various shapes depending on the injury mechanism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the PMF according to the ankle fracture pattern described in the Lauge-Hansen classification by using computed tomography (CT) images. We retrospectively analyzed CT data of 107 patients (107 ankles) who underwent surgery for trimalleolar fracture from January 2012 to December 2014. The patients were divided into two groups: 76 ankles in the supination-external rotation (SER) stage IV group and 31 ankles in the pronation-external rotation (PER) stage IV group. The PMF type of the two groups was assessed using the Haraguchi and Jan Bartonicek classification. The cross angle (α), fragment length ratio (FLR), fragment area ratio (FAR), sagittal angle (θ), and fragment height (FH) were measured to assess the morphological characteristics of the PMF. The PMF in the SER group mainly had a posterolateral shape, whereas that in the PER group mainly had a posteromedial two-part shape or a large posterolateral triangular shape (P = 0.02). The average cross angle was not significantly different between the two groups (SER group = 19.4°, PER group = 17.6°). The mean FLR and FH were significantly larger in the PER group than in the SER group (P = 0.024, P = 0.006). The mean fragment sagittal angle in the PER group was significantly smaller than that in the SER group (P = 0.017). With regard to the articular involvement, volume, and vertical nature, the SER-type fracture tends to have a smaller fragment due to the rotational force, whereas the PER-type fracture tends to have a larger fragment due to the combination of rotational and axial forces.

  3. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  4. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  5. DFAST and DAGA: web-based integrated genome annotation tools and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Arita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance and correct taxonomic affiliation of data submitted to public sequence databases have been an everlasting problem. The DDBJ Fast Annotation and Submission Tool (DFAST) is a newly developed genome annotation pipeline with quality and taxonomy assessment tools. To enable annotation of ready-to-submit quality, we also constructed curated reference protein databases tailored for lactic acid bacteria. DFAST was developed so that all the procedures required for DDBJ submission could be done seamlessly online. The online workspace would be especially useful for users not familiar with bioinformatics skills. In addition, we have developed a genome repository, DFAST Archive of Genome Annotation (DAGA), which currently includes 1,421 genomes covering 179 species and 18 subspecies of two genera, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus , obtained from both DDBJ/ENA/GenBank and Sequence Read Archive (SRA). All the genomes deposited in DAGA were annotated consistently and assessed using DFAST. To assess the taxonomic position based on genomic sequence information, we used the average nucleotide identity (ANI), which showed high discriminative power to determine whether two given genomes belong to the same species. We corrected mislabeled or misidentified genomes in the public database and deposited the curated information in DAGA. The repository will improve the accessibility and reusability of genome resources for lactic acid bacteria. By exploiting the data deposited in DAGA, we found intraspecific subgroups in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii , whose variation between subgroups is larger than the well-accepted ANI threshold of 95% to differentiate species. DFAST and DAGA are freely accessible at https://dfast.nig.ac.jp.

  6. Rationalizing fragment based drug discovery for BACE1: insights from FB-QSAR, FB-QSSR, multi objective (MO-QSPR) and MIF studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Prabu; Vijayan, R S K; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2010-10-01

    The ability to identify fragments that interact with a biological target is a key step in FBDD. To date, the concept of fragment based drug design (FBDD) is increasingly driven by bio-physical methods. To expand the boundaries of QSAR paradigm, and to rationalize FBDD using In silico approach, we propose a fragment based QSAR methodology referred here in as FB-QSAR. The FB-QSAR methodology was validated on a dataset consisting of 52 Hydroxy ethylamine (HEA) inhibitors, disclosed by GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals as potential anti-Alzheimer agents. To address the issue of target selectivity, a major confounding factor in the development of selective BACE1 inhibitors, FB-QSSR models were developed using the reported off target activity values. A heat map constructed, based on the activity and selectivity profile of the individual R-group fragments, and was in turn used to identify superior R-group fragments. Further, simultaneous optimization of multiple properties, an issue encountered in real-world drug discovery scenario, and often overlooked in QSAR approaches, was addressed using a Multi Objective (MO-QSPR) method that balances properties, based on the defined objectives. MO-QSPR was implemented using Derringer and Suich desirability algorithm to identify the optimal level of independent variables (X) that could confer a trade-off between selectivity and activity. The results obtained from FB-QSAR were further substantiated using MIF (Molecular Interaction Fields) studies. To exemplify the potentials of FB-QSAR and MO-QSPR in a pragmatic fashion, the insights gleaned from the MO-QSPR study was reverse engineered using Inverse-QSAR in a combinatorial fashion to enumerate some prospective novel, potent and selective BACE1 inhibitors.

  7. Rationalizing fragment based drug discovery for BACE1: insights from FB-QSAR, FB-QSSR, multi objective (MO-QSPR) and MIF studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Prabu; Vijayan, R. S. K.; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2010-10-01

    The ability to identify fragments that interact with a biological target is a key step in FBDD. To date, the concept of fragment based drug design (FBDD) is increasingly driven by bio-physical methods. To expand the boundaries of QSAR paradigm, and to rationalize FBDD using In silico approach, we propose a fragment based QSAR methodology referred here in as FB-QSAR. The FB-QSAR methodology was validated on a dataset consisting of 52 Hydroxy ethylamine (HEA) inhibitors, disclosed by GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals as potential anti-Alzheimer agents. To address the issue of target selectivity, a major confounding factor in the development of selective BACE1 inhibitors, FB-QSSR models were developed using the reported off target activity values. A heat map constructed, based on the activity and selectivity profile of the individual R-group fragments, and was in turn used to identify superior R-group fragments. Further, simultaneous optimization of multiple properties, an issue encountered in real-world drug discovery scenario, and often overlooked in QSAR approaches, was addressed using a Multi Objective (MO-QSPR) method that balances properties, based on the defined objectives. MO-QSPR was implemented using Derringer and Suich desirability algorithm to identify the optimal level of independent variables ( X) that could confer a trade-off between selectivity and activity. The results obtained from FB-QSAR were further substantiated using MIF (Molecular Interaction Fields) studies. To exemplify the potentials of FB-QSAR and MO-QSPR in a pragmatic fashion, the insights gleaned from the MO-QSPR study was reverse engineered using Inverse-QSAR in a combinatorial fashion to enumerate some prospective novel, potent and selective BACE1 inhibitors.

  8. Straightforward hit identification approach in fragment-based discovery of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysko, Petro; Moroz, Yurii S; Vasylchenko, Oleksandr V; Hurmach, Vasyl V; Starodubtseva, Anastasia; Stefanishena, Natalia; Nesteruk, Kateryna; Zozulya, Sergey; Kondratov, Ivan S; Grygorenko, Oleksandr O

    2018-05-09

    A combination approach of a fragment screening and "SAR by catalog" was used for the discovery of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors. Initial screening of 3695-fragment library against bromodomain 1 of BRD4 using thermal shift assay (TSA), followed by initial hit validation, resulted in 73 fragment hits, which were used to construct a follow-up library selected from available screening collection. Additionally, analogs of inactive fragments, as well as a set of randomly selected compounds were also prepared (3 × 3200 compounds in total). Screening of the resulting sets using TSA, followed by re-testing at several concentrations, counter-screen, and TR-FRET assay resulted in 18 confirmed hits. Compounds derived from the initial fragment set showed better hit rate as compared to the other two sets. Finally, building dose-response curves revealed three compounds with IC 50  = 1.9-7.4 μM. For these compounds, binding sites and conformations in the BRD4 (4UYD) have been determined by docking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability and applications of statistical methods based on oligonucleotide frequencies in bacterial and archaeal genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, J; Skjerve, E; Ussery, David

    2008-01-01

    with here are mainly used to examine similarities between archaeal and bacterial DNA from different genomes. These methods compare observed genomic frequencies of fixed-sized oligonucleotides with expected values, which can be determined by genomic nucleotide content, smaller oligonucleotide frequencies......, or be based on specific statistical distributions. Advantages with these statistical methods include measurements of phylogenetic relationship with relatively small pieces of DNA sampled from almost anywhere within genomes, detection of foreign/conserved DNA, and homology searches. Our aim was to explore...... the reliability and best suited applications for some popular methods, which include relative oligonucleotide frequencies (ROF), di- to hexanucleotide zero'th order Markov methods (ZOM) and 2.order Markov chain Method (MCM). Tests were performed on distant homology searches with large DNA sequences, detection...

  10. Application of Microarray-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Prenatal and Postnatal Settings: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is a newly emerged molecular cytogenetic technique for rapid evaluation of the entire genome with sub-megabase resolution. It allows for the comprehensive investigation of thousands and millions of genomic loci at once and therefore enables the efficient detection of DNA copy number variations (a.k.a, cryptic genomic imbalances. The development and the clinical application of array CGH have revolutionized the diagnostic process in patients and has provided a clue to many unidentified or unexplained diseases which are suspected to have a genetic cause. In this paper, we present three clinical cases in both prenatal and postnatal settings. Among all, array CGH played a major discovery role to reveal the cryptic and/or complex nature of chromosome arrangements. By identifying the genetic causes responsible for the clinical observation in patients, array CGH has provided accurate diagnosis and appropriate clinical management in a timely and efficient manner.

  11. Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, Gota; Gianola, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways), thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics.

  12. Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota eMorota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways, thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics.

  13. NeisseriaBase: a specialised Neisseria genomic resource and analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenning Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The gram-negative Neisseria is associated with two of the most potent human epidemic diseases: meningococcal meningitis and gonorrhoea. In both cases, disease is caused by bacteria colonizing human mucosal membrane surfaces. Overall, the genus shows great diversity and genetic variation mainly due to its ability to acquire and incorporate genetic material from a diverse range of sources through horizontal gene transfer. Although a number of databases exist for the Neisseria genomes, they are mostly focused on the pathogenic species. In this present study we present the freely available NeisseriaBase, a database dedicated to the genus Neisseria encompassing the complete and draft genomes of 15 pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species. Methods. The genomic data were retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI and annotated using the RAST server which were then stored into the MySQL database. The protein-coding genes were further analyzed to obtain information such as calculation of GC content (%, predicted hydrophobicity and molecular weight (Da using in-house Perl scripts. The web application was developed following the secure four-tier web application architecture: (1 client workstation, (2 web server, (3 application server, and (4 database server. The web interface was constructed using PHP, JavaScript, jQuery, AJAX and CSS, utilizing the model-view-controller (MVC framework. The in-house developed bioinformatics tools implemented in NeisseraBase were developed using Python, Perl, BioPerl and R languages. Results. Currently, NeisseriaBase houses 603,500 Coding Sequences (CDSs, 16,071 RNAs and 13,119 tRNA genes from 227 Neisseria genomes. The database is equipped with interactive web interfaces. Incorporation of the JBrowse genome browser in the database enables fast and smooth browsing of Neisseria genomes. NeisseriaBase includes the standard BLAST program to facilitate homology searching, and for Virulence

  14. NeisseriaBase: a specialised Neisseria genomic resource and analysis platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenning; Mutha, Naresh V R; Heydari, Hamed; Dutta, Avirup; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Wee, Wei Yee; Tan, Shi Yang; Ang, Mia Yang; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    Background. The gram-negative Neisseria is associated with two of the most potent human epidemic diseases: meningococcal meningitis and gonorrhoea. In both cases, disease is caused by bacteria colonizing human mucosal membrane surfaces. Overall, the genus shows great diversity and genetic variation mainly due to its ability to acquire and incorporate genetic material from a diverse range of sources through horizontal gene transfer. Although a number of databases exist for the Neisseria genomes, they are mostly focused on the pathogenic species. In this present study we present the freely available NeisseriaBase, a database dedicated to the genus Neisseria encompassing the complete and draft genomes of 15 pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species. Methods. The genomic data were retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and annotated using the RAST server which were then stored into the MySQL database. The protein-coding genes were further analyzed to obtain information such as calculation of GC content (%), predicted hydrophobicity and molecular weight (Da) using in-house Perl scripts. The web application was developed following the secure four-tier web application architecture: (1) client workstation, (2) web server, (3) application server, and (4) database server. The web interface was constructed using PHP, JavaScript, jQuery, AJAX and CSS, utilizing the model-view-controller (MVC) framework. The in-house developed bioinformatics tools implemented in NeisseraBase were developed using Python, Perl, BioPerl and R languages. Results. Currently, NeisseriaBase houses 603,500 Coding Sequences (CDSs), 16,071 RNAs and 13,119 tRNA genes from 227 Neisseria genomes. The database is equipped with interactive web interfaces. Incorporation of the JBrowse genome browser in the database enables fast and smooth browsing of Neisseria genomes. NeisseriaBase includes the standard BLAST program to facilitate homology searching, and for Virulence Factor

  15. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus) Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Scimone, Concetta; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus) at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer) and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated) and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL) obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca). The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing) and Ion Torrent (RRL) runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources. PMID:26151450

  16. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bertolini

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca. The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing and Ion Torrent (RRL runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources.

  17. Flux-based Enrichment Ratios of Throughfall and Stemflow Found to Vary Significantly within Urban Fragments and Along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowtin, A. L.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Throughfall and stemflow are important inputs of water and solutes to forest soils in both rural and urban forests. In metropolitan wooded ecosystems, a number of factors can affect flux-based enrichment ratios, including combustion of fossil fuels and proximity to industry. Use of flux-based enrichment ratios provides a means by which this modification of net precipitation chemistry can be quantified for both throughfall and stemflow, and allows for a characterization of the relative contributions of stemflow and throughfall in the delivery of nutrients and pollutants to forest soils. This study utilizes five mixed deciduous forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient (3 urban fragments, 1 suburban fragment, and a portion of 1 contiguous rural forest) within a medium-sized metropolitan region of the United States' Northeast megalopolis, to determine how the size, shape, structure, and geographic context of remnant forest fragments determine hydrologic and solute fluxes within them. In situ observations of throughfall and stemflow (the latter of which is limited to Quercus rubra and Quercus alba) within each study plot allow for an identification and characterization of the spatial variability in solute fluxes within and between the respective sites. Preliminary observations indicate significant intra-site variability in solute concentrations as observed in both throughfall and stemflow, with higher concentrations along the respective windward edges of the study plots than at greater depths into their interiors. Higher flux-based stemflow enrichment ratios, for both Q. rubra and Q. alba, were also evident for certain ions (i.e., S2-, NO3-) in the urban forest fragments, with significantly lower ratios observed at the suburban and rural sites. Findings from this research are intended to aid in quantifying the spatial variability of the hydrologic and hydrochemical ecosystem service provisions of remnant metropolitan forest fragments. This research is supported in

  18. FOB-SH: Fragment orbital-based surface hopping for charge carrier transport in organic and biological molecules and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.; Gajdos, F.; Blumberger, J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a fragment orbital-based fewest switches surface hopping method, FOB-SH, designed to efficiently simulate charge carrier transport in strongly fluctuating condensed phase systems such as organic semiconductors and biomolecules. The charge carrier wavefunction is expanded and the electronic Hamiltonian constructed in a set of singly occupied molecular orbitals of the molecular sites that mediate the charge transfer. Diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian (site energies) are obtained from a force field, whereas the off-diagonal or electronic coupling matrix elements are obtained using our recently developed analytic overlap method. We derive a general expression for the exact forces on the adiabatic ground and excited electronic state surfaces from the nuclear gradients of the charge localized electronic states. Applications to electron hole transfer in a model ethylene dimer and through a chain of ten model ethylenes validate our implementation and demonstrate its computational efficiency. On the larger system, we calculate the qualitative behaviour of charge mobility with change in temperature T for different regimes of the intermolecular electronic coupling. For small couplings, FOB-SH predicts a crossover from a thermally activated regime at low temperatures to a band-like transport regime at higher temperatures. For higher electronic couplings, the thermally activated regime disappears and the mobility decreases according to a power law. This is interpreted by a gradual loss in probability for resonance between the sites as the temperature increases. The polaron hopping model solved for the same system gives a qualitatively different result and underestimates the mobility decay at higher temperatures. Taken together, the FOB-SH methodology introduced here shows promise for a realistic investigation of charge carrier transport in complex organic, aqueous, and biological systems.

  19. FOB-SH: Fragment orbital-based surface hopping for charge carrier transport in organic and biological molecules and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.; Gajdos, F.; Blumberger, J., E-mail: j.blumberger@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-14

    We introduce a fragment orbital-based fewest switches surface hopping method, FOB-SH, designed to efficiently simulate charge carrier transport in strongly fluctuating condensed phase systems such as organic semiconductors and biomolecules. The charge carrier wavefunction is expanded and the electronic Hamiltonian constructed in a set of singly occupied molecular orbitals of the molecular sites that mediate the charge transfer. Diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian (site energies) are obtained from a force field, whereas the off-diagonal or electronic coupling matrix elements are obtained using our recently developed analytic overlap method. We derive a general expression for the exact forces on the adiabatic ground and excited electronic state surfaces from the nuclear gradients of the charge localized electronic states. Applications to electron hole transfer in a model ethylene dimer and through a chain of ten model ethylenes validate our implementation and demonstrate its computational efficiency. On the larger system, we calculate the qualitative behaviour of charge mobility with change in temperature T for different regimes of the intermolecular electronic coupling. For small couplings, FOB-SH predicts a crossover from a thermally activated regime at low temperatures to a band-like transport regime at higher temperatures. For higher electronic couplings, the thermally activated regime disappears and the mobility decreases according to a power law. This is interpreted by a gradual loss in probability for resonance between the sites as the temperature increases. The polaron hopping model solved for the same system gives a qualitatively different result and underestimates the mobility decay at higher temperatures. Taken together, the FOB-SH methodology introduced here shows promise for a realistic investigation of charge carrier transport in complex organic, aqueous, and biological systems.

  20. Comparison and combination of "direct" and fragment based local correlation methods: Cluster in molecules and domain based local pair natural orbital perturbation and coupled cluster theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Becker, Ute; Neese, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Local correlation theories have been developed in two main flavors: (1) "direct" local correlation methods apply local approximation to the canonical equations and (2) fragment based methods reconstruct the correlation energy from a series of smaller calculations on subsystems. The present work serves two purposes. First, we investigate the relative efficiencies of the two approaches using the domain-based local pair natural orbital (DLPNO) approach as the "direct" method and the cluster in molecule (CIM) approach as the fragment based approach. Both approaches are applied in conjunction with second-order many-body perturbation theory (MP2) as well as coupled-cluster theory with single-, double- and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. Second, we have investigated the possible merits of combining the two approaches by performing CIM calculations with DLPNO methods serving as the method of choice for performing the subsystem calculations. Our cluster-in-molecule approach is closely related to but slightly deviates from approaches in the literature since we have avoided real space cutoffs. Moreover, the neglected distant pair correlations in the previous CIM approach are considered approximately. Six very large molecules (503-2380 atoms) were studied. At both MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory, the CIM and DLPNO methods show similar efficiency. However, DLPNO methods are more accurate for 3-dimensional systems. While we have found only little incentive for the combination of CIM with DLPNO-MP2, the situation is different for CIM-DLPNO-CCSD(T). This combination is attractive because (1) the better parallelization opportunities offered by CIM; (2) the methodology is less memory intensive than the genuine DLPNO-CCSD(T) method and, hence, allows for large calculations on more modest hardware; and (3) the methodology is applicable and efficient in the frequently met cases, where the largest subsystem calculation is too large for the canonical CCSD(T) method.

  1. A novel genome-information content-based statistic for genome-wide association analysis designed for next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Zhu, Yun; Xiong, Momiao

    2012-06-01

    The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) designed for next-generation sequencing data involve testing association of genomic variants, including common, low frequency, and rare variants. The current strategies for association studies are well developed for identifying association of common variants with the common diseases, but may be ill-suited when large amounts of allelic heterogeneity are present in sequence data. Recently, group tests that analyze their collective frequency differences between cases and controls shift the current variant-by-variant analysis paradigm for GWAS of common variants to the collective test of multiple variants in the association analysis of rare variants. However, group tests ignore differences in genetic effects among SNPs at different genomic locations. As an alternative to group tests, we developed a novel genome-information content-based statistics for testing association of the entire allele frequency spectrum of genomic variation with the diseases. To evaluate the performance of the proposed statistics, we use large-scale simulations based on whole genome low coverage pilot data in the 1000 Genomes Project to calculate the type 1 error rates and power of seven alternative statistics: a genome-information content-based statistic, the generalized T(2), collapsing method, multivariate and collapsing (CMC) method, individual χ(2) test, weighted-sum statistic, and variable threshold statistic. Finally, we apply the seven statistics to published resequencing dataset from ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, ANGPTL5, and ANGPTL6 genes in the Dallas Heart Study. We report that the genome-information content-based statistic has significantly improved type 1 error rates and higher power than the other six statistics in both simulated and empirical datasets.

  2. The effect of using genealogy-based haplotypes for genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edriss, Vahid; Fernando, Rohan L; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens S; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2013-03-06

    Genomic prediction uses two sources of information: linkage disequilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci, and additive genetic relationships between individuals. One way to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction is to capture more linkage disequilibrium by regression on haplotypes instead of regression on individual markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction using haplotypes based on local genealogy information. A total of 4429 Danish Holstein bulls were genotyped with the 50K SNP chip. Haplotypes were constructed using local genealogical trees. Effects of haplotype covariates were estimated with two types of prediction models: (1) assuming that effects had the same distribution for all haplotype covariates, i.e. the GBLUP method and (2) assuming that a large proportion (π) of the haplotype covariates had zero effect, i.e. a Bayesian mixture method. About 7.5 times more covariate effects were estimated when fitting haplotypes based on local genealogical trees compared to fitting individuals markers. Genealogy-based haplotype clustering slightly increased the accuracy of genomic prediction and, in some cases, decreased the bias of prediction. With the Bayesian method, accuracy of prediction was less sensitive to parameter π when fitting haplotypes compared to fitting markers. Use of haplotypes based on genealogy can slightly increase the accuracy of genomic prediction. Improved methods to cluster the haplotypes constructed from local genealogy could lead to additional gains in accuracy.

  3. Genome-wide screen for universal individual identification SNPs based on the HapMap and 1000 Genomes databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Erwen; Liu, Changhui; Zheng, Jingjing; Han, Xiaolong; Du, Weian; Huang, Yuanjian; Li, Chengshi; Wang, Xiaoguang; Tong, Dayue; Ou, Xueling; Sun, Hongyu; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-03

    Differences among SNP panels for individual identification in SNP-selecting and populations led to few common SNPs, compromising their universal applicability. To screen all universal SNPs, we performed a genome-wide SNP mining in multiple populations based on HapMap and 1000Genomes databases. SNPs with high minor allele frequencies (MAF) in 37 populations were selected. With MAF from ≥0.35 to ≥0.43, the number of selected SNPs decreased from 2769 to 0. A total of 117 SNPs with MAF ≥0.39 have no linkage disequilibrium with each other in every population. For 116 of the 117 SNPs, cumulative match probability (CMP) ranged from 2.01 × 10-48 to 1.93 × 10-50 and cumulative exclusion probability (CEP) ranged from 0.9999999996653 to 0.9999999999945. In 134 tested Han samples, 110 of the 117 SNPs remained within high MAF and conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with CMP = 4.70 × 10-47 and CEP = 0.999999999862. By analyzing the same number of autosomal SNPs as in the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel, i.e. 90 randomized out of the 110 SNPs, our panel yielded preferable CMP and CEP. Taken together, the 110-SNPs panel is advantageous for forensic test, and this study provided plenty of highly informative SNPs for compiling final universal panels.

  4. De novo fragment-based design of inhibitors of DXS guided by spin-diffusion-based NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masini, T.; Pilger, J.; Kroezen, B. S.; Illarionov, B.; Lottmann, P.; Fischer, M.; Griesinger, C.; Hirsch, A. K. H.

    We applied for the first time an innovative ligand-based NMR methodology (STI) to a medicinal-chemistry project aimed at the development of inhibitors for the enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). DXS is the first enzyme of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway,

  5. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The potential of pathological protein fragmentation in blood-based biomarker development for dementia – with emphasis on Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek eInekci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of dementia is challenging and early stages are rarely detected limiting the possibilities for early interven-tion. Another challenge is the overlap in the clinical features across the different dementia types leading to difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Identifying biomarkers that can detect the pre-dementia stage and allow differential diagnosis could provide an opportunity for timely and optimal intervention strategies. Also, such biomarkers could help in selection and inclusion of the right patients in clinical trials of both Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia treatment candidates.The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has been the most investigated source of biomarkers and several candidate proteins have been identified. However, looking solely at protein levels is too simplistic to provide enough detailed information to differentiate between dementias, as there is a significant crossover between the proteins involved in the different types of dementia. Additionally, CSF sampling makes these biomarkers challenging for presymptomatic identification. We need to focus on disease-specific protein fragmentation to find a fragment pattern unique for each separate dementia type – a form of protein fragmentology. Targeting protein fragments generated by disease-specific combinations of proteins and proteases opposed to detecting the intact protein could reduce the overlap between diagnostic groups as the extent of processing as well as which proteins and proteases constitute the major hallmark of each dementia type differ. In addition, the fragments could be detectable in blood as they may be able to cross the blood-brain-barrier due to their smaller size. In this review, the potential of the fragment-based biomarker discovery for dementia diagnosis and prognosis is discussed, especially highlighting how the knowledge from CSF protein biomarkers can be used to guide blood-based biomarker development.

  7. Improvement of the Threespine Stickleback Genome Using a Hi-C-Based Proximity-Guided Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichel, Catherine L; Sullivan, Shawn T; Liachko, Ivan; White, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Scaffolding genomes into complete chromosome assemblies remains challenging even with the rapidly increasing sequence coverage generated by current next-generation sequence technologies. Even with scaffolding information, many genome assemblies remain incomplete. The genome of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a fish model system in evolutionary genetics and genomics, is not completely assembled despite scaffolding with high-density linkage maps. Here, we first test the ability of a Hi-C based proximity-guided assembly (PGA) to perform a de novo genome assembly from relatively short contigs. Using Hi-C based PGA, we generated complete chromosome assemblies from a distribution of short contigs (20-100 kb). We found that 96.40% of contigs were correctly assigned to linkage groups (LGs), with ordering nearly identical to the previous genome assembly. Using available bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, we provide evidence that some of the few discrepancies between the Hi-C assembly and the existing assembly are due to structural variation between the populations used for the 2 assemblies or errors in the existing assembly. This Hi-C assembly also allowed us to improve the existing assembly, assigning over 60% (13.35 Mb) of the previously unassigned (~21.7 Mb) contigs to LGs. Together, our results highlight the potential of the Hi-C based PGA method to be used in combination with short read data to perform relatively inexpensive de novo genome assemblies. This approach will be particularly useful in organisms in which it is difficult to perform linkage mapping or to obtain high molecular weight DNA required for other scaffolding methods. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. GenomeRNAi: a database for cell-based RNAi phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Thomas; Arziman, Zeynep; Berger, Juerg; Boutros, Michael

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to generate loss-of-function phenotypes in a variety of organisms. Combined with the sequence information of almost completely annotated genomes, RNAi technologies have opened new avenues to conduct systematic genetic screens for every annotated gene in the genome. As increasing large datasets of RNAi-induced phenotypes become available, an important challenge remains the systematic integration and annotation of functional information. Genome-wide RNAi screens have been performed both in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila for a variety of phenotypes and several RNAi libraries have become available to assess phenotypes for almost every gene in the genome. These screens were performed using different types of assays from visible phenotypes to focused transcriptional readouts and provide a rich data source for functional annotation across different species. The GenomeRNAi database provides access to published RNAi phenotypes obtained from cell-based screens and maps them to their genomic locus, including possible non-specific regions. The database also gives access to sequence information of RNAi probes used in various screens. It can be searched by phenotype, by gene, by RNAi probe or by sequence and is accessible at http://rnai.dkfz.de.

  9. Cloud-based interactive analytics for terabytes of genomic variants data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cuiping; McInnes, Gregory; Deflaux, Nicole; Snyder, Michael; Bingham, Jonathan; Datta, Somalee; Tsao, Philip S

    2017-12-01

    Large scale genomic sequencing is now widely used to decipher questions in diverse realms such as biological function, human diseases, evolution, ecosystems, and agriculture. With the quantity and diversity these data harbor, a robust and scalable data handling and analysis solution is desired. We present interactive analytics using a cloud-based columnar database built on Dremel to perform information compression, comprehensive quality controls, and biological information retrieval in large volumes of genomic data. We demonstrate such Big Data computing paradigms can provide orders of magnitude faster turnaround for common genomic analyses, transforming long-running batch jobs submitted via a Linux shell into questions that can be asked from a web browser in seconds. Using this method, we assessed a study population of 475 deeply sequenced human genomes for genomic call rate, genotype and allele frequency distribution, variant density across the genome, and pharmacogenomic information. Our analysis framework is implemented in Google Cloud Platform and BigQuery. Codes are available at https://github.com/StanfordBioinformatics/mvp_aaa_codelabs. cuiping@stanford.edu or ptsao@stanford.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and are in the public domain in the US.

  10. A Novel Method to Predict Genomic Islands Based on Mean Shift Clustering Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M de Brito

    Full Text Available Genomic Islands (GIs are regions of bacterial genomes that are acquired from other organisms by the phenomenon of horizontal transfer. These regions are often responsible for many important acquired adaptations of the bacteria, with great impact on their evolution and behavior. Nevertheless, these adaptations are usually associated with pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance, degradation and metabolism. Identification of such regions is of medical and industrial interest. For this reason, different approaches for genomic islands prediction have been proposed. However, none of them are capable of predicting precisely the complete repertory of GIs in a genome. The difficulties arise due to the changes in performance of different algorithms in the face of the variety of nucleotide distribution in different species. In this paper, we present a novel method to predict GIs that is built upon mean shift clustering algorithm. It does not require any information regarding the number of clusters, and the bandwidth parameter is automatically calculated based on a heuristic approach. The method was implemented in a new user-friendly tool named MSGIP--Mean Shift Genomic Island Predictor. Genomes of bacteria with GIs discussed in other papers were used to evaluate the proposed method. The application of this tool revealed the same GIs predicted by other methods and also different novel unpredicted islands. A detailed investigation of the different features related to typical GI elements inserted in these new regions confirmed its effectiveness. Stand-alone and user-friendly versions for this new methodology are available at http://msgip.integrativebioinformatics.me.

  11. Development of an experimental device based on the digitalization of the signal and dedicated to the characterization of fission fragments and prompt neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varapai, N.

    2006-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the digital technique for nuclear measurements. This new technique is based on the digitalization of the signals from the detectors and has several advantages. This technique allows us to extract the maximum amount of information contained in the signal shape. In the case of an ionization chamber this signal contains the necessary information on the particle kinetic energy, emission angle and mass. This method has been implemented for measurements of promptly emitted fission neutrons in coincidence with fission fragments from 252 Cf(sf). A double Frisch-grid ionization chamber is used as fission fragment detector. The promptly emitted neutrons are detected by a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. This work displays how delicate analysis of the digitalized signals permitted us to infer the mass and kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments as well as the neutron energy spectrum and multiplicity. The outline of this thesis is as follows: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the experimental tools used in this work. Chapter 3 explains the analysis procedure of the digitalized anode signal from an ionization chamber. Chapter 4 gives a detailed explanation of the analysis procedure of the digitalized signal from a neutron detector. In Chapter 5 the analysis procedure of the fission fragment events in coincidence with neutrons is given

  12. Photon-hadron fragmentation: theoretical situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using a selection of new experimental results models of hadronic fragmentation and their phenomenological comparison are presented. Indeed a convenient theory of hadronic fragmentation -for instance based on Q.C.D.- does not exist: low transverse momentum fragmentation involves the badly known hadronic long-range forces. Models should clarify the situation in the prospect of an eventual future theory

  13. PCR-Based Seamless Genome Editing with High Efficiency and Fidelity in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yilan; Yang, Maohua; Yan, Daojiang

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency and fidelity are the key obstacles for genome editing toolboxes. In the present study, a PCR-based tandem repeat assisted genome editing (TRAGE) method with high efficiency and fidelity was developed. The design of TRAGE is based on the mechanism of repair of spontaneous double...... for seamlessly deleting, substituting and inserting targeted genes using PCR products. The effects of different manipulations including sucrose addition time, subculture times in LB with sucrose and stages of inoculation on the efficiency were investigated. With our recommended procedure, seamless excision...... of cat-sacB cassette can be realized in 48 h efficiently. We believe that the developed method has great potential for seamless genome editing in E. coli....

  14. Progress of CRISPR-Cas Based Genome Editing in Photosynthetic Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naduthodi, Mihris Ibnu Saleem; Barbosa, Maria J; van der Oost, John

    2018-02-03

    The carbon footprint caused by unsustainable development and its environmental and economic impact has become a major concern in the past few decades. Photosynthetic microbes such as microalgae and cyanobacteria are capable of accumulating value-added compounds from carbon dioxide, and have been regarded as environmentally friendly alternatives to reduce the usage of fossil fuels, thereby contributing to reducing the carbon footprint. This light-driven generation of green chemicals and biofuels has triggered the research for metabolic engineering of these photosynthetic microbes. CRISPR-Cas systems are successfully implemented across a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species for efficient genome editing. However, the inception of this genome editing tool in microalgal and cyanobacterial species took off rather slowly due to various complications. In this review, we elaborate on the established CRISPR-Cas based genome editing in various microalgal and cyanobacterial species. The complications associated with CRISPR-Cas based genome editing in these species are addressed along with possible strategies to overcome these issues. It is anticipated that in the near future this will result in improving and expanding the microalgal and cyanobacterial genome engineering toolbox. © 2018 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. CRISPR-Cas9-Based Genome Editing of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Joseph C; Sharma, Tasneem P; Burnight, Erin R; Fingert, John F; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2018-02-28

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are the ideal cell source for autologous cell replacement. However, for patients with Mendelian diseases, genetic correction of the original disease-causing mutation is likely required prior to cellular differentiation and transplantation. The emergence of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of genome editing. By introducing inexpensive reagents that are relatively straightforward to design and validate, it is now possible to correct genetic variants or insert desired sequences at any location within the genome. CRISPR-based genome editing of patient-specific iPSCs shows great promise for future autologous cell replacement therapies. One caveat, however, is that hiPSCs are notoriously difficult to transfect, and optimized experimental design considerations are often necessary. This unit describes design strategies and methods for efficient CRISPR-based genome editing of patient- specific iPSCs. Additionally, it details a flexible approach that utilizes positive selection to generate clones with a desired genomic modification, Cre-lox recombination to remove the integrated selection cassette, and negative selection to eliminate residual hiPSCs with intact selection cassettes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Construction of a phylogenetic tree of photosynthetic prokaryotes based on average similarities of whole genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichirou Satoh

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic trees have been constructed for a wide range of organisms using gene sequence information, especially through the identification of orthologous genes that have been vertically inherited. The number of available complete genome sequences is rapidly increasing, and many tools for construction of genome trees based on whole genome sequences have been proposed. However, development of a reasonable method of using complete genome sequences for construction of phylogenetic trees has not been established. We have developed a method for construction of phylogenetic trees based on the average sequence similarities of whole genome sequences. We used this method to examine the phylogeny of 115 photosynthetic prokaryotes, i.e., cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and nonphotosynthetic organisms including Archaea. Although the bootstrap values for the branching order of phyla were low, probably due to lateral gene transfer and saturated mutation, the obtained tree was largely consistent with the previously reported phylogenetic trees, indicating that this method is a robust alternative to traditional phylogenetic methods.

  17. Prediction of maize phenotype based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms using deep belief networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatia, H.; Kusuma, W. A.; Hasibuan, L. S.

    2017-05-01

    Selection in plant breeding could be more effective and more efficient if it is based on genomic data. Genomic selection (GS) is a new approach for plant-breeding selection that exploits genomic data through a mechanism called genomic prediction (GP). Most of GP models used linear methods that ignore effects of interaction among genes and effects of higher order nonlinearities. Deep belief network (DBN), one of the architectural in deep learning methods, is able to model data in high level of abstraction that involves nonlinearities effects of the data. This study implemented DBN for developing a GP model utilizing whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as data for training and testing. The case study was a set of traits in maize. The maize dataset was acquisitioned from CIMMYT’s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) Global Maize program. Based on Pearson correlation, DBN is outperformed than other methods, kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian LASSO (BL), best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP), in case allegedly non-additive traits. DBN achieves correlation of 0.579 within -1 to 1 range.

  18. Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrom, Julia A.

    2008-01-01

    Fragmented ocean management contributes significantly to the declining health of the world’s oceans. The sector-based piecemeal approach to management has produced a governance system filled with gaps and overlaps. These inefficiencies impede effective mitigation and confrontation of major environmental stressors. Historically, industries such as mining, fishing, and shipping, have driven management decisions for ocean-related uses. Government agencies, scientists, and other natural resource ...

  19. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  20. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenning Zheng

    Full Text Available The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT, which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my.

  1. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Tze King; Paterson, Ian C; Mutha, Naresh V R; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Tan, Shi Yang; Old, Lesley A; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT), which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my.

  2. Re-exploration of U's Triangle Brassica Species Based on Chloroplast Genomes and 45S nrDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Jin, Seungwoo; Choi, Beom-Soon; Yu, Yeisoo; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Choi, Ji-Weon; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Sohn, Seong-Han; Parkin, Isobel; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-05-09

    The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations. Our phylogenomic analyses led to two main conclusions. (1) Intra-species-level chloroplast genome variations are low in the three allotetraploids (2~7 SNPs), but rich and variable in each diploid species (7~193 SNPs). (2) Three allotetraploids maintain two 45SnrDNA types derived from both ancestral species with maternal dominance. Furthermore, this study sheds light on the maternal origin of the AC chloroplast genome. Overall, this study clarifies the genetic relationships of U's triangle species based on a comprehensive genomics approach and provides important genomic resources for correlative and evolutionary studies.

  3. Successful de-fragmentation of woodland by planting in an agricultural landscape? An assessment based on landscape indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, C P; Watts, K

    2009-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is the focus of much conservation concern and associated research. In some countries, such as Britain, the main phase of fragmentation occurred centuries ago and the focus of conservation management is now on restoration and recovery. Scenario studies have suggested that spatial targeting is preferable if landscape scale restoration is to be achieved, and that this should bring greater benefits than site-focussed activities but this has rarely been tested in practice. In Britain, woodland expansion has been encouraged through a number of financial incentives, which have evolved from instruments that encouraged almost any addition to the potential woodland resource, to grant schemes that have set out to restore connectivity to remnant ancient woodland. This study assessed the degree of de-fragmentation achieved by woodland expansion on the Isle of Wight and in particular the success of spatial targeting of new woodland planting implemented through grant aid in the JIGSAW (Joining and Increasing Grant Scheme for Ancient Woodland) scheme. Five steps in the re-development of broad-leaved woodland were tested using eight indicators - six commonly used landscape metrics, and two ecologically scaled indicators derived from application of least-cost network evaluation. Only half of the measures indicated de-fragmentation over the whole sequence of five steps. However, the spatial targeting did appear successful, when compared to equivalent untargeted grant-aided woodland expansion, and resulted in positive change to six of the eight indicators. We discuss the utility of the indicators and ways in which future targeting could be supported by their application.

  4. Typing of Human Mycobacterium avium Isolates in Italy by IS1245-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Nicoletta; Cavallini, Michela; Rindi, Laura; Iona, Elisabetta; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Garzelli, Carlo

    1998-01-01

    All but 2 of 63 Mycobacterium avium isolates from distinct geographic areas of Italy exhibited markedly polymorphic, multibanded IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns; 2 isolates showed the low-number banding pattern typical of bird isolates. By computer analysis, 41 distinct IS1245 patterns and 10 clusters of essentially identical strains were detected; 40% of the 63 isolates showed genetic relatedness, suggesting the existence of a predominant AIDS-associated IS1245 RFLP pattern. PMID:9817900

  5. The Dockstore: enabling modular, community-focused sharing of Docker-based genomics tools and workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian D; Yuen, Denis; Chung, Vincent; Duncan, Andrew G; Liu, Xiang Kun; Patricia, Janice; Paten, Benedict; Stein, Lincoln; Ferretti, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    As genomic datasets continue to grow, the feasibility of downloading data to a local organization and running analysis on a traditional compute environment is becoming increasingly problematic. Current large-scale projects, such as the ICGC PanCancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG), the Data Platform for the U.S. Precision Medicine Initiative, and the NIH Big Data to Knowledge Center for Translational Genomics, are using cloud-based infrastructure to both host and perform analysis across large data sets. In PCAWG, over 5,800 whole human genomes were aligned and variant called across 14 cloud and HPC environments; the processed data was then made available on the cloud for further analysis and sharing. If run locally, an operation at this scale would have monopolized a typical academic data centre for many months, and would have presented major challenges for data storage and distribution. However, this scale is increasingly typical for genomics projects and necessitates a rethink of how analytical tools are packaged and moved to the data. For PCAWG, we embraced the use of highly portable Docker images for encapsulating and sharing complex alignment and variant calling workflows across highly variable environments. While successful, this endeavor revealed a limitation in Docker containers, namely the lack of a standardized way to describe and execute the tools encapsulated inside the container. As a result, we created the Dockstore ( https://dockstore.org), a project that brings together Docker images with standardized, machine-readable ways of describing and running the tools contained within. This service greatly improves the sharing and reuse of genomics tools and promotes interoperability with similar projects through emerging web service standards developed by the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH).

  6. A biological-based model that links genomic instability, bystander effects, and adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper links genomic instability, bystander effects, and adaptive response in mammalian cell communities via a novel biological-based, dose-response model called NEOTRANS 3 . The model is an extension of the NEOTRANS 2 model that addressed stochastic effects (genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) associated with brief exposure to low radiation doses. With both models, ionizing radiation produces DNA damage in cells that can be associated with varying degrees of genomic instability. Cells with persistent problematic instability (PPI) are mutants that arise via misrepair of DNA damage. Progeny of PPI cells also have PPI and can undergo spontaneous neoplastic transformation. Unlike NEOTRANS 2 , with NEOTRANS 3 newly induced mutant PPI cells and their neoplastically transformed progeny can be suppressed via our previously introduced protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process, which can be activated by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. However, with NEOTRANS 3 (which like NEOTRANS 2 involves cross-talk between nongenomically compromised [e.g., nontransformed, nonmutants] and genomically compromised [e.g., mutants, transformants, etc.] cells), it is assumed that PAM is only activated over a relatively narrow, dose-rate-dependent interval (D PAM ,D off ); where D PAM is a small stochastic activation threshold, and D off is the stochastic dose above which PAM does not occur. PAM cooperates with activated normal DNA repair and with activated normal apoptosis in guarding against genomic instability. Normal repair involves both error-free repair and misrepair components. Normal apoptosis and the error-free component of normal repair protect mammals by preventing the occurrence of mutant cells. PAM selectively removes mutant cells arising via the misrepair component of normal repair, selectively removes existing neoplastically transformed cells, and probably selectively removes other genomically compromised cells when it is activated

  7. An HMM-based comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One outcome of interspecific hybridization and subsequent effects of evolutionary forces is introgression, which is the integration of genetic material from one species into the genome of an individual in another species. The evolution of several groups of eukaryotic species has involved hybridization, and cases of adaptation through introgression have been already established. In this work, we report on PhyloNet-HMM-a new comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in genomes. PhyloNet-HMM combines phylogenetic networks with hidden Markov models (HMMs to simultaneously capture the (potentially reticulate evolutionary history of the genomes and dependencies within genomes. A novel aspect of our work is that it also accounts for incomplete lineage sorting and dependence across loci. Application of our model to variation data from chromosome 7 in the mouse (Mus musculus domesticus genome detected a recently reported adaptive introgression event involving the rodent poison resistance gene Vkorc1, in addition to other newly detected introgressed genomic regions. Based on our analysis, it is estimated that about 9% of all sites within chromosome 7 are of introgressive origin (these cover about 13 Mbp of chromosome 7, and over 300 genes. Further, our model detected no introgression in a negative control data set. We also found that our model accurately detected introgression and other evolutionary processes from synthetic data sets simulated under the coalescent model with recombination, isolation, and migration. Our work provides a powerful framework for systematic analysis of introgression while simultaneously accounting for dependence across sites, point mutations, recombination, and ancestral polymorphism.

  8. Scribl: an HTML5 Canvas-based graphics library for visualizing genomic data over the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chase A; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M; Marth, Gabor

    2013-02-01

    High-throughput biological research requires simultaneous visualization as well as analysis of genomic data, e.g. read alignments, variant calls and genomic annotations. Traditionally, such integrative analysis required desktop applications operating on locally stored data. Many current terabyte-size datasets generated by large public consortia projects, however, are already only feasibly stored at specialist genome analysis centers. As even small laboratories can afford very large datasets, local storage and analysis are becoming increasingly limiting, and it is likely that most such datasets will soon be stored remotely, e.g. in the cloud. These developments will require web-based tools that enable users to access, analyze and view vast remotely stored data with a level of sophistication and interactivity that approximates desktop applications. As rapidly dropping cost enables researchers to collect data intended to answer questions in very specialized contexts, developers must also provide software libraries that empower users to implement customized data analyses and data views for their particular application. Such specialized, yet lightweight, applications would empower scientists to better answer specific biological questions than possible with general-purpose genome browsers currently available. Using recent advances in core web technologies (HTML5), we developed Scribl, a flexible genomic visualization library specifically targeting coordinate-based data such as genomic features, DNA sequence and genetic variants. Scribl simplifies the development of sophisticated web-based graphical tools that approach the dynamism and interactivity of desktop applications. Software is freely available online at http://chmille4.github.com/Scribl/ and is implemented in JavaScript with all modern browsers supported.

  9. In-Network Processing of an Iceberg Join Query in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on 2-Way Fragment Semijoins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold) are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one. PMID:25774710

  10. In-Network Processing of an Iceberg Join Query in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on 2-Way Fragment Semijoins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one.

  11. Use of Genomic Databases for Inquiry-Based Learning about Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, Fred; Ndung'u, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The genome projects of the past decades have created extensive databases of biological information with applications in both research and education. We describe an inquiry-based exercise that uses one such database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information Influenza Virus Resource, to advance learning about influenza. This database…

  12. Challenges and opportunities for whole-genome sequencing–based surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schürch, Anita C.; van Schaik, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are increasingly reported across the planet, and drug-resistant bacteria are recognized to be a major threat to public health and modern medicine. In this review, we discuss how whole-genome sequencing (WGS)–based approaches can contribute to the

  13. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidaritabar, M.; Vereijken, A.; Muir, W.M.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Cheng, H.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60¿K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the

  14. Genomics-Based Identifcation of Microorganisms in Human Ocular Body Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstahler, Philipp; Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2018-01-01

    genomes and (iii) the environment. Our metagenomic read classification revealed in nearly all cases the same microorganism that was determined in cultivation- and mass spectrometry-based analyses. For some patients, we identified the sequence type of the microorganism and antibiotic resistance genes...

  15. DNA methylation alteration is a major consequence of genome doubling in autotetraploid Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yanhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyploids are typically classified as autopolyploids or allopolyploids based on the origin of their chromosome sets. Autopolyploidy is much more common than traditionally believed. Allopolyploidization, accompanied by genomic and transcriptomic changes, has been well investigated. In this study, genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes in autotetraploid Brassica rapa were investigated. No genetic alteration was detected using an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP approach. Using a cDNA-AFLP approach, approximately 0.58% of fragments showed changes in gene expression in autotetraploid B. rapa. The methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP analysis showed that approximately 1.7% of the fragments underwent DNA methylation changes upon genome doubling, with hypermethylation and demethylation changes equally affected. Fragments displaying changes in gene expression and methylation status were isolated and then sequenced and characterized, respectively. This study showed that variation in cytosine methylation is a major consequence of genome doubling in autotetraploid Brassica rapa.

  16. From evidence-based medicine to genomic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dhavendra

    2007-01-01

    The concept of ‘evidence-based medicine’ dates back to mid-19th century or even earlier. It remains pivotal in planning, funding and in delivering the health care. Clinicians, public health practitioners, health commissioners/purchasers, health planners, politicians and public seek formal ‘evidence’ in approving any form of health care provision. Essentially ‘evidence-based medicine’ aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about t...

  17. Leveraging structure determination with fragment screening for infectious disease drug targets: MECP synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, Darren W.; Hartley, Robert C.; Davies, Douglas R.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Leonard, Jess T.; Abendroth, Jan; Burris, Courtney A.; Bhandari, Janhavi; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J. (UWASH); (Emerald)

    2011-09-28

    As part of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease, we seek to enhance structural genomics with ligand-bound structure data which can serve as a blueprint for structure-based drug design. We have adapted fragment-based screening methods to our structural genomics pipeline to generate multiple ligand-bound structures of high priority drug targets from pathogenic organisms. In this study, we report fragment screening methods and structure determination results for 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MECP) synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the gram-negative bacterium which causes melioidosis. Screening by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as crystal soaking followed by X-ray diffraction led to the identification of several small molecules which bind this enzyme in a critical metabolic pathway. A series of complex structures obtained with screening hits reveal distinct binding pockets and a range of small molecules which form complexes with the target. Additional soaks with these compounds further demonstrate a subset of fragments to only bind the protein when present in specific combinations. This ensemble of fragment-bound complexes illuminates several characteristics of MECP synthase, including a previously unknown binding surface external to the catalytic active site. These ligand-bound structures now serve to guide medicinal chemists and structural biologists in rational design of novel inhibitors for this enzyme.

  18. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Angelina [University of Arizona; Park, Sang-Hycuk [University of Arizona; Kyndt, John [Bellevue University; Fitzsimmons, Kevin [University of Arizona; Brown, Judith K [University of Arizona

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  19. CrisprGE: a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karambir; Tandon, Himani; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR system is a powerful defense mechanism in bacteria and archaea to provide immunity against viruses. Recently, this process found a new application in intended targeting of the genomes. CRISPR-mediated genome editing is performed by two main components namely single guide RNA and Cas9 protein. Despite the enormous data generated in this area, there is a dearth of high throughput resource. Therefore, we have developed CrisprGE, a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. Presently, this database holds a total of 4680 entries of 223 unique genes from 32 model and other organisms. It encompasses information about the organism, gene, target gene sequences, genetic modification, modifications length, genome editing efficiency, cell line, assay, etc. This depository is developed using the open source LAMP (Linux Apache MYSQL PHP) server. User-friendly browsing, searching facility is integrated for easy data retrieval. It also includes useful tools like BLAST CrisprGE, BLAST NTdb and CRISPR Mapper. Considering potential utilities of CRISPR in the vast area of biology and therapeutics, we foresee this platform as an assistance to accelerate research in the burgeoning field of genome engineering. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2016-02-23

    The low biomass in environmental samples is a major challenge for microbial metagenomic studies. The amplification of a genomic DNA was frequently applied to meeting the minimum requirement of the DNA for a high-throughput next-generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms is examined. The DNA template of 10 pg in each reaction of the MALBAC amplification may generate enough DNA for Illumina sequencing. Using 10 pg and 100 pg templates for each reaction set, the MALBAC kit shows a stable and homogeneous amplification as indicated by the highly consistent coverage of the reads from the two amplified samples on the contigs assembled by the original unamplified sample. Although GenomePlex whole genome amplification kit allows one to generate enough DNA using 100 pg of template in each reaction, the minority of the mixed bacterial species is not linearly amplified. For both of the kits, the GC-rich regions of the genomic DNA are not efficiently amplified as suggested by the low coverage of the contigs with the high GC content. The high efficiency of the MALBAC kit is supported for the amplification of environmental microbial DNA samples, and the concerns on its application are also raised to bacterial species with the high GC content.

  1. Fragment Based Optimization of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 (mGluR2) Positive Allosteric Modulators in the Absence of Structural Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Túrós, György I; Kolok, Sándor; Vastag, Mónika; Sánta, Zsuzsanna; Dékány, Miklós; Lévay, György I; Greiner, István; Natsumi, Minami; Tatsuya, Watanabe; Keserű, György M

    2018-03-14

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been implicated as potential pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions. Screening our corporate compound deck, we identified a benzotriazole fragment (4) that was rapidly optimized to a potent and metabolically stable early lead (16). The highly lipophilic character of 16, together with its limited solubility, permeability, and high protein binding, however, did not allow reaching of the proof of concept in vivo. Since further attempts on the optimization of druglike properties were unsuccessful, the original hit 4 has been revisited and was optimized following the principles of fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Lacking structural information on the receptor-ligand complex, we implemented a group efficiency (GE) based strategy and identified a new fragment like lead (60) with more balanced profile. Significant improvement achieved on the druglike properties nominated the compound for in vivo proof of concept studies that revealed the chemotype being a promising PAM lead targeting mGluR2 receptors.

  2. Fragment-based design of symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles as selective inhibitors of the trimethoprim-resistant, type II R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Dominic; Ebert, Maximilian C C J C; Forge, Delphine; Toulouse, Jacynthe; Kadnikova, Natalia; Perron, Florent; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2012-04-12

    The continuously increasing use of trimethoprim as a common antibiotic for medical use and for prophylactic application in terrestrial and aquatic animal farming has increased its prevalence in the environment. This has been accompanied by increased drug resistance, generally in the form of alterations in the drug target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The most highly resistant variants of DHFR are known as type II DHFR, among which R67 DHFR is the most broadly studied variant. We report the first attempt at designing specific inhibitors to this emerging drug target by fragment-based design. The detection of inhibition in R67 DHFR was accompanied by parallel monitoring of the human DHFR, as an assessment of compound selectivity. By those means, small aromatic molecules of 150-250 g/mol (fragments) inhibiting R67 DHFR selectively in the low millimolar range were identified. More complex, symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles and a bis-carboxyphenyl were then assayed as fragment-based leads, which procured selective inhibition of the target in the low micromolar range (K(i) = 2-4 μM). The putative mode of inhibition is discussed according to molecular modeling supported by in vitro tests. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Integrating genome-based informatics to modernize global disease monitoring, information sharing, and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Brown, Eric W; Detter, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease...... typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases......-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular...

  4. Fragment-based Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Simulations of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Process of the Ru2+-Ru3+ Self-Exchange Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao

    2012-12-11

    A fragment-based fractional number of electron (FNE) approach, is developed to study entire electron transfer (ET) processes from the electron donor region to the acceptor region in condensed phase. Both regions are described by the density-fragment interaction (DFI) method while FNE as an efficient ET order parameter is applied to simulate the electron transfer process. In association with the QM/MM energy expression, the DFI-FNE method is demonstrated to describe ET processes robustly with the Ru 2+ -Ru 3+ self-exchange ET as a proof-of-concept example. This method allows for systematic calculations of redox free energies, reorganization energies, and electronic couplings, and the absolute ET rate constants within the Marcus regime.

  5. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in recombinant genotypes improved the fruit quality of tomato. SABINA L. MAHUAD1 ... type for shelf life. ... Sabina L. Mahuad and Guillermo R. Pratta contributed equally to this work. ... This system was mainly developed for the family Brassi- caceae, but it has ..... relation of SL with S was found whereas there was no asso-.

  6. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-09-27

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients in light of research findings affecting research and clinical practices. The group was deliberately multidisciplinary to ensure that a diversity of views was represented. This report outlines the main ethical issues, areas of best practice and principles underlying ethical clinically based genomic research discussed during the meeting. The main point emerging from the discussion is that ethical principles, rather than being formulaic, should guide researchers/clinicians to identify who the main stakeholders are to consult with for a specific project and to incorporate their voices/views strategically throughout the lifecycle of each project. We believe that the mix of principles and practical guidelines outlined in this report can contribute to current debates on how to conduct ethical clinically based genomic research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. CRISPR/CAS9 based engineering of actinomycetal genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to CRISPR/Cas-based methods for generating random-sized deletions around at least one target nucleic acid sequence, or for generating precise indels around at least one target nucleic acid sequence, or for modulating transcription of at least one target nucleic acid...

  8. GAAP: Genome-organization-framework-Assisted Assembly Pipeline for prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Yanmin; Li, Yulai; Li, Changqing; Li, Rujiao; Ma, Qin; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Taijiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Kang, Yu

    2017-01-25

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have greatly promoted the genomic study of prokaryotes. However, highly fragmented assemblies due to short reads from NGS are still a limiting factor in gaining insights into the genome biology. Reference-assisted tools are promising in genome assembly, but tend to result in false assembly when the assigned reference has extensive rearrangements. Herein, we present GAAP, a genome assembly pipeline for scaffolding based on core-gene-defined Genome Organizational Framework (cGOF) described in our previous study. Instead of assigning references, we use the multiple-reference-derived cGOFs as indexes to assist in order and orientation of the scaffolds and build a skeleton structure, and then use read pairs to extend scaffolds, called local scaffolding, and distinguish between true and chimeric adjacencies in the scaffolds. In our performance tests using both empirical and simulated data of 15 genomes in six species with diverse genome size, complexity, and all three categories of cGOFs, GAAP outcompetes or achieves comparable results when compared to three other reference-assisted programs, AlignGraph, Ragout and MeDuSa. GAAP uses both cGOF and pair-end reads to create assemblies in genomic scale, and performs better than the currently available reference-assisted assembly tools as it recovers more assemblies and makes fewer false locations, especially for species with extensive rearranged genomes. Our method is a promising solution for reconstruction of genome sequence from short reads of NGS.

  9. Preparation of methacrylate-based anion-exchange monolithic microbore column for chromatographic separation of DNA fragments and oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabarudin, Akhmad, E-mail: sabarjpn@ub.ac.id [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Brawijaya University, Jl Veteran Malang 65145 (Indonesia); Huang, Junchao; Shu, Shin; Sakagawa, Shinnosuke [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Umemura, Tomonari, E-mail: umemura@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potentially preparative applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of oligodeoxythymidylic acids and DNA fragments. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the preparation of a microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column suitable not only for analytical purposes but also for potentially preparative applications. In order to meet the conflicting requirements of high permeability and good mechanical strength, the following two-step procedure was applied. First, an epoxy-containing monolith was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) within the confines of a silicosteel tubing of 1.02 mm i.d. and 1/16 Double-Prime o.d. in the presence of a ternary porogenic mixture of 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The monolithic matrix was subsequently converted into weak anion-exchanger via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy group with diethyl amine. The dynamic binding capacity was 21.4 mg mL{sup -1} for bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 10% breakthrough. The morphology and porous structure of this monolith were assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC). To optimize the separation efficiency, the effects of various chromatographic parameters upon the separation of DNA fragments were investigated. The resulting monolithic anion exchanger demonstrated good potential for the separation of both single- and double-stranded DNA molecules using a gradient elution with NaCl in Tris-HCl buffer (20 mM). Oligodeoxythymidylic acids (dT{sub 12}-dT{sub 18}) were successfully resolved at pH 8, while the fragments of 20 bp DNA ladder, 100 bp DNA ladder, and pBR322-HaeIII digest were efficiently separated at pH 9.

  10. A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajich Jason E

    2006-11-01

    relatives. We could not confidently resolve whether Candida glabrata or Saccharomyces castellii lies at the base of the WGD clade. Conclusion We have constructed robust phylogenies for fungi based on whole genome analysis. Overall, our phylogenies provide strong support for the classification of phyla, sub-phyla, classes and orders. We have resolved the relationship of the classes Leotiomyctes and Sordariomycetes, and have identified two classes within the CTG clade of the Saccharomycotina that may correlate with sexual status.

  11. Prediction of malting quality traits in barley based on genome-wide marker data to assess the potential of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Malthe; Kollers, Sonja; Maasberg-Prelle, Anja; Großer, Jörg; Schinkel, Burkhard; Tomerius, Alexandra; Graner, Andreas; Korzun, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Genomic prediction of malting quality traits in barley shows the potential of applying genomic selection to improve selection for malting quality and speed up the breeding process. Genomic selection has been applied to various plant species, mostly for yield or yield-related traits such as grain dry matter yield or thousand kernel weight, and improvement of resistances against diseases. Quality traits have not been the main scope of analysis for genomic selection, but have rather been addressed by marker-assisted selection. In this study, the potential to apply genomic selection to twelve malting quality traits in two commercial breeding programs of spring and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed. Phenotypic means were calculated combining multilocational field trial data from 3 or 4 years, depending on the trait investigated. Three to five locations were available in each of these years. Heritabilities for malting traits ranged between 0.50 and 0.98. Predictive abilities (PA), as derived from cross validation, ranged between 0.14 to 0.58 for spring barley and 0.40-0.80 for winter barley. Small training sets were shown to be sufficient to obtain useful PAs, possibly due to the narrow genetic base in this breeding material. Deployment of genomic selection in malting barley breeding clearly has the potential to reduce cost intensive phenotyping for quality traits, increase selection intensity and to shorten breeding cycles.

  12. Genome3D: a UK collaborative project to annotate genomic sequences with predicted 3D structures based on SCOP and CATH domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tony E; Sillitoe, Ian; Andreeva, Antonina; Blundell, Tom L; Buchan, Daniel W A; Chothia, Cyrus; Cuff, Alison; Dana, Jose M; Filippis, Ioannis; Gough, Julian; Hunter, Sarah; Jones, David T; Kelley, Lawrence A; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Minneci, Federico; Mitchell, Alex; Murzin, Alexey G; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Rackham, Owen J L; Smith, James; Sternberg, Michael J E; Velankar, Sameer; Yeats, Corin; Orengo, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Genome3D, available at http://www.genome3d.eu, is a new collaborative project that integrates UK-based structural resources to provide a unique perspective on sequence-structure-function relationships. Leading structure prediction resources (DomSerf, FUGUE, Gene3D, pDomTHREADER, Phyre and SUPERFAMILY) provide annotations for UniProt sequences to indicate the locations of structural domains (structural annotations) and their 3D structures (structural models). Structural annotations and 3D model predictions are currently available for three model genomes (Homo sapiens, E. coli and baker's yeast), and the project will extend to other genomes in the near future. As these resources exploit different strategies for predicting structures, the main aim of Genome3D is to enable comparisons between all the resources so that biologists can see where predictions agree and are therefore more trusted. Furthermore, as these methods differ in whether they build their predictions using CATH or SCOP, Genome3D also contains the first official mapping between these two databases. This has identified pairs of similar superfamilies from the two resources at various degrees of consensus (532 bronze pairs, 527 silver pairs and 370 gold pairs).

  13. Metagenome Fragment Classification Using -Mer Frequency Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Rosen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of microbial sequencing data is being generated through large-scale projects in ecology, agriculture, and human health. Efficient high-throughput methods are needed to analyze the mass amounts of metagenomic data, all DNA present in an environmental sample. A major obstacle in metagenomics is the inability to obtain accuracy using technology that yields short reads. We construct the unique -mer frequency profiles of 635 microbial genomes publicly available as of February 2008. These profiles are used to train a naive Bayes classifier (NBC that can be used to identify the genome of any fragment. We show that our method is comparable to BLAST for small 25 bp fragments but does not have the ambiguity of BLAST's tied top scores. We demonstrate that this approach is scalable to identify any fragment from hundreds of genomes. It also performs quite well at the strain, species, and genera levels and achieves strain resolution despite classifying ubiquitous genomic fragments (gene and nongene regions. Cross-validation analysis demonstrates that species-accuracy achieves 90% for highly-represented species containing an average of 8 strains. We demonstrate that such a tool can be used on the Sargasso Sea dataset, and our analysis shows that NBC can be further enhanced.

  14. Precursor Ion Scan Mode-Based Strategy for Fast Screening of Polyether Ionophores by Copper-Induced Gas-Phase Radical Fragmentation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevelin, Eduardo J; Possato, Bruna; Lopes, João L C; Lopes, Norberto P; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-04-04

    The potential of copper(II) to induce gas-phase fragmentation reactions in macrotetrolides, a class of polyether ionophores produced by Streptomyces species, was investigated by accurate-mass electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Copper(II)/copper(I) transition directly induced production of diagnostic acylium ions with m/z 199, 185, 181, and 167 from α-cleavages of [macrotetrolides + Cu] 2+ . A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodology based on the precursor ion scan of these acylium ions was developed and successfully used to identify isodinactin (1), trinactin (2), and tetranactin (3) in a crude extract of Streptomyces sp. AMC 23 in the precursor ion scan mode. In addition, copper(II) was also used to induce radical fragmentation reactions in the carboxylic acid polyether ionophore nigericin. The resulting product ions with m/z 755 and 585 helped to identify nigericin in a crude extract of Streptomyces sp. Eucal-26 by means of precursor ion scan experiments, demonstrating that copper-induced fragmentation reactions can potentially identify different classes of polyether ionophores rapidly and selectively.

  15. Pairagon: a highly accurate, HMM-based cDNA-to-genome aligner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, David V; Brown, Randall H; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Brent, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    The most accurate way to determine the intron-exon structures in a genome is to align spliced cDNA sequences to the genome. Thus, cDNA-to-genome alignment programs are a key component of most annotation pipelines. The scoring system used to choose the best alignment is a primary determinant of alignment accuracy, while heuristics that prevent consideration of certain alignments are a primary determinant of runtime and memory usage. Both accuracy and speed are important considerations in choosing an alignment algorithm, but scoring systems have received much less attention than heuristics. We present Pairagon, a pair hidden Markov model based cDNA-to-genome alignment program, as the most accurate aligner for sequences with high- and low-identity levels. We conducted a series of experiments testing alignment accuracy with varying sequence identity. We first created 'perfect' simulated cDNA sequences by splicing the sequences of exons in the reference genome sequences of fly and human. The complete reference genome sequences were then mutated to various degrees using a realistic mutation simulator and the perfect cDNAs were aligned to them using Pairagon and 12 other aligners. To validate these results with natural sequences, we performed cross-species alignment using orthologous transcripts from human, mouse and rat. We found that aligner accuracy is heavily dependent on sequence identity. For sequences with 100% identity, Pairagon achieved accuracy levels of >99.6%, with one quarter of the errors of any other aligner. Furthermore, for human/mouse alignments, which are only 85% identical, Pairagon achieved 87% accuracy, higher than any other aligner. Pairagon source and executables are freely available at http://mblab.wustl.edu/software/pairagon/

  16. Genome-based Modeling and Design of Metabolic Interactions in Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Henson, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology research is traditionally focused on individual microbial strains that are perceived to have the necessary metabolic functions, or the capability to have these functions introduced, to achieve a particular task. For many important applications, the development of such omnipotent microbes is an extremely challenging if not impossible task. By contrast, nature employs a radically different strategy based on synergistic combinations of different microbial species that collectively achieve the desired task. These natural communities have evolved to exploit the native metabolic capabilities of each species and are highly adaptive to changes in their environments. However, microbial communities have proven difficult to study due to a lack of suitable experimental and computational tools. With the advent of genome sequencing, omics technologies, bioinformatics and genome-scale modeling, researchers now have unprecedented capabilities to analyze and engineer the metabolism of microbial communities. The goal of this review is to summarize recent applications of genome-scale metabolic modeling to microbial communities. A brief introduction to lumped community models is used to motivate the need for genome-level descriptions of individual species and their metabolic interactions. The review of genome-scale models begins with static modeling approaches, which are appropriate for communities where the extracellular environment can be assumed to be time invariant or slowly varying. Dynamic extensions of the static modeling approach are described, and then applications of genome-scale models for design of synthetic microbial communities are reviewed. The review concludes with a summary of metagenomic tools for analyzing community metabolism and an outlook for future research.

  17. A genomic background based method for association analysis in related individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Amin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feasibility of genotyping of hundreds and thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in thousands of study subjects have triggered the need for fast, powerful, and reliable methods for genome-wide association analysis. Here we consider a situation when study participants are genetically related (e.g. due to systematic sampling of families or because a study was performed in a genetically isolated population. Of the available methods that account for relatedness, the Measured Genotype (MG approach is considered the 'gold standard'. However, MG is not efficient with respect to time taken for the analysis of genome-wide data. In this context we proposed a fast two-step method called Genome-wide Association using Mixed Model and Regression (GRAMMAR for the analysis of pedigree-based quantitative traits. This method certainly overcomes the drawback of time limitation of the measured genotype (MG approach, but pays in power. One of the major drawbacks of both MG and GRAMMAR, is that they crucially depend on the availability of complete and correct pedigree data, which is rarely available. METHODOLOGY: In this study we first explore type 1 error and relative power of MG, GRAMMAR, and Genomic Control (GC approaches for genetic association analysis. Secondly, we propose an extension to GRAMMAR i.e. GRAMMAR-GC. Finally, we propose application of GRAMMAR-GC using the kinship matrix estimated through genomic marker data, instead of (possibly missing and/or incorrect genealogy. CONCLUSION: Through simulations we show that MG approach maintains high power across a range of heritabilities and possible pedigree structures, and always outperforms other contemporary methods. We also show that the power of our proposed GRAMMAR-GC approaches to that of the 'gold standard' MG for all models and pedigrees studied. We show that this method is both feasible and powerful and has correct type 1 error in the context of genome-wide association analysis

  18. Collinearity analysis of Brassica A and C genomes based on an updated inferred unigene order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bancroft

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article includes SNP scoring across lines of the Brassica napus TNDH population based on Illumina sequencing of mRNA, expanded to 75 lines. The 21, 323 mapped markers defined 887 recombination bins, representing an updated genetic linkage map for the species. Based on this new map, 5 genome sequence scaffolds were split and the order and orientation of scaffolds updated to establish a new pseudomolecule specification. The order of unigenes and SNP array probes within these pseudomolecules was determined. Unigenes were assessed for sequence similarity to the A and C genomes. The 57, 246 that mapped to both enabled the collinearity of the A and C genomes to be illustrated graphically. Although the great majority was in collinear positions, some were not. Analyses of 60 such instances are presented, suggesting that the breakdown in collinearity was largely due to either the absence of the homoeologue on one genome (resulting in sequence match to a paralogue or multiple similar sequences being present. The mRNAseq datasets for the TNDH lines are available from the SRA repository (ERA283648; the remaining datasets are supplied with this article.

  19. FORESEE: Fully Outsourced secuRe gEnome Study basEd on homomorphic Encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Dai, Wenrui; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Xiong, Hongkai; Wang, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    The increasing availability of genome data motivates massive research studies in personalized treatment and precision medicine. Public cloud services provide a flexible way to mitigate the storage and computation burden in conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, data privacy has been widely concerned when sharing the sensitive information in a cloud environment. We presented a novel framework (FORESEE: Fully Outsourced secuRe gEnome Study basEd on homomorphic Encryption) to fully outsource GWAS (i.e., chi-square statistic computation) using homomorphic encryption. The proposed framework enables secure divisions over encrypted data. We introduced two division protocols (i.e., secure errorless division and secure approximation division) with a trade-off between complexity and accuracy in computing chi-square statistics. The proposed framework was evaluated for the task of chi-square statistic computation with two case-control datasets from the 2015 iDASH genome privacy protection challenge. Experimental results show that the performance of FORESEE can be significantly improved through algorithmic optimization and parallel computation. Remarkably, the secure approximation division provides significant performance gain, but without missing any significance SNPs in the chi-square association test using the aforementioned datasets. Unlike many existing HME based studies, in which final results need to be computed by the data owner due to the lack of the secure division operation, the proposed FORESEE framework support complete outsourcing to the cloud and output the final encrypted chi-square statistics.

  20. Tree decomposition based fast search of RNA structures including pseudoknots in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinglei; Liu, Chunmei; Malmberg, Russell; Pan, Fangfang; Cai, Liming

    2005-01-01

    Searching genomes for RNA secondary structure with computational methods has become an important approach to the annotation of non-coding RNAs. However, due to the lack of efficient algorithms for accurate RNA structure-sequence alignment, computer programs capable of fast and effectively searching genomes for RNA secondary structures have not been available. In this paper, a novel RNA structure profiling model is introduced based on the notion of a conformational graph to specify the consensus structure of an RNA family. Tree decomposition yields a small tree width t for such conformation graphs (e.g., t = 2 for stem loops and only a slight increase for pseudo-knots). Within this modelling framework, the optimal alignment of a sequence to the structure model corresponds to finding a maximum valued isomorphic subgraph and consequently can be accomplished through dynamic programming on the tree decomposition of the conformational graph in time O(k(t)N(2)), where k is a small parameter; and N is the size of the projiled RNA structure. Experiments show that the application of the alignment algorithm to search in genomes yields the same search accuracy as methods based on a Covariance model with a significant reduction in computation time. In particular; very accurate searches of tmRNAs in bacteria genomes and of telomerase RNAs in yeast genomes can be accomplished in days, as opposed to months required by other methods. The tree decomposition based searching tool is free upon request and can be downloaded at our site h t t p ://w.uga.edu/RNA-informatics/software/index.php.

  1. Prediction of Positions of Active Compounds Makes It Possible To Increase Activity in Fragment-Based Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a computational method that predicts the positions of active compounds, making it possible to increase activity as a fragment evolution strategy. We refer to the positions of these compounds as the active position. When an active fragment compound is found, the following lead generation process is performed, primarily to increase activity. In the current method, to predict the location of the active position, hydrogen atoms are replaced by small side chains, generating virtual compounds. These virtual compounds are docked to a target protein, and the docking scores (affinities are examined. The hydrogen atom that gives the virtual compound with good affinity should correspond to the active position and it should be replaced to generate a lead compound. This method was found to work well, with the prediction of the active position being 2 times more efficient than random synthesis. In the current study, 15 examples of lead generation were examined. The probability of finding active positions among all hydrogen atoms was 26%, and the current method accurately predicted 60% of the active positions.

  2. EchoBASE: an integrated post-genomic database for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Raju V; Horler, Richard S P; Reindl, Wolfgang; Goryanin, Igor I; Thomas, Gavin H

    2005-01-01

    EchoBASE (http://www.ecoli-york.org) is a relational database designed to contain and manipulate information from post-genomic experiments using the model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12. Its aim is to collate information from a wide range of sources to provide clues to the functions of the approximately 1500 gene products that have no confirmed cellular function. The database is built on an enhanced annotation of the updated genome sequence of strain MG1655 and the association of experimental data with the E.coli genes and their products. Experiments that can be held within EchoBASE include proteomics studies, microarray data, protein-protein interaction data, structural data and bioinformatics studies. EchoBASE also contains annotated information on 'orphan' enzyme activities from this microbe to aid characterization of the proteins that catalyse these elusive biochemical reactions.

  3. An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, Günther; Lehner, Bernhard; Lumsdon, Alexander E; Zarfl, Christiane; MacDonald, Graham K; Reidy Liermann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The global number of dam constructions has increased dramatically over the past six decades and is forecast to continue to rise, particularly in less industrialized regions. Identifying development pathways that can deliver the benefits of new infrastructure while also maintaining healthy and productive river systems is a great challenge that requires understanding the multifaceted impacts of dams at a range of scales. New approaches and advanced methodologies are needed to improve predictions of how future dam construction will affect biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and fluvial geomorphology worldwide, helping to frame a global strategy to achieve sustainable dam development. Here, we respond to this need by applying a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales using data at high spatial resolution. We calculated the cumulative impact of a set of 6374 large existing dams and 3377 planned or proposed dams on river connectivity and river flow at basin and subbasin scales by fusing two novel indicators to create a holistic dam impact matrix for the period 1930–2030. Static network descriptors such as basin area or channel length are of limited use in hierarchically nested and dynamic river systems, so we developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, which are based on river volume. These indicators are less sensitive to the effects of network configuration, offering increased comparability among studies with disparate hydrographies as well as across scales. Our results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in our future scenario, this number would nearly double to 93%, largely due to major dam construction in the Amazon Basin. We provide evidence for the importance of considering small to medium

  4. Restricted fragmentation of poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 RNAs by ribonuclease III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, A. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook); Lee, Y.F.; Babich, A.; Jacobson, A.; Dunn, J.J.; Wimmer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Cleavage of the genome RNAs of poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 with the ribonuclease III of Escherichia coli has been investigated with the following results: (1) at or above physiological salt concentration, the RNAs are completely resistant to the action of the enzyme, an observation suggesting that the RNAs lack primary cleavage sites; (2) lowering the salt concentration to 0.1 M or below allows RNase III to cleave the RNAs at secondary sites. Both large and small fragments can be obtained in a reproducible manner depending on salt conditions chosen for cleavage. Fingerprints of three large fragments of poliovirus type 2 RNA show that they originate from unique segments and represent most if not all sequences of the genome. Based upon binding to poly(U) filters of poly(A)-linked fragments, a physical map of the large fragments of poliovirus type 2 RNA was constructed. The data suggest that RNase III cleavage of single-stranded RNA provides a useful method to fragment the RNA for further studies.

  5. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Switchgrass genomic diversity, ploidy, and evolution: novel insights from a network-based SNP discovery protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a perennial grass that has been designated as an herbaceous model biofuel crop for the United States of America. To facilitate accelerated breeding programs of switchgrass, we developed both an association panel and linkage populations for genome-wide association study (GWAS and genomic selection (GS. All of the 840 individuals were then genotyped using genotyping by sequencing (GBS, generating 350 GB of sequence in total. As a highly heterozygous polyploid (tetraploid and octoploid species lacking a reference genome, switchgrass is highly intractable with earlier methodologies of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery. To access the genetic diversity of species like switchgrass, we developed a SNP discovery pipeline based on a network approach called the Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK. Complexities that hinder single nucleotide polymorphism discovery, such as repeats, paralogs, and sequencing errors, are easily resolved with UNEAK. Here, 1.2 million putative SNPs were discovered in a diverse collection of primarily upland, northern-adapted switchgrass populations. Further analysis of this data set revealed the fundamentally diploid nature of tetraploid switchgrass. Taking advantage of the high conservation of genome structure between switchgrass and foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv., two parent-specific, synteny-based, ultra high-density linkage maps containing a total of 88,217 SNPs were constructed. Also, our results showed clear patterns of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-ploidy in natural populations of switchgrass. Phylogenetic analysis supported a general south-to-north migration path of switchgrass. In addition, this analysis suggested that upland tetraploid arose from upland octoploid. All together, this study provides unparalleled insights into the diversity, genomic complexity, population structure, phylogeny, phylogeography, ploidy, and evolutionary dynamics

  7. Whole genome sequencing-based characterization of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Zahra; Ali, Asho; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Coll, Francesc; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The global increase in drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains increases the focus on improved molecular diagnostics for MTB. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) - TB is caused by MTB strains resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular MTB genes. However, there is regional variation between MTB lineages and the SNPs associated with resistance. Therefore, there is a need to identify common resistance conferring SNPs so that effective molecular-based diagnostic tests for MTB can be developed. This study investigated used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 XDR MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated SNPs related to drug resistance. Methods: XDR-TB strains were selected. DNA was extracted from MTB strains, and samples underwent WGS with 76-base-paired end fragment sizes using Illumina paired end HiSeq2000 technology. Raw sequence data were mapped uniquely to H37Rv reference genome. The mappings allowed SNPs and small indels to be called using SAMtools/BCFtools. Results: This study found that in all XDR strains, rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB RDR region. Isoniazid resistance-associated mutations were primarily related to katG codon 315 followed by inhA S94A. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to gyrA 91-94 codons in most strains, while one did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Aminoglycoside resistance was mostly associated with SNPs in rrs, except in 6 strains. Ethambutol resistant strains had embB codon 306 mutations, but many strains did not have this present. The SNPs were compared with those present in commercial assays such as LiPA Hain MDRTBsl, and the sensitivity of the assays for these strains was evaluated. Conclusions: If common drug resistance associated with SNPs evaluated the concordance between phenotypic and

  8. Whole genome sequencing-based characterization of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Objectives: The global increase in drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains increases the focus on improved molecular diagnostics for MTB. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) - TB is caused by MTB strains resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular MTB genes. However, there is regional variation between MTB lineages and the SNPs associated with resistance. Therefore, there is a need to identify common resistance conferring SNPs so that effective molecular-based diagnostic tests for MTB can be developed. This study investigated used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 XDR MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated SNPs related to drug resistance. Methods: XDR-TB strains were selected. DNA was extracted from MTB strains, and samples underwent WGS with 76-base-paired end fragment sizes using Illumina paired end HiSeq2000 technology. Raw sequence data were mapped uniquely to H37Rv reference genome. The mappings allowed SNPs and small indels to be called using SAMtools/BCFtools. Results: This study found that in all XDR strains, rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB RDR region. Isoniazid resistance-associated mutations were primarily related to katG codon 315 followed by inhA S94A. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to gyrA 91-94 codons in most strains, while one did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Aminoglycoside resistance was mostly associated with SNPs in rrs, except in 6 strains. Ethambutol resistant strains had embB codon 306 mutations, but many strains did not have this present. The SNPs were compared with those present in commercial assays such as LiPA Hain MDRTBsl, and the sensitivity of the assays for these strains was evaluated. Conclusions: If common drug resistance associated with SNPs evaluated the concordance between phenotypic and

  9. Origin and differentiation of a special fragment from Capra hircus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... regions of the special fragment in the GenBank of NCBI. A total number of 80 fragments with identity ... recombined during the long period of evolution within and among species, and might be related to ..... and their association to coat color phenotypes in horses (Equus caballus). Mammalian Genome, 12: ...

  10. Genomic-based tools for the risk assessment, management, and prevention of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Taber KA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Katherine A Johansen Taber, Barry D DickinsonDepartment of Science and Biotechnology, American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a common and serious disorder and is a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, periodontal disease, and foot ulcers and amputations. The burden of disease associated with T2D has led to an emphasis on early identification of the millions of individuals at high risk so that management and intervention strategies can be effectively implemented before disease progression begins. With increasing knowledge about the genetic basis of T2D, several genomic-based strategies have been tested for their ability to improve risk assessment, management and prevention. Genetic risk scores have been developed with the intent to more accurately identify those at risk for T2D and to potentially improve motivation and adherence to lifestyle modification programs. In addition, evidence is building that oral antihyperglycemic medications are subject to pharmacogenomic variation in a substantial number of patients, suggesting genomics may soon play a role in determining the most effective therapies. T2D is a complex disease that affects individuals differently, and risk prediction and treatment may be challenging for health care providers. Genomic approaches hold promise for their potential to improve risk prediction and tailor management for individual patients and to contribute to better health outcomes for those with T2D.Keywords: diabetes, genomic, risk prediction, management

  11. Enhancement of single guide RNA transcription for efficient CRISPR/Cas-based genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Maruyama, Shohei; Nakano, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    Genomic engineering using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein is a promising approach for targeting the genomic DNA of virtually any organism in a sequence-specific manner. Recent remarkable advances in CRISPR/Cas technology have made it a feasible system for use in therapeutic applications and biotechnology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, a guide RNA (gRNA), interacting with the Cas protein, recognizes a genomic region with sequence complementarity, and the double-stranded DNA at the target site is cleaved by the Cas protein. A widely used gRNA is an RNA polymerase III (pol III)-driven single gRNA (sgRNA), which is produced by artificial fusion of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activation crRNA (tracrRNA). However, we identified a TTTT stretch, known as a termination signal of RNA pol III, in the scaffold region of the sgRNA. Here, we revealed that sgRNA carrying a TTTT stretch reduces the efficiency of sgRNA transcription due to premature transcriptional termination, and decreases the efficiency of genome editing. Unexpectedly, it was also shown that the premature terminated sgRNA may have an adverse effect of inducing RNA interference. Such disadvantageous effects were avoided by substituting one base in the TTTT stretch.

  12. MendeLIMS: a web-based laboratory information management system for clinical genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Susan M; Ji, Hanlee P

    2014-08-27

    Large clinical genomics studies using next generation DNA sequencing require the ability to select and track samples from a large population of patients through many experimental steps. With the number of clinical genome sequencing studies increasing, it is critical to maintain adequate laboratory information management systems to manage the thousands of patient samples that are subject to this type of genetic analysis. To meet the needs of clinical population studies using genome sequencing, we developed a web-based laboratory information management system (LIMS) with a flexible configuration that is adaptable to continuously evolving experimental protocols of next generation DNA sequencing technologies. Our system is referred to as MendeLIMS, is easily implemented with open source tools and is also highly configurable and extensible. MendeLIMS has been invaluable in the management of our clinical genome sequencing studies. We maintain a publicly available demonstration version of the application for evaluation purposes at http://mendelims.stanford.edu. MendeLIMS is programmed in Ruby on Rails (RoR) and accesses data stored in SQL-compliant relational databases. Software is freely available for non-commercial use at http://dna-discovery.stanford.edu/software/mendelims/.

  13. Was it worth it? Patients' perspectives on the perceived value of genomic-based individualized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Colin Me; Clift, Kristin E; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2016-04-01

    The value of genomic sequencing is often understood in terms of its ability to affect diagnosis or treatment. In these terms, successes occur only in a minority of cases. This paper presents views from patients who had exome sequencing done clinically to explore how they perceive the utility of genomic medicine. The authors used semi-structured, qualitative interviews in order to study patients' attitudes toward genomic sequencing in oncology and rare-disease settings. Participants from 37 cases were interviewed. In terms of the testing's key values-regardless of having received what clinicians described as meaningful results-participants expressed four qualities that are separate from traditional views of clinical utility: Participants felt they had been empowered over their own health. They felt they had contributed altruistically to the progress of genomic technology in medicine. They felt their suffering had been legitimated. They also felt a sense of closure, having done everything they could. Patients expressed overwhelmingly positive attitudes toward sequencing. Their rationale was not solely based on the results' clinical utility. It is important for clinicians to understand this non-medical reasoning as it pertains to patient decision-making and informed consent.

  14. Identification and characterization of short tandem repeats in the Tibetan macaque genome based on resequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, San-Xu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Peng, Chang-Jun; Yue, Bi-Song; Fan, Zhen-Xin; Li, Jing

    2018-07-18

    The Tibetan macaque, which is endemic to China, is currently listed as a Near Endangered primate species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Short tandem repeats (STRs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. They are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. To clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide STRs and understand their variation among Tibetan macaques, we conducted a genome-wide survey of STRs with next-generation sequencing of five macaque samples. A total of 1 077 790 perfect STRs were mined from our assembly, with an N50 of 4 966 bp. Mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, followed by tetra- and di-nucleotide repeats. Analysis of GC content and repeats showed consistent results with other macaques. Furthermore, using STR analysis software (lobSTR), we found that the proportion of base pair deletions in the STRs was greater than that of insertions in the five Tibetan macaque individuals (Pgenome showed good amplification efficiency and could be used to study population genetics in Tibetan macaques. The neighbor-joining tree classified the five macaques into two different branches according to their geographical origin, indicating high genetic differentiation between the Huangshan and Sichuan populations. We elucidated the distribution characteristics of STRs in the Tibetan macaque genome and provided an effective method for screening polymorphic STRs. Our results also lay a foundation for future genetic variation studies of macaques.

  15. Towards precision medicine-based therapies for glioblastoma: interrogating human disease genomics and mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Bingcheng; Xu, Rong

    2016-08-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumors. It has poor prognosis even with optimal radio- and chemo-therapies. Since GBM is highly heterogeneous, drugs that target on specific molecular profiles of individual tumors may achieve maximized efficacy. Currently, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have identified hundreds of GBM-associated genes. We develop a drug repositioning approach combining disease genomics and mouse phenotype data towards predicting targeted therapies for GBM. We first identified disease specific mouse phenotypes using the most recently discovered GBM genes. Then we systematically searched all FDA-approved drugs for candidates that share similar mouse phenotype profiles with GBM. We evaluated the ranks for approved and novel GBM drugs, and compared with an existing approach, which also use the mouse phenotype data but not the disease genomics data. We achieved significantly higher ranks for the approved and novel GBM drugs than the earlier approach. For all positive examples of GBM drugs, we achieved a median rank of 9.2 45.6 of the top predictions have been demonstrated effective in inhibiting the growth of human GBM cells. We developed a computational drug repositioning approach based on both genomic and phenotypic data. Our approach prioritized existing GBM drugs and outperformed a recent approach. Overall, our approach shows potential in discovering new targeted therapies for GBM.

  16. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  17. Fast Biological Modeling for Voxel-based Heavy Ion Treatment Planning Using the Mechanistic Repair-Misrepair-Fixation Model and Nuclear Fragment Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Florian [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Cabal, Gonzalo [Experimental Physics–Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Garching (Germany); Mairani, Andrea [Medical Physics Unit, Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), Pavia (Italy); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, Katia [Experimental Physics–Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Garching (Germany); Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Carlson, David J., E-mail: david.j.carlson@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: The physical and biological differences between heavy ions and photons have not been fully exploited and could improve treatment outcomes. In carbon ion therapy, treatment planning must account for physical properties, such as the absorbed dose and nuclear fragmentation, and for differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions compared with photons. We combined the mechanistic repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model with Monte Carlo-generated fragmentation spectra for biological optimization of carbon ion treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Relative changes in double-strand break yields and radiosensitivity parameters with particle type and energy were determined using the independently benchmarked Monte Carlo damage simulation and the RMF model to estimate the RBE values for primary carbon ions and secondary fragments. Depth-dependent energy spectra were generated with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA for clinically relevant initial carbon ion energies. The predicted trends in RBE were compared with the published experimental data. Biological optimization for carbon ions was implemented in a 3-dimensional research treatment planning tool. Results: We compared the RBE and RBE-weighted dose (RWD) distributions of different carbon ion treatment scenarios with and without nuclear fragments. The inclusion of fragments in the simulations led to smaller RBE predictions. A validation of RMF against measured cell survival data reported in published studies showed reasonable agreement. We calculated and optimized the RWD distributions on patient data and compared the RMF predictions with those from other biological models. The RBE values in an astrocytoma tumor ranged from 2.2 to 4.9 (mean 2.8) for a RWD of 3 Gy(RBE) assuming (α/β){sub X} = 2 Gy. Conclusions: These studies provide new information to quantify and assess uncertainties in the clinically relevant RBE values for carbon ion therapy based on biophysical mechanisms. We present results from

  18. Automated quantum chemistry based molecular dynamics simulations of electron ionization induced fragmentations of the nucleobases Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Stefan; Bauer, Christopher Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase decomposition pathways of electron ionization (EI)-induced radical cations of the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine, and guanine are investigated by means of mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics. No preconceived fragmentation channels are used in the calculations. The results compare well to a plethora of experimental and theoretical data for these important biomolecules. With our combined stochastic and dynamic approach, one can access in an unbiased way the energetically available decomposition mechanisms. Additionally, we are able to separate the EI mass spectra of different tautomers of cytosine and guanine. Our method (previously termed quantum chemistry electron ionization mass spectra) reproduces free nucleobase experimental mass spectra well and provides detailed mechanistic in-sight into high-energy unimolecular decomposition processes.

  19. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the

  20. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  1. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids.

    KAUST Repository

    Mithani, Aziz

    2013-09-24

    The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies.We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites contai